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1.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2492, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360146

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo identificar quais são os sinais e sintomas de disfagia orofaríngea mais presentes nos idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência. Estratégia de pesquisa revisão integrativa realizada em quatro bases de dados: Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed e Web of Science, com uso de termos na língua inglesa e aplicação de filtros por idioma e idade. Critérios de seleção estudos disponíveis na forma de texto completo em inglês, português ou espanhol, sem restrição de tempo de publicação, relacionados a idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência que referiram disfagia orofaríngea. Foram excluídos estudos relacionados a idosos da comunidade ou que estavam em hospitais, e com outras condições de saúde não relacionadas aos problemas de deglutição. Resultados de 389 estudos, 16 foram incluídos nesta revisão, publicados entre os anos de 1986 e 2020. Houve predomínio de participantes do sexo feminino, com média mínima de idade de 71 anos e máxima de 87 anos. Os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes de disfagia orofaríngea foram presença de tosse e engasgo, além de outros relevantes, como pressão de língua diminuída, voz molhada, perda de peso e deglutição lenta. Conclusão de acordo com os estudos revisados, os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes relacionados à disfagia orofaríngea nos idosos institucionalizados foram presença de tosse e engasgo, antes, durante ou após a deglutição.


Abstract Purpose To identify the most prevalent signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia in elderly adults who live in old folks' home. Research strategy Integrative review carried out in four databases: Embase, Lilacs, MEDLINE/Pubmed, and Web of Science using English terms and filters for language and age. Selection criteria Studies available in the full-text form in English, Portuguese or Spanish, with no publication time restrictions, related to elderly people living in care homes who reported oropharyngeal dysphagia. Studies related to elderly people in the community or in hospitals and with other health issuesthat were not related to swallowing disorders were excluded. Results Of 389 studies, 16 were included in this review, published between 1986 and 2020. There was a predominance of female participants whose minimum mean age was 71 and maximum, 87. The most frequent signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia were the presence of coughing and choking, in addition to other relevant ones, such as diminished tongue pressure, wet voice, weight loss, and slow swallowing. Conclusion According to the reviewed studies, the most frequent signs and symptoms related to oropharyngeal dysphagia in elderly people living in care homes were (the) presence of coughing and choking, before, during or after swallowing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Long-Term Care , Sickness Impact Profile , Homes for the Aged , Mortality
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(8): 1161-1166, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346990

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and its association with body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and functionality among institutionalized older adults. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted. The swallowing function and diagnosis of OD were evaluated with a volume-viscosity swallow test. Activities of daily living were evaluated by the Barthel Index. Body composition was evaluated by BIA, and phase angle (PhA) was determined. RESULTS Eighty institutionalized older adults were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 82±9.5 years, and 65% were females. The OD prevalence was 30%, dependence was 30%, and sarcopenia was 16%. In the multivariate analysis, a low PhA (<3.5°) was independently associated with the presence of OD adjusted by sex and age (OR: 2.60, 95%CI 2.41-2.90, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of OD was found. Significant and independent associations were found between low PhA, dependence, and sarcopenia with the presence of OD among institutionalized older persons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Body Composition , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electric Impedance
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 422-427, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285716

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction There is evidence that trauma caused by snoring in the pharynx could result in dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, but the literature is still scarce to define the factors associated with the presence of dysphagia in these patients. Objectives To analyze the occurrence of dysphagia and its clinical and polysomnographic features in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea, in addition to verifying the impact of dysphagia on the quality of life of these patients. Methods Seventy patients with moderate or severe apnea (apnea and hypopnea index - AHI > 15/hour) were selected. The patients underwent a sleep questionnaire, a quality of life in dysphagia questionnaire and a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Results A total of 70 patients were included in the study, of which 49 were men (70 %), with a mean age of 48.9 years. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was altered in 27.3 % and the most frequent alteration was the premature oral leakage with fluid. Comparing the groups with and without dysphagia, the female gender was the only clinical parameter that showed a trend of statistical significance in the group with dysphagia (p = 0.069). There was no statistical difference regarding the polysomnographic features and in the global quality of life score in dysphagia in the comparison between the groups. Conclusions The presence of dysphagia in patients with moderate to severe apnea is frequent and subclinical, reinforcing the need to investigate this symptom in this group of patients. However, the presence of dysphagia did not result in worsening in patients' quality of life, suggesting that, although frequent, its effect is mild. There was no relevance regarding the association of clinical and polysomnographic parameters with the presence of dysphagia.


Resumo Introdução Existem evidências de que o trauma ocasionado pelo ronco na faringe poderia ocasionar disfagia em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, mas a literatura ainda é escassa para definir quais seriam os fatores associados à presença da disfagia nesses pacientes. Objetivo Avaliar a ocorrência de disfagia e seu perfil clínico e polissonográfico em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono moderada e grave, além de verificar o impacto da disfagia na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Método Foram selecionados 70 pacientes com apneia moderada ou grave (índice de apneia e hipopneia - IAH > 15 hora). Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionário de sono, qualidade de vida em disfagia e videoendoscopia da deglutição. Resultados Foram incluídos no estudo 70 pacientes, 49 do sexo masculino (70%), com média de 48,9 anos. A videoendoscopia da deglutição apresentou alteração em 27,3% dos pacientes. A alteração mais encontrada foi o escape oral precoce com líquido. Quando comparados os grupos com e sem disfagia, o sexo feminino foi o único parâmetro clínico que mostrou tendência à significância no grupo com disfagia (p = 0,069). Não houve diferença estatística quanto aos achados polissonográficos e quanto ao escore global da qualidade de vida em disfagia na comparação entre os grupos. Conclusão A presença de disfagia em pacientes com apneia moderada a grave é frequente e subclínica, reforça a necessidade de investigação desse sintoma nesse grupo de pacientes. Porém, a presença de disfagia não mostrou pioria na qualidade de vida dos pacientes, sugeriu que, apesar de frequente, sua repercussão é leve. Não houve relevância na associação dos parâmetros clínicos, polissonográficos com a presença de disfagia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Snoring , Polysomnography , Middle Aged
4.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200111, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286125

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar o perfil dos profissionais de Fonoaudiologia atuantes nos serviços de saúde do território brasileiro e verificar se o tempo de profissão, formação especializada e o tempo de experiência em disfagia contribuem para a interpretação e aplicação mais adequada do Blue Dye Test (BDT). Método Por meio de mídias sociais e órgãos de classe, profissionais fonoaudiólogos de todo território nacional foram contactados por e-mail, com envio de um link para acessar um questionário online, contendo perguntas sobre o perfil profissional e a aplicação do BDT. As respostas foram categorizadas de forma dicotômica de acordo com as referências científicas mais robustas do BDT e foram comparadas estatisticamente de acordo com o tempo de profissão, formação especializada e o tempo de experiência. Resultados Participaram 145 fonoaudiólogos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (91,7%). A maioria atuante em hospitais, com 11 a 15 anos de profissão (27,6%) e de 1 a 5 anos na área de disfagia (32,4%). Profissionais com formação lato sensu (54,3%) e com mais de uma década de profissão (58,1%) apresentaram maior adequação na interpretação do resultado positivo do BDT. Conclusão O presente estudo reforça o importante papel da formação especializada em disfagia e das práticas de educação continuada em saúde, na determinação da atuação fonoaudiológica clínica de excelência, principalmente com pacientes traqueostomizados pós intubação e com risco de broncoaspiração.


ABSTRACT Purpose To characterize the professional profile of Speech Pathologists working in health services in Brazil and to verify if the time length of professional practice, specialized formation and experience in dysphagia contribute to the more adequate interpretation and application of the Blue Dye Test (BDT). Methods Through social medias and class entities, speech pathologists from all over Brazil were contacted by e-mail, that provided them a link from which they could access the online quiz, containing questions about the professional profile and the application of the BDT. The responses were categorized dichotomously according to the most robust scientific researches on the BDT and were compared statistically according to time length of professional practice, specialized formation and experience in dysphagia. Results 145 speech pathologists participated, 91.7% of them females. Most work in hospitals, have 11 to 15 years of profession (27.6%), and working from 1 to 5 years in the area of dysphagia (32.4%). Professionals with lato sensu training (54.3%) and with more than a decade of profession (58.1%) showed greater adequacy in interpreting the positive result of BDT. Conclusion The present study reinforces the important role of specialized training in dysphagia in addition to continuing health educational practices in determining the excellence of clinical speech therapy, especially with tracheostomized patients after intubation and at risk of bronchoaspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Speech-Language Pathology , Speech , Brazil , Pathologists
5.
CoDAS ; 33(3): e20200153, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286103

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Sintetizar o estado do conhecimento científico sobre a frequência de disfagia orofaríngea em idosos institucionalizados. Estratégia de pesquisa A pergunta de pesquisa foi formulada de acordo com a estratégia PECO e a busca foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS e SciELO, utilizando descritores e termos livres específicos. Critérios de seleção Artigos sem restrição de tempo ou idioma, que relatassem a frequência de disfagia orofaríngea em idosos institucionalizados e o critério utilizado para diagnóstico. Análise dos dados Foram analisadas as características da população, conceito de "disfagia orofaríngea", métodos para identificação do desfecho e a frequência de disfagia orofaríngea. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica dos artigos seguiu os critérios do Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Resultados Foram incluídos quinze artigos. Houve grande variabilidade quanto ao tamanho da amostra, com predomínio de idosos longevos do sexo feminino. O conceito de disfagia, quando mencionado, foi heterogêneo. Os critérios diagnósticos foram diversos e compostos, em sua maioria, por resultados de questionários ou testes clínicos. Nenhum estudo utilizou exames instrumentais. A frequência de disfagia orofaríngea na população estudada oscilou entre 5.4% e 83.7%, sendo mais elevada nos estudos que utilizaram testes clínicos, porém, com intervalos de confiança mais precisos naqueles que usaram questionários e amostras maiores. Conclusão A frequência de disfagia orofaríngea em idosos institucionalizados possui ampla variabilidade. As discrepâncias metodológicas entre os estudos comprometem a confiabilidade das estimativas de frequência e apontam a necessidade de pesquisas com critérios metodológicos mais bem definidos e padronizados.


ABSTRACT Purpose To synthesize the scientific knowledge on the frequency of oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults living in nursing homes. Research strategies The study question followed the PECO strategy and the search was performed in the Pubmed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO databases, using keywords and specific free terms. Selection criteria articles with no time or language restrictions that reported the frequency of oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults living in nursing homes and the diagnostic criteria. Data analysis it was analyzed the population characteristics, the concept of "oropharyngeal dysphagia", the methods for identifying the outcome and the frequency of oropharyngeal dysphagia. The evaluation of the methodological quality of the articles followed the criteria of Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Results Fifteen articles were included. There was great variability in relation to the sample size, with a predominance of longevous old women. The concept of dysphagia, when mentioned, was heterogeneous. Diagnostic criteria were diverse and mostly comprised of questionnaires or clinical trials results. No studies used instrumental tests. The frequency of oropharyngeal dysphagia in the studied population ranged from 5.4% to 83.7%, being higher in studies that used clinical tests, but with greater precision of confidence intervals in studies that used questionnaires and large sample size. Conclusion The frequency of oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults living in nursing homes has wide variability. Methodological discrepancies among studies compromise the reliability of frequency estimates and highlight the need for research with better defined and standardized methodological criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Nursing Homes
6.
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20190219, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249612

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Adaptar e validar conteúdo e aparência do Protocolo de Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial com Escores Expandido (AMIOFE-E) para lactentes de 6 a 24 meses de idade. Método Estudo de validação. Os parâmetros foram baseados em literatura sobre desenvolvimento motor orofacial, experiência dos autores e painel de 10 especialistas. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva, Índice de Validade de Conteúdo e concordância entre especialistas. Resultados O protocolo foi organizado em blocos funcionais após manutenção, exclusão, modificação e acréscimo de itens, adaptando-se à faixa etária. Obteve-se alto nível de concordância em 90% dos itens. Na versão final foram acrescidos: histórico de alimentação e hábitos parafuncionais orofaciais, mobilidade facial, dentição, modo oral de respiração, deglutição de pastoso e detalhamentos específicos para a faixa etária. Acrescentou-se um manual operacional e uma tabela para registro de escores. Conclusão O Protocolo AMIOFE-E Lactentes e respectivo manual operacional foram validados quanto ao conteúdo e aparência, e poderá contribuir no diagnóstico miofuncional orofacial na faixa etária de 6 a 24 meses de idade.


ABSTRACT Purpose Adapt and validate the content and appearance of the Expanded Protocol of Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES-E) for nursing infants aged 6 to 24 months. Methods This is a validation study. The parameters were based on the literature on orofacial motor development, the authors' experience, and on a committee of ten members. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, content validity index, and agreement among experts. Results The protocol was organized into functional blocks after maintenance, exclusion, modification, and addition of items, and was adapted according to the age group. A high level of agreement between experts was obtained for 90% of the items. The final version of the protocol includes new items such as history of feeding, orofacial parafunctional habits, facial mobility, dentition, oral breathing mode, swallowing of pasty food, and details specific for the age group. An operational manual and a table for recording the scores were also included. Conclusions The OMES-E Infants protocol was validated for its content and appearance, and may contribute to orofacial myofunctional diagnosis in the 6 to 24-month age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Facial Muscles , Reproducibility of Results , Deglutition
7.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(4): e1265, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156484

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de esófago es una enfermedad muy frecuente con tasas de supervivencia desalentadoras, debido a su naturaleza extremadamente agresiva. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica, epidemiológica y anatómicamente a los pacientes con cáncer de esófago. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de casos clínicos que acudieron al servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso, en el período comprendido entre junio -noviembre del año 2018. El universo de estudio estuvo conformado por el total de los pacientes de ambos sexos cuya cifra ascendió a 35. Resultados: El grupo de edad que predominó en ambos sexos fue el de 70 años y más, con 37,1 por ciento entre los hombres y 17,1 por ciento en las mujeres. Los hombres fueron los más afectados (68,6 por ciento). La localización anatómica que prevaleció fue a nivel del tercio inferior en un 37,1 por ciento entre los hombres y un 17,1 por ciento entre las féminas. El 57,1 por ciento resultó encontrarse bajo peso, en su mayoría presentaron el esófago de Barret como antecedente patológico personal, acompañado de odinofagia en el 88,6 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió caracterizar a los pacientes con cáncer de esófago según variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y anatómicas. Aparece con mayor frecuencia en las últimas décadas de la vida y en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, se localiza con mayor frecuencia en el tercio inferior y asociados a antecedentes patológicos personales(AU)


Introduction: Esophageal cancer is a very frequent disease. Due to its extremely aggressive nature, it presents poor survival rates. Objective: To characterize clinically, epidemiologically and anatomically patients with esophageal cancer. Method: A descriptive study was carried out with clinical cases that attended the gastroenterology service at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Hospital, in the period between June and November 2018. The study population was made up of the total number of patients of both sexes, whose number amounted to 35. Results: The age group that predominated in both sexes was 70 years and over, accounting for 37.1 percent among men and for 17.1 percent among women. Men were the most affected (68.6 percent). The anatomical location that prevailed was the level of the lower third, accounting for 37.1 percent among men and for 17.1 percent among women. 57.1 percent turned out to be underweight; most of them presented Barrett esophagus as a personal pathological history, accompanied by odynophagia in 88.6 percent of the patients. Conclusions: The study allowed characterizing patients with esophageal cancer according to clinical, epidemiological and anatomical variables. It appears more frequently in the last decades of life and in advanced stages of the disease. It is most frequently located in the lower third and associated with a personal pathological history(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Barrett Esophagus , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 343-346, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dysphagia management, from screening procedures to diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches, is about to change dramatically. This change is prompted not solely by great discoveries in medicine or physiology, but by advances in electronics and data science and close collaboration and cross-pollination between these two disciplines. In this editorial, we will provide a brief overview of the role of artificial intelligence in dysphagia management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 831-841, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139378

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting. It can also have extra-digestive symptoms such as rhinosinusitis, chronic cough, recurrent croup and hoarseness. EoE can be associated with other atopic conditions, such as asthma, eczema and food allergies. The diagnosis is made by the analysis of endoscopic biopsies (> 15 eosinophils per high power field). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently accepted as a treatment for EoE. The clinical and pathological improvement with the use PPIs ceased to be a criterion to define Esophageal eosinophilia responsive to PPIs as a differential diagnosis, since this condition is currently considered within the EoE spectrum. There are three main treatment approaches for EoE: diet, drugs and dilation. Its diagnosis and early treatment are key to avoid or delay its complications, such as stenosis and severe esophageal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(1): 50-64, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223326

ABSTRACT

La disfagia es la alteración de la seguridad y eficacia del proceso deglutorio que dificulta el correcto paso del alimento/saliva desde la boca hacia el estómago, lo que aumenta la probabilidad de desnutrición, deshidratación y aspiración pulmonar con un consiguiente empeoramiento del pronóstico[1]. Los cambios en el acto de tragar relacionados con la edad se llaman presbifagia[6], un cuadro altamente prevalente afectando entre 13-30% de las personas mayores autovalentes, e incrementando considerablemente, en contexto de hospitalización, al 30-47% por causas adicionales[7]: mecánicas, neurológicas o iatrogénicas, que potencian las complicaciones o desestabilizan el equilibrio deglutorio. Recientemente la disfagia se considera un síndrome geriátrico[6], lo que conlleva desafíos para el equipo multidisciplinario respecto de prevenir y disminuir efectos adversos[8]. El conflicto principal, es que para el equipo hospitalario resulta un desafío detectar a personas mayores con riesgo aspirativo, por lo que no son identificados a tiempo[6­8]. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer un esquema multidisciplinario de detección de riesgo aspirativo en contexto de hospitalización de la "Unidad Especializada de Cuidado en persona Mayor" (UCAM) de Clínica Las Condes, para lo cual, primero se revisa literatura asociada a disfagia, clasificación reciente, consecuencias, métodos de evaluación recomendados y condiciones específicas, asociadas a riesgo aspirativo y segundo, se definen dos vías junto con Geriatría, Enfermería y Nutrición: 1) Se definen criterios de derivación fonoaudiológica oportunos para evaluación clínica de la deglución, y 2) Método precoz de pesquizaje y evaluación multidisciplinario de disfagia orofaríngea y riesgo aspiratorio.


Dysphagia is the alteration of the safety and efficacy of the swallowing process that prevents the correct transit of food/saliva from the mouth to the stomach, which increases malnutrition, dehydration and pulmonary aspiration and patient's bad prognosis[1]. The changes in the act of swallowing related to age are called presbyophagy[6]. A highly prevalent affect of self-worthy elderly people (between 13-30%), and increasing considerably in hospitalization context (30-47%) for additional causes[7]: mechanical, neurological or iatrogenic, which increases complications or destabilizes swallowing balance. Recently dysphagia it is considered a geriatric syndrome[6], that challenges the multidisciplinary team regarding prevention and reduction of adverse effects related to hospitalization units of elderly people[8]. One of the main tasks of the healthcare team is the early detection of elderly people with aspiration risk. The objective of this article is present a multidisciplinary protocol of EP with dysphagia in the context of hospitalization in the "Specialized care unit for the elderly" (SCUE) of Clínica Las Condes. Initially, literature associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD), recent classification, consequences, recommended evaluation methods and specific conditions associated with were reviewed. Accordingly, two routes are defined with SCUE'team, Speech language pathologist, Geriatrics, Nursing and Nutrition. 1) opportune referral criteria of Speech language pathologist for clinical swallowing evaluation and 2) Early multidisciplinary screening and evaluation method of OD and aspiration risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Hospitalization , Deglutition Disorders/classification , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Early Diagnosis
11.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 25: e2349, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131782

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo verificar as características acústicas dos sons de deglutição de lactentes com bronquiolite. Métodos estudo retrospectivo por análise de banco de dados aprovado pelo CEP sob o número 1499.911. Os sinais acústicos foram coletados por meio dos estetoscópios eletrônicos da marca Littmann®, modelo 4100. A amostra foi composta por sons da deglutição de lactentes com diagnóstico de bronquiolite viral aguda, internados em um hospital infantil do Sul do país. Os sons armazenados em arquivo digital foram abertos e rodados no software Deglutisom®, sendo verificados e confirmados por dois avaliadores independentes. Estabeleceu-se o pico de frequência, intensidade e intervalos de deglutição. Resultados a amostra de sons da deglutição de 22 crianças, sendo 31,8% do gênero feminino e 68,2% do masculino, apresentou mediana de idade de 81 dias. Encontrou-se diferença entre as características acústicas da deglutição comparadas ao gênero, com maior número de deglutições no gênero feminino (p=0,033). Não houve associação entre as variáveis pico de frequência (m=744 Hz), intensidade (m=52 dB) e tempo de deglutição (5,3s). Conclusão as características acústicas da deglutição da auscultação cervical de lactentes com bronquiolite, analisadas neste estudo, são de pico de frequência grave, intensidade forte, média de duas deglutições por sucção e tempo de deglutição de 5,3 s, havendo diferença entre os gêneros, em relação ao número de deglutições, maior no feminino.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the acoustic characteristics of swallowing noise in an infant with bronchiolitis. Methods A retrospective study was performed by database analysis approved by the ERC under the number 1499.911; the acoustic signals were collected through Littmann® model 4100 electronic stethoscopes. The sample was composed of a bank of infants swallowing sounds, diagnosed with acute viral bronchiolitis, children under 12 months-old, hospitalized in a children's hospital in the south of the Country. The sound file storage was opened, and it was rotated in the Deglutisom® software, being verified and confirmed by two independent judges. The peak of frequency, intensity, and swallowing intervals were established. Results The sample totalized a group of 22 babies, 31.8% of the female gender, and 68. 2% of males with a median age of 81 days. There was a difference between the acoustic characteristics of swallowing compared to the gender, regarding the number of swallows, with the highest number of swallows in the female gender (p=0.033). There was no association between the peak frequency (m=744 Hz), intensity (m=52 dB), and swallowing time (5.3s). Conclusion The acoustic characteristics of cervical auscultation swallowing of Infants with bronchiolitis are bass frequency peak, a strong intensity, a mean of two swallows, and a swallowing time of 5.3 s, with the difference between genders concerning the number of swallows, highest in the female.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Auscultation , Bronchiolitis, Viral , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Stethoscopes , Retrospective Studies
12.
Clinics ; 75: e1425, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to identify evidence of validity of a self-reported Oropharyngeal Dysphagia screening questionnaire for older adults based on test content, response processes, internal structure, relations to other variables, and reliability. METHOD: This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional study employing the concepts and principles of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Data were collected from 644 community-dwelling older adults (both genders, age: ≥60 years) who agreed to participate in some steps of the validation process. Statistical methods obtained the content representation of the construct, internal structure validation, discriminant and convergent evidence, and reliability, using a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The screening tool was re-specified in nine questions that provided the best fit and robust reliability, with proper discriminant and convergent evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The screening questionnaire presented valid and reliable results to identify oropharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in older adults, highlighting the importance of the validation process based on the standards to construct an epidemiological instrument.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Independent Living
13.
CoDAS ; 32(1): e20180229, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055895

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a frequência e a gravidade de disfagia pós-acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico na fase aguda com e sem trombólise e a associação entre a disfagia e as características demográficas, comprometimentos neurológico e funcional e a realização da trombólise. Método Estudo retrospectivo de análise de prontuário de 94 pacientes pós-acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico na fase aguda, destes, 52 pacientes realizaram trombólise e 42 não receberam o tratamento. Os dados coletados foram: idade, sexo, comorbidades, janela terapêutica para realização da trombólise, nível de consciência, grau de comprometimento neurológico, nível de dependência funcional, avaliação clínica da deglutição. Foram realizadas análise descritiva das variáveis categóricas e contínuas e análise de associação pelo teste Quiquadrado de Pearson, sendo consideradas como associações estatisticamente significantes as que apresentaram valor de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados A frequência de disfagia nos pacientes trombolizados foi de 67,3%. Os pacientes trombolizados apresentaram 4,6 vezes mais chance de apresentarem disfagia do que os pacientes não trombolizados. A gravidade da disfagia não apresentou associação com a realização da trombólise. Houve associação entre a presença de disfagia e a dependência funcional. As características demográficas e o comprometimento neurológico não apresentaram associação com o transtorno da deglutição. Conclusão Os pacientes trombolizados apresentaram maior tendência de desenvolverem disfagia do que os não trombolizados na fase aguda do acidente vascular cerebral, estando a disfagia associada à dependência funcional.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the frequency and severity of dysphagia after ischemic stroke with or without thrombolysis in the acute phase; and the association among dysphagia, demographic characteristics, neurological and functional impairments and thrombolysis. Methods A retrospective study of the medical records of 94 patients who suffered from ischemic stroke during the acute phase of the disease. From these, 52 patients received thrombolytic therapy and 42 patients did not receive such therapy. We collected data on age, sex, comorbidities, therapeutic time window of thrombolytic therapy, level of consciousness, degree of neurological impairment, level of functional dependency and clinical swallowing examination. A descriptive analysis included categorical and continuous variables, and an analysis of the association using the Pearson's Chi-Square Test, in which the value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant association. Results The frequency of dysphagia in the thrombolytic patients was 67.3%, the odds ratio was 4.6 higher than the non-thrombolysed patients. The severity of dysphagia was not associated with thrombolysis. There was an association between the presence of dysphagia and functional dependence. Demographic characteristics and neurological impairment were not associated with dysphagia. Conclusion Thrombolytic patients were more likely to develop dysphagia than non-thrombolysed patients in the acute phase of stroke, with dysphagia associated to functional dependence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Stroke/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/therapy
14.
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20190036, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133513

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre o risco de disfagia e o estado de saúde de indivíduos com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC). Método: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência. Foram incluídos 23 indivíduos com diagnóstico de DPOC, de acordo com os critérios de GOLD (2019). São participantes de um programa de reabilitação pulmonar, clinicamente estáveis (sem exacerbações dos sintomas, no mínimo, de 30 dias) e em tratamento medicamentoso otimizado. Foram avaliadas as medidas antropométricas (IMC), o pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE), o estado mental (MEEM), o risco de disfagia (Eating Assessment Tool -EAT-10) e o estado de saúde (COPD Assessment Test -CAT). A média de idade dos participantes foi de 60,39 ± 9,90 anos, dos quais 11 eram do sexo feminino e eutróficos. Resultados: Foram encontradas associações positiva e moderada (r=0,57; p=0,004) entre o escore obtido pelo CAT e EAT-10 de indivíduos com DPOC. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram relação entre o risco de disfagia e o estado de saúde nos indivíduos com DPOC.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To verify the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and health status in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Method: Cross-sectional study with convenience sample. Twenty-three individuals with a diagnosis of COPD according to GOLD 2019 criteria. The individuals participated in a pulmonary rehabilitation program, clinically stable (without exacerbations of at least 30 days) and in optimized drug treatment were included. The study analyzed anthropometric measures (BMI), peak expiratory flow (PEF), mental status (MEEM), eating assessment tool (EAT-10), and health status (COPD Assessment Test -CAT). The mean age was 60.39 ± 9.90 years, 11 individuals were female and eutrophic. Results: We observed a positive and moderate association (r = 0.57, p = 0.004) between the CAT and EAT-10 scores in the sample studied. Conclusion: The results demonstrated relationship between the risk of dysphagia and the health status in individuals with COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Respiratory Function Tests , Health Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Middle Aged
15.
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20190132, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101097

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visou validar o Protocolo de Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial MBGR para adultos com DTM. Método Participaram 30 adultos, sendo 15 com DTM (deslocamento de disco com redução segundo o Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) e 15 Controles. O processo de validação envolveu a validade de conteúdo, de critério e de construto, além da concordância inter e intra-avaliador, sensibilidade e especificidade. Considerou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados Foram confirmadas as validades de conteúdo, visto que o Protocolo MBGR abarca todas as questões funcionais presentes em indivíduos com DTM; de critério, com correlações significantes entre o MBGR e AMIOFE; e de construto, diferenciando indivíduos com e sem DMO quanto à dor à palpação e mobilidade mandibular, com correlação significante entre a avaliação clínica do MBGR e o uso do algômetro digital, bem como confirmação do exame instrumental para a classificação do modo respiratório. A força de concordância variou de pobre a muito boa para a análise interavaliador e de razoável a muito boa para intra-avaliador. Os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade foram elevados. Conclusão O Protocolo MBGR mostrou-se válido para aplicação em adultos com DTM com deslocamento de disco com redução e controles, contemplando todos os aspectos que possibilitam a análise das condições oromiofuncionais nesses indivíduos.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study aimed at validating the MBGR Orofacial Myofunctional Assessment Protocol (MBGR Protocol) for adults with Temporal Mandibular Disorders (TMD). Methods The study sample was composed of 30 adults: 15 with TMD (disc displacement with reduction according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) and 15 control individuals. The validation process encompassed the content, criterion, and construct of the protocol, as well as its inter- and intra-rater agreement levels and sensitivity and specificity values, considering a 5% statistical significance level. Results The following validities were confirmed: of content, as the MBGR Protocol covers all functional issues present in patients with TMD; of criterion, with significant correlations between the MBGR and Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES) protocols; of construct, differentiating individuals with and without Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMD) as for pain on palpation and mandible range of motion, with significant correlation between the MBGR clinical evaluation and that using a digital algometer, as well as confirmation of the instrumental assessment for the breathing mode classification. Agreement ranged from poor to very good and from reasonable to very good for the inter- and intra-rater power analyses, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity values were observed. Conclusion The MBGR Protocol proved to be valid for use in adults presented with TMD with disc displacement with reduction and controls, covering all aspects that enable the analysis of OMD in these individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Mass Screening/instrumentation , Facial Muscles/physiopathology , Mandible/physiopathology , Pain Measurement , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity , Movement Disorders/diagnosis , Movement Disorders/physiopathology
16.
CoDAS ; 32(5): e20190061, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Desenvolver um instrumento de rastreio para a identificação de crianças com risco para disfagia, em ambiente hospitalar. Método: O Instrumento de Rastreio para o Risco de Disfagia Pediátrica (IRRD-Ped), constituído por 23 questões, foi desenvolvido por fonoaudiólogos, após revisão da literatura. Ele foi proposto para ser aplicado aos responsáveis por crianças em internação hospitalar. O IRRD-Ped foi enviado a juízes para análise, tendo sido também realizado um estudo piloto. Para verificar a validade de critério, aplicou-se o IRRD-Ped aos responsáveis por crianças internadas e, posteriormente, realizou-se, com estas crianças, avaliação clínica da deglutição, através do Protocolo de Avaliação da Disfagia Pediátrica (PAD-PED). Os responsáveis assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Os sujeitos foram separados em dois grupos (com disfagia e com deglutição normal), sendo verificada a associação entre as questões do IRRD-Ped e o resultado do PAD-PED, através do teste qui-quadrado de Person ou exato de Fisher. Definiu-se o ponto de corte para presença de risco para disfagia através da Curva ROC. A confiabilidade do IRRD-Ped foi verificada pelo coeficiente α de Cronbach. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 40 crianças com mediana de idade de 3,7 meses. Verificou-se associação estatisticamente significativa em oito itens do instrumento. A consistência interna do IRRD-Ped foi de 0,828. O ponto de corte para o risco de disfagia foi de cinco pontos (sensibilidade = 100% e especificidade = 80%). Conclusão: Devido aos satisfatórios resultados encontrados, deve-se dar prosseguimento ao processo de validação do IRRD-Ped.


RESUMO Objetivo: Desenvolver um instrumento de rastreio para a identificação de crianças com risco para disfagia, em ambiente hospitalar. Método: O Instrumento de Rastreio para o Risco de Disfagia Pediátrica (IRRD-Ped), constituído por 23 questões, foi desenvolvido por fonoaudiólogos, após revisão da literatura. Ele foi proposto para ser aplicado aos responsáveis por crianças em internação hospitalar. O IRRD-Ped foi enviado a juízes para análise, tendo sido também realizado um estudo piloto. Para verificar a validade de critério, aplicou-se o IRRD-Ped aos responsáveis por crianças internadas e, posteriormente, realizou-se, com estas crianças, avaliação clínica da deglutição, através do Protocolo de Avaliação da Disfagia Pediátrica (PAD-PED). Os responsáveis assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Os sujeitos foram separados em dois grupos (com disfagia e com deglutição normal), sendo verificada a associação entre as questões do IRRD-Ped e o resultado do PAD-PED, através do teste qui-quadrado de Person ou exato de Fisher. Definiu-se o ponto de corte para presença de risco para disfagia através da Curva ROC. A confiabilidade do IRRD-Ped foi verificada pelo coeficiente α de Cronbach. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 40 crianças com mediana de idade de 3,7 meses. Verificou-se associação estatisticamente significativa em oito itens do instrumento. A consistência interna do IRRD-Ped foi de 0,828. O ponto de corte para o risco de disfagia foi de cinco pontos (sensibilidade = 100% e especificidade = 80%). Conclusão: Devido aos satisfatórios resultados encontrados, deve-se dar prosseguimento ao processo de validação do IRRD-Ped.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Brazil , Mass Screening
17.
CoDAS ; 32(5): e20190166, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133534

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar a validação de um instrumento simples de triagem da disfagia utilizado em um hospital público de grande porte no Brasil em população adulta heterogênea. Método: O Protocolo de Avaliação de Risco para Disfagia versão de triagem (PARDt) contém quatro itens (ausculta cervical alterada, alteração da qualidade vocal, tosse e engasgo antes/durante/após a deglutição) que foram previamente indicados como fatores de risco independentes associados à presença de disfagia no teste de deglutição com água. Fonoaudiólogos treinados administraram e classificaram o PARDt para pacientes consecutivos encaminhados pela equipe médica do hospital para realizar a videofluoroscopia da deglutição (VDF). Resultados: 211 pacientes foram submetidos ao PARDt: 99 falharam e 112 passaram. Um em cada cinco pacientes foram randomicamente selecionados para VDF. O PARDt apresentou excelente validade: sensibilidade de 92,9%; especificidade de 75,0%; valores preditivos negativos de 95,5%; acurácia de 80,9%. Conclusão: O PARDt é uma ferramenta simples e precisa para identificar o risco de penetração e/ou aspiração em pacientes que não são alimentados por sonda, que apresentam bom nível de alerta, sem histórico de pneumonias de repetição, que não estejam em vigência de pneumonia e que não façam uso de cânula de traqueostomia.


ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of a simple instrument for screening dysphagia used in a large public hospital in Brazil with heterogeneous adult population. Method: The Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (DREP) - screening version contains four items (altered cervical auscultation, altered vocal quality, coughing and choking before / during / after swallowing) that were previously indicated as independent risk factors associated to the presence of dysphagia in the swallowing test with water. Trained speech therapists administered and scored DREP - screening version to consecutive patients referred by hospital's medical team to perform Video Fluoroscopic for Swallowing Study (VFSS). Results: 211 patients received the swallowing screen (DREP): 99 failed and 112 passed. One in every five patients was randomized to receive a VFSS. The DREP screening version demonstrated excellent validity with sensitivity at 92.9%, specificity at 75.0%, negative predictive values at 95.5% and an accuracy of 80.9%. Conclusion: The DREP - screening version is a simple and accurate tool to identify the risk for penetration and / or aspiration in patients who are not tube-fed, who have a good level of alertness, have no history of recurrent pneumonia, are not on pneumonia, and that do not use a tracheostomy cannula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition , Brazil , Tracheostomy , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 343-353, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Dysphagia, when left untreated, can result in an increase in morbidity and mortality rates, especially among infants with history of life-threatening neonatal diseases. The videofluoroscopy swallowing study (VFSS) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia. There are few imaging studies of infant swallowing based on videofluoroscopy, none of which were performed during breast-feeding. Objective To analyze the similarities and differences in infant swallowing function -regarding the feeding method - breast or bottle - and the impact on videofluoroscopy findings. Methods A retrospective study of 25 VFSSs of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding infants was performed. The studied variables were: oral capture and control; tongue versus mandible movement coordination; sucking pattern; mandible excursion; liquid flow; bolus retention; laryngeal penetration; tracheal aspiration; clearing of material collected in the pharynx; and gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Results The study showed a statistically significant association between nipple/areole capture; oral control; sucking pattern; mandibular excursion; liquid flow and feeding method. The velar sealing deficit, the place that trigger the pharyngeal swallow, food retention in the pharyngeal recesses, laryngeal penetration and GER were also factors associated with the feeding method. Conclusion The analysis of the swallowing characteristics of both feeding methods revealed significant differences between them, with an impact on the diagnosis in the VFSSs, especially regarding velar function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bottle Feeding , Breast Feeding , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition/physiology , Fluoroscopy/methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Retrospective Studies
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 138-144, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087572

ABSTRACT

The difficulties of sucking, swallowing and feeding have been extensively studied in pediatric population with congenital or acquired condition. The severity and variety of signs and symptoms guide the evaluation and treatment with relatively low complexity, if the necessary specialists and equipment are available. The confrontation of swallowing and feeding disorders in newborns and infants who do not have neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions becomes a major challenge. Difficulties are related to failures in the safety, efficiency and behavior of the child when feeding. This article reviews the development of feeding, the relationship with the digestive air tract and the impact on speech acquisition. Assessment and treatment criteria are also detailed, with emphasis on the management of multidisciplinary teams and active family incorporation.


Las dificultades de succión, deglución y alimentación han sido ampliamente estudiadas en población pediátrica portadora de alguna condición congénita o adquirida. La severidad y variedad de signos y síntomas, orientan a la evaluación y tratamiento con relativa baja complejidad, si se cuenta con los especialistas y equipamiento necesario. Se transforma en un desafío mayor el enfrentamiento de alteraciones de deglución y alimentación en recién nacidos y lactantes que no presentan condiciones neurológicas, genéticas o metabólicas. Las dificultades se relacionan con fallas en la seguridad, eficiencia y la conducta del niño al alimentarse. En este artículo se revisa el desarrollo de la alimentación, su relación con el tracto aéreo digestivo y el impacto en la adquisición del habla. También se detallan criterios de evaluación e intervención, con énfasis en el manejo de equipos multidisciplinarios e incorporación activa de la familia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sucking Behavior , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/etiology
20.
Rehabil. integral (Impr.) ; 14(1): 8-15, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015950

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los trastornos de la alimentación y deglución (TAD) acompañan frecuentemente a la parálisis cerebral (PC). Su diagnóstico oportuno previene numerosas complicaciones. La evaluación clínica es el primer acercamiento a los TAD, pero resulta insuficiente para identificar situaciones de riesgo (penetración laríngea o aspiración). Para ello, es necesaria una evaluación instrumental como la videofluoroscopía (VFC). Objetivo: Describir y cuantificar los hallazgos de VFC en un grupo de niños con PC, entre 3 años y 6 años 11 meses, GMFCS I-V. Pacientes y Métodos: Se practicó una VFC a 50 pacientes con PC, previa determinación del nivel Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) e inexistencia de contraindicaciones para dicho examen. Además, se determinaron signos de incompetencia e inseguridad deglutoria, consistencias toleradas y requerimientos de posicionamiento, para facilitar el procedimiento. Resultados: Población predominantemente masculina, edad promedio de 5 años, 78% GMFCS III-V. Hasta el 94% tuvo una o más alteraciones videofluoroscópicas en alguna etapa del examen. El 28% no presentó capacidad de masticación, siendo todos GMFCS V. En eficacia deglutoria la alteración más frecuente fue el residuo vallecular (86%). En seguridad deglutoria fue el derrame posterior en la fase oral (68%). El 26% tuvo aspiración traqueal silente. En la fase esofágica, el 30% presentó tránsito esofágico lento y el 8% reflujo gastroesofágico. Conclusión: La VFC identificó alteraciones potencialmente riesgosas en todos los niveles GMFCS en niños portadores de PC, algunas de ellas silentes, incluso en casos de compromiso motor leve.


Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently accompanied by feeding and swallowing disorders (FSD). An early diagnosis of FSD prevents numerous complications. Clinical assessment stands as the first approach to FSD, although it is insufficient to identify risk factors (laryngeal penetration and aspiration). For this purpose, a videofluoroscopic (VFC) evaluation is required. Objective: To describe and quantify VFC findings in a group of children with CP, aged 3 to 6 years, GMFCS I to V. Patients and Methods: 50 patients underwent a VFC after their Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level was determined and no contraindications for the exam were identified. In addition, the researchers conducted an assessment to establish the presence of signs of unsafe and incompetent swallowing, food consistency tolerance, and mealtime positioning requirements, in order to allow a more comfortable VFC procedure. Results: There was male predominance, average age of 5 years, 78% GMFCS III-V. Up to 94% had one or more VFC alterations at some point of the exam. 28% had no chewing ability, being all the cases GMFCS V. Considering the deglutition efficacy, the commonest alteration was residue in the vallecula (86%), while the most frequent for swallowing safety was posterior spillage in the oral phase (68%). 26% presented silent tracheal aspiration. In the esophageal phase the findings were poor esophageal transit (30%) and gastroesophageal reflux (8%). Conclusions: VFC identified potentially risks in every GMFCS level of children with CP. Some of the VFC alterations are silent, even in mild motor impairment cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Fluoroscopy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Video Recording , Severity of Illness Index , Cerebral Palsy/physiopathology
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