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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 436-441, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385616

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El pudú (Pudu puda), pertenece al orden Artiodactyla y a la familia Cervidae, corresponde al segundo cérvido más pequeño del mundo y es endémico de Chile y Argentina. Son herbívoros que se alimentan de hojas jóvenes y brotes de algunos árboles, arbustos, hierbas, frutos y flores. Esta especie está catalogada en estado Vulnerable, por lo que se prohíbe su caza y captura, esto debido a que su población ha disminuido sustancialmente a causa de la pérdida y fragmentación de la vegetación nativa, los incendios forestales, ataques de perros asilvestrados y caza furtiva. Existe escasa información científica anatómica de esta especie, y más aún referente a su morfología digestiva, por lo que se requieren estudios que aporten información específica de este cérvido. Se utilizaron dos cadáveres de pudú hembras adultas, los cuales fueron donados por el Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG) de Talca, Región del Maule, Chile. Dentro de los resultados, podemos indicar que la cavidad oral, glándulas salivares y esófago se asemejan a otros rumiantes domésticos, como también existen semejanzas con el venado de campo, sin embargo, existen diferencias como la forma y desarrollo de la glándula parótida; el conducto parotídeo pasa ventral al músculo masetero y se abre en una papila a nivel del tercer premolar superior; la glándula mandibular se divide en tres lobos; la glándula sublingual solo posee porción polistomática, las glándulas bucales dorsales poseen un menor tamaño que las bucales ventrales, la glándula bucal ventral es alargada y de forma compacta y se observa la presencia de una redondeada glándula bucal intermedia, poseen 11 crestas palatinas por lado en el paladar duro y además la papila incisiva se encuentra rodeando al pulvino dental. Esta información es relevante y corresponde a un aporte al conocimiento específico de esta especie, la cual es endémica, vulnerable y protegida.


SUMMARY: The pudu (Pudu puda), belongs to the Artiodactyla order and the Cervidae family, corresponding to the second smallest deer in the world and is endemic to Chile and Argentina. They are herbivores that feed on young leaves and shoots of certain trees, shrubs, herbs, fruits, and flowers. The status of is species is classified as Vulnerable; therefore, its hunting and capture is prohibited, this because its population has decreased substantially due to the loss and fragmentation of native vegetation, forest fires, attacks by feral dogs and poaching. There is little scientific anatomical information available on this species, and even more so regarding its digestive morphology, which is why studies are required to provide specific information on this deer. Two adult female pudu specimens were used, which were donated by the Agricultural and Livestock Service (SAG) of Talca, Maule Region, Chile. Among the results, we can indicate that the oral cavity, salivary glands and esophagus resemble other domestic ruminants; there are also similarities with the field deer, however, there are differences such as the shape and development of the parotid gland; the parotid duct passes ventral to the masseter muscle and opens into a papilla at the level of the upper third premolar; the mandibular gland is divided into three wolves; the sublingual gland only has a polystomatic portion, the dorsal buccal glands are smaller than the ventral buccal glands, the ventral buccal gland is elongated and compact and the presence of a rounded intermediate buccal gland is observed, it has 11 palatal ridges per side in the hard palate and also the incisive papilla is found surrounding the dental pulvino. This information is relevant and corresponds to a report on the specific knowledge of this species, which is endemic, vulnerable, and protected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salivary Glands/anatomy & histology , Deer , Esophagus/anatomy & histology , Mouth/anatomy & histology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278515

ABSTRACT

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer , Muntjacs , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Parks, Recreational
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 547-563, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939826

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is globally the most common invasive cancer in women and remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and endocrine therapy are currently the main treatments for this cancer type. However, some breast cancer patients are prone to drug resistance related to chemotherapy or immunotherapy, resulting in limited treatment efficacy. Consequently, traditional Chinese medicinal materials (TCMMs) as natural products have become an attractive source of novel drugs. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on the active components of animal-derived TCMMs, including Ophiocordycepssinensis-derived cordycepin, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of O.sinensis, norcantharidin (NCTD), Chansu, bee venom, deer antlers, Ostreagigas, and scorpion venom, with reference to marked anti-breast cancer effects due to regulating cell cycle arrest, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In future studies, the underlying mechanisms for the antitumor effects of these components need to be further investigated by utilizing multi-omics technologies. Furthermore, large-scale clinical trials are necessary to validate the efficacy of bioactive constituents alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs for breast cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , China , Deer , Immunotherapy
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1587-1594, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928088

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analyzed the composition and content of 25 free amino acids in 32 batches of different forms of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP; one-branched, two-branched, and three-branched) from 15 producing areas. The clustering analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were performed based on the content of 25 free amino acids. Potential differential metabolites were identified based on VIP value. The results showed that there were 25 free amino acids in CCP, and the average content of essential, non-essential, and total amino acids was 6.13, 32.99, and 39.12 mg·g~(-1), respectively. The clustering analysis and OPLS-DA demonstrated that 25 free amino acids had different content among the three forms of CCP, of which two-branched CCP samples were separately gathered into a group. Five differential components, including glutamic acid, tryptophan, ornithine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and hydroxylysine, were screened out as potential quality markers for the identification of different forms of CCP. This study provides a theoretical basis for the quality evaluation, processing, and utilization of different forms of CCP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Cornus , Deer , Gastropoda , Glutamic Acid
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 366-370, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385369

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The pudu (Pudu puda) is classified as an artiodactyl of the Cervidae family. It is a native species found in Argentina and Chile. It is estimated that its population has been substantially reduced due to several causes, such as loss of forests, predation, hunting, and vehicle accident. Therefore, this species is protected due to its vulnerable conservation status. The extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb have great importance in the biomechanical functionality of the suspension of the limb, neck, and head, as well as participating in the movement of the thoracic wall and thoracic limb. The objective of the present study is to describe the extrinsic musculature of the thoracic limb of a specimen of pudu, comparing the results with those described for domestic ruminants in the classical anatomical bibliography. Basic procedures: All extrinsic muscles were analyzed, describing shape, distribution, origin, and insertion. The results indicate that the pudu specimen has anatomical characteristics similar to domestic ruminants; however, some differences should be considered. Main findings: The brachiocephalicus muscle has an evident clavicular intersection that separates it into cleidobrachialis, cervicalis, and mastoideus pars. The pectoralis superficialis muscle has two distinct and independent pars, and the pectoralis profundus muscle has a partial fusion with the latissimus dorsi and cutaneous trunci muscles. The subclavius muscle is small and has an elongated shape and goes deep into the cephalic vein, just at the point it is a tributary of the external jugular vein. The results of this study present specific anatomical features of Pudu puda providing novel reference information and expanding scientific knowledge of this scarcely studied wild species.


RESUMEN: El pudu (Pudu puda) se clasifica como un artiodáctilo de la familia Cervidae. Es una especie nativa que se encuentra en Argentina y Chile y se estima que su población se ha reducido sustancialmente debido a varias causas, tal como la pérdida de bosques, depredación, caza y accidentes de vehículo. Debido a lo anterior esta especie está protegida por su estado de conservación vulnerable. Los músculos extrínsecos del miembro torácico tienen gran importancia en la funcionalidad biomecánica de la suspensión del miembro, el cuello y la cabeza, además de participar en el movimiento de la pared torácica y el miembro torácico. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la musculatura extrínseca del miembro torácico de un ejemplar de pudu, comparando los resultados con los descritos para rumiantes domésticos en la bibliografía anatómica clásica. Se analizaron todos los músculos extrínsecos, describiendo la forma, distribución, origen e inserción. Los resultados indican que el espécimen de pudu tiene características anatómicas similares a las de los rumiantes domésticos; sin embargo, deben tenerse en cuenta algunas diferencias. Hallazgos principales: El músculo braquiocefálico tiene una interección clavicular evidente que lo separa en pars cleidobraquial, cervical y mastoideo. El músculo pectoral superficial tiene dos porciones distintas e independientes, y el músculo pectoral profundo tiene una fusión parcial con los músculos latissimus dorsi y cutáneo del tronco. El músculo subclavio es pequeño y tiene una forma alargada y se ubica profundamente a la vena cefálica, justo en el punto en el que es un afluente de la vena yugular externa. Los resultados de este estudio presentan características anatómicas específicas de Pudu puda proporcionando información de referencia novedosa y ampliando el conocimiento científico de esta especie silvestre escasamente estudiada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Thorax/anatomy & histology , Deer/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 591-598, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878883

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-hide gelatin(DHG) samples, hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on lysine sites of DHG were comprehensive identified by using PEAKS Studio software. The sites, sorts and amounts of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on Type Ⅰ collagen α1 chain(COL1 A1) and α2 chain(COL1 A2) of DHG were revealed. As a result, 5 284 peptides were identified from DHG samples, which were mainly from COL1 A1 and COL1 A2. Among these peptides, there were 449 peptides with hydroxylysine, 442 with galactosyl-hydroxylysine, 449 with glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine. The major modified sites of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation in DHG were shown as follow: α1-9 N and α2-5 N in N-telopeptides, α1-87, α1-174, α1-930, α2-87, α2-174, α2-933 in triple helix domain, and α1-16 C in C-telopeptides. These hydroxylation and O-glycosylation were correlated with the formation and stability of collagen molecules and collagen fibrils. It is feasible for the collagens and peptides dissolving from deer skin collagen fibrils under high temperature and pressure decocting, high temperature and pressure also might destroy inter-molecular covalent cross-linking and help those glycol-peptides formations. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on DHG chemical constituents, and showed good theoretical significance and application value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/metabolism , Gelatin , Glycosylation , Hydroxylation , Lysine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06719, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180874

ABSTRACT

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, affecting domestic animals, wild animals and humans. In captivity, for wild animals, bTB represents a risk to animal keepers and zoo visitors, in addition to the possibility of spreading the infection to domestic animals or through the trade of infected wild animals. Sambar (Cervus unicolor), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) from a safari park in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, showed a clinical condition of dyspnea and weight loss. Some animals died and showed lesions suggestive of tuberculosis (LST), which were confirmed by histopathology. After the interdiction of the safari park by the state veterinary authorities, 281 deer were euthanized with the authorization of the "Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis" (IBAMA). Retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph nodes and viscera were collected from 21 animals, which were grown in Stonebrink medium for up to 90 days. After DNA extraction from the bacterial colonies, PCR was performed for targets flanking the region of differentiation 4 (RD4). Of the 21 samples, 14 (66.7%) presented LST with a granulomatous appearance, a whitish coloration, and caseous or calcified consistency, and seven samples (33.3%), showed no lesions. In the culture of 14 samples with LST, 13 (92.8%) presented bacterial growth compatible with M. bovis. In the cultivation of the seven samples without LST, four (57.1%) presented colonies compatible with M. bovis. PCR and DNA sequencing of the PCR amplicons detected as positive all the 17 (100%) bacteriological cultures suggestive of M. bovis, thus confirming the outbreak of bTB in deer. Decisions about positive tested and suspicious animals should be taken based on the evaluation of the risk of transmission to the rest of the zoological animals, animal welfare, conservation considerations and, the zoonotic potential of this pathogen.(AU)


A tuberculose bovina (bTB) é uma doença infecciosa causada por Mycobacterium bovis, afetando animais domésticos, animais selvagens e humanos. Para animais selvagens em cativeiro, a bTB representa um risco para os tratadores de animais e visitantes do zoológico, além da possibilidade de espalhar a infecção para animais domésticos ou por meio do comércio de animais silvestres infectados. Cervídeos sambar (Cervus unicolor), veado-vermelho (Cervus elaphus) e gamo (Dama dama) de um parque safári no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, mostraram uma condição clínica de dispneia e perda de peso. Alguns animais morreram e apresentaram lesões sugestivas de tuberculose (LST), as quais foram confirmadas por histopatologia. Após a interdição do parque safári pelas autoridades veterinárias estaduais, 281 veados sofreram eutanásia com a autorização do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA). Os linfonodos retrofaríngeos e submandibulares e vísceras foram coletados de 21 animais, que foram cultivados em meio Stonebrink por até 90 dias. Após extração de DNA das colônias bacterianas, foi realizada PCR para alvos que flanqueavam a região de diferenciação 4 (RD4). Das 21 amostras, 14 (66,7%) apresentaram LST com aspecto granulomatoso, coloração esbranquiçada e consistência caseosa ou calcificada, e sete amostras (33,3%) não apresentaram lesões. Na cultura de 14 amostras com LST, 13 (92,8%) apresentaram crescimento bacteriano compatível com M. bovis. No cultivo das sete amostras sem LST, quatro (57,1%) apresentaram colônias compatíveis com M. bovis. A PCR e o sequenciamento de DNA dos fragmentos de PCR detectaram como positivo todas as 17 (100%) culturas bacteriológicas sugestivas de M. bovis, confirmando assim o surto de bTB em cervídeos. As decisões sobre animais positivos testados e suspeitos devem ser tomadas com base na avaliação do risco de transmissão para o restante dos animais zoológicos, bem-estar animal, considerações de conservação e no potencial zoonótico desse patógeno.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tuberculosis, Bovine , Deer , Animals, Wild , Mycobacterium bovis , Animal Welfare , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infections
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3487-3493, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887999

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC-MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-horn gelatin( DCG) and deer-hide gelatin( DHG) samples.The glycopeptides in DCG and DHG were quantified by Label-free quantitative( LFQ) peptidomics,on the basis of which the glycopeptides with significant difference in DCG and DHG were determined. As a result,5 736 peptides were identified from DCG samples,including 213 galactosyl-hydroxylysine containing peptides( Gal-Hyl-peptides) and 102 glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine containing peptides( Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides),while 6 836 peptides were identified from DHG samples,among which there were 250 Gal-Hyl-peptides and 98 Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides. With over 3-fold peak area difference and highly significant intergroup difference( P < 0. 01) as the screening criteria,444 differential peptides were determined in DCG and DHG,including 16 Gal-Hyl-peptides and 5 Glc-Gal-Hyl-peptides. Then XIC peak shapes,standard deviation of peak area,and fold change were applied for further screening and 5 glycopeptides with significant differences in DCG and DHG were confirmed,which could serve as potential biomarkers for distinguishing DCG and DHG. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on the discrimination of DCG and DHG and is of good theoretical significance and application value for the further research on chemical constituents and quality control of gelatin derived Chinese medicinals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Gelatin , Glycopeptides , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e008621, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351881

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Lipoptena includes hematophagous insects of the family Hippoboscidae that parasitize different deer species. The present study aims to identify 19 flies that parasitize deer of the genus Mazama in the State of Paraná, Brazil. We analyzed 18 flies (Lipoptena mazamae) and 1 Lipoptena guimaraesi. This study expands the host list for L. guimaraesi, previously restricted to a single deer species (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).


Resumo O gênero Lipoptena engloba insetos hematófagos da família Hippoboscidae que parasitam diferentes espécies de cervídeos. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar a identificação de 19 moscas encontradas parasitando cervídeos do gênero Mazama, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Dentre os espécimes analisados, 18 pertenciam à espécie Lipoptena mazamae e um à espécie Lipoptena guimaraesi. O presente artigo expande a lista de hospedeiros de L. guimaraesi, antes restrita a uma única espécie de cervídeo (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer , Diptera , Brazil , Feeding Behavior
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6447-6453, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921804

ABSTRACT

A reliable QuEChERS-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) analysis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 steroid hormones(nrolone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone, testosterone, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone, diethylstilbestrol, hexan-stilbestrol, estradiol, estrotriol, cortisone, hydrocortisone) in Testis et Penis Cervi. The samples were extracted with methanol and purified by QuEChERS. Subsequently, the samples were separated by ACQUITY BEH C_(18) column and detected in the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode under electrospray ionization in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Significant differences in the content of thirteen steroid hormones in Testis et Penis Cervi between the sika deer at different periods and the red deer were observed. The content of testosterone(10.88 μg·kg~(-1)) and hydrocortisone(12.82 μg·kg~(-1)) in Testis et Penis Cervi derived from rutting sika deer was significantly higher than the content of testosterone(1.05 μg·kg~(-1)) and hydrocortisone(0.73 μg·kg~(-1)) from antler growth stage. The content of progesterone in Testis et Penis Cervi derived from red deer was 6.07 μg·kg~(-1), significantly higher than that from sika deer. The content of progesterone in the testicle of red deer reached 27.46 μg·kg~(-1), 4.5 times greater than that in the penis of red deer. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method can meet the detection requirements, and the developed method is suitable for the measurement of hormones in animal-derived food.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Hormones , Penis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Testis
13.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 90-95, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340777

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) en venados de cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) y venados de páramo (Mazama rufína), capturados en las regiones de la Orinoquía y el Caribe en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Un total de 44 muestras de suero sanguíneo de venados de las especies M. rufína y O. virginianus fueron colectadas en condiciones de campo entre 2014 y 2016. Se utilizó un kit comercial de ELISA para la detección de anticuerpos anti-MAP. Un animal se consideró positivo a ELISA cuando la relación muestra-positivo (S/P%) fue > 0.4, según lo recomendado por el fabricante. Resultados. El 50% (22/44) de los animales muestreados resultaron positivos, lo que corresponde a 10 hembras y 12 machos. Un 81.8% (18/22) y un 77.3% (17/22) de estos animales seropositivos fueron capturados en la región de la Orinoquía y fueron reportados como adultos, respectivamente. Conclusiones. No se sabe cómo o cuándo se introdujo MAP en la población de ciervos colombianos en las regiones de estudio. La hipótesis más plausible para explicar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-MAP en estas poblaciones silvestres es la transmisión por contacto con el ganado bovino infectado, ya que en ambas regiones estas especies comparten pasturas. Este es el primer estudio en explorar la infección por MAP en animales silvestres en Colombia. Estos hallazgos respaldan la necesidad de realizar más estudios utilizando técnicas de diagnóstico directo, y aproximaciones investigativas que permitan la definición de vínculos en la dinámica de la infección entre mamíferos silvestres y domésticos en Colombia.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the presence of anti-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and red brocket deer (Mazama rufína), captured in the Orinoquía and Caribbean regions in Colombia. Materials and methods. A total of 44 blood serum samples from deer of species M. rufina and O. virginianus were collected under field conditions between 2014 and 2016. An ELISA commercial kit was used to detect anti-MAP antibodies. An animal was considered ELISA-positive at a sample-to-positive ratio (S/P%) of > 0.4, as recommended by the manufacturer. Results. The 50% (22/44) of the animals were positive, corresponding to 10 females and 12 males. An 81.8% (18/22) and 77.3% (17/22) of these seropositive animals were captured in the Orinoquía region and were reported as adults, respectively. Conclusions. It is not known how or when MAP was introduced in the Colombian deer population in the study regions. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of antibodies against MAP in these wild populations is transmission by contact with infected bovine cattle since, in both regions, these species share pastures. This is the first study to explore MAP infection in wild animals in Colombia. These findings support the need for further studies using different direct diagnostic techniques and research approaches that allow the definition of links in the infection dynamics between wild and domestic mammals in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Paratuberculosis , Ruminants , Deer , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antelopes
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 747-754, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098315

ABSTRACT

Currently, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is endangered. Anatomical studies focused on understanding the anatomy of the deer most threatened by extinction in South America is a challenge for anatomists, veterinarians and biologists. Research carried out for its conservation has focused mainly on its ecology and pathology, leaving gaps in anatomical knowledge, which is basic and important for a comprehensive understanding of this species. Gross anatomy and radiography of the skeleton of the pelvic limb was performed in three adult Patagonian huemul. Bone specimens of three skeletally mature Patagonian huemul deer were used for gross osteological and radiographic studies. This study was conducted to reveal the morphometric and morphological features of the ossa membri pelvini of the Patagonian huemul. The main findings suggest the presence of powerful extensor muscles in the coxofemoral, femorotibial and tarsal joints, useful during walking, jogging and propulsion in deer. In general, the MNF of Patagonian huemul differ in position with respect to domestic ungulates. In addition, the presence of a notch or obturator canal was observed, with variability in morphology and development among the specimens.


Actualmente, el Huemul Patagónico (Hippocamelus bisulcus) está en peligro de extinción. Los estudios morfológicos centrados en comprender su anatomía han sido un desafío para morfólogos, veterinarios y biólogos. Investigaciones enfocadas en su conservación, se han centrado principalmente en su ecología, patología y en la descripción de sus principales agentes infecciosos, dejando vacíos en el conocimiento anatómico básico, y por ende, su comprensión morfofisiológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la anatomía, morfometría y radiología macroscópica normal y detallada del ossa membri pelvini en tres especímenes de Huemul Patagónico, incluida una interpretación funcional como referencia para uso clínico y conservacionista, investigación biomédica y fines de enseñanza. Los principales hallazgos sugieren la presencia de potentes músculos extensores en las articulaciones coxofemoral, femorotibial y tarsal, útiles durante la marcha, el trote y la propulsión en los ciervos. En general, los forámenes nutricios principales del Huemul patagónico difieren en posición con respecto a los ungulados domésticos. Además, se observó la presencia de una muesca o canal obturador, con variabilidad morfológica y de desarrollo entre los especímenes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pelvic Bones/anatomy & histology , Pelvic Bones/diagnostic imaging , Deer/anatomy & histology , Chile , Endangered Species
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 91-95, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056403

ABSTRACT

El pudú (Pudu puda) se clasifica como un artiodáctilo de la familia Cervidae y es el ciervo más pequeño. Se estima que su población se ha reducido, esto debido a varias causas, como son la pérdida de los bosques, depredación, caza y atropellos. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la musculatura intrínseca del miembro torácico de un ejemplar de pudú, comparando los resultados observados con lo descrito para rumiantes domésticos en la bibliografía anatómica clásica. Se estudió la musculatura desde proximal hacia distal, dividiendo al miembro en cuatro regiones topográficas: región escapular, braquial, antebraquial y de la mano. Además, se realizó un estudio morfométrico indicando el largo, ancho y grosor de los músculos. Los resultados indican que el ejemplar de pudú posee características anatómicas similares a rumiantes domésticos, sin embargo, se deben considerar algunas diferencias, tales como: la porción escapular del m. deltoides se une de manera aponeurótica con el m. infraespinoso; las dos cabezas del m. flexor ulnar del carpo se encuentran altamente fusionadas; no se observó el tercer tendón del m. bíceps braquial; el m. tríceps braquial es bien desarrollado y presenta cuatro cabezas musculares bien diferenciadas; el m. ancóneo permanece de manera independiente de la cabeza lateral del m. tríceps; el m. flexor digital profundo presenta cuatro cabezas y el m. interóseo es macroscópicamente tendinoso. La información entregada en este estudio corresponde a un aporte anatómico que permite ampliar el conocimiento científico de esta especie que se encuentra poco estudiada, protegida y vulnerable.


The pudú (Pudu puda) is classified as an artiodactyl and is the smallest deer of the Cervidae family. It is estimated that its population has been reduced for a number of reasons, such as loss of forests, predation and hunting. The objective of this study is to describe the intrinsic musculature of the thoracic limb of a Pudu specimen, comparing the results with those described for domestic ruminants in anatomical literature. Musculature was studied from proximal to distal, dividing the limb into four topographic regions: scapular, brachial, antebrachial and hand regions. In addition, a morphometric study was conducted indicating the length, width and thickness of the muscles. The results indicate that the Pudu species has anatomical characteristics similar to those of domestic ruminants. However, some differences should be considered, such as the scapular portion of M. deltoides joins aponeurotically with M. infraspinatus; the two heads of M. carpis ulnaris are highly fused; the third tendon of M. biceps brachii; the M. triceps brachii is well developed and has four distinct muscle heads; the M. Anconeus remains independent of the lateral head of M. triceps brachii; the M. digitorum profundus features four heads and the M. interosseous is macroscopically tendinous. The information provided in this study corresponds to an anatomical contribution that allows furthering scientific knowledge of this protected and vulnerable species, which is scarcely studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Upper Extremity/anatomy & histology
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e017919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite that causes diarrhea in a broad range of animals, including deer. Little is known about the prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David's deer. In this study, 137 fecal samples from Père David's deer were collected between July 2017 and August 2018 in the Dafeng Reserve and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. by nested-PCR based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, followed by sequence analyses to determine the species. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. Among 137 samples, 2 (1.46%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. according to SSU rRNA gene sequencing results. Both samples belonged to the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, with two nucleotide deletions and one nucleotide substitution. The prevalence data and molecular characterization of this study provide basic knowledge for controlling and preventing Cryptosporidium infections in Père David's deer in this area.


Resumo Cryptosporidium é um parasita zoonótico que causa diarreia em uma ampla gama de animais, incluindo veados. Pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência e o genótipo de Cryptosporidium spp. no cervo de Père David. Neste estudo, 137 amostras fecais do cervo de Père David foram coletadas entre julho de 2017 e agosto de 2018, na Reserva Dafeng, e analisadas para Cryptosporidium spp. por nested-PCR baseado no gene do RNA ribossômico da subunidade pequena (SSU rRNA), seguido de análises de sequências para determinar as espécies. O gene da glicoproteína de 60 kDa (gp60) foi utilizado para caracterizar Cryptosporidium spp. Dentre as 137 amostras, 2 (1,46%) foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. de acordo com os resultados do sequenciamento gênico de SSU rRNA. Ambas as amostras pertenciam ao genótipo do cervo Cryptosporidium, com duas deleções nucleotídicas e uma substituição nucleotídica. Os dados de prevalência e a caracterização molecular deste estudo fornecem conhecimentos básicos para controlar e prevenir infecções por Cryptosporidium nos cervos de Père David nessa.


Subject(s)
Animals , RNA, Ribosomal , Deer/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Genotype
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e46734, fev. 2020. ilus, map
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460935

ABSTRACT

Albinism is a genetic condition that results in total hypopigmentation of the eyes, fur, skin, hair, scales, and feathers of an organism. Albinism might result in a selective disadvantage for affected animals. Cases of albinism have been previously recorded in Neotropical vertebrates, such as reptiles, mammals, birds, and fish. However, observing albinism in a wild population is still considered to be a rare event. This paper reports a unique case of complete albinism in a red-brocket deer (Mazama americana) living in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The individual was observed within the Biological Reserve of Pará State, one of the most deforested regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The survival of the albino red-brocket deer in the wild can be related to mechanisms of apostatic selection, which theorize the survival of individual prey animals whose mutations make them less likely to be attacked by predators. In other words, the more different a prey animal is from others, the less likely it will be targeted by predators. The high abundance prey animals within the Biological Reserve of Tapirapé seems to support this prediction. This report exemplifies the importance of monitoring the biodiversity and promoting the conservation of favorable habitats to support species multiplicity in highly fragmented regions, as in the Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Albinism , Deer/anatomy & histology , Deer/classification
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(4): 132-136, out./dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491654

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a ocorrência de endoparasitos em veados-catingueiros (Mazama gouazoubira) pertencentes a uma propriedade conservacionista no município de Sousa, Paraíba. Foram realizadas coletas de fezes em sete animais que foram submetidas às técnicas de sedimentação espontânea, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose, contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), contagem de oocistos por grama de fezes (OoPG) e coproculturas. Foram avaliados os locais de criação dos animais, para obtenção das informações acerca do manejo sanitário e alimentar. Em todas as amostras observaram-se ovos da Superfamília Trichostrongyloidea (OPG 200 ± 100) e coccídios (OoPG 1500 ± 300). Nas coproculturas, 100% das larvas infectantes pertenciam ao gênero Trichostrongylus. Foram constatados oocistos do gênero Cystoisospora em todas as amostras. Em uma fêmea, que apresentou OoPG 1800, observaram-se sinais clínicos como apatia, anorexia, desidratação e diarreia intermitente, condizentes com Coccidiose. Este animal recebeu tratamento com a associação de sulfametoxazol e trimetropim, por sete dias, havendo melhora clínica. Erros de manejo foram observados na propriedade, como o convívio de M. gouazoubira com bovinos, ovinos e caprinos, alimentação inadequada à base de ração industrializada para equinos, bebedouros improvisados e não higienizados, e acúmulo de sujeira dos ambientes frequentados pelos animais. Concluiu-se que os veados-catingueiros estavam parasitados por helmintos (Trichostrongylus sp.) e protozoários (Cystoisospora spp.), podendo estas infecções estarem associadas ao convívio destes animais com ruminantes domésticos. Este estudo apresenta o primeiro relato da infecção por Cystoisospora spp. em M. gouazoubira.


The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) belonging to a conservationist property in the municipality of Sousa, Paraíba. Fecal samples were collected in seven animals that were submitted to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, centrifugation-flotation in sucrose solution, egg count per gram of feces (EPG), oocyst count per gram of feces (OoPG) and coproculture. The breeding sites were evaluated to obtain information on Sanitary and food management. In all samples, eggs of the Trichostrongyloidea Superfamily (EPG 200 ± 100) and coccidia (OoPG 1500 ± 300) were observed. In the coprocultures, 100% of the infecting larvae belonged to the genus Trichostrongylus. Oocysts of the genus Cystoisospora spp. were found in all samples. In one female, who presented OoPG 1800, clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, dehydration and intermittent diarrhea, consistent with Coccidiosis. This animal received treatment with the combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimetropim for seven days, with clinical improvement of the animal. Management errors were observed in the property, such as M. gouazoubira’s conviviality with as cattle, sheep and goats, inadequate feed based on industrialized ration for horses, improvised and unhygienic drinking fountains, accumulation of dirt in the environments frequented by animals. They concluded that veados-catingueiros were parasitized by helminths (Trichostrongylus sp.) and protozoa (Cystoisospora sp.) infections may be associated with the coexistence of animals with domestic ruminants. This study presents the first report of Cystoisospora spp. in M. gouazoubira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Load , Deer/parasitology , Coccidiosis/pathology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Parasites
19.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(4): 132-136, out./dez. 2019. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379604

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a ocorrência de endoparasitos em veados-catingueiros (Mazama gouazoubira) pertencentes a uma propriedade conservacionista no município de Sousa, Paraíba. Foram realizadas coletas de fezes em sete animais que foram submetidas às técnicas de sedimentação espontânea, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose, contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), contagem de oocistos por grama de fezes (OoPG) e coproculturas. Foram avaliados os locais de criação dos animais, para obtenção das informações acerca do manejo sanitário e alimentar. Em todas as amostras observaram-se ovos da Superfamília Trichostrongyloidea(OPG 200 ± 100) ecoccídios(OoPG 1500 ± 300). Nas coproculturas, 100% das larvas infectantes pertenciam ao gênero Trichostrongylus. Foram constatados oocistos do gênero Cystoisospora em todas as amostras. Em uma fêmea, que apresentou OoPG 1800, observaram-se sinais clínicos como apatia, anorexia, desidratação e diarreia intermitente, condizentes com Coccidiose. Este animal recebeu tratamento com a associação de sulfametoxazol e trimetropim, por sete dias, havendo melhora clínica. Erros de manejo foram observados na propriedade, como o convívio de M. gouazoubira com bovinos, ovinos e caprinos, alimentação inadequada à base de ração industrializada para equinos, bebedouros improvisados e não higienizados, e acúmulo de sujeira dos ambientes frequentados pelos animais. Concluiu-se que os veados-catingueiros estavam parasitados por helmintos (Trichostrongylus sp.) e protozoários (Cystoisospora spp.), podendo estas infecções estarem associadas ao convívio destes animais com ruminantes domésticos. Este estudo apresenta o primeiro relato da infecção por Cystoisospora spp. em M. gouazoubira.


The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) belonging to a conservationist property in the municipality of Sousa, Paraíba. Fecal samples were collected in seven animals that were submitted to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, centrifugation-flotation in sucrose solution, egg count per gram of feces (EPG), oocyst count per gram of feces (OoPG) and coproculture. The breeding sites were evaluated to obtain information on Sanitary and food management. In all samples, eggs of the Trichostrongyloidea Superfamily (EPG 200 ± 100) and coccidia (OoPG 1500 ± 300) were observed. In the coprocultures, 100% of the infecting larvae belonged to the genus Trichostrongylus. Oocysts of the genus Cystoisospora spp. were found in all samples. In one female, who presented OoPG 1800, clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, dehydration and intermittent diarrhea, consistent with Coccidiosis. This animal received treatment with the combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimetropim for seven days, with clinical improvement of the animal. Management errors were observed in the property, such as M. gouazoubira's conviviality with as cattle, sheep and goats, inadequate feed based on industrialized ration for horses, improvised and unhygienic drinking fountains, accumulation of dirt in the environments frequented by animals. They concluded that veados-catingueiros were parasitized by helminths (Trichostrongylus sp.) and protozoa (Cystoisospora sp.) infections may be associated with the coexistence of animals with domestic ruminants. This study presents the first report of Cystoisospora spp. in M. gouazoubira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Trichostrongyloidea/parasitology , Deer/parasitology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Parasite Load/veterinary , Helminths/parasitology
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 77-85, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989378

ABSTRACT

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) are dsRNA arboviruses transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides that cause disease in domestic and wild ruminants. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is considered the most important infectious disease of white tailed deer (WTD) in North America, some studies in Northeast Mexico reported EHDV-seropositive WTD and EHDV-infected Culicoides vectors. The increasing population of WTD that share habitat with livestock in Northeast México highlights the importance of EHD for the livestock industry in the transboundary region with the U.S. One hundred and twenty two samples from WTD in Tamaulipas state, Mexico were tested by ELISA and RT-PCR for EHDV antibodies and nucleic acid, respectively. Twelve animals were seropositive to ELISA and eleven animals were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first report of EHDV nucleic acid detection in WTD from Mexico. It is hypothesized that applying the transboundary disease approach to interdisciplinary research will help fill knowledge gaps, which could help develop countermeasures to mitigate the threat of EHDV infection in wildlife and livestock along the U.S.-Mexico border.(AU)


Virus da doença hemorrágica epizoótica (EHDV) são arbovírus dsRNA transmitidos por mordidas do genus Culicoides que causam doenças em ruminantes domésticos e selvagens. Doença hemorrágica epizoótica (EHD) é considerada uma das doenças infecciosas mais importantes dos veados de cauda branca (WTD) na América do Norte. Alguns estudos no Nordeste do México relatam soropositividade para EHDV em WTD e vetores Culicoides infectados com EHDV. A crescente população de WTD que compartilham hábitats com pecuária no Nordeste do México realçam a importância de EHD para a indústria pecuária na região de fronteira com os Estados Unidos. Cento e vinte duas amostras de WTD no estado de Tamaulipas, Mexico, foram testados por ELISA e RT-PCR para anticorpos e ácido nucleico de EHDV, respectivamente. Esse é o primeiro relato de detecção de ácido nucleico de EHDV em WTD do México. A hipótese é de que a aplicação de uma resposta transfronteira e pesquisa interdisciplinar ajudará a preencher lacunas de conhecimento levando a medidas reativas para mitigar a ameaça de infecção por EHDV na pecuária e animais selvagens na fronteira entre os Estados Unidos e o Mexico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/genetics , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic
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