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1.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2551, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355715

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo verificar as evidências disponíveis sobre o efeito dos exercícios vocais no tratamento da disfagia. Estratégia de pesquisa foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, SciELO e MEDLINE, sem restrições quanto ao período de publicação. Critérios de seleção artigos originais, estudos de caso e/ou revisões de literatura publicados nos idiomas português e/ou inglês, disponíveis eletronicamente na íntegra e que abordassem o tratamento clínico com exercícios vocais em adultos e idosos com disfagia. Foram excluídas publicações repetidas nas bases de dados, com população de crianças, com indivíduos que não apresentassem o diagnóstico de disfagia, com exercícios vocais sem especificação, com exercícios exclusivos de deglutição, artigos e/ou resumos sem possibilidade de acesso pelas plataformas institucionais e estudos com modelo animal. Resultados foram encontrados 2.356 artigos, dos quais, após aplicados os critérios de elegibilidade, foram selecionados 8 para a amostra final. Para avaliar os efeitos dos exercícios vocais, os estudos utilizaram avaliação clínica, videofluoroscopia, videoendoscopia e eletromiografia. Quanto aos efeitos dos exercícios vocais na deglutição, observou-se que as técnicas de som plosivo, empuxo, trato vocal semiocluído, som basal, modulação vocal, sobrearticulação, o método Lee Silverman Voice Treatment® e o uso de exercícios de treino de força muscular expiratória apresentaram efeitos positivos na reabilitação da disfagia. Conclusão os estudos com treino de força muscular expiratória, o método Lee Silverman e os exercícios vocais tradicionais demonstraram efeitos positivos no tratamento da disfagia. No entanto, ainda não foi possível comprovar o nível de evidências de todos os estudos.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the available evidence on the effect of vocal exercises on the treatment of dysphagia. Research strategy A bibliographic survey was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, with no restrictions on the publication period. Selection criteria Original articles, case studies and/or literature reviews published in Portuguese and/or English, available electronically in full and addressing clinical treatment with vocal exercises in adults and elderly with dysphagia. Publications repeated by the databases, with a population of children, individuals who did not present the diagnosis of dysphagia, with vocal exercises without specification, with exclusive swallowing exercises, articles and/or abstracts without the possibility of access by institutional platforms, and studies with animal model were excluded. Results A total of 2,356 articles were found, of which, after the eligibility criteria were applied, 08 were selected for the final sample. To evaluate the effects of vocal exercises, the studies used clinical evaluation, videofluoroscopy, videoendoscopy and electromyography. Regarding the effects of vocal exercises on swallowing, it was observed that the techniques of plosive sound, buoyancy, semi-occluded vocal tract, basal sound, vocal modulation, overarticulation, the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment method® and the use of expiratory muscle strength training exercises showed positive effects in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. Conclusion It was observed that studies with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST), Lee Silverman method (LSVT®) and traditional vocal exercises demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of dysphagia. However, it has not yet been possible to prove the level of evidence in all studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Speech Therapy/methods , Voice Training , Breathing Exercises , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Myofunctional Therapy , Electromyography , Muscle Strength/physiology
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1303-1307, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of nape cluster acupuncture on swallowing function and respiratory function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia, and to explore its relationship to cerebral arterial flow and neurotrophic factors.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 60 patients in each one. The conventional swallowing rehabilitation therapy and respiratory function training were adopted in the control group. On the basis of treatment in the control group, nape cluster acupuncture was applied at Fengchi (GB 20), Tianzhu (BL 10), Wangu (GB 12), Lianquan (CV 23), Panglianquan (Extra), once a day; pricking blood was applied at Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13), once every 2 days. Both groups were treated for 2 weeks. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between the two groups, and the swallowing function (scores of Kubota water swallowing test, standardized swallowing assessment [SSA] and video fluoroscopic swallowing study [VFSS]), the respiratory function indexes (forced vital capacity [FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV] and maximal expiratory time), the bilateral cerebral arterial hemodynamics parameters (systolic peak velocity [Vs], mean flow velocity [Vm] and vascular resistance index [RI]) and the serology indexes (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF] and insulin-like growth factors-1 [IGF-1]) before and after treatment were observed in the both groups.@*RESULTS@#The total effective rate was 80.0% (48/60) in the observation group, which was superior to 60.0% (36/60) in the control group (@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of the conventional rehabilitation training, nape cluster acupuncture can effectively improve the swallowing function and respiratory function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia, its mechanism may be related to the improvement of cerebral hemodynamics and the regulation of neurotrophic factors.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on swallowing function and nutritional status of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) dysphagia.@*METHODS@#A total of 56 patients with PD dysphagia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 28 cases in each one. Both groups were given conventional treatment and swallowing function rehabilitation training.On the basis, the observation group was treated with acupuncture (filiform needling and tongue picking acupuncture). The acupoints of filiform needling were Lianquan (CV 23), Shanglianquan (Extra), Yifeng (TE 17), etc.; and the tongue picking acupuncture was applied at Jinjin (EX-HN 12), Yuye (EX-HN 13) and posterior pharyngeal wall. Rehabilitation training and acupuncture were performed once a day for 5 consecutive days a week, 2 weeks as a course of treatment, 3 courses in total. The swallowing function [oral transit time (OTT), swallowing response time (SRT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), laryngeal closure duration (LCD)] and nutritional indexes [body mass index (BMI), serum albumin (ALB), serum prealbumin (PA), hemoglobin (Hb)] in the two groups were evaluated before and after treatment, and the clinical effects were compared.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the paste and liquid OTT, SRT, PTT, LCD in the two groups were shorter than those before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture-assisted rehabilitation training can improve the swallowing function and nutritional status in patients with Parkinson's disease swallowing disorders.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
4.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 253-259, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352601

ABSTRACT

Case report: This article presents the case of an 11-year-old patient who sought orthodontic treatment, complaining of crooked teeth. In anamnesis, an emotional and physical dependence was reported regarding the act of breastfeeding. Considerations on the diagnosis, psychological implications, and clinical approach in this rare case were addressed. An orthodontic treatment and myofunctional therapy were performed to resolve the occlusal and functional aspects of the patient. Psychological therapy for the child and her mother was required to handle emotional sequelae. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary treatment was prescribed. Dentists should be aware of this need in cases of patients with special characteristics for treatment beyond oral problems. In orthodontics, this may be the difference between effective treatment outcomes or not.


Relato de caso: Este artigo apresenta o caso de uma paciente de 11 anos que procurou tratamento ortodôntico com queixa de "dentes tortos". Na anamnese, foi relatada dependência emocional e física da criança em relação ao ato de amamentar. Considerações sobre diagnóstico, implicações psicológicas, abordagem clínica neste raro caso foram abordadas. Foi realizado tratamento ortodôntico e terapia miofuncional para resolução dos aspectos oclusais e funcionais do paciente. Um acompanhamento psicológico para crianças e sua mãe foi necessária para abordar sequelas emocionais inerentes. Conclusão: Um tratamento multiprofissional foi instituído e o dentista deve estar atento a essa necessidade nos casos de pacientes com características especiais, visando uma abordagem além dos problemas bucais. Na Ortodontia, essa pode ser a diferença entre os resultados eficazes do tratamento ou não.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Orthodontics, Corrective , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Myofunctional Therapy , Malocclusion/psychology , Dental Care for Children , Dental Occlusion , Mother-Child Relations
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 181-184, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341948

ABSTRACT

A doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) é uma polineuropatia motora, sensitiva, hereditária e de predomínio distal. Os membros inferiores são os mais afetados e, ocasionalmente, há comprometimento dos membros superiores. Este estudo descreve a presença de disfagia orofaríngea e a intervenção fonoaudiológica em uma paciente de 58 anos com diagnóstico de CMT, encaminhada à avaliação fonoaudiológica devido a queixas na deglutição. Na avaliação inicial identificaram-se alterações, tanto de caráter estrutural quanto funcional, que resultaram em uma disfagia orofaríngea leve. Também se utilizou o Questionário de Qualidade de Vida na Disfagia para identificar o impacto na qualidade de vida da paciente. Após um mês de acompanhamento observou-se melhora dos sintomas e aumento do conforto e segurança ao deglutir. (AU)


Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a motor and sensory, hereditary, distally predominant polyneuropathy. The lower limbs are most affected and, occasionally, there is upper limb impairment; however, presence of oropharyngeal dysphagia has been identified. The present study describes the findings and speech therapy intervention in a 58-year-old patient, with CMT diagnosis, referred to speech therapy evaluation due to swallowing complaints. In an initial evaluation, presence of structural and functional alterations, resulting in mild oropharyngeal dysphagia, was identified. The Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire was also used to identify the impact of dysphagia in the patient's quality of life. After a month of follow-up, an improvement was observed in the presenting symptoms, as well as an increase in comfort and safety during swallowing. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/complications , Deglutition Disorders/therapy
6.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200203, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286129

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Diversos comprometimentos da deglutição têm sido relatados em indivíduos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC), tendo como causa a desvantagem mecânica da musculatura respiratória devido à hiperinsuflação. Dentre as estratégias terapêuticas, até o momento, não foram encontrados relatos na literatura sobre o uso da terapia manual (TM) no manejo dos transtornos da deglutição nesta população. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar os desfechos de um programa de TM sobre a biomecânica da deglutição de indivíduos com DPOC. Método Foram avaliados 18 indivíduos com idade média 66,06±8,86 anos, 61,1% (11) homens e VEF1%médio 40,28±16,73 antes e após-programa de TM. As medidas analisadas foram: tempo de trânsito oral, tempo de trânsito faríngeo (TTF), número de deglutições, resíduos em valéculas (VL) e seios piriformes, penetração/aspiração e excursão hiolaríngea na deglutição das consistências líquida e pastosa. Resultados Houve diferença significativa no TTF (p=0,04), resíduos em VL (p=0,03), elevação máxima do hioide (p=0,003) e deslocamento do hioide (p=0,02) na deglutição da consistência pastosa. Na consistência líquida apenas redução de resíduos em VL (p=0,001). Conclusão O programa de TM interferiu na biomecânica da deglutição de indivíduos DPOC demonstrada pela redução do TTF, resíduos em VL e maior elevação e deslocamento do hioide na consistência pastosa. Na consistência líquida houve redução de resíduos em VL.


ABSTRACT Purpose Several swallowing disorders have been reported in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients due to the mechanical disadvantage of the respiratory muscles caused by hyperinflation. To date, no reports have been found in the literature among the therapeutic strategies on the use of manual therapy (MT) to manage swallowing disorders in COPD. The aim of the study was to verify the outcomes of a TM program on the biomechanics of swallowing of individuals with COPD. Methods 18 individuals with a mean age of 66.06 ± 8.86 years, 61.1% (11) men, and a FEV1% mean of 40.28 ± 16.73 were evaluated before and after TM. The measures analyzed were: oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), number of swallows, vallecular (VL) residue and pyriform sinuses, penetration/aspiration and hyolaryngeal excursion in liquid and pasty consistencies. Results A significant difference was found in PTT (p=0.04), VL residue (p=0.03), maximal hyoid elevation (p=0.003), and displacement of hyoid (p=0.02) in the pasty consistency. In the liquid consistency, we found a decrease in VL residue (p=0.001). Conclusion The MT program influenced the swallowing biomechanics of COPD patients demonstrated by a reduction in PTT and VL residue and increased hyoid elevation and displacement in the pasty consistency. In the liquid consistency, a decrease in VL residue was found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Biomechanical Phenomena , Deglutition , Middle Aged
7.
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20190246, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249604

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose to verify the efficacy of speech therapy in the early return of oral intake in patients with post-orotracheal intubation dysphagia. Methods It was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial for two years with patients of intensive care units of a hospital. Study inclusion criteria were orotracheal intubation>48hours, age≥18 years old, clinical stability, and dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were tracheotomy, score 4 to 7 in the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), neurological disorders. Patients were randomized into speech treatment or control group (ten days of follow-up). The treated group (TG) received guidance, therapeutic techniques, airway protection and maneuvers, orofacial myofunctional and vocal exercises, diet introduction; the control group (CG) received SHAM treatment. Primary outcomes were oral intake progression, dysphagia severity, and tube feeding permanence. Results In the initial period of study, 240 patients were assessed and 40 (16.6%) had dysphagia. Of this, 32 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 17 (53%) received speech therapy. Tube feeding permanence was shorter in TG (median of 3 days) compared to CG (median of 10 days) (p=0.004). The size effect of the intervention on tube feeding permanence was statistically significant between groups (Cohen's d=1.21). TG showed progress on FOIS scores compared to CG (p=0.005). TG also had a progression in severity levels of Dysphagia protocol (from moderate to mild dysphagia) (p<0.001). Conclusion Speech therapy favors an early progression of oral intake in post-intubation patients with dysphagia. Clinical Trial Registration: RBR-9829jk.


RESUMO Objetivo verificar a eficácia da fonoterapia no retorno precoce da via oral em pacientes com disfagia pós-intubação orotraqueal. Métodos Ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado, duplo-cego, realizado por dois anos com pacientes de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital. Os critérios de inclusão foram intubação orotraqueal>48 horas, idade ≥18 anos, estabilidade clínica e disfagia. Foram excluídos pacientes com traqueotomia, 4 a 7 pontos na Escala Funcional de Ingestão Oral (FOIS), distúrbios neurológicos. Os pacientes foram randomizados para grupo tratado (GT) ou grupo controle (GC) (dez dias de acompanhamento). O GT recebeu orientações, técnicas e manobras terapêuticas, exercícios vocais e miofuncionais orofaciais, introdução da dieta por via oral; o GC recebeu tratamento SHAM. Os desfechos foram progressão da ingestão oral, gravidade da disfagia e via alternativa de alimentação. Resultados Inicialmente foram avaliados 240 pacientes, desses 40 (16,6%) apresentaram disfagia. Trinta e dois pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão e 17 (53%) receberam terapia fonoaudiológica. A permanência da alimentação por sonda foi menor no GT (mediana de 3 dias) em comparação ao GC (mediana de 10 dias) (p=0.004). O tamanho do efeito da intervenção sobre o tempo de permanência com sonda nasoentéroica foi estatisticametne significativo entre os grupos (Cohen's d=1.21). O GT apresentou progresso nos escores FOIS em comparação ao GC (p=0.005). O GT também teve uma progressão nos níveis de gravidade do PARD (de disfagia moderada a leve) (p<0.001). Conclusão A terapia fonoaudiológica favorece uma progressão precoce da ingestão oral em pacientes pós-intubação com disfagia. Registro de Ensaio Clínico: RBR-9829jk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech Therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 343-346, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dysphagia management, from screening procedures to diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches, is about to change dramatically. This change is prompted not solely by great discoveries in medicine or physiology, but by advances in electronics and data science and close collaboration and cross-pollination between these two disciplines. In this editorial, we will provide a brief overview of the role of artificial intelligence in dysphagia management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy
9.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 385-394, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144904

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes con COVID-19 pueden presentar dificultades en la alimentación por distintos factores, entre los que destacan el aumento del esfuerzo respiratorio, uso de dispositivos de apoyo ventilatorio, compromiso neurológico y disfagia postextubación. La evaluación clínica es fundamental, pero debe ser realizada con precaución y con elementos de protección personal, ya que es un procedimiento generador de aerosoles, al igual que la evaluación instrumental mediante videofluoroscopía y evaluación fibroendoscópica de la deglución. Las recomendaciones de manejo deben basarse en la evaluación clínica adaptada, tanto para pacientes ambulatorios como hospitalizados, y debe incluir el manejo nutricional, compensatorio y el seguimiento clínico periódico para evitar las consecuencias de la disfagia orofaríngea, y así disminuir la tasa de neumonía aspirativa, causa importante de morbimortalidad.


Abstract Patients with COVID-19 may present feeding difficulties due to different factors, like the increase in respiratory effort, use of ventilatory support devices, neurological compromise and post-extubation dysphagia. Clinical evaluation is essential, but it must be carried out with caution and using personal protection elements, since it is an aerosol-generating procedure, as well as the instrumental evaluation by videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Treatment should be based on adapted clinical evaluation, for both outpatients and hospitalized patients, and should include nutritional treatment, compensatory management and periodic clinical follow-up to avoid the consequences of oropharyngeal dysphagia and decrease the rate of aspiration pneumonia major cause of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diet therapy , Deglutition , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 831-841, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139378

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting. It can also have extra-digestive symptoms such as rhinosinusitis, chronic cough, recurrent croup and hoarseness. EoE can be associated with other atopic conditions, such as asthma, eczema and food allergies. The diagnosis is made by the analysis of endoscopic biopsies (> 15 eosinophils per high power field). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently accepted as a treatment for EoE. The clinical and pathological improvement with the use PPIs ceased to be a criterion to define Esophageal eosinophilia responsive to PPIs as a differential diagnosis, since this condition is currently considered within the EoE spectrum. There are three main treatment approaches for EoE: diet, drugs and dilation. Its diagnosis and early treatment are key to avoid or delay its complications, such as stenosis and severe esophageal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(1): 50-64, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223326

ABSTRACT

La disfagia es la alteración de la seguridad y eficacia del proceso deglutorio que dificulta el correcto paso del alimento/saliva desde la boca hacia el estómago, lo que aumenta la probabilidad de desnutrición, deshidratación y aspiración pulmonar con un consiguiente empeoramiento del pronóstico[1]. Los cambios en el acto de tragar relacionados con la edad se llaman presbifagia[6], un cuadro altamente prevalente afectando entre 13-30% de las personas mayores autovalentes, e incrementando considerablemente, en contexto de hospitalización, al 30-47% por causas adicionales[7]: mecánicas, neurológicas o iatrogénicas, que potencian las complicaciones o desestabilizan el equilibrio deglutorio. Recientemente la disfagia se considera un síndrome geriátrico[6], lo que conlleva desafíos para el equipo multidisciplinario respecto de prevenir y disminuir efectos adversos[8]. El conflicto principal, es que para el equipo hospitalario resulta un desafío detectar a personas mayores con riesgo aspirativo, por lo que no son identificados a tiempo[6­8]. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer un esquema multidisciplinario de detección de riesgo aspirativo en contexto de hospitalización de la "Unidad Especializada de Cuidado en persona Mayor" (UCAM) de Clínica Las Condes, para lo cual, primero se revisa literatura asociada a disfagia, clasificación reciente, consecuencias, métodos de evaluación recomendados y condiciones específicas, asociadas a riesgo aspirativo y segundo, se definen dos vías junto con Geriatría, Enfermería y Nutrición: 1) Se definen criterios de derivación fonoaudiológica oportunos para evaluación clínica de la deglución, y 2) Método precoz de pesquizaje y evaluación multidisciplinario de disfagia orofaríngea y riesgo aspiratorio.


Dysphagia is the alteration of the safety and efficacy of the swallowing process that prevents the correct transit of food/saliva from the mouth to the stomach, which increases malnutrition, dehydration and pulmonary aspiration and patient's bad prognosis[1]. The changes in the act of swallowing related to age are called presbyophagy[6]. A highly prevalent affect of self-worthy elderly people (between 13-30%), and increasing considerably in hospitalization context (30-47%) for additional causes[7]: mechanical, neurological or iatrogenic, which increases complications or destabilizes swallowing balance. Recently dysphagia it is considered a geriatric syndrome[6], that challenges the multidisciplinary team regarding prevention and reduction of adverse effects related to hospitalization units of elderly people[8]. One of the main tasks of the healthcare team is the early detection of elderly people with aspiration risk. The objective of this article is present a multidisciplinary protocol of EP with dysphagia in the context of hospitalization in the "Specialized care unit for the elderly" (SCUE) of Clínica Las Condes. Initially, literature associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD), recent classification, consequences, recommended evaluation methods and specific conditions associated with were reviewed. Accordingly, two routes are defined with SCUE'team, Speech language pathologist, Geriatrics, Nursing and Nutrition. 1) opportune referral criteria of Speech language pathologist for clinical swallowing evaluation and 2) Early multidisciplinary screening and evaluation method of OD and aspiration risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Hospitalization , Deglutition Disorders/classification , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Early Diagnosis
13.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 25: e2334, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131763

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Determinar efetividade da terapia de sensibilidade oral em idosos institucionalizados com demência grave. Métodos Uma série de oito casos residentes em instituição de longa permanência. Foram incluídos idosos com diagnóstico de demência grave e disfagia grave, com consentimento da família. Foram excluídos idosos em atendimento fonoaudiológico e com alimentação somente por via alternativa. A divisão entre grupo experimental e grupo controle foi por sorteio. A avaliação pré e pós terapia, realizada por uma fonoaudióloga cega para a intervenção, utilizou protocolo Northwestern Patient Dysphagia Check Sheet (NDPCS), a escala Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) e a Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Durante a oferta a velocidade da deglutição e o número de deglutições (pastoso e líquido) foram avaliados. Os participantes do grupo experimental foram submetidos a cinco sessões consecutivas de estimulação tátil-térmica por 30 minutos. Resultados Oito participantes, com idade entre 68 e 98 anos, fizeram parte da amostra seis mulheres e dois homens. No grupo experimental não observou-se modificação na velocidade da deglutição bem como no número de deglutições nas consistências pastosa e líquida. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas para os itens 23 a 28 do instrumento NDPCS nas duas consistências, bem como não houve modificação na escala FOIS. Também não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre o grupo experimental e o grupo controle para essas duas consistências. Conclusão A estimulação tátil-térmica não modificou o padrão de deglutição em idosos institucionalizados com demência grave.


ABSTRACT Purpose To determine the effectiveness of oral sensitivity therapy, on institutionalized elderly patients with severe dementia. Methods A series of eight cases residing in a long-term institution. With the consent of their families, we included elderly residents diagnosed with severe dementia and severe dysphagia. We excluded elderly patients who were already undergoing swallow therapy and those who used only alternative means of feeding. The experimental and the control groups were randomly allocated by drawing lots. A blind assessor carried out pre- and post-therapy tests, using: Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet (NDPCS) protocol, Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). During tests with food, the assessor evaluated swallowing speed and the number of swallows per serving (puréed texture and liquid). The participants in the experimental group underwent five consecutive sessions of tactile-thermal stimulation for 30 minutes each time. Results There were eight participants, six women and two men, between the ages of 68 and 98. No significant difference was found in the items 23 to 28 of the NDPCS instrument for both liquid and puréed consistencies as well as no difference was observed in the number of swallows or the speed of swallowing. Additionally, there was no change in FOIS scale, and neither anysignificant difference between the experimental and the control group. Conclusion Thermal-tactile stimulation did not change the swallowing patterns of institutionalized elderly patients with severe dementia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Dementia/therapy , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Homes for the Aged
14.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(4): 196-205, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248397

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Endotracheal intubation has been associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia among patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) by comparing patients requiring orotracheal intubation with those who did not undergo this procedure. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed the medical records of 681 patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between 2014 and 2017; inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 years and older who had been assessed by the hospital's Speech Therapy Service. Patients who had undergone tracheostomy, who had incomplete medical records or multiple speech-language assessments were excluded. Results: A total of 380 patients were included in the statistical analysis: 97 (25.5%) had not undergone orotracheal intubation (Group 1), 229 (60.3%) had undergone orotracheal intubation once (Group 2), and 54 (14.2%) had undergone orotracheal intubation on 2 or more occasions (Group 3). Regarding the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), 61.1% of patients in Group 3 received a FOIS I classification (p = 0.020), whereas 16.5% of patients from Group 1 received a FOIS V. Concerning their outcomes, 40.7% of patients in Group 3 died (p = 0.006), and 82.5% of patients in Group 1 were discharged from the ICU. Considering the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia according to the Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (PARD), no statistically significant association was observed between groups (p = 0.261). Conclusions: In this study, the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia was higherin patients who had undergone orotracheal intubation in the ICU. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition , Intubation , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
15.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 138-144, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087572

ABSTRACT

The difficulties of sucking, swallowing and feeding have been extensively studied in pediatric population with congenital or acquired condition. The severity and variety of signs and symptoms guide the evaluation and treatment with relatively low complexity, if the necessary specialists and equipment are available. The confrontation of swallowing and feeding disorders in newborns and infants who do not have neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions becomes a major challenge. Difficulties are related to failures in the safety, efficiency and behavior of the child when feeding. This article reviews the development of feeding, the relationship with the digestive air tract and the impact on speech acquisition. Assessment and treatment criteria are also detailed, with emphasis on the management of multidisciplinary teams and active family incorporation.


Las dificultades de succión, deglución y alimentación han sido ampliamente estudiadas en población pediátrica portadora de alguna condición congénita o adquirida. La severidad y variedad de signos y síntomas, orientan a la evaluación y tratamiento con relativa baja complejidad, si se cuenta con los especialistas y equipamiento necesario. Se transforma en un desafío mayor el enfrentamiento de alteraciones de deglución y alimentación en recién nacidos y lactantes que no presentan condiciones neurológicas, genéticas o metabólicas. Las dificultades se relacionan con fallas en la seguridad, eficiencia y la conducta del niño al alimentarse. En este artículo se revisa el desarrollo de la alimentación, su relación con el tracto aéreo digestivo y el impacto en la adquisición del habla. También se detallan criterios de evaluación e intervención, con énfasis en el manejo de equipos multidisciplinarios e incorporación activa de la familia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sucking Behavior , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/etiology
16.
CoDAS ; 31(3): e20180100, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011931

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito imediato da Estimulação Elétrica Neuromuscular (EENM) sensorial e motora, nas fases oral e faríngea da deglutição, em um homem de 64 anos, após tratamento de câncer de laringe. Foi realizado exame de videofluoroscopia durante a deglutição de 5 ml de mel e pudim, em três condições: sem estimulação, com EENM sensorial, com EENM motora, definidas de forma randomizada. Foi classificado o grau da disfunção da deglutição (DOSS), a presença de estase de alimentos (escala de Eisenhuber), de penetração laríngea e aspiração laringotraqueal (PAS), além da medida do tempo de trânsito oral e faríngeo, realizadas por uma avaliadora sem conhecimento sobre o estímulo aplicado. Na escala DOSS, houve melhora com a estimulação sensorial e motora. Na escala PAS, verificou-se melhora, tanto para o estímulo sensorial quanto motor na consistência mel, porém observou-se piora no estímulo motor para a consistência pudim. Houve diminuição dos resíduos em base de língua com estímulo sensorial e motor para as consistências pudim e mel; piora no estímulo motor na parede posterior da faringe para a consistência mel. Em relação ao tempo de trânsito oral e faríngeo, não foi observada diferença entre os níveis de estimulações. Os resultados demonstraram que a EENM em nível sensorial e motor melhorou o grau da disfagia em um indivíduo após o tratamento de câncer de laringe, com maiores benefícios do nível sensorial em relação ao motor no que diz respeito à presença de penetração e resíduos.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the immediate effect of sensory and motor neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), in the oral and pharyngeal phases of deglutition, in a 64 year male patient after laryngeal cancer treatment. Videofluoroscopy was performed during deglutition of 5 ml of honey and pudding, under three conditions: without stimulation, with sensory NMES, with motor NMES, randomly defined. The degree of dysfunction of deglutition (DOSS), the presence of food stasis (Eisenhuber scale), laryngeal penetration and laryngotracheal aspiration (PAS) and oral and pharyngeal transit time were evaluated. An evaluator without knowing about the applied stimulus. On the DOSS scale there was improvement with sensory and motor stimulation. In the PAS scale, there was improvement, both for the sensorial and motor stimulus in the honey consistency, but the worsening of the motor stimulus for the pudding consistency was observed. There was reduction of the residues in the base of the tongue with sensorial and motor stimulus for the consistency of pudding and honey; worsening motor stimulus in the posterior wall of the pharynx for honey consistency. There was no difference between stimulation levels regarding to oral and pharyngeal transit time. The results showed that NMES at the sensory and motor levels improved the degree of dysphagia in an individual after the treatment of laryngeal cancer, with greater benefits of the sensory level in relation to the motor regarding to the presence of penetration and residues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Laryngeal Neoplasms/complications , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Laryngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 41-45, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888244

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%), magnesium in 21 (20.8%), chlorine in 21 (20.8%), potassium in 14 (13.8%), calcium in 11 (10.9 %) and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%). The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L) was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea (PEG) é a via de eleição preferencial para a nutrição entérica de longa duração. A disfagia neurológica e as neoplasias cervico-faciais constituem as principais indicações para PEG por poderem conduzir a desnutrição energético-proteica e alterações hidroeletrolíticas, com potencial impacto negativo no equilíbrio metabólico. A síndrome de realimentação pode também estar associada a alterações hidroeletrolíticas graves em doentes alimentados por PEG e contribuir para um mau prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações das concentrações séricas dos principais eletrólitos e a eventual associação entre os valores séricos alterados e o prognóstico dos doentes gastrostomizados. Métodos - Estudo retrospetivo realizado em doentes seguidos na Consulta de Nutrição Artificial do Hospital Garcia de Orta, propostos e submetidos a PEG, de 2010 a 2016 e que faleceram sob nutrição por PEG. Consideraram-se os valores séricos dos iões em estudo avaliados imediatamente antes do procedimento endoscópico de gastrostomia, obtidos por consulta do processo clínico. A sobrevida, após a realização da PEG até à morte foi registrada em meses. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 101 doentes. A sobrevida média pós-gastrostomia foi 6,55 meses. Destes, 59 apresentaram alterações de alguns iões no momento da realização da PEG. O sódio estava alterado em 31 (30,6%), magnésio em 20 (19,8%), cloro em 19 (18,8%), potássio em 14 (13,8%), cálcio em 10 (9,9%) e o fósforo em 9 (8,9%). Quando comparada a sobrevida dos doentes com valores de sódio baixo (<135 mmol/L) com a dos doentes com valores normais/elevados, esta foi 2,76 meses vs 7,80 meses, respectivamente (P=0,007). CONCLUSÃO: As alterações dos eletrólitos séricos nos doentes submetidos a PEG foram muito frequentes, com mais de metade dos doentes a apresentarem pelo menos uma alteração aquando da realização do procedimento. A alteração mais frequente foi a hiponatrémia, associando-se a pior prognóstico com sobrevida significativamente mais curta, refletindo provavelmente um grave compromisso metabólico sistêmico.


Subject(s)
Gastrostomy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/blood , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Electrolytes/blood , Endoscopy/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Portugal/epidemiology , Potassium/blood , Prognosis , Gastrostomy/mortality , Sodium Chloride/blood , Deglutition Disorders/mortality , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Middle Aged
18.
CoDAS ; 30(5): e20170215, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952876

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Tem-se por objetivo discutir aspectos da atuação fonoaudiológica em disfagia, voltada para os cuidados paliativos e a qualidade de vida em deglutição. Trata-se de um estudo de quatro casos com esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico. Foi aplicado o questionário de qualidade de vida em disfagia (SWAL-QOL), realizada entrevista estruturada, classificação da funcionalidade da deglutição pela Funcional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), aplicação da escala de gravidade da ELA (EGELA), realizada videofluoroscopia da deglutição e classificação da severidade da disfagia pela Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale (DOSS). Observou-se que os casos apresentavam tempo de doença entre 12 e 35 meses e possuíam o desejo de manter uma via oral de alimentação, mesmo que mínima, em caso de aceitação da via alternativa de alimentação. Quanto à severidade da disfagia, observada por meio do exame de videofluoroscopia e classificada pela DOSS, apresentavam desde deglutição funcional até disfagia leve a moderada. O impacto na qualidade de vida em deglutição foi mensurado entre discreto e severo. Nem todos apresentavam correspondência entre a severidade da disfagia e a qualidade de vida em deglutição, sendo observado impacto na qualidade de vida, mesmo nos casos com menor grau de disfagia. Os participantes relataram que se sentiriam desconfortáveis em caso de alimentação exclusiva por via alternativa e que a ingestão de alimentos por via oral, mesmo que mínima, apenas pelo prazer da alimentação, refletiria em sua qualidade de vida.


ABSTRACT This study aims to discuss Speech-language pathology (SLP) therapy intervention in dysphagia with a focus on palliative care and quality of life. It is a case study conducted with four participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis undergoing SLP therapy outpatient follow-up. The Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and a structured interview were applied to the participants, who also underwent Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS). Participants were classified according to the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Severity Scale, translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (ALSSS), and the Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale (DOSS). Four patients showed interest in maintaining oral food intake, even if minimal, in the event of tube feeding. Regarding severity of dysphagia, observed in the SVF, the participants presented DOSS classification ranging from functional deglutition to mild-to-moderate dysphagia. The impact on swallowing quality of life was between discrete and severe. Not all participants presented correlation between severity of dysphagia and SWAL-QOL level of impairment, with impact on the quality of life observed even in cases of mild dysphagia severity. Participants reported that they would feel uncomfortable in the event of exclusive tube feeding, and that the oral intake of food, even if minimal only for the pleasure of eating, would have a direct or indirect impact on their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology , Deglutition/physiology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/psychology , Middle Aged
19.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(3): 265-272, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046875

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Part of the prognosis of hospitalized patient depends on nutritional status and the safety and efficacy of the feeding administration route. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify data on the indication of nasoenteric tube (NET) prescription to analyze the profile of these patients. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out with data collection in medical records of patients over 18 years of age, of both sexes, treated at the Emergency Adult Service (EAS), using NET. Results: there was a predominance of females (51.9%); neurological disease was the most prevalent underlying disease, and 57.8% had more than one diagnosed disease. Malnutrition, bronchopneumonia, and dysphagia were present in 23.6%, 27% and 40% of the cases, respectively. There was a request for speech-language evaluation in only 8.7% of the patients. And 80.7% did not use NET prior to emergency care. Regarding the indications for the use of NET by group of underlying disease, low food intake was the most prevalent clinical reason described in the medical records, followed by dysphagia, with a higher prevalence of patients taking NET for nutritional reasons. There was no justification for prescription in 15.2% of the sample. There was an association between the variables bronchopneumonia and dysphagia (p = 0.01). Conclusion: It was verified that in the studied population there are risk factors for dysphagia. The analysis of the population profile in the present study contributed to increased knowledge and information about this population regarding the criteria for indication of the use of the alternative route. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Malnutrition/rehabilitation , Emergency Service, Hospital
20.
CoDAS ; 29(5): e20160222, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890798

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o processo de implantação de Protocolo Assistencial para os Distúrbios da Deglutição em unidade hospitalar pública de alta densidade tecnológica no Distrito Federal. Método Trata-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo Relato de Experiência com descrição do processo de implantação de Protocolo Assistencial para os Distúrbios da Deglutição em unidade hospitalar pública de alta densidade tecnológica no Distrito Federal. Resultados A implantação do Protocolo consistiu em três etapas de trabalho: Etapa 1 - busca na literatura sobre os procedimentos que caracterizariam as melhores práticas propedêuticas e terapêuticas; Etapa 2 - discussão com equipe multidisciplinar para ajustes necessários à execução da proposta de implantação de um Protocolo Assistencial para os Distúrbios da Deglutição; e Etapa 3 - proposta final do Protocolo Assistencial para os Distúrbios da Deglutição considerando as particularidades do serviço. Conclusão A proposta final do Protocolo Assistencial para os Distúrbios da Deglutição (PADD) apresenta um método sistematizado pré-definido para acompanhar os pacientes com alteração da deglutição de unidades de saúde de alta densidade tecnológica. O PADD propõe-se a favorecer a detecção precoce do distúrbio, a tomada de decisões terapêuticas uniformes, a utilização de métodos propedêuticos e terapêuticos de baixo custo e a auxiliar gestores no processo de avaliar a qualidade do serviço ofertado através da mensuração de indicadores.


ABSTRACT Purpose To describe the implementation process of a Clinical Practice Protocol for Patients with Swallowing Disorders (CPSD) in a public hospital of high technological density in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods This is an Experience Report study which describes the implementation process of a Clinical Practice Protocol for Patients with Swallowing Disorders in a public hospital of high technological density in the Federal District. Results The protocol was implemented in three stages: Stage 1 - literature search on the procedures that characterize the best propaedeutic and therapeutic practices; Stage 2 - discussion with a multidisciplinary team about the adjustments needed to implement the CPSD; and Stage 3 - Final proposal for the protocol implementation considering the particularities of the service. Conclusion The final proposal of the Clinical Practice Protocol for Patients with Swallowing Disorders (CPSD) provides a predefined, systematic method to monitor patients with swallowing disorders in high technological density health facilities. In addition to being inexpensive, the CPSD fosters decision-making, favors early detection of disorders, and assists managers with evaluating the quality of the service offered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Brazil , Deglutition Disorders/classification
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