Objectives: Vaginal balloon inflation simulates the compressive forces on the pelvic floor during the second phase of natural delivery. The foremost use of this animal model of vaginal distention (VD) is to study the mechanisms underlying urinary incontinence. As damage to the pelvic floor during natural birth is a common cause of fecal incontinence, the present paper aimed to investigate the effect of VD on defecation behavior in adult rats. Methods: Vaginal distention was performed in 8 rats for 2 hours, and in 3 rats for 4 hours, and sham inflation was performed in 4 rats. With the use of a latrine box in the rat home-cage and 24/7 video tracking, the defecation behavior was examined. The time spent in and outside the latrine was monitored for two weeks preoperatively and three weeks postoperatively, and a defecation behavior index (DBI; range: 0 [continent] to 1 [incontinent]) was defined. Pelvic floor tissue was collected postmortem and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Vaginal balloon inflation for 2 hours resulted in fecal incontinence in 29% of the animals (responders) whereas the DBI scores of non-responders (71%) and control animals did not change in the postoperative phase compared with the baseline score. A 4-hour balloon inflation resulted in fecal incontinence in 1 animal and caused a humane endpoint in 2 animals with markedly more tissue damage in the 4-hour responder compared with the 2-hour responders. Conclusions: Vaginal balloon inflation, with an optimum duration between 2 and 4 hours, can be used as a model to study changes in defecation behavior in rats induced by pelvic floor damage. (AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Pelvic Floor/injuries , Defecation , Sprains and Strains , Vagina/injuries , Fecal Incontinence
Background: Functional evacuation disorder (FED) is the second most common cause of functional constipation (FC) after constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, the data on FED is relatively scanty in our region. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the demographics of FED and to find out the predictors of FED in patients with chronic constipation. Methods: A total of 134 patients with chronic constipation diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria who were referred for high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. All FC patients who underwent HRAM were asked to fill a questionnaire and underwent anorectal manometry and were submitted to the balloon expulsion test (BET). Results: The mean age of patients was 43.09 ± 9.32 years old, with a total of 76 (54%) males. The most common symptom was straining during defecation (87%) followed by incomplete evacuation (86%). The prevalence of FED, diagnosed by HRAM and by the BET was 39%. Patients with FED had a significantly higher percentage of straining and sensation of anorectal blockade compared with those without FED (96 versus 82%; p < 0.01; 81 versus 44%; p < 0.001, respectively). On the multivariate regression analysis, straining > 30 minutes (odds ratio [OR] = 3.63; p = 0.03), maximum squeeze pressure (OR = 1.05; p < 0.001), and balloon volume at maximal sensation (OR = 1.06; p < 0.001) were found to be significant independent predictors of FED. Conclusion: Prolonged straining and sensation of anorectal blockade were significant indicators of FED in patients with chronic constipation. (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Constipation/diagnosis , Rectal Diseases , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation/physiology , Manometry
Advances in surgical techniques and treatment concept have allowed more patients with low rectal cancer to preserve sphincter without sacrificing survival benefit. However, postoperative dysfunctions such as fecal incontinence, frequency, urgency, and clustering often occur in patients with low rectal cancer. The main surgical procedures for low rectal cancer include low anterior rectum resection (LAR), intersphincteric resection (ISR), coloanal anastomosis (Parks) and so on. The incidence of major LARS after LAR is up to 84.6%. The postoperative function of ISR is even worse than LAR. Moreover, the greater the extent of resection ISR surgery, the worse the postoperative function. There are few studies on the function of Parks procedure. Current evidence suggests that the short-term function of Parks procedure is inferior to LAR, but function can gradually recovered over time. Colorectal surgeons have attempted to improve postoperative defecation by modifying bowel reconstructions. Current evidence suggests that J pouch or end-to-side anastomosis during LAR does not reduce the incidence of defecation disorders. Pouch reconstruction during ISR cannot reduce the incidence of severe LARS either. In general, the protection of postoperative defecation function in patients with low rectal cancer still has a long way to go.
Subject(s)Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the constipation or obstructed defecation symptoms identified by using imaging, as dynamic three-dimensional ultrasound and correlate vaginal delivery, parity, and age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions in female patients with obstructed defection symptoms and to determine whether specific pelvic floor dysfunctions identified by dynamic three-dimensional ultrasonography (echodefecography) are correlated with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. The secondary goal is to report the prevalence of coexisting pelvic floor dysfunctions. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study including patients with obstructed defecation symptoms underwent echodefecographyto evaluate pelvic floor dysfunctions in the posterior compartment and correlate with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. RESULTS: Of 889 female: 552 (62%) had had vaginal delivery and 337 (38%) were nulliparous. The prevalence of dysfunctions identified by echodefecography (rectocele, intussusception, enterocele/sigmoidocele, and dyssynergia) was similar between the two groups and was not associated with number of deliveriesor age. However, the prevalence of sphincter defects showed higher rates in women with vaginal delivery and increased with the parity. Up to 33% of patients had coexisting dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dysfunctions such as rectocele, intussusception, dyssynergia, and enterocele/sigmoidocele assessed by echodefecography in patients with obstructed defecation symptoms are found similar regardless of vaginal delivery, number of deliveries or stratified-age. In vaginal delivery, number of deliveries does impact on detection of sphincter defects and liability to fecal incontinence.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: Poucos estudos investigaram pacientes portadoras de defecação obstruída identificados por exames de imagens, como ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica, correlacionando parto vaginal, paridade e idade. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico em pacientes do sexo feminino com sintomas de defecação obstruída e determinar se disfunções específicas do assoalho pélvico identificadas por ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica (ecodefecografia) estão correlacionadas com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. O objetivo secundário é relatar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico coexistentes. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes com sintomas de obstrução da defecação submetidas à ecodefecografia para avaliar disfunções do assoalho pélvico no compartimento posterior e correlacionar com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. RESULTADOS: De 889 mulheres: 552 (62%) tiveram parto vaginal e 337 (38%) eram nulíparas. A prevalência de disfunções identificadas pela ecodefecografia (retocele, intussuscepção, enterocele/sigmoidocele e dissinergia) foi semelhante entre os dois grupos e não foi associada ao número de partos ou à idade. No entanto, a prevalência de defeitos esfincterianos apresentou taxas mais elevadas em mulheres com parto vaginal e aumentou com a paridade. Até 33% dos pacientes apresentavam disfunções coexistentes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de disfunções como retocele, intussuscepção, dissinergia e enterocele/sigmoidocele avaliada pela ecodefecografia em pacientes com sintomas de defecação obstruída são semelhantes independentemente do parto normal, número de partos ou idade estratificada. No parto vaginal, o número de partos tem impacto na detecção de defeitos esfincterianos e na possibilidade de incontinência fecal.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pelvic Floor/diagnostic imaging , Defecation , Parity , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Constipation , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/epidemiology , Delivery, Obstetric
Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment regarding the protection of defecation function in Chinese surgeons performing sphincter-preserving resections (SPR) for rectal cancer in order to discover the problems existing in the function protection during SPR and provide support and reference for the standardized clinical management of rectal cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed. Colorectal surgeons who obtained the medical qualifications and volunteered to participate in this study were included, and respondents with incomplete information were excluded. From October 18 to 22, 2020, randomized sampling was conducted among Chinese colorectal surgeons from Chinese Association of Colorectal Surgeons, Chinese Colorectal Cancer Committee, Chinese Sexology Association Anal functional Surgery Committee and National Health Commission Capacity Building and Continuing Education Committee. The questionnaire included basic information of the respondents, assessment of defecation function before SPR, intraoperative details, postoperative follow-up, evaluation and intervention of patients with low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). Observation indicator: results of the questionnaire survey. Result: A total of 231 questionnaires were collected, and 230 were effective, with an effective rate of 99.6%. Among these participants, 217 (94.3%) were males; 107 (46.5%) had medical doctor degrees; 129 (56.1%) were national commission members in colorectal surgery; 137 (59.6%) performed more than 50 SPR operations per year; 211 (91.7%) assessed defection function by auxiliary examinations before SPR. Rigid sigmoidoscopy (n=116, 55.0%) and anorectal manometer (n=81, 38.4%) were the most commonly used method. Among the 230 respondents, 64.8% (n=149) of surgeons used 2D laparoscopy for SPR surgery most commonly, and 51.3% (n=118) of surgeons performed direct colorectal anastomosis for reconstruction, and 98.3% (n=226) used staplers during anastomosis. All the surgeons indicated that they would follow up patients after SPR, and outpatient clinic was the most common method (84.4%, 184/230). When LARS occurred, 50.0% (115/230) of surgeons chose defecation function scale and 78.7% (181/230) actively provided guidance and intervention for patients. Conclusions: Chinese colorectal surgeons still have shortcomings in the protection of defecation function during SPR for rectal cancer. They do not make enough preoperative functional evaluation and postoperative functional recovery estimate for patients. The knowledge and use of defecation function scales and interventions on LARS are expected to be standardized.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Anal Canal/surgery , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Defecation , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgeons , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is a type 2 chloride channel activator that has been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment for chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing efficacy of lubiprostone for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) and opioid-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Lubiprostone RCTs reporting outcomes of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and abdominal pain or discomfort were deemed eligible. Meta-analysis was performed calculating risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model. RESULTS: Searches yielded 109 records representing 93 non-duplicate publications, and 11 RCTs (978 CIC, 1,366 IBS-C, 1,300 OIC, total = 3,644) met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed that for CIC patients, lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM outcomes. Meta-analysis for CIC was feasible for full responder and SBM within 24h rates, indicating superiority of lubiprostone over placebo. For IBS-C, lubiprostone was significantly superior for all SBM outcomes in follow-ups ranging from 1 week-3 months. In terms of abdominal pain, lubiprostone provided significantly better symptoms relief, particularly after 1 month of treatment. For OIC, lubiprostone was more effective than placebo for both SBM and discomfort measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM frequency for CIC, IBS-C and OIC. In terms of abdominal symptoms, the most pronounced effect was seen for abdominal pain in IBS-C patients.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: Lubiprostona é um ativador de canal de cloreto tipo 2 que tem se demonstrado eficaz e seguro no tratamento da constipação crônica. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) avaliando a eficácia da lubiprostona para pacientes com constipação idiopática crônica (CIC), síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante (IBS-C) e constipação induzida por opioide (OIC). MÉTODOS: Buscas foram conduzidas no PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. ECRs de lubiprostona relatando desfechos de movimentos intestinais espontâneos (SBM) e dor ou desconforto abdominal foram considerados elegíveis. Metanálise foi realizada calculando razão de riscos e intervalos de confiança de 95%, utilizando o método de Mantel-Haenszel e modelo de efeitos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 109 registros representando 93 publicações não-duplicadas e 11 ECRs (978 pacientes de CIC, 1366 de IBS-C e 1300 OIC, total = 3644) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Síntese qualitativa mostrou que, para pacientes com CIC, a lubiprostona foi superior ao placebo em termos de desfechos SBM. Metanálise para CIC foi possível para os desfechos de responder completo e taxa de SBM em 24 horas, indicando superioridade da lubiprostona sobre o placebo. Para IBS-C, lubiprostona foi significativamente superior para todos os desfechos de SBM em tempos de seguimento variando de 1 semana a 3 meses. Em termos de dor abdominal, lubiprostona proporciono alívio dos sintomas significativamente melhor, particularmente após 1 mês de tratamento. Para OIC, lubiprostona foi mais efetiva do que placebo tanto para medidas de SBM quando de desconforto abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados demonstraram que lubiprostona é superior ao placebo em termos de frequência de SBM para CIC, IBS-C e OIC. Em termos de sintomas abdominais, o efeito mais pronunciado foi visto para dor abdominal em pacientes com IBS-C.
Subject(s)Humans , Constipation/drug therapy , Lubiprostone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Defecation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid
ABSTRACT The internal hemorrhoid, rectal tumor, hypertrophic anal papilla, and secret fecal mass are regarded as the blocks embedded in the rectum. The above blocks hinder defecation, which will inevitably lead to excessive opening of the anal caliber. Once the limit is exceeded, the skin of the anal canal will tear and form anal fissure. Based on the study of historical evolution, hypothesis reasoning, clinical verification and comparison with other theories, a new concept of anal fissure etiology-impaction theory is proposed. The so-called impaction theory refers to the impaction (various primary lesions) in anorectum, which hinders defecation. When defecating, the anal canal expands beyond the limit, and the whole layer of anal canal skin splits, that is to say, anal fissure is formed.
RESUMO A hemorroida interna, o tumor retal, a papila anal hipertrófica e a massa fecal secreta são considerados os blocos incrustados no reto. Os bloqueios acima impedem a defecação, o que inevitavelmente levará a uma abertura excessiva do calibre anal. Uma vez que o limite é excedido, a pele do canal anal rasga e forma uma fissura anal. Com base no estudo da evolução histórica, raciocínio de hipóteses, verificação clínica e comparação com outras teorias, um novo conceito de etiologia da fissura anal - a teoria da impactação - é proposto. A chamada teoria da impactação refere-se à impactação (várias lesões primárias) no anorreto, o que dificulta a defecação. Na defecação, o canal anal se expande além do limite e toda a camada da pele do canal anal rasga, ou seja, forma-se a fissura anal.
Subject(s)Humans , Defecation/physiology , Fissure in Ano/etiology , Fissure in Ano/pathology , Hemorrhoids/complications
Resumen Introducción: En pacientes constipados crónicos por obstrucción de salida, la contracción paradojal del puborrectal (CPP) o "anismo" es frecuente. El tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal presenta resultados exitosos entre el 40-90%. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado del tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal en pacientes con CPP a corto plazo. Materiales y Método: Serie de casos. Datos obtenidos prospectivamente de la Unidad de Piso Pelviano. Se incluyó pacientes entre 2008 y 2015 que cumplían criterios de constipación crónica secundaria a CPP, confirmado por manometría anorrectal y/o defeco-resonancia. Se analizaron datos demográficos, frecuencia de evacuaciones, uso de laxantes, enemas, pujo, Score de Altomare y Score de constipación de Wexner pre y post-tratamiento. Resultados: 43 pacientes, de los cuales 39 son mujeres. Edad media de 40 años (rango: 14-84). Duración de síntomas fue ≥ 5 años en el 72,5%. Mediana de sesiones de Biofeedback de 8 (6-10). El 62,8% presenta ≤ 2 evacuaciones semanales y disminuye a un 29,3% post-tratamiento (p < 0,001). El 76,2% requiere laxantes orales y el 42,9% enemas, disminuyendo a 35,1% (p < 0,001) y 5,4% (p < 0,001) respectivamente post-tratamiento. Sensación de evacuación incompleta/fragmentada en todos los intentos mejoró de 67,4% a 14,6% (p < 0,001) y el pujo excesivo en más de la mitad de intentos mejoró de 76,1% a 10,8% (p < 0,001). Score de Wexner para constipación y Altomare mejoró de 18 a 7 (p < 0,001) y de 16 a 5 (p < 0,001) respectivamente. Conclusión: El biofeedback y la rehabilitación pelviperineal son efectivas en el tratamiento de la CPP.
Introduction: In patients with chronic constipation by obstructive defecation syndrome Paradoxical Puborectalis Contraction or "anismus" is important. Successful results for Biofeedback treatment and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation it described between 40-90%. Aim: To evaluate the outcome of biofeedback and pelviperineal rehabilitation in patients with CPP in the short-term. Materials and Method: Case series. Data was obtained from the prospective database of Pelvic Floor Unit of Universidad Católica de Chile. Patients with anismus were included between 2008 and 2015. Diagnostic criteria were chronic constipation patients by anismus with anorectal manometry and/or defecoresonancy that confirms this disorder and discards other causes of obstruted defecation síndrome. Demographic variables, frequency of bowel movements, use of laxatives, enemas, pushing, Altomare Score and Wexner constipation Score were analyzed pre and post-treatment. Results: Series of 43 patients, 39 of whom where women. Median age: 40 years (range: 14-84). Duration of symptoms ≥ 5 years in 72.5%. Median of Biofeedback sessions: 8 (range 6-10). Pre-treatment, 62.8% had ≤ 2 evacuations weekly and 29.3% post-treatment (p < 0.001). Oral laxatives were required in 76.2% and 42.9% enemas, decreasing to 35.1% (p < 0.001) and 5.4% (p < 0.001) post-treatment respectively. Feeling of incomplete/evacuation fragmented all the time improved from 67.4% to 14.6% (p < 0.001) and excessive pushing in more than half of time improved from 76.1% to 10.8% (p < 0.001). Wexner Score for and Altomare Score improved from 18 to 7 (p < 0.001) and 16 to 5 (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Adult with chronic constipation by anismus can be treated effectively with Biofeedback and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation.
Subject(s)Humans , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Constipation/therapy , Defecation , Prospective Studies , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Constipation/physiopathology
Abstract Introduction: Defecation disorders, whether anal incontinence or chronic intestinal constipation, are frequent pelvic floor alterations in the general population and are more common in those with risk factors,i.e., in the elderly, women with an obstetric background, and those with comorbidities, history of pelvic radiotherapy, diabetics, the bedridden, or those with history of orifice surgery, among others. Objective: To analyze the incidence of defecation disorders in geriatric patients treated at the Medical Specialties Outpatient Service (MSOS) of Hospital Santa Marcelina. Methods: Prospective, randomized study that interviewed the same patients in two moments: 1) subjective anamnesis through spontaneous history and 2) objective anamnesis with specific questionnaires to assess anal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results: Between March 2016 and June 2017, 149 patients were analyzed, of whom 114 (76.5%) were female, with a similar mean age between genders; 51.67% had symptoms of anal incontinence and/or chronic constipation. Only 35.5% of patients with complaints of fecal leakage or flatus spontaneously reported them, while 87.1% of constipated patients did so. In the present study, no significant correlation was observed between the mode of delivery (p = 0.106), pregnancy (p = 0.099), and the number of deliveries (p = 0.126) with anal incontinence. In turn, there was no higher incidence of chronic intestinal constipation in females (p = 0.099) and most patients with this complaint had Bristol type 1 or 2 stools. Conclusion: The incidence of defecation disorders in the geriatric population is high and, most notably, anal incontinence is not spontaneously reported by most patients.
Resumo Introdução: Os distúrbios da evacuação, seja a incontinência anal ou a constipação intestinal crônica, representam alterações do assoalho pélvico bastante frequente na população em geral e mais comumente naqueles com fatores de risco, ou seja, em idosos, mulheres com passado obstétrico, comorbidades, antecedente de radioterapia pélvica, diabéticos, acamados, história de cirurgias orificiais, dentre outros. Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de distúrbios defecatórios em pacientes geriátricos atendidos no Ambulatório de Especialidades Médicas (AME) do Hospital Santa Marcelina. Metodologia: Estudo prospectivo e aleatório com a entrevista do mesmo paciente em dois momentos: 1) Anamnese subjetiva através da história espontânea e 2) Anamnese objetiva com questionários específicos para avaliação de incontinência anal e constipação intestinal crônica. Resultados: Foram analisados 149 pacientes entre Março de 2016 e Junho de 2017, sendo 114 (76,5%) do sexo feminino com média de idade semelhante entre os sexos; 51,67% apresentavam sintomas de incontinência anal e/ou constipação intestinal crônica. Apenas 35,5% dos pacientes com queixas de escape de fezes ou flatos relataram de forma espontânea e 87,1% dos pacientes constipados o fizeram. No presente estudo não se verificou correlação significativa entre via de parto p = 0,106, gestação p = 0,099 e número de partos p = 0,126 com incontinência anal. Por outro lado, não se verificou maior incidência de constipação intestinal crônica no sexo feminino p = 0,099 e a maioria dos pacientes com essa queixa apresentavam fezes ressecadas tipo Bristol 1 ou 2. Conclusão: Incidência de distúrbios da defecação na população geriátrica é elevada e, notadamente a IA não é referida de forma espontânea pela maioria dos pacientes.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Pelvic Floor
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal constipation is characterized by problems related to evacuation, and presents high prevalence in the female gender. This condition has demonstrated negative effects on the development of daily activities, causing damage to the physical and emotional well-being of individuals who are diagnosed with it. Studies that investigate what health impairments intestinal constipation can cause are scarce in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the prevalence and factors associated with intestinal constipation in premenopausal women living in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. This was carried out in the northeast of Brazil. Participated 195 women, adult and middle age. Social conditions, habits and lifestyle, clinical aspects and obstetric history were investigated. Constipation was diagnosed using the Rome III Criteria. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson Regression with robust variance to analyze the relationship between intestinal constipation and independent variables. A statistical significance level of P<0.05 was considered. RESULTS: Most of the women were between 25 and 39 years old (49.2%) and had an income of up to one minimum wage (79.5%). The intestinal constipation prevalence was 35.4%. In the final multivariate regression model, hemorrhoid clinical aspects (P=0.01), pain (P=0.001) and a burning sensation (P=0.01) on bowel movement, and sexual dysfunction (P=0.03) remained associated with constipation. CONCLUSION: The present study found a significant prevalence of constipation among premenopausal women and clinical factors such as hemorrhoids, pain and a burning sensation, and sexual dysfunction were associated with intestinal constipation.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: A constipação intestinal é caracterizada por problemas relacionados à evacuação, e apresenta alta prevalência no gênero feminino. Essa condição tem demonstrado efeitos negativos no desenvolvimento das atividades diárias, causando prejuízos no bem-estar físico e emocional dos indivíduos que são diagnosticados com ela. Estudos que investiguem quais prejuízos à saúde a constipação intestinal pode ocasionar são escassos na literatura. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à constipação intestinal em mulheres na pré-menopausa residentes no nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no Nordeste do Brasil. Participaram 195 mulheres adultas e de meia idade. Condições sociais, hábitos e estilo de vida, aspectos clínicos e história obstétrica foram investigados. A constipação foi diagnosticada através dos Critérios de Roma III. A análise multivariada foi conduzida através da Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta, para analisar a relação entre constipação intestinal e variáveis independentes. Considerou-se o nível de significância estatística de P≤0,05. RESULTADOS: A maioria das mulheres estava na faixa etária de 25 a 39 anos (49,2%) e possuía renda de até um salário mínimo (79,5%). A prevalência da constipação intestinal foi de 35,4%. No modelo final da regressão multivariada, os aspectos clínicos hemorroidas (P<0,01), dor (P<0,001) e ardor (P<0,01) ao evacuar e disfunção sexual (P<0,03) permaneceram associados à constipação. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo encontrou uma prevalência significativa de constipação entre mulheres na pré-menopausa e fatores clínicos como hemorroidas, dor e ardor na evacuação, e disfunção sexual se associaram a constipação intestinal.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Postmenopause , Constipation/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Defecation , Middle Aged
The significant increase in the incidence of benign anal diseases is related to the fast-paced life style, the change of dietary structure, the increase of work pressure and social psychological factors. Surgery is one of the most important treatments for benign anal diseases, while perioperative defecation management is closely related to the efficacy of surgery. In current clinical practice, there is no consensus on the management of perioperative defecation for benign anal diseases. Hence a discussion was held by the Professional Committee of Colorectal Diseases of Chinese Society of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, concerning the causes of perioperative defecation difficulties in perioperative anal benign diseases, the importance and specific strategy of defecation management. A consensus was consequently formed, aiming to provide a guideline for the clinical practice.
Subject(s)Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Anus Diseases/surgery , China , Consensus , Defecation , Perioperative Care , Perioperative Period
ABSTRACT Purpose: To validate a new defecographic parameter to assess rectal empyting correlating the percentage of weight reduction of barium paste and the variation in the percentage of area reduction of rectum compared before and after defecation during cinedefecography. Method: Thirty-two consecutive female patients with dyschezia who had clinical indication for cinedefecography were selected. Their median age was 58 years old (18-78 years, mean = 55 years). During cinedefecography, we calculated the cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum before and after defecation and, thus, the percentage of area reduction of the rectum. The percentage of weight reduction of barium paste was calculated after weighing the contrast injected into the rectum and the amount of contrast evacuated, in grams, using a scale. Finally, both percentages were compared and checked for a correlation between them. Pearson's correlation (r) and Student's t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: A correlation between evacuated barium paste and cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum at the end of defecation was demonstrated (r = 0.668 and p < 0.0001). Conclusion: It is possible to estimate how much barium paste is evacuated based on the variations in cross-sectional sagittal area of the rectum before and after defecation, in cinedefecography.
RESUMO Objetivo: Validar um novo parâmetro defecográfico para avaliar o esvaziamento retal correlacionando o percentual de redução de peso da pasta baritada e a variação da porcentagem da redução da área do reto antes e depois da evacuação durante o exame de cinedefecografia. Métodos: Foram selecionadas 32 pacientes consecutivas do sexo feminino, portadoras de disquezia, com indicação clínica de investigação por cinedefecografia. A mediana de idade da amostra foi 58 anos (18-78 anos, média de 55 anos). Durante o exame de cinedefecografia, calcularam-se as áreas retais pela secção sagital antes e após a defecação e, assim, o percentual de redução da área retal. O percentual de redução do peso do contraste baritado foi calculado após medidas de peso do contraste injetado no reto e da quantidade de contraste evacuado, em gramas, utilizando uma balança. Por fim, os percentuais foram comparados e verificou-se se havia correlação entre eles. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados correlação de Pearson (r)eT este t de Student. Resultados: Foi observada correlação entre o contraste baritado evacuado e a área retal pela secção sagital ao final da evacuação (r = 0.668; p < 0.0001). Conclusões: É possível estimar o percentual de contraste baritado evacuado através da análise da variação da área retal pela secção sagital antes e após a evacuação, utilizando a cinedefecografia.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Constipation , Defecography , Rectum , Barium , Contrast Media , Defecation
Background: Practice of open defection has growing health concerns especially on rural dwellers and is among leading causes of diarrhea, typhoid fever, cholera, stunting and responsible for the death of children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study seeks to examine knowledge of public health challenges of open defecation among rural residents in south-east Nigeria and implications for social work. Data source and methods: Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used for data collected from 52 respondents in Nsukka and Udenu LGAs of Enugu State. Thematic analysis was adopted and phrases with contextual connotations were pulled as illustrative quotes. Results: Lack of toilet facilities makes community members engage in the practice despite knowledge of its public health implications. Conclusions: The study recommends strengthening of government's efforts to eradicate the practice; incorporating social workers as facilitators in public health regulations and advocacy in sensitising households to provide their own toilets
Subject(s)Defecation , Knowledge , Nigeria , Public Health , Rural Areas , Social Work
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, a number of studies have reported that the gut microbiota could contribute to human conditions, including obesity, inflammation, cancer development, and behavior. We hypothesized that the composition and distribution of gut microbiota are different according to stool frequency, and attempted to identify the association between gut microbiota and stool frequency. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from healthy individuals divided into 3 groups according to stool frequency: group 1, a small number of defecation (≤2 times/wk); group 2, normal defecation (1 time/day or 1 time/2 day); and group 3, a large number of defecation (≥2–3 times/day). We evaluated the composition and distribution of the gut microbiota in each group via 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling of the fecal samples. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 60 individuals (31 men and 29 women, aged 34.1±5.88 years), and each group comprised 20 individuals. The microbial richness of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 and tended to decrease with increasing number of defecation (P<0.05). The biological community composition was fairly different according to the number of defecation, and Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio was higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Moreover, we found specific strains at the family and genus levels in groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and the abundance of Bifidobacterium were different according to the stool frequency, and specific bacteria were identified in the subjects with large and small numbers of defecation, respectively. These findings suggest that stool frequency might be associated with the richness and community composition of the gut microbiota.
Subject(s)Female , Humans , Male , Bacteria , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , Biota , Defecation , Feces , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation , Obesity
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Magnesium oxide (MgO) has been frequently used as a treatment for chronic constipation (CC) since the 1980s in Japan. The aim of this study is to evaluate its therapeutic effects of MgO in Japanese CC patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-four female patients with mild to moderate constipation were randomly assigned to either placebo (n = 17) or MgO group (n = 17) 0.5 g × 3/day for 28 days. Primary endpoint was overall improvement over the 4-week study period. Secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in spontaneous bowel movement (SBM), response rates of complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM), stool form, colonic transit time (CTT), abdominal symptom, and quality of life. RESULTS: One patient failed to complete the medication regimen and was omitted from analysis: data from 16 placebo and 17 MgO patients were analyzed. The primary endpoint was met by 25.0% of placebo vs 70.6% of MgO group (P = 0.015). MgO significantly improved SBM changes compared to placebo (P = 0.002). However, MgO did not significantly improved response rates of CSBM compared to placebo (P = 0.76). In addition, MgO significantly improved Bristol stool form scale changes (P < 0.001) and significantly improved CTT compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). MgO significantly improved the Japanese version of the patient assessment of constipation quality of life (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our placebo-controlled study demonstrated that MgO was effective treatment for improving defecation status and shortened CTT in Japanese CC patients with mild to moderate symptoms.
Subject(s)Female , Humans , Asian People , Colon , Constipation , Defecation , Double-Blind Method , Japan , Magnesium Oxide , Magnesium , Quality of Life , Therapeutic Uses
The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.
Subject(s)Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) has been considered a first-line diagnostic tool for functional defecation disorder. However, clinical studies on HRAM used in constipation patients are very limited and few studies have reported the characteristics of anorectal pressure in Chinese patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of motility data in a cohort of Chinese patients with functional constipation. METHODS: A total of 82 consecutive patients with functional constipation who underwent a standardized HRAM were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The functional defecation disorder was classified into Rao's types. RESULTS: The mean age of 82 patients was 51 years (range, 16–83 years). Indications for anorectal manometry were functional constipation for all patients. The mean resting pressure was 69.2 ± 21.2 mmHg (range, 24.5–126.9 mmHg). The mean maximum squeezing pressure was 198.4 ± 75.6 mmHg (range, 54.2–476.9 mmHg). The mean length of the anal high pressure zone was 3.4 ± 1.0 cm (range, 0.6–4.9 cm). Sixty (73.2%) patients were diagnosed as functional defecation disorder. In attempted defecation, type I was most common (n = 24), followed by type II (n = 12), type III (n = 11), and type IV (n = 13) that were present on HRAM according to Rao's classification. In all 60 patients with functional defecation disorder, 37 were women and 23 were men. Men were significantly more likely than women to have functional defecation disorder (92.0% vs 64.9%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: HRAM could be used as a test for the diagnosis of functional defecation disorder and functional defecation disorder is common in Chinese patients with functional constipation.
Subject(s)Female , Humans , Male , Asian People , Classification , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Manometry , Retrospective Studies
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Discordant data are found in the literature for the relationships between total and segmental colonic transit time (CTT) and demographic parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of age, and body mass index (BMI) on total and segmental CTT in constipated subjects. METHODS: We included 354 constipated patients on this cross-sectional study. According to the Rome III criteria, patients were classified as having irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, or functional constipation. All patients filled the Bristol stool form, and reported the severity of constipation, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale. Total and segmental CTT were measured using radiopaque markers. RESULTS: Females were 84% of patients, with a mean age of 46.0 ± 15.9 years. The association between total and segmental CTT with age and BMI was significant after adjustment for gender, clinical phenotype, the presence of defecation disorders, and abdominal pain or bloating intensity despite the severity of symptoms, and the frequency of defecation disorders were higher in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation than in functional constipation patients. By comparison with subjects less than 30 years, rectosigmoid transit time (RSTT) was lower in patients between 30 and 60 years. Age was negatively associated with RSTT (P = 0.004). By comparison with patients with normal BMI, RSTT and total CTT were lower in patients of the overweight group. BMI was negatively associated with RSTT (P < 0.001). The severity of constipation was correlated with total (P < 0.001), right (P = 0.002), and left CTT (P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Age and BMI are both associated with RSTT in constipated patients.
Subject(s)Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Body Mass Index , Colon , Constipation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Defecation , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Overweight , Phenotype
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Current evidence suggests the presence of motility or functional abnormalities in one area of the gastrointestinal tract increases the likelihood of abnormalities in others. However, the relationship of gastroparesis to chronic constipation (slow transit constipation and dyssynergic defecation) has been incompletely evaluated. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with chronic dyspeptic symptoms and constipation who underwent both a solid gastric emptying scintigraphy and a high-resolution anorectal manometry at our institution since January 2012. When available, X-ray defecography and radiopaque marker colonic transit studies were also reviewed. Based on the gastric emptying results, patients were classified as gastroparesis or dyspepsia with normal gastric emptying (control group). Differences in anorectal and colonic findings were then compared between groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and six patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients with gastroparesis had higher prevalence of slow transit constipation by radiopaque marker study compared to those with normal emptying (64.7% vs 28.1%, P = 0.013). Additionally, patients with gastroparesis had higher rates of rectocele (88.9% vs 60.0%, P = 0.008) and intussusception (44.4% vs 12.0%, P = 0.001) compared to patients with normal emptying. There was no difference in the rate of dyssynergic defecation between those with gastroparesis vs normal emptying (41.1% vs 42.1%, P = 0.880), and no differences in anorectal manometry findings. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with gastroparesis had a higher rate of slow transit constipation, but equal rates of dyssynergic defecation compared to patients with normal gastric emptying. These findings argue for investigation of possible delayed colonic transit in patients with gastroparesis and vice versa.