Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 491
Filter
1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 302-307, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the constipation or obstructed defecation symptoms identified by using imaging, as dynamic three-dimensional ultrasound and correlate vaginal delivery, parity, and age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions in female patients with obstructed defection symptoms and to determine whether specific pelvic floor dysfunctions identified by dynamic three-dimensional ultrasonography (echodefecography) are correlated with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. The secondary goal is to report the prevalence of coexisting pelvic floor dysfunctions. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study including patients with obstructed defecation symptoms underwent echodefecographyto evaluate pelvic floor dysfunctions in the posterior compartment and correlate with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. RESULTS: Of 889 female: 552 (62%) had had vaginal delivery and 337 (38%) were nulliparous. The prevalence of dysfunctions identified by echodefecography (rectocele, intussusception, enterocele/sigmoidocele, and dyssynergia) was similar between the two groups and was not associated with number of deliveriesor age. However, the prevalence of sphincter defects showed higher rates in women with vaginal delivery and increased with the parity. Up to 33% of patients had coexisting dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dysfunctions such as rectocele, intussusception, dyssynergia, and enterocele/sigmoidocele assessed by echodefecography in patients with obstructed defecation symptoms are found similar regardless of vaginal delivery, number of deliveries or stratified-age. In vaginal delivery, number of deliveries does impact on detection of sphincter defects and liability to fecal incontinence.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Poucos estudos investigaram pacientes portadoras de defecação obstruída identificados por exames de imagens, como ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica, correlacionando parto vaginal, paridade e idade. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico em pacientes do sexo feminino com sintomas de defecação obstruída e determinar se disfunções específicas do assoalho pélvico identificadas por ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica (ecodefecografia) estão correlacionadas com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. O objetivo secundário é relatar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico coexistentes. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes com sintomas de obstrução da defecação submetidas à ecodefecografia para avaliar disfunções do assoalho pélvico no compartimento posterior e correlacionar com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. RESULTADOS: De 889 mulheres: 552 (62%) tiveram parto vaginal e 337 (38%) eram nulíparas. A prevalência de disfunções identificadas pela ecodefecografia (retocele, intussuscepção, enterocele/sigmoidocele e dissinergia) foi semelhante entre os dois grupos e não foi associada ao número de partos ou à idade. No entanto, a prevalência de defeitos esfincterianos apresentou taxas mais elevadas em mulheres com parto vaginal e aumentou com a paridade. Até 33% dos pacientes apresentavam disfunções coexistentes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de disfunções como retocele, intussuscepção, dissinergia e enterocele/sigmoidocele avaliada pela ecodefecografia em pacientes com sintomas de defecação obstruída são semelhantes independentemente do parto normal, número de partos ou idade estratificada. No parto vaginal, o número de partos tem impacto na detecção de defeitos esfincterianos e na possibilidade de incontinência fecal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pelvic Floor/diagnostic imaging , Defecation , Parity , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Constipation , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/epidemiology , Delivery, Obstetric
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 321-325, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143180

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The internal hemorrhoid, rectal tumor, hypertrophic anal papilla, and secret fecal mass are regarded as the blocks embedded in the rectum. The above blocks hinder defecation, which will inevitably lead to excessive opening of the anal caliber. Once the limit is exceeded, the skin of the anal canal will tear and form anal fissure. Based on the study of historical evolution, hypothesis reasoning, clinical verification and comparison with other theories, a new concept of anal fissure etiology-impaction theory is proposed. The so-called impaction theory refers to the impaction (various primary lesions) in anorectum, which hinders defecation. When defecating, the anal canal expands beyond the limit, and the whole layer of anal canal skin splits, that is to say, anal fissure is formed.


RESUMO A hemorroida interna, o tumor retal, a papila anal hipertrófica e a massa fecal secreta são considerados os blocos incrustados no reto. Os bloqueios acima impedem a defecação, o que inevitavelmente levará a uma abertura excessiva do calibre anal. Uma vez que o limite é excedido, a pele do canal anal rasga e forma uma fissura anal. Com base no estudo da evolução histórica, raciocínio de hipóteses, verificação clínica e comparação com outras teorias, um novo conceito de etiologia da fissura anal - a teoria da impactação - é proposto. A chamada teoria da impactação refere-se à impactação (várias lesões primárias) no anorreto, o que dificulta a defecação. Na defecação, o canal anal se expande além do limite e toda a camada da pele do canal anal rasga, ou seja, forma-se a fissura anal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Defecation/physiology , Fissure in Ano/etiology , Fissure in Ano/pathology , Hemorrhoids/complications
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 498-506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is a type 2 chloride channel activator that has been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment for chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing efficacy of lubiprostone for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) and opioid-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Lubiprostone RCTs reporting outcomes of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and abdominal pain or discomfort were deemed eligible. Meta-analysis was performed calculating risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model. RESULTS: Searches yielded 109 records representing 93 non-duplicate publications, and 11 RCTs (978 CIC, 1,366 IBS-C, 1,300 OIC, total = 3,644) met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed that for CIC patients, lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM outcomes. Meta-analysis for CIC was feasible for full responder and SBM within 24h rates, indicating superiority of lubiprostone over placebo. For IBS-C, lubiprostone was significantly superior for all SBM outcomes in follow-ups ranging from 1 week-3 months. In terms of abdominal pain, lubiprostone provided significantly better symptoms relief, particularly after 1 month of treatment. For OIC, lubiprostone was more effective than placebo for both SBM and discomfort measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM frequency for CIC, IBS-C and OIC. In terms of abdominal symptoms, the most pronounced effect was seen for abdominal pain in IBS-C patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Lubiprostona é um ativador de canal de cloreto tipo 2 que tem se demonstrado eficaz e seguro no tratamento da constipação crônica. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) avaliando a eficácia da lubiprostona para pacientes com constipação idiopática crônica (CIC), síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante (IBS-C) e constipação induzida por opioide (OIC). MÉTODOS: Buscas foram conduzidas no PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. ECRs de lubiprostona relatando desfechos de movimentos intestinais espontâneos (SBM) e dor ou desconforto abdominal foram considerados elegíveis. Metanálise foi realizada calculando razão de riscos e intervalos de confiança de 95%, utilizando o método de Mantel-Haenszel e modelo de efeitos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 109 registros representando 93 publicações não-duplicadas e 11 ECRs (978 pacientes de CIC, 1366 de IBS-C e 1300 OIC, total = 3644) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Síntese qualitativa mostrou que, para pacientes com CIC, a lubiprostona foi superior ao placebo em termos de desfechos SBM. Metanálise para CIC foi possível para os desfechos de responder completo e taxa de SBM em 24 horas, indicando superioridade da lubiprostona sobre o placebo. Para IBS-C, lubiprostona foi significativamente superior para todos os desfechos de SBM em tempos de seguimento variando de 1 semana a 3 meses. Em termos de dor abdominal, lubiprostona proporciono alívio dos sintomas significativamente melhor, particularmente após 1 mês de tratamento. Para OIC, lubiprostona foi mais efetiva do que placebo tanto para medidas de SBM quando de desconforto abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados demonstraram que lubiprostona é superior ao placebo em termos de frequência de SBM para CIC, IBS-C e OIC. Em termos de sintomas abdominais, o efeito mais pronunciado foi visto para dor abdominal em pacientes com IBS-C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/drug therapy , Lubiprostone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Defecation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid
4.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 389-394, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138729

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes constipados crónicos por obstrucción de salida, la contracción paradojal del puborrectal (CPP) o "anismo" es frecuente. El tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal presenta resultados exitosos entre el 40-90%. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado del tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal en pacientes con CPP a corto plazo. Materiales y Método: Serie de casos. Datos obtenidos prospectivamente de la Unidad de Piso Pelviano. Se incluyó pacientes entre 2008 y 2015 que cumplían criterios de constipación crónica secundaria a CPP, confirmado por manometría anorrectal y/o defeco-resonancia. Se analizaron datos demográficos, frecuencia de evacuaciones, uso de laxantes, enemas, pujo, Score de Altomare y Score de constipación de Wexner pre y post-tratamiento. Resultados: 43 pacientes, de los cuales 39 son mujeres. Edad media de 40 años (rango: 14-84). Duración de síntomas fue ≥ 5 años en el 72,5%. Mediana de sesiones de Biofeedback de 8 (6-10). El 62,8% presenta ≤ 2 evacuaciones semanales y disminuye a un 29,3% post-tratamiento (p < 0,001). El 76,2% requiere laxantes orales y el 42,9% enemas, disminuyendo a 35,1% (p < 0,001) y 5,4% (p < 0,001) respectivamente post-tratamiento. Sensación de evacuación incompleta/fragmentada en todos los intentos mejoró de 67,4% a 14,6% (p < 0,001) y el pujo excesivo en más de la mitad de intentos mejoró de 76,1% a 10,8% (p < 0,001). Score de Wexner para constipación y Altomare mejoró de 18 a 7 (p < 0,001) y de 16 a 5 (p < 0,001) respectivamente. Conclusión: El biofeedback y la rehabilitación pelviperineal son efectivas en el tratamiento de la CPP.


Introduction: In patients with chronic constipation by obstructive defecation syndrome Paradoxical Puborectalis Contraction or "anismus" is important. Successful results for Biofeedback treatment and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation it described between 40-90%. Aim: To evaluate the outcome of biofeedback and pelviperineal rehabilitation in patients with CPP in the short-term. Materials and Method: Case series. Data was obtained from the prospective database of Pelvic Floor Unit of Universidad Católica de Chile. Patients with anismus were included between 2008 and 2015. Diagnostic criteria were chronic constipation patients by anismus with anorectal manometry and/or defecoresonancy that confirms this disorder and discards other causes of obstruted defecation síndrome. Demographic variables, frequency of bowel movements, use of laxatives, enemas, pushing, Altomare Score and Wexner constipation Score were analyzed pre and post-treatment. Results: Series of 43 patients, 39 of whom where women. Median age: 40 years (range: 14-84). Duration of symptoms ≥ 5 years in 72.5%. Median of Biofeedback sessions: 8 (range 6-10). Pre-treatment, 62.8% had ≤ 2 evacuations weekly and 29.3% post-treatment (p < 0.001). Oral laxatives were required in 76.2% and 42.9% enemas, decreasing to 35.1% (p < 0.001) and 5.4% (p < 0.001) post-treatment respectively. Feeling of incomplete/evacuation fragmented all the time improved from 67.4% to 14.6% (p < 0.001) and excessive pushing in more than half of time improved from 76.1% to 10.8% (p < 0.001). Wexner Score for and Altomare Score improved from 18 to 7 (p < 0.001) and 16 to 5 (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Adult with chronic constipation by anismus can be treated effectively with Biofeedback and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Constipation/therapy , Defecation , Prospective Studies , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Constipation/physiopathology
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 273-277, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Defecation disorders, whether anal incontinence or chronic intestinal constipation, are frequent pelvic floor alterations in the general population and are more common in those with risk factors,i.e., in the elderly, women with an obstetric background, and those with comorbidities, history of pelvic radiotherapy, diabetics, the bedridden, or those with history of orifice surgery, among others. Objective: To analyze the incidence of defecation disorders in geriatric patients treated at the Medical Specialties Outpatient Service (MSOS) of Hospital Santa Marcelina. Methods: Prospective, randomized study that interviewed the same patients in two moments: 1) subjective anamnesis through spontaneous history and 2) objective anamnesis with specific questionnaires to assess anal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results: Between March 2016 and June 2017, 149 patients were analyzed, of whom 114 (76.5%) were female, with a similar mean age between genders; 51.67% had symptoms of anal incontinence and/or chronic constipation. Only 35.5% of patients with complaints of fecal leakage or flatus spontaneously reported them, while 87.1% of constipated patients did so. In the present study, no significant correlation was observed between the mode of delivery (p = 0.106), pregnancy (p = 0.099), and the number of deliveries (p = 0.126) with anal incontinence. In turn, there was no higher incidence of chronic intestinal constipation in females (p = 0.099) and most patients with this complaint had Bristol type 1 or 2 stools. Conclusion: The incidence of defecation disorders in the geriatric population is high and, most notably, anal incontinence is not spontaneously reported by most patients.


Resumo Introdução: Os distúrbios da evacuação, seja a incontinência anal ou a constipação intestinal crônica, representam alterações do assoalho pélvico bastante frequente na população em geral e mais comumente naqueles com fatores de risco, ou seja, em idosos, mulheres com passado obstétrico, comorbidades, antecedente de radioterapia pélvica, diabéticos, acamados, história de cirurgias orificiais, dentre outros. Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de distúrbios defecatórios em pacientes geriátricos atendidos no Ambulatório de Especialidades Médicas (AME) do Hospital Santa Marcelina. Metodologia: Estudo prospectivo e aleatório com a entrevista do mesmo paciente em dois momentos: 1) Anamnese subjetiva através da história espontânea e 2) Anamnese objetiva com questionários específicos para avaliação de incontinência anal e constipação intestinal crônica. Resultados: Foram analisados 149 pacientes entre Março de 2016 e Junho de 2017, sendo 114 (76,5%) do sexo feminino com média de idade semelhante entre os sexos; 51,67% apresentavam sintomas de incontinência anal e/ou constipação intestinal crônica. Apenas 35,5% dos pacientes com queixas de escape de fezes ou flatos relataram de forma espontânea e 87,1% dos pacientes constipados o fizeram. No presente estudo não se verificou correlação significativa entre via de parto p = 0,106, gestação p = 0,099 e número de partos p = 0,126 com incontinência anal. Por outro lado, não se verificou maior incidência de constipação intestinal crônica no sexo feminino p = 0,099 e a maioria dos pacientes com essa queixa apresentavam fezes ressecadas tipo Bristol 1 ou 2. Conclusão: Incidência de distúrbios da defecação na população geriátrica é elevada e, notadamente a IA não é referida de forma espontânea pela maioria dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Pelvic Floor
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 188-192, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal constipation is characterized by problems related to evacuation, and presents high prevalence in the female gender. This condition has demonstrated negative effects on the development of daily activities, causing damage to the physical and emotional well-being of individuals who are diagnosed with it. Studies that investigate what health impairments intestinal constipation can cause are scarce in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the prevalence and factors associated with intestinal constipation in premenopausal women living in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. This was carried out in the northeast of Brazil. Participated 195 women, adult and middle age. Social conditions, habits and lifestyle, clinical aspects and obstetric history were investigated. Constipation was diagnosed using the Rome III Criteria. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson Regression with robust variance to analyze the relationship between intestinal constipation and independent variables. A statistical significance level of P<0.05 was considered. RESULTS: Most of the women were between 25 and 39 years old (49.2%) and had an income of up to one minimum wage (79.5%). The intestinal constipation prevalence was 35.4%. In the final multivariate regression model, hemorrhoid clinical aspects (P=0.01), pain (P=0.001) and a burning sensation (P=0.01) on bowel movement, and sexual dysfunction (P=0.03) remained associated with constipation. CONCLUSION: The present study found a significant prevalence of constipation among premenopausal women and clinical factors such as hemorrhoids, pain and a burning sensation, and sexual dysfunction were associated with intestinal constipation.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A constipação intestinal é caracterizada por problemas relacionados à evacuação, e apresenta alta prevalência no gênero feminino. Essa condição tem demonstrado efeitos negativos no desenvolvimento das atividades diárias, causando prejuízos no bem-estar físico e emocional dos indivíduos que são diagnosticados com ela. Estudos que investiguem quais prejuízos à saúde a constipação intestinal pode ocasionar são escassos na literatura. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à constipação intestinal em mulheres na pré-menopausa residentes no nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no Nordeste do Brasil. Participaram 195 mulheres adultas e de meia idade. Condições sociais, hábitos e estilo de vida, aspectos clínicos e história obstétrica foram investigados. A constipação foi diagnosticada através dos Critérios de Roma III. A análise multivariada foi conduzida através da Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta, para analisar a relação entre constipação intestinal e variáveis independentes. Considerou-se o nível de significância estatística de P≤0,05. RESULTADOS: A maioria das mulheres estava na faixa etária de 25 a 39 anos (49,2%) e possuía renda de até um salário mínimo (79,5%). A prevalência da constipação intestinal foi de 35,4%. No modelo final da regressão multivariada, os aspectos clínicos hemorroidas (P<0,01), dor (P<0,001) e ardor (P<0,01) ao evacuar e disfunção sexual (P<0,03) permaneceram associados à constipação. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo encontrou uma prevalência significativa de constipação entre mulheres na pré-menopausa e fatores clínicos como hemorroidas, dor e ardor na evacuação, e disfunção sexual se associaram a constipação intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Postmenopause , Constipation/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Defecation , Middle Aged
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880387

ABSTRACT

The significant increase in the incidence of benign anal diseases is related to the fast-paced life style, the change of dietary structure, the increase of work pressure and social psychological factors. Surgery is one of the most important treatments for benign anal diseases, while perioperative defecation management is closely related to the efficacy of surgery. In current clinical practice, there is no consensus on the management of perioperative defecation for benign anal diseases. Hence a discussion was held by the Professional Committee of Colorectal Diseases of Chinese Society of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, concerning the causes of perioperative defecation difficulties in perioperative anal benign diseases, the importance and specific strategy of defecation management. A consensus was consequently formed, aiming to provide a guideline for the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Anus Diseases/surgery , China , Consensus , Defecation , Humans , Perioperative Care , Perioperative Period
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(2): 95-100, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012586

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To validate a new defecographic parameter to assess rectal empyting correlating the percentage of weight reduction of barium paste and the variation in the percentage of area reduction of rectum compared before and after defecation during cinedefecography. Method: Thirty-two consecutive female patients with dyschezia who had clinical indication for cinedefecography were selected. Their median age was 58 years old (18-78 years, mean = 55 years). During cinedefecography, we calculated the cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum before and after defecation and, thus, the percentage of area reduction of the rectum. The percentage of weight reduction of barium paste was calculated after weighing the contrast injected into the rectum and the amount of contrast evacuated, in grams, using a scale. Finally, both percentages were compared and checked for a correlation between them. Pearson's correlation (r) and Student's t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: A correlation between evacuated barium paste and cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum at the end of defecation was demonstrated (r = 0.668 and p < 0.0001). Conclusion: It is possible to estimate how much barium paste is evacuated based on the variations in cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum before and after defecation, in cinedefecography.


RESUMO Objetivo: Validar um novo parâmetro defecográfico para avaliar o esvaziamento retal correlacionando o percentual de redução de peso da pasta baritada e a variação da porcentagem da redução da área do reto antes e depois da evacuação durante o exame de cinedefecografia. Métodos: Foram selecionadas 32 pacientes consecutivas do sexo feminino, portadoras de disquezia, com indicação clínica de investigação por cinedefecografia. A mediana de idade da amostra foi 58 anos (18-78 anos, média de 55 anos). Durante o exame de cinedefecografia, calcularam-se as áreas retais pela secção sagital antes e após a defecação e, assim, o percentual de redução da área retal. O percentual de redução do peso do contraste baritado foi calculado após medidas de peso do contraste injetado no reto e da quantidade de contraste evacuado, em gramas, utilizando uma balança. Por fim, os percentuais foram comparados e verificou-se se havia correlação entre eles. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados correlação de Pearson (r)eT este t de Student. Resultados: Foi observada correlação entre o contraste baritado evacuado e a área retal pela secção sagital ao final da evacuação (r = 0.668; p < 0.0001). Conclusões: É possível estimar o percentual de contraste baritado evacuado através da análise da variação da área retal pela secção sagital antes e após a evacuação, utilizando a cinedefecografia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Constipation , Defecography , Rectum , Barium , Contrast Media , Defecation
10.
Afr. pop.stud ; 33(1): 30850-5780, 2019.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258286

ABSTRACT

Background: Practice of open defection has growing health concerns especially on rural dwellers and is among leading causes of diarrhea, typhoid fever, cholera, stunting and responsible for the death of children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study seeks to examine knowledge of public health challenges of open defecation among rural residents in south-east Nigeria and implications for social work. Data source and methods: Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used for data collected from 52 respondents in Nsukka and Udenu LGAs of Enugu State. Thematic analysis was adopted and phrases with contextual connotations were pulled as illustrative quotes. Results: Lack of toilet facilities makes community members engage in the practice despite knowledge of its public health implications. Conclusions: The study recommends strengthening of government's efforts to eradicate the practice; incorporating social workers as facilitators in public health regulations and advocacy in sensitising households to provide their own toilets


Subject(s)
Defecation , Knowledge , Nigeria , Public Health , Rural Areas , Social Work
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although symptoms related to the pelvic floor, such as pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), are common in patients with chronic constipation (CC), its impact is not clear. Our aims were to investigate the following (1) compare pelvic floor symptom related dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and functional constipation (FC), and (2) symptom correlation with findings on anorectal manometry (ARM) and balloon expulsion test. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with CC undergoing ARM. IBS-C and FC were diagnosed by Rome III criteria. Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) was used to measure pelvic floor symptom distress. Constipation Severity Scale was used to assess constipation severity. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients underwent ARM (64 FC, 43 IBS-C). The overall PFDI-20 score in IBS-C was higher compared with FC patients (118.0 vs 79.2, P = 0.001). In those with IBS-C, POP, LUTS, and colorectal symptoms subscales were all higher compared with FC patients (P < 0.05 for each). On multivariable regression, IBS-C (P = 0.001) and higher constipation severity (P = 0.001) were both independently associated with higher PFDI scores. ARM parameters and abnormal balloon expulsion test did not correlate with PFDI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with FC patients, those with IBS-C have significantly higher distress from pelvic floor specific symptoms including POP and LUTS. Higher abdominal pain among IBS-C patients did not entirely explain these findings. A diagnosis of IBS-C and higher constipation severity correlated with PFDI-20 scores, but dyssynergia did not.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Arm , Ataxia , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Manometry , Pelvic Floor , Pelvic Organ Prolapse , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotics are expected to confer benefits on patients with constipation, but how probiotics act on constipated patients with variable stool consistencies remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on constipation-related symptoms, especially stool consistency, of constipated patients. METHODS: Constipated patients meeting the Rome III criteria were divided into 3 groups according to the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS): hard (hard stool [HS], BSFS < 3), normal (normal stool [NS], ≤ 3 BSFS ≤ 4), and soft (soft stool [SS], 4 < BSFS ≤ 5) stools. Subjects in each group consumed a probiotic beverage containing 1010 colony-forming units of LcS daily for 28 days. RESULTS: LcS intervention significantly alleviated constipation-related symptoms and increased defecation frequency in all subjects. Four weeks of LcS supplementation softened the hard stools in HS, hardened the soft stools in SS, and did not alter the ideal stool consistency in NS. The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were highest in SS, followed by NS and HS. LcS intervention increased the stool SCFA levels in HS but reduced or did not alter the levels in NS and SS. LcS intervention increased the Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia abundances in HS and decreased the Pseudobutyrivibrio abundance in SS. CONCLUSIONS: LcS supplementation improved the constipation-related symptoms in constipated subjects. Differences in baseline stool consistency could result in different anti-constipation effects of LcS intervention. LcS balanced the stool consistency—softened the HS and hardened the SS. These effects could be associated with modulation of the gut microbiota and SCFA production.


Subject(s)
Beverages , China , Constipation , Defecation , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus , Probiotics , Stem Cells
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 169-175, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The quality of bowel preparation is important for optimal colonoscopy. It is influenced by medical and personal factors. We aimed to evaluate the effect of bowel habit on the quality of bowel preparation and to identify predictors of inadequate bowel preparation among bowel habit factors. METHODS: From June 2017 to September 2017, 90 volunteers were enrolled in this study. Each participant answered a questionnaire consisting of multiple questions about personal bowel habits, including stool form, frequency of bowel movements per week, duration, and degree of straining for bowel movement. Then, all volunteers underwent colonoscopic exam. Eleven endoscopists performed colonoscopies and used the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) as the index for bowel preparation. Two expert endoscopists simultaneously reviewed all colonoscopic images to confirm the final BBPS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to verify the correlation between bowel preparation adequacy and bowel habit. RESULTS: Among the 90 participants, 20 (22.2%) had inadequate bowel preparation (total BBPS ≤6 or any segmental BBPS ≤1). In univariate analysis, infrequent bowel movement (0–2/week) (odds ratio [OR], 12.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 129, p=0.03) and moderate straining (more than 1/4 of defecations) (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.44 to 13.39; p=0.01) were significantly associated with inadequate bowel preparation. However, only moderate straining was significantly associated with inadequate bowel preparation in multivariate analysis (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 12.65; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Straining is a significant predictor for inadequate bowel preparation. For patients with straining during bowel movements, an intensified preparation regimen should be considered.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Constipation , Defecation , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Volunteers
14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 221-224, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762313

ABSTRACT

Anal stenosis is a late hemorrhoidectomy complication. Sphincterotomy and various anoplasty techniques are used for treatment severe anal stenosis, such as the C flap, House flap, U flap, and rotational S flap, but no procedure is ideal for every patient. We review 2 cases of severe circular anal stenosis. Their complaints included narrow caliber of the stool and feeling unsatisfied defecation. Excision of scar tissue using the circular technique was followed by reconstruction using the bilateral rotational S flap procedure. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had complaints about neither defecation nor pain, and no longer needed laxative agents. In conclusion, the bilateral rotational S flap technique should be considered as a viable treatment because it can also prevent the occurrence of restenosis, especially given the consideration of adequate blood supply.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix , Constipation , Constriction, Pathologic , Defecation , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhoidectomy , Humans
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the awareness and application of ROME IV criteria for functional constipation (FC) in real-world practices and assessed differences between pediatric gastroenterologists (PGs) and general pediatricians. METHODS: A total of 239 (47.8%) out of 500 nationwide pediatricians answered a questionnaire for diagnosis and management of pediatric FC; 60 were PGs (75% of total PGs in Korea). RESULTS: A total of 16.6% of pediatricians were aware of the exact ROME IV criteria. Perianal examination and digital rectal examination were practiced less, with a higher tendency among PGs (P 6 months (63.8%) than 1-year were lactulose (59.1%), followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 (17.7%), and probiotics (11.8%). Prescription priority significantly differed between PGs and general pediatricians; lactulose or PEG 4000 were most commonly prescribed by PGs (89.7%), and lactulose or probiotics (75.7%) were prescribed by general pediatricians (P < 0.001). For patients aged < 1-year, lactulose (41.6%) and changing formula (31.7%) were commonly prescribed. Most participants recommended diet modification, and PGs more frequently used defecation diary (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between actual practice and Rome IV criteria and between PGs and general pediatricians were observed. This survey may help construct practice guidelines and educational programs for pediatric FC.


Subject(s)
Child , Colonic Diseases, Functional , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Enema , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Lactulose , Polyethylene Glycols , Prescriptions , Probiotics
16.
Intestinal Research ; : 419-426, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, a number of studies have reported that the gut microbiota could contribute to human conditions, including obesity, inflammation, cancer development, and behavior. We hypothesized that the composition and distribution of gut microbiota are different according to stool frequency, and attempted to identify the association between gut microbiota and stool frequency. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from healthy individuals divided into 3 groups according to stool frequency: group 1, a small number of defecation (≤2 times/wk); group 2, normal defecation (1 time/day or 1 time/2 day); and group 3, a large number of defecation (≥2–3 times/day). We evaluated the composition and distribution of the gut microbiota in each group via 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling of the fecal samples. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 60 individuals (31 men and 29 women, aged 34.1±5.88 years), and each group comprised 20 individuals. The microbial richness of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 and tended to decrease with increasing number of defecation (P<0.05). The biological community composition was fairly different according to the number of defecation, and Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio was higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Moreover, we found specific strains at the family and genus levels in groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and the abundance of Bifidobacterium were different according to the stool frequency, and specific bacteria were identified in the subjects with large and small numbers of defecation, respectively. These findings suggest that stool frequency might be associated with the richness and community composition of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , Biota , Defecation , Feces , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Obesity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Magnesium oxide (MgO) has been frequently used as a treatment for chronic constipation (CC) since the 1980s in Japan. The aim of this study is to evaluate its therapeutic effects of MgO in Japanese CC patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-four female patients with mild to moderate constipation were randomly assigned to either placebo (n = 17) or MgO group (n = 17) 0.5 g × 3/day for 28 days. Primary endpoint was overall improvement over the 4-week study period. Secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in spontaneous bowel movement (SBM), response rates of complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM), stool form, colonic transit time (CTT), abdominal symptom, and quality of life. RESULTS: One patient failed to complete the medication regimen and was omitted from analysis: data from 16 placebo and 17 MgO patients were analyzed. The primary endpoint was met by 25.0% of placebo vs 70.6% of MgO group (P = 0.015). MgO significantly improved SBM changes compared to placebo (P = 0.002). However, MgO did not significantly improved response rates of CSBM compared to placebo (P = 0.76). In addition, MgO significantly improved Bristol stool form scale changes (P < 0.001) and significantly improved CTT compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). MgO significantly improved the Japanese version of the patient assessment of constipation quality of life (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our placebo-controlled study demonstrated that MgO was effective treatment for improving defecation status and shortened CTT in Japanese CC patients with mild to moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Colon , Constipation , Defecation , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Magnesium Oxide , Magnesium , Quality of Life , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765940

ABSTRACT

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) has been considered a first-line diagnostic tool for functional defecation disorder. However, clinical studies on HRAM used in constipation patients are very limited and few studies have reported the characteristics of anorectal pressure in Chinese patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of motility data in a cohort of Chinese patients with functional constipation. METHODS: A total of 82 consecutive patients with functional constipation who underwent a standardized HRAM were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The functional defecation disorder was classified into Rao's types. RESULTS: The mean age of 82 patients was 51 years (range, 16–83 years). Indications for anorectal manometry were functional constipation for all patients. The mean resting pressure was 69.2 ± 21.2 mmHg (range, 24.5–126.9 mmHg). The mean maximum squeezing pressure was 198.4 ± 75.6 mmHg (range, 54.2–476.9 mmHg). The mean length of the anal high pressure zone was 3.4 ± 1.0 cm (range, 0.6–4.9 cm). Sixty (73.2%) patients were diagnosed as functional defecation disorder. In attempted defecation, type I was most common (n = 24), followed by type II (n = 12), type III (n = 11), and type IV (n = 13) that were present on HRAM according to Rao's classification. In all 60 patients with functional defecation disorder, 37 were women and 23 were men. Men were significantly more likely than women to have functional defecation disorder (92.0% vs 64.9%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: HRAM could be used as a test for the diagnosis of functional defecation disorder and functional defecation disorder is common in Chinese patients with functional constipation.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Classification , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Manometry , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Discordant data are found in the literature for the relationships between total and segmental colonic transit time (CTT) and demographic parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of age, and body mass index (BMI) on total and segmental CTT in constipated subjects. METHODS: We included 354 constipated patients on this cross-sectional study. According to the Rome III criteria, patients were classified as having irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, or functional constipation. All patients filled the Bristol stool form, and reported the severity of constipation, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale. Total and segmental CTT were measured using radiopaque markers. RESULTS: Females were 84% of patients, with a mean age of 46.0 ± 15.9 years. The association between total and segmental CTT with age and BMI was significant after adjustment for gender, clinical phenotype, the presence of defecation disorders, and abdominal pain or bloating intensity despite the severity of symptoms, and the frequency of defecation disorders were higher in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation than in functional constipation patients. By comparison with subjects less than 30 years, rectosigmoid transit time (RSTT) was lower in patients between 30 and 60 years. Age was negatively associated with RSTT (P = 0.004). By comparison with patients with normal BMI, RSTT and total CTT were lower in patients of the overweight group. BMI was negatively associated with RSTT (P < 0.001). The severity of constipation was correlated with total (P < 0.001), right (P = 0.002), and left CTT (P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Age and BMI are both associated with RSTT in constipated patients.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Body Mass Index , Colon , Constipation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Defecation , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Overweight , Phenotype
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL