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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278515

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


RESUMO Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer , Muntjacs , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Parks, Recreational
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921804

ABSTRACT

A reliable QuEChERS-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) analysis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 steroid hormones(nrolone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone, testosterone, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone, diethylstilbestrol, hexan-stilbestrol, estradiol, estrotriol, cortisone, hydrocortisone) in Testis et Penis Cervi. The samples were extracted with methanol and purified by QuEChERS. Subsequently, the samples were separated by ACQUITY BEH C_(18) column and detected in the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode under electrospray ionization in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Significant differences in the content of thirteen steroid hormones in Testis et Penis Cervi between the sika deer at different periods and the red deer were observed. The content of testosterone(10.88 μg·kg~(-1)) and hydrocortisone(12.82 μg·kg~(-1)) in Testis et Penis Cervi derived from rutting sika deer was significantly higher than the content of testosterone(1.05 μg·kg~(-1)) and hydrocortisone(0.73 μg·kg~(-1)) from antler growth stage. The content of progesterone in Testis et Penis Cervi derived from red deer was 6.07 μg·kg~(-1), significantly higher than that from sika deer. The content of progesterone in the testicle of red deer reached 27.46 μg·kg~(-1), 4.5 times greater than that in the penis of red deer. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method can meet the detection requirements, and the developed method is suitable for the measurement of hormones in animal-derived food.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Hormones , Male , Penis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Testis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887999

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC-MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-horn gelatin( DCG) and deer-hide gelatin( DHG) samples.The glycopeptides in DCG and DHG were quantified by Label-free quantitative( LFQ) peptidomics,on the basis of which the glycopeptides with significant difference in DCG and DHG were determined. As a result,5 736 peptides were identified from DCG samples,including 213 galactosyl-hydroxylysine containing peptides( Gal-Hyl-peptides) and 102 glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine containing peptides( Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides),while 6 836 peptides were identified from DHG samples,among which there were 250 Gal-Hyl-peptides and 98 Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides. With over 3-fold peak area difference and highly significant intergroup difference( P < 0. 01) as the screening criteria,444 differential peptides were determined in DCG and DHG,including 16 Gal-Hyl-peptides and 5 Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides. Then XIC peak shapes,standard deviation of peak area,and fold change were applied for further screening and 5 glycopeptides with significant differences in DCG and DHG were confirmed,which could serve as potential biomarkers for distinguishing DCG and DHG. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on the discrimination of DCG and DHG and is of good theoretical significance and application value for the further research on chemical constituents and quality control of gelatin derived Chinese medicinals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Gelatin , Glycopeptides , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878883

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-hide gelatin(DHG) samples, hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on lysine sites of DHG were comprehensive identified by using PEAKS Studio software. The sites, sorts and amounts of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on Type Ⅰ collagen α1 chain(COL1 A1) and α2 chain(COL1 A2) of DHG were revealed. As a result, 5 284 peptides were identified from DHG samples, which were mainly from COL1 A1 and COL1 A2. Among these peptides, there were 449 peptides with hydroxylysine, 442 with galactosyl-hydroxylysine, 449 with glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine. The major modified sites of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation in DHG were shown as follow: α1-9 N and α2-5 N in N-telopeptides, α1-87, α1-174, α1-930, α2-87, α2-174, α2-933 in triple helix domain, and α1-16 C in C-telopeptides. These hydroxylation and O-glycosylation were correlated with the formation and stability of collagen molecules and collagen fibrils. It is feasible for the collagens and peptides dissolving from deer skin collagen fibrils under high temperature and pressure decocting, high temperature and pressure also might destroy inter-molecular covalent cross-linking and help those glycol-peptides formations. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on DHG chemical constituents, and showed good theoretical significance and application value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/metabolism , Gelatin , Glycosylation , Hydroxylation , Lysine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06719, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180874

ABSTRACT

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, affecting domestic animals, wild animals and humans. In captivity, for wild animals, bTB represents a risk to animal keepers and zoo visitors, in addition to the possibility of spreading the infection to domestic animals or through the trade of infected wild animals. Sambar (Cervus unicolor), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) from a safari park in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, showed a clinical condition of dyspnea and weight loss. Some animals died and showed lesions suggestive of tuberculosis (LST), which were confirmed by histopathology. After the interdiction of the safari park by the state veterinary authorities, 281 deer were euthanized with the authorization of the "Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis" (IBAMA). Retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes and viscera were collected from 21 animals, which were grown in Stonebrink medium for up to 90 days. After DNA extraction from the bacterial colonies, PCR was performed for targets flanking the region of differentiation 4 (RD4). Of the 21 samples, 14 (66.7%) presented LST with a granulomatous appearance, a whitish coloration, and caseous or calcified consistency, and seven samples (33.3%), showed no lesions. In the culture of 14 samples with LST, 13 (92.8%) presented bacterial growth compatible with M. bovis. In the cultivation of the seven samples without LST, four (57.1%) presented colonies compatible with M. bovis. PCR and DNA sequencing of the PCR amplicons detected as positive all the 17 (100%) bacteriological cultures suggestive of M. bovis, thus confirming the outbreak of bTB in deer. Decisions about positive tested and suspicious animals should be taken based on the evaluation of the risk of transmission to the rest of the zoological animals, animal welfare, conservation considerations and, the zoonotic potential of this pathogen.(AU)


A tuberculose bovina (bTB) é uma doença infecciosa causada por Mycobacterium bovis, afetando animais domésticos, animais selvagens e humanos. Para animais selvagens em cativeiro, a bTB representa um risco para os tratadores de animais e visitantes do zoológico, além da possibilidade de espalhar a infecção para animais domésticos ou por meio do comércio de animais silvestres infectados. Cervídeos sambar (Cervus unicolor), veado-vermelho (Cervus elaphus) e gamo (Dama dama) de um parque safári no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, mostraram uma condição clínica de dispneia e perda de peso. Alguns animais morreram e apresentaram lesões sugestivas de tuberculose (LST), as quais foram confirmadas por histopatologia. Após a interdição do parque safári pelas autoridades veterinárias estaduais, 281 veados sofreram eutanásia com a autorização do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA). Os linfonodos retrofaríngeos e submandibulares e vísceras foram coletados de 21 animais, que foram cultivados em meio Stonebrink por até 90 dias. Após extração de DNA das colônias bacterianas, foi realizada PCR para alvos que flanqueavam a região de diferenciação 4 (RD4). Das 21 amostras, 14 (66,7%) apresentaram LST com aspecto granulomatoso, coloração esbranquiçada e consistência caseosa ou calcificada, e sete amostras (33,3%) não apresentaram lesões. Na cultura de 14 amostras com LST, 13 (92,8%) apresentaram crescimento bacteriano compatível com M. bovis. No cultivo das sete amostras sem LST, quatro (57,1%) apresentaram colônias compatíveis com M. bovis. A PCR e o sequenciamento de DNA dos fragmentos de PCR detectaram como positivo todas as 17 (100%) culturas bacteriológicas sugestivas de M. bovis, confirmando assim o surto de bTB em cervídeos. As decisões sobre animais positivos testados e suspeitos devem ser tomadas com base na avaliação do risco de transmissão para o restante dos animais zoológicos, bem-estar animal, considerações de conservação e no potencial zoonótico desse patógeno.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tuberculosis, Bovine , Deer , Animals, Wild , Mycobacterium bovis , Animal Welfare , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infections
8.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 90-95, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340777

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) en venados de cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) y venados de páramo (Mazama rufína), capturados en las regiones de la Orinoquía y el Caribe en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Un total de 44 muestras de suero sanguíneo de venados de las especies M. rufína y O. virginianus fueron colectadas en condiciones de campo entre 2014 y 2016. Se utilizó un kit comercial de ELISA para la detección de anticuerpos anti-MAP. Un animal se consideró positivo a ELISA cuando la relación muestra-positivo (S/P%) fue > 0.4, según lo recomendado por el fabricante. Resultados. El 50% (22/44) de los animales muestreados resultaron positivos, lo que corresponde a 10 hembras y 12 machos. Un 81.8% (18/22) y un 77.3% (17/22) de estos animales seropositivos fueron capturados en la región de la Orinoquía y fueron reportados como adultos, respectivamente. Conclusiones. No se sabe cómo o cuándo se introdujo MAP en la población de ciervos colombianos en las regiones de estudio. La hipótesis más plausible para explicar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-MAP en estas poblaciones silvestres es la transmisión por contacto con el ganado bovino infectado, ya que en ambas regiones estas especies comparten pasturas. Este es el primer estudio en explorar la infección por MAP en animales silvestres en Colombia. Estos hallazgos respaldan la necesidad de realizar más estudios utilizando técnicas de diagnóstico directo, y aproximaciones investigativas que permitan la definición de vínculos en la dinámica de la infección entre mamíferos silvestres y domésticos en Colombia.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the presence of anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and red brocket deer (Mazama rufína), captured in the Orinoquía and Caribbean regions in Colombia. Materials and methods. A total of 44 blood serum samples from deer of species M. rufina and O. virginianus were collected under field conditions between 2014 and 2016. An ELISA commercial kit was used to detect anti-MAP antibodies. An animal was considered ELISA-positive at a sample-to-positive ratio (S/P%) of > 0.4, as recommended by the manufacturer. Results. The 50% (22/44) of the animals were positive, corresponding to 10 females and 12 males. An 81.8% (18/22) and 77.3% (17/22) of these seropositive animals were captured in the Orinoquía region and were reported as adults, respectively. Conclusions. It is not known how or when MAP was introduced in the Colombian deer population in the study regions. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of antibodies against MAP in these wild populations is transmission by contact with infected bovine cattle since, in both regions, these species share pastures. This is the first study to explore MAP infection in wild animals in Colombia. These findings support the need for further studies using different direct diagnostic techniques and research approaches that allow the definition of links in the infection dynamics between wild and domestic mammals in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Paratuberculosis , Ruminants , Deer , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antelopes
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 747-754, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098315

ABSTRACT

Currently, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is endangered. Anatomical studies focused on understanding the anatomy of the deer most threatened by extinction in South America is a challenge for anatomists, veterinarians and biologists. Research carried out for its conservation has focused mainly on its ecology and pathology, leaving gaps in anatomical knowledge, which is basic and important for a comprehensive understanding of this species. Gross anatomy and radiography of the skeleton of the pelvic limb was performed in three adult Patagonian huemul. Bone specimens of three skeletally mature Patagonian huemul deer were used for gross osteological and radiographic studies. This study was conducted to reveal the morphometric and morphological features of the ossa membri pelvini of the Patagonian huemul. The main findings suggest the presence of powerful extensor muscles in the coxofemoral, femorotibial and tarsal joints, useful during walking, jogging and propulsion in deer. In general, the MNF of Patagonian huemul differ in position with respect to domestic ungulates. In addition, the presence of a notch or obturator canal was observed, with variability in morphology and development among the specimens.


Actualmente, el Huemul Patagónico (Hippocamelus bisulcus) está en peligro de extinción. Los estudios morfológicos centrados en comprender su anatomía han sido un desafío para morfólogos, veterinarios y biólogos. Investigaciones enfocadas en su conservación, se han centrado principalmente en su ecología, patología y en la descripción de sus principales agentes infecciosos, dejando vacíos en el conocimiento anatómico básico, y por ende, su comprensión morfofisiológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la anatomía, morfometría y radiología macroscópica normal y detallada del ossa membri pelvini en tres especímenes de Huemul Patagónico, incluida una interpretación funcional como referencia para uso clínico y conservacionista, investigación biomédica y fines de enseñanza. Los principales hallazgos sugieren la presencia de potentes músculos extensores en las articulaciones coxofemoral, femorotibial y tarsal, útiles durante la marcha, el trote y la propulsión en los ciervos. En general, los forámenes nutricios principales del Huemul patagónico difieren en posición con respecto a los ungulados domésticos. Además, se observó la presencia de una muesca o canal obturador, con variabilidad morfológica y de desarrollo entre los especímenes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pelvic Bones/anatomy & histology , Pelvic Bones/diagnostic imaging , Deer/anatomy & histology , Chile , Endangered Species
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 91-95, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056403

ABSTRACT

El pudú (Pudu puda) se clasifica como un artiodáctilo de la familia Cervidae y es el ciervo más pequeño. Se estima que su población se ha reducido, esto debido a varias causas, como son la pérdida de los bosques, depredación, caza y atropellos. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la musculatura intrínseca del miembro torácico de un ejemplar de pudú, comparando los resultados observados con lo descrito para rumiantes domésticos en la bibliografía anatómica clásica. Se estudió la musculatura desde proximal hacia distal, dividiendo al miembro en cuatro regiones topográficas: región escapular, braquial, antebraquial y de la mano. Además, se realizó un estudio morfométrico indicando el largo, ancho y grosor de los músculos. Los resultados indican que el ejemplar de pudú posee características anatómicas similares a rumiantes domésticos, sin embargo, se deben considerar algunas diferencias, tales como: la porción escapular del m. deltoides se une de manera aponeurótica con el m. infraespinoso; las dos cabezas del m. flexor ulnar del carpo se encuentran altamente fusionadas; no se observó el tercer tendón del m. bíceps braquial; el m. tríceps braquial es bien desarrollado y presenta cuatro cabezas musculares bien diferenciadas; el m. ancóneo permanece de manera independiente de la cabeza lateral del m. tríceps; el m. flexor digital profundo presenta cuatro cabezas y el m. interóseo es macroscópicamente tendinoso. La información entregada en este estudio corresponde a un aporte anatómico que permite ampliar el conocimiento científico de esta especie que se encuentra poco estudiada, protegida y vulnerable.


The pudú (Pudu puda) is classified as an artiodactyl and is the smallest deer of the Cervidae family. It is estimated that its population has been reduced for a number of reasons, such as loss of forests, predation and hunting. The objective of this study is to describe the intrinsic musculature of the thoracic limb of a Pudu specimen, comparing the results with those described for domestic ruminants in anatomical literature. Musculature was studied from proximal to distal, dividing the limb into four topographic regions: scapular, brachial, antebrachial and hand regions. In addition, a morphometric study was conducted indicating the length, width and thickness of the muscles. The results indicate that the Pudu species has anatomical characteristics similar to those of domestic ruminants. However, some differences should be considered, such as the scapular portion of M. deltoides joins aponeurotically with M. infraspinatus; the two heads of M. carpis ulnaris are highly fused; the third tendon of M. biceps brachii; the M. triceps brachii is well developed and has four distinct muscle heads; the M. Anconeus remains independent of the lateral head of M. triceps brachii; the M. digitorum profundus features four heads and the M. interosseous is macroscopically tendinous. The information provided in this study corresponds to an anatomical contribution that allows furthering scientific knowledge of this protected and vulnerable species, which is scarcely studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Upper Extremity/anatomy & histology
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e017919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite that causes diarrhea in a broad range of animals, including deer. Little is known about the prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David's deer. In this study, 137 fecal samples from Père David's deer were collected between July 2017 and August 2018 in the Dafeng Reserve and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. by nested-PCR based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, followed by sequence analyses to determine the species. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. Among 137 samples, 2 (1.46%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. according to SSU rRNA gene sequencing results. Both samples belonged to the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, with two nucleotide deletions and one nucleotide substitution. The prevalence data and molecular characterization of this study provide basic knowledge for controlling and preventing Cryptosporidium infections in Père David's deer in this area.


Resumo Cryptosporidium é um parasita zoonótico que causa diarreia em uma ampla gama de animais, incluindo veados. Pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência e o genótipo de Cryptosporidium spp. no cervo de Père David. Neste estudo, 137 amostras fecais do cervo de Père David foram coletadas entre julho de 2017 e agosto de 2018, na Reserva Dafeng, e analisadas para Cryptosporidium spp. por nested-PCR baseado no gene do RNA ribossômico da subunidade pequena (SSU rRNA), seguido de análises de sequências para determinar as espécies. O gene da glicoproteína de 60 kDa (gp60) foi utilizado para caracterizar Cryptosporidium spp. Dentre as 137 amostras, 2 (1,46%) foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. de acordo com os resultados do sequenciamento gênico de SSU rRNA. Ambas as amostras pertenciam ao genótipo do cervo Cryptosporidium, com duas deleções nucleotídicas e uma substituição nucleotídica. Os dados de prevalência e a caracterização molecular deste estudo fornecem conhecimentos básicos para controlar e prevenir infecções por Cryptosporidium nos cervos de Père David nessa.


Subject(s)
Animals , RNA, Ribosomal , Deer/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Genotype
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 77-85, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989378

ABSTRACT

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) are dsRNA arboviruses transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides that cause disease in domestic and wild ruminants. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is considered the most important infectious disease of white tailed deer (WTD) in North America, some studies in Northeast Mexico reported EHDV-seropositive WTD and EHDV-infected Culicoides vectors. The increasing population of WTD that share habitat with livestock in Northeast México highlights the importance of EHD for the livestock industry in the transboundary region with the U.S. One hundred and twenty two samples from WTD in Tamaulipas state, Mexico were tested by ELISA and RT-PCR for EHDV antibodies and nucleic acid, respectively. Twelve animals were seropositive to ELISA and eleven animals were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first report of EHDV nucleic acid detection in WTD from Mexico. It is hypothesized that applying the transboundary disease approach to interdisciplinary research will help fill knowledge gaps, which could help develop countermeasures to mitigate the threat of EHDV infection in wildlife and livestock along the U.S.-Mexico border.(AU)


Virus da doença hemorrágica epizoótica (EHDV) são arbovírus dsRNA transmitidos por mordidas do genus Culicoides que causam doenças em ruminantes domésticos e selvagens. Doença hemorrágica epizoótica (EHD) é considerada uma das doenças infecciosas mais importantes dos veados de cauda branca (WTD) na América do Norte. Alguns estudos no Nordeste do México relatam soropositividade para EHDV em WTD e vetores Culicoides infectados com EHDV. A crescente população de WTD que compartilham hábitats com pecuária no Nordeste do México realçam a importância de EHD para a indústria pecuária na região de fronteira com os Estados Unidos. Cento e vinte duas amostras de WTD no estado de Tamaulipas, Mexico, foram testados por ELISA e RT-PCR para anticorpos e ácido nucleico de EHDV, respectivamente. Esse é o primeiro relato de detecção de ácido nucleico de EHDV em WTD do México. A hipótese é de que a aplicação de uma resposta transfronteira e pesquisa interdisciplinar ajudará a preencher lacunas de conhecimento levando a medidas reativas para mitigar a ameaça de infecção por EHDV na pecuária e animais selvagens na fronteira entre os Estados Unidos e o Mexico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/genetics , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741644

ABSTRACT

Eleven steroid hormones (SHs: androstene-3,17-dione, estrone, β-estradiol, α-estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17á-hydroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol acetate, progesterone, and androsterone) were detected from New Zealand deer (Cervus elaphus var. scoticus) velvet antler (NZA, 鹿茸). A method for the quantification of eleven SHs was established by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. The linearities (R² > 0.991), limits of quantification (LOQ values, 0.3 ng/mL to 23.1 ng/mL), intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation: RSD 0.999), LOQ values (30 ng/mL to 350 ng/mL), intraday and interday precisions (RSD < 1.93%), and recovery rates (97.2% to 103.5%) for the three 7-O-CSs were determined. These quantitative methods are accurate, precise, and reproducible. As a result, it is suggested that the five steroid compounds of androstene-3,17-dione, androsterone, 7-ketocholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, and 7β-hydroxycholesterol could be marker steroids of NZA. These methods can be applied to quantify or standardize the marker steroids present in NZA.


Subject(s)
Androsterone , Animals , Antlers , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Dehydroepiandrosterone , Estrone , Medroxyprogesterone , Megestrol Acetate , Methods , New Zealand , Progesterone , Steroids , Testosterone
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 167-173, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990022

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El Pudú (Pudu puda), uno de los ciervos más pequeños del mundo y autóctono de Chile, es considerado como vulnerable (VU) en todo el territorio nacional, hay escasa información específica de los sistemas orgánicos que lo componen y cada vez es más común encontrarlos en zonas urbanas. Estas problemáticas hacen despertar la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación y el estudio de esta especie. En consecuencia, en el presente estudio se realizó una descripción anatómica del esqueleto craneal de dos ejemplares de Pudu puda, donde se destacaron sus principales características óseas comparándolas con especies domesticas ya estudiadas (ovino y caprino). Así se logró determinar diferencias entre las especies estudiadas y la necesidad de profundizar el análisis a través de mediciones de las piezas óseas.


SUMMARY: The Pudú (Pudu puda), one of the smallest deer in the world and indigenous to Chile, is considered vulnerable (VU) throughout the national territory, there is little specific information on the organic systems that compose it, and it is becoming more common find them in urban areas. These problems awaken the need to strengthen research and study of this species. Consequently, in the present study an anatomical description of the cranial skeleton of two specimens of Pudú puda was made, where their main bony characteristics were highlighted by comparing them with domestic species already studied (sheep and goats). Thus, it was possible to determine differences between the species studied and the need to deepen the analysis through measurements of the bone pieces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Deer/anatomy & histology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777516

ABSTRACT

Deer is valuable all over the body,which is rich in nutritional value and medicinal value. Deer breeding and processing are very advanced in North America and New Zealand where many related standards have been published. The development of Chinese deer industry lack standard and normal management,neither standards' number nor coverage area formed complete frame structure. The international standards like Panax ginseng and P. notoginseng were more lacked. This paper makes a classification statistics on standardization organizations at home and abroad,foreign standards,Chinese national standards,industry standards,local standards and enterprise standards. The classes,contents,ages,implementation and promotion and demonstration area construction of standards were compared and analyzed. We found Chinese deer industry standards were deficient in coverage,uniformity,innovation,repeatability and support. And we give advises for the construction of industry quality standard system,organizational mobility and ideology of consumers,hoping to boost the standard construction and promote international competitiveness of Chinese deer industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Deer , Industry , Materia Medica , Reference Standards
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2262-2265, dez. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976425

ABSTRACT

A case of blackleg in a brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) associated with trauma from being hit by a car in southern Rio Grande do Sul is reported. The clinical signs included fever, dehydration and lethargy that worsened progressively until 36 hours after the accident, when the animal died. In the fore right limb, there was a comminuted closed fracture of the radius and ulna but no skin wounds were observed. Grossly, the musculature of the pelvic limbs presented hemorrhage, edema and emphysema. Microscopically, the muscles of both rear legs had necrosis, edema, hemorrhage and mild inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils. Clostridium chauvoei was cultured from affected skeletal muscles, and it was also detected by immunohistochemistry, confirming a diagnosis of blackleg. The overlapping habitat of cattle and brown brocket deer is proposed as a predisposing factor in this case and alerts to spillover cases maybe happening in this region. In addition, blackleg should be included as differential diagnoses of deer with post-traumatic myositis.(AU)


Descreve-se um caso de carbúnculo sintomático em um veado-virá (Mazama gouazoubira), macho, jovem, resgatado após atropelamento em uma rodovia na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O cervídeo apresentou febre, desidratação e letargia, progredindo para a morte em 36 horas. No membro torácico direito foi observado fratura cominutiva fechada de rádio e ulna sem a presença de feridas perfurantes. Na necropsia foi observada hemorragia, edema e enfisema na musculatura dos membros pélvicos. Microscopicamente, os músculos dos membros pélvicos apresentaram necrose, edema, hemorragia e discreto infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico. Houve o isolamento de Clostridium chauvoei e marcação positiva na técnica de IHQ com anticorpo monoclonal anti-C. chauvoei, confirmando o diagnóstico de carbúnculo sintomático. A sobreposição de habitat entre bovinos domésticos e cervídeos pode ser um fator de risco para esta doença e chama a atenção para casos de "spillover" que podem estar ocorrendo na região. Adicionalmente, sugere-se que o carbúnculo sintomático seja incluído nos diagnósticos diferenciais de cervídeos que apresentam miosite pós-traumática.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/injuries , Carbuncle/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium chauvoei , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Myositis/veterinary
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1496-1503, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003340

ABSTRACT

Resumen Pequeñas y aisladas poblaciones de borrego cimarrón (Ovis canadensis; especie sujeta a protección especial) son susceptibles a la depredación en hábitat simpátrico con venado bura. Entender las causas específicas de muerte y supervivencia es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias de conservación para el borrego cimarrón y otros ungulados que comparten el mismo hábitat, tal como el venado bura (Odocoileus hemionus). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la tasa de depredación por puma (Puma concolor) en el borrego cimarrón y compararla con la del venado bura, para conocer la selección de presa del puma entre estas dos especies en un mismo hábitat, así como el impacto que podría tener en las poblaciones. Se plantea la hipótesis de que el puma como depredador oportunista no discrimina entre especies de ungulados simpátricos generando mayor impacto a la especie de menor densidad. Evaluamos la tasa de depredación por puma en 12 borregos cimarrones (10 hembras, 2 machos) y de 10 hembras adultas de venado bura con radio collares a través de micromorts y se comparó por medio una prueba de Wilcoxon, más la estimación de densidades de borrego y venados. Encontramos resultados similares en la causa específica de muerte por puma y supervivencia en ambas especies; 88 % (8/9) muertes debido a depredación por puma en borrego cimarrón con una tasa de supervivencia mensual promedio de 0.79 y una tasa mensual de depredación que va del rango 0.17-0.30. En venado bura la depredación debido a puma fue 83 % (5/6) con una tasa de supervivencia mensual promedio de 0.86 y una tasa de depredación por puma mensual en el rangos 0.10-0.25. Sin embargo, al comparar con la tasa de depredación por puma encontramos una diferencia significativa (Z = 1.826; df = 6; P = 0.05) siendo el borrego cimarrón la presa más selecta. En este estudio se concluye que el puma seleccionó a la presa de menor densidad (borrego cimarrón) y por ende la más impactada en un hábitat simpátrico con venado bura.(AU)


Abstract Small and isolated populations of bighorn sheep are vulnerable to predation by mountain lion in habitat sympatric with mule deer. Understanding the specific causes of death and survival is important for the development of conservation strategies for bighorn sheep and other ungulates that share the same habitat, such as mule deer. We evaluated and compared the rate of predation by puma in 12 bighorn sheep (10 females, two males) and 10 adult females of mule deer with radio collars through measure risk program (micromorts). The impact of predation in both populations of herbivores is evaluated through the estimation of densities of sheep and mule deer. 88 % (8/9) deaths by puma in bighorn sheep with an average monthly survival rate of 0.79 and predation rates due to puma range from 0.17 to 0.30. In mule deer predation due to puma was 83 % (5/6) with an average monthly survival rate of 0.86 and predation rates due to puma range from 0.10 to 0.25, however when comparing the mountain lion depredation rate we found a significant difference between species (Z = 1.826, df = 6, P = 0.05). The density in mule deer was 9x more that bighorn. The bighorn sheep being the prey most selected and the one most affected as the population with the lowest density.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer , Ecosystem , Sheep, Bighorn , Puma , Survival Rate , Mexico
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1675-1680, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976477

ABSTRACT

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an infectious, pansystemic and highly fatal disease with wide geographic distribution. The species that are clinically prone to it include cattle, deer and bison. In Brazil, the disease in ruminants and deer is associated with the contact with sheep, especially during labor, when the fetal remains that are eliminated contain the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The outbreak took place in a conservationist property in the city of Casimiro de Abreu/RJ, which hosted 23 Sambar deer, and, of these, 19 died, showing neurological signs. The deer lived in a location together with 15 male and female meat sheep. A female specimen of the Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), aged approximately three years, which had presented with neurological clinical signs was referred to necropsy in the Setor de Anatomia Patológica at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (SAP/UFRRJ). During necropsy, cerebrospinal fluid was sampled for analysis; fragments of several organs were fixated in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological analysis. Fragments of occipital lobe, cerebellum and bulb were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis of this outbreak was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings, and on the amplification of the OvHV-2 DNA through PCR. The histological changes were the base to confirm the MCF case and were characterized by degeneration of vascular endothelial cells, fibrinoid vasculitis, hyperplasia and necrosis of lymphoid organs. However, PCR was an important tool to confirm the diagnosis. MCF as an important disease with nervous symptomatology in deer.(AU)


A febre catarral maligna (FCM) é uma doença infecciosa, com distribuição geográfica ampla, pansistêmica e altamente fatal. As espécies clinicamente suscetíveis incluem bovino, cervo e bisão. No Brasil, a doença em ruminantes e cervídeos está associada ao contato com ovinos, principalmente durante o parto, no qual os envoltórios fetais eliminados contém, em suas secreções, o Herpesvírus ovino-2 (OvHV-2). O surto ocorreu em uma propriedade conservacionista no município de Casimiro de Abreu/RJ, que abrigava 23 cervos exóticos, onde foram registradas a morte de 19 destes, com sinais neurológicos. Os cervos habitavam em um piquete com 15 ovinos de corte, machos e fêmeas. Um exemplar de cervo sambar (Rusa unicolor), fêmea, com aproximadamente três anos de idade, que havia apresentado sinais clínicos neurológicos foi encaminhado para necropsia no Setor de Anatomia Patológica da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (SAP/UFRRJ). Durante a necropsia foi realizada a coleta de líquido cefalorraquidiano e de fragmentos de lobo occipital, cerebelo e bulbo, para a realização de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Fragmentos de diversos órgãos foram fixados em formalina 10% tamponada e processados para a análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico do presente surto foi estabelecido com base nos achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e na amplificação do DNA do OvHV-2 através da PCR. As alterações histológicas foram a base para confirmar o caso de FCM e caracterizaram-se por degeneração de células endoteliais vasculares, vasculite fibrinoide, hiperplasia dos órgãos linfoides. Contudo, a PCR foi uma ferramenta importante para a confirmação do diagnóstico. Ressalta-se a importância da FCM na lista dos diagnósticos diferenciais de doenças que cursam com sintomatologia nervosa em cervídeos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/abnormalities , Malignant Catarrh/diagnosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758840

ABSTRACT

Herpesvirus infections in Cervidae are a serious threat affecting some deer species worldwide. In our attempt to identify malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses in deer herds, ten gammaherpesviral DNA fragments were identified in five species of deer in herds in China by using a pan-herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction assay targeting viral DNA polymerase. Notably, in sambar (Rusa unicolor), a novel gamma-2 herpesvirus was identified that showed a close relationship with fallow deer lymphotropic herpesvirus (LHV), while the other fragments were phylogenetically grouped together with Elk-LHV. Determination of whether these viruses have any clinical implication in these deer species should be undertaken urgently.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , China , Deer , DNA , DNA, Viral , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesviridae , Malignant Catarrh , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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