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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533505

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Entre las enfermedades neurodegenerativas se encuentra un grupo de patologías que se caracterizan por un compromiso prominente del lenguaje, denominadas usualmente afasias primarias progresivas, las cuales se subdividen en 3 tipos: variante logopénica, variante semántica y variante no fluente o agramática. Presentación del caso: Paciente con cuadro clínico que inicia a los 65 años, con disminución en la interacción social. Un par de meses después, la esposa nota que el lenguaje del paciente se torna poco fluido, habla con palabras o frases cortas, no logra decir oraciones completas, además de presentar cambios en la entonación de las palabras y alteraciones del lenguaje escrito. El paciente manifiesta que su principal limitación en el momento es el no poder expresar lo que quiere decir, y por este motivo consulta. Discusión: En el caso de este paciente, se describe inicialmente un cambio en su personalidad que no compromete su funcionalidad, sin embargo, al poco tiempo se presenta compromiso del lenguaje como síntoma prominente y que genera mayor compromiso en su calidad de vida, con pruebas neuropsicológicas y hallazgos de neuroimagen que apoyan el diagnóstico de afasia primaria progresiva (APP) variante no fluente o agramatical, con síntomas comportamentales y motores asociados. Conclusión: Las APP son un grupo de trastornos neurocognitivos cuya característica primordial es el compromiso en el lenguaje, cada variante de APP tiene unas características clínicas y criterios diagnósticos específicos que se deben conocer para lograr sospechar el diagnóstico y hacer un abordaje apropiado en el paciente.


Introduction: In the group of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a group of pathologies that are characterized by a prominent compromise of language, normally called primary progressive aphasias, these are subdivided into 3 types: logopenic variant, semantic variant and non-fluent or agrammatic variant. Case presentation: Patient with a clinical picture that begins at age 65, with decreased social interaction, a couple of months later his wife notices that his language becomes not fluent, speaks in short words or phrases, cannot say complete sentences, in addition to changes in the intonation of words and alterations in written language, the patient states that his main limitation at the moment is not being able to express what he wants to say and for this reason they consult. Discussion: In the case of this patient, a change in his personality is initially described that does not compromise his functionality, however soon after a language involvement is presented as the main symptom and the one that generates a compromise in his quality of life, with neuropsychological tests and findings on neuroimaging that supports the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) non-fluent or agrammatical variant, with associated behavioral and motor symptoms. Conclusion: APPs are a group of neurocognitive disorders whose primary characteristic is language impairment. Each APP variant has specific clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria that must be known in order to suspect the diagnosis and make an appropriate approach to the patient.


Subject(s)
Neurocognitive Disorders , Dementia , Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia , Language
3.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 31(2): 39-44, 10-abr-2023. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1518754

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la demencia es la alteración cognitiva con mayor incidencia. Provoca una disminución de las capacidades físicas y mentales. Las habilidades y conocimientos del cuidador familiar tienen un papel importante para entender las necesidades, fortalezas y limitaciones en el cuidado. Objetivo: establecer la relación entre los conocimientos y las habilidades en cuidados del cuidador familiar del adulto mayor con demencia. Metodología: estudio cuantitativo, transversal, prospectivo y con alcance correlacional. Muestra no aleatoria por disponibilidad de 26 cuidadores. Se aplicó la Escala de conocimientos sobre demencia DKAT2-sp con alfa de Cronbach de 0.79 y el Inventario de habilidad de cuidado-CAI con alfa de Cronbach de 0.84. Resultados: el género predominante fue el femenino. Los resultados de la prueba Rho de Spearman (p = 0.149) comprobaron que no existe relación y mostraron un nivel de significación mayor que lo esperado entre el conocimiento y la habilidad. Los familiares de personas con demencia cumplen con otros roles diferentes, además de que no reciben capacitación; tienen conocimientos altos y moderados con habilidades de cuidado medias y altas. Conclusión: los niveles de habilidad y conocimiento no son insuficientes; no existe una relación entre las variables de estudio.


Introduction: Dementia is the cognitive disorder with the higher incidence. It causes a decrease in physical and mental abilities. The skills and knowledge of the family caregiver comprise an important role in understanding the needs, strengths and limitations in care. Objective: To establish the relationship between knowledge and skills of the family caregiver of the elderly with dementia. Methodology: Study with a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective approach and correlational scope. Non-random sample due to availability of 26 caregivers. The DKAT2-sp Dementia Knowledge Scale (with 0.79 Cronbach's alpha) and the Care Skills Inventory-CAI instrument (0.84 Cronbach's alpha) were applied. Results: The predominant gender was female. The results of the Spearman's Rho test (p = 0.149) confirmed that there is no relationship, showing a higher level of significance than expected between knowledge and ability. Family members of people with dementia fulfill other different roles, in addition to not receiving training; they have high and moderate knowledge with medium and high care skills. Conclusion: The skill and knowledge levels are not insufficient, demonstrating that there is no relationship between the variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Caregivers/education , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/psychology , Aptitude , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(1): 51-56, ene.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429574

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagnóstico oportuno del trastorno neurocognitivo es de los principales retos en la atención de los trastornos neurocognitivos. Por esto, se han generado estrategias para la detección preclínica de la enfermedad, entre ellas las destinadas a evaluar síntomas neuropsiquiátricos (NPS) como la escala Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). MÉTODOS: Inicialmente se realizó una búsqueda en BVSalud, Medline y PsycNet, luego se realizó una búsqueda en bola de nieve. Se incluyeron términos referentes a deterioro comportamental leve (abarcando los NPS en etapas tempranas), deterioro cognitivo leve y términos específicos del MBI-C. RESULTADOS: La presencia de NPS se asocia con un aumento en la incidencia anual de demencia. Al evaluarlos con MBI-C, su puntuación se correlaciona con biomarcadores como una mayor atrofia cortical, la presencia de la proteína β-amiloide, así como disminución en funciones ejecutivas como la capacidad de enfocar la atención y la memoria de trabajo. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en la literatura sugieren la utilidad de MBI-C como marcador de neurodegeneración en estadios previos a la demencia, esto mediante la evaluación de su capacidad predictiva de forma independiente y al compararla con otros biomarcadores. CONCLUSIONES: MBI-C supone ser un instrumento de fácil aplicabilidad e interpretación, sostenible e incluyente. Sin embargo, quedan vacíos sobre la pertinencia de esta escala, por lo que surge la necesidad de investigar este tema.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorder is the main challenge of dementia health attention. Therefore, strategies for preclinical detection of the disease have been created, like those intended to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), like the Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). METHODS: Research was performed in BVSalud, Medline, and Psynet. Then a snowball sampling was done. The terms included were mild behavioral impairment (included NPS in initial stages), mild cognitive impairment, and specific terms of MBI-C. RESULTS: The presence of NPS increase the incidence of dementia, with an annual conversion rate of 9%. About MBI-C, the score has been related to biomarkers like worse brain atrophy in patients with Parkinson's Disease and a positive relationship with the presence of B-amyloid protein. Also, Creese and cols. show that mild behavioral impairment (measured by MBI-C) is associated with a faster decrease in attention and working memory. DISCUSSION: MBI-C utility as a neurodegenerative marker has been demonstrated to detect cognitive, neuropsychiatry, and functional symptoms that may precede dementia by evaluating its predictive capacity alone and comparing it to other biomarkers. CONCLUSION: MBI-C is easy to apply and interpret, is sustainable and inclusive. However, there are still gaps in the relevance of the scale, so there is the need to continue investigating this topic.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction , Signs and Symptoms , Neuropsychiatry , Forecasting
5.
Singapore medical journal ; : 497-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007293

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are considered integral parts of dementia. While pharmacotherapy is reserved for severe symptoms of BPSD, the associated adverse effects can be detrimental. Therefore, non-pharmacological intervention is recommended as the first line of treatment in the management of BPSD. This study aimed to explore the non-pharmacological approaches for the management of BPSD and the strategies and barriers to implementing them in secondary care facilities in Malaysia.@*METHODS@#A qualitative study design was employed. Data were collected through observations and semi-structured interviews of 12 caregivers and 11 people with dementia (PWD) at seven secondary care facilities. Observations were written in the field notes, and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. All data were subjected to thematic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Some personalised non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, music therapy, reminiscence therapy and pet therapy, were conducted in several nursing care centres. Collaborative care from the care providers and family members was found to be an important facilitating factor. The lack of family support led to care providers carrying additional workload beyond their job scope. Other barriers to non-pharmacological interventions were cultural and language differences between the care providers and PWD, inadequate staff numbers and training, and time constraints.@*CONCLUSION@#Although non-pharmacological approaches have been used to some extent in Malaysia, continuous education and training of healthcare providers and the family members of PWD is needed to overcome the challenges to their successful implementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Psychotherapy , Qualitative Research , Health Personnel , Caregivers
6.
The Filipino Family Physician ; : 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980709

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dementia is a chronic progressive disease that ultimately affects the patient’s quality of life. It is therefore important to manage and treat patients with the disease holistically, addressing other factors such as the patient’s lifestyle, family problems and even economic strains.@*Objective@#This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a patient-centered intervention among patients with dementia as the primary objective.@*Methods@#A meta-analysis of studies was done on elderly patients diagnosed with dementia undergoing usual care or patientcentered care. Eligible studies for the meta-analysis were searched on electronic databases of Pubmed, Cochrane, Grey Literature and by cross referencing. Three review authors independently carried out all aspects of study selection, ‘risk of bias’ assessment and data extraction. RevMan 5 software was used in the analysis of gathered data.@*Results@#Results in favor of patient centered care interventions were seen in the studies. In the analyses of 3 studies pertaining to the improvement of quality of life as measured by QUALID, QOD AD and EURO QL scale, the combined results were noted to favor the intervention over the control. Pooled results showed effectiveness favoring PCC intervention as compared to usual care (mean difference: 0.26, 95% CI: -1.31, 0.80), though not statistically significant.@*Conclusion@#Patient-centered care intervention is effective in improving the quality of life of patients with dementia. PCC should be initiated whenever possible from the time of dementia diagnosis and through the stages of the diseas


Subject(s)
Patient-Centered Care , Dementia
7.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1114-1119, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore incidence, risk factors and the relationship between preoperative heart failure and prognosis in elderly patients with hip fracture.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 569 elderly patients with hip fracture treated from January 2012 to December 2019, including 522 males and 1 047 females, aged 81.00 (75.00, 90.00) years old;896 intertrochanteric fractures and 673 femoral neck fractures. Patients were divided into heart failure and non-heart failure groups according to whether they developed heart failure before surgery, and heart failure was set as the dependent variable, with independent variables including age, gender, fracture type, comorbidities and hematological indicators, etc. Univariate analysis was performed at first, and independent variables with statistical differences were included in multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Independent risk factors for preoperative heart failure were obtained. The length of hospital stay, perioperative complications, mortality at 30 days and 1 year after surgery were compared between heart failure and non-heart failure groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 91 patients in heart failure group, including 40 males and 51 females, aged 82.00 (79.00, 87.00) years old;55 patients with intertrochanteric fracture and 36 patients with femoral neck fracture. There were 1 478 patients in non-heart failure groups, including 482 males and 996 females, aged 81.00(75.00, 86.00) years old;841 patients with intertrochanteric fracture and 637 patients with femoral neck fracture. There were significant differences in age, sex, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia and dementia between two groups(P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic analysis of statistically significant factors showed that males(OR=1.609, P=0.032), age(OR=1.032, P=0.031), arrhythmia(OR=2.045, P=0.006), dementia (OR=2.106, P=0.014) were independent risk factor for preoperative heart failure. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 9.9% and 26.4% in heart failure group and 3.6% and 13.8% in non-heart failure group, respectively;and had statistical significance between two groups (P<0.05). There were significant differences in pulmonary infection, cerebrovascular complications and cardiovascular complications between two groups (P<0.05). The duration of hospitalization in heart failure group was (16.21±10.64) d compared with that in non-heart failure group (13.26±8.00) d, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.513, P=0.012).@*CONCLUSION@#Male, old age, arrhythmia and dementia are independent risk factors for heart failure after hip fracture in elderly patients. Patients with preoperative heart failure have a higher incidence of postoperative pulmonary infection, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications, higher mortality at 30 d and 1 year after surgery, and longer hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Retrospective Studies , Hip Fractures/surgery , Femoral Neck Fractures , Heart Failure/etiology , Prognosis , Heart Diseases , Risk Factors , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Dementia , Arrhythmias, Cardiac
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 11-11, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Sex- and age-specific impacts of cardiovascular risk factors on the development of dementia have not been well evaluated. We investigated these impacts of smoking, overweight/obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus on the risk of disabling dementia.@*METHODS@#The study participants were 25,029 (10,134 men and 14,895 women) Japanese aged 40-74 years without disabling dementia at baseline (2008-2013). They were assessed on smoking status (non-current or current), overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or any antihypertensive medication use), and diabetes mellitus (a fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL, non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program or glucose-lowering medication use) at baseline. Disabling dementia was identified as the level of care required ≥1 and cognitive disability grade ≥IIa according to the National Long-term Care Insurance Database. We used a Cox proportional regression model to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of disabling dementia according to the cardiovascular risk factors and calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs).@*RESULTS@#During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 1,322 (606 men and 716 women) developed disabling dementia. Current smoking and hypertension were associated with a higher risk of disabling dementia in both sexes, whereas overweight or obesity was not associated with the risk in either sex. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher risk only in women (p for sex interaction = 0.04). The significant PAFs were 13% for smoking and 14% for hypertension in men and 3% for smoking, 12% for hypertension, and 5% for diabetes mellitus in women. The total PAFs of the significant risk factors were 28% in men and 20% in women. When stratified by age, hypertension in midlife (40-64 years) was associated with the increased risk in men, while diabetes mellitus in later-life (65-74 years) was so in women.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A substantial burden of disabling dementia was attributable to smoking, and hypertension in both sexes and diabetes mellitus in women, which may require the management of these cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Overweight/complications , East Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Dementia/etiology
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246224, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431120

ABSTRACT

O isolamento social provocado pela pandemia de covid-19 exigiu uma intensificação no estabelecimento de parâmetros para o trabalho do neuropsicólogo com suas especificidades. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é levantar reflexões sobre a prática neuropsicológica infantil via internet baseada na nossa experiência prática vivenciada no período, relacionando com as referências teóricas da abordagem histórico-cutural e outros trabalhos que discorrem sobre as particularidades dessa modalidade de atendimento. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica em fontes reconhecidas, como SciELO e Google Acadêmico, utilizando-se marcadores como "neuropsicologia on-line" e "teleneuropsicologia", entre outros, em português, inglês e espanhol. Os trabalhos encontrados foram utilizados como fundamento para discutir as ideias aqui apresentadas, a partir da experiência dos autores durante esse período. Considera-se que os neuropsicólogos precisam enfrentar a possível necessidade do trabalho on-line, considerando que as situações vividas durante a pandemia tendem a aumentar a necessidade de avaliações e intervenções neuropsicológicas. Ao mesmo tempo, se prevê que essa via de trabalho deve se intensificar após o isolamento, dentro do que se tem denominado como "o novo normal". Para isso, é essencial que haja esforço por parte da comunidade neuropsicológica para mostrar como essa área de trabalho pode ser útil para crianças, seus pais e professores. Conclui-se que é preciso ter a noção de que nenhuma via ou metodologia de trabalho é absolutamente completa, sendo essencial a instrumentalização das vantagens e desvantagens de todas elas.(AU)


The social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demanded intensification in the establishment of parameters for the neuropsychologist's work with its specificities. Thus, the aim of this article is to raise reflections on child neuropsychological practice via the internet, based on our practical experience in this period, relating to the theoretical references of the cultural-historical approach and other works that discuss the particularities of this type of care. For this, a bibliographic research was carried out in recognized sources such as SciELO and Google Scholar, using markers such as "online neuropsychology" and teleneuropsychology, among others, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The works found were used as a basis for discussing the ideas presented here which are based on the authors' experience during this period. It is considered that neuropsychologists need to face the possible need for online work, considering that situations experienced during the pandemic tend to increase the need for neuropsychological assessments and interventions. At the same time, it is expected that this work path should intensify after isolation, within of what has been called "the new normal". For this, an effort by the neuropsychological community is essential to show how this area of work can be useful for children, their parents and teachers. It is concluded that it is necessary to have the notion that no way or work methodology is absolutely complete, being essential the instrumentalization of the advantages and disadvantages of all of them.(AU)


El aislamiento social provocado por la pandemia de Covid-19 exigió una intensificación en el establecimiento de parámetros para el trabajo del neuropsicólogo con sus especificidades. Así, el objetivo de este artículo es plantear reflexiones sobre la práctica neuropsicológica infantil a través de internet, a partir de nuestra experiencia práctica en este período, en relación con los referentes teóricos del enfoque histórico-cultural y otros trabajos que discuten las particularidades de este tipo de cuidado. Para esto, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en fuentes reconocidas como SciELO y Google Académico, utilizando marcadores como "neuropsicología en línea" y teleneuropsicología, entre otros, en portugués, inglés y español. Los trabajos encontrados sirvieron de base para discutir las ideas aquí presentadas a partir de la experiencia de los autores durante este período. Se considera que los neuropsicólogos necesitan enfrentar la posible necesidad de trabajo en línea, considerando que las situaciones vividas durante la pandemia tienden a incrementar la necesidad de evaluaciones e intervenciones neuropsicológicas. Al mismo tiempo, se espera que esta vía de trabajo se intensifique después del aislamiento, dentro de lo que se ha denominado "la nueva normalidad". Para esto, un esfuerzo de la comunidad neuropsicológica es fundamental para mostrar cómo esta área de trabajo puede ser útil para los niños, sus padres y profesores. Se concluye que es necesario tener la noción de que ninguna vía o metodología de trabajo es absolutamente completa, siendo imprescindible la instrumentalización de las ventajas y desventajas de todas ellas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Online Systems , Remote Consultation , Culture , Internet-Based Intervention , History , Neuropsychology , Parent-Child Relations , Aptitude Tests , Practice, Psychological , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Quality of Life , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Mainstreaming, Education , Adaptation, Psychological , Family , Child , Child Development , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Parenting , Cognition , Coronavirus Infections , Communication , Competency-Based Education , Compliance , Early Intervention, Educational , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Recognition, Psychology , Dementia , Growth and Development , Videoconferencing , Evaluation of Research Programs and Tools , Cerebrum , Interdisciplinary Studies , Spatial Memory , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Behavior Rating Scale , Patient Health Questionnaire , Memory and Learning Tests , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Frontal Lobe , Egocentrism , Clinical Reasoning , COVID-19 , Cognitive Training , Family Support , Human Development , Information Services , Intelligence Tests , Language Development , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Processes , Neurologic Examination , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007085, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1526556

ABSTRACT

De la mano del envejecimiento poblacional, la demencia o trastorno neurocognitivo mayor afecta a una cantidad cada vez mayor de personas, lo que implica un alto costo para los servicios de salud. Las guías de práctica clínica recomiendan ofrecer terapias de estimulación cognitiva a las personas afectadas y cada vez es más común el empleo de herramientas tecnológicas que permiten su aplicación a gran escala a pesar de la incertidumbre acerca de su beneficio.En este artículo revisamos la evidencia más actualizada sobre la eficacia de las herramientas computarizadas para el entrenamiento cognitivo de pacientes con demencia. Encontramos algunos estudios que sugieren que podría haber una posible mejora cognitiva en los pacientes con demencia y en la calidad de vida de sus cuidadores. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los estudios no fueron de buena calidad metodológica, fueron realizados con un número limitado de pacientes, en periodos poco prolongados, y los desenlaces fueron evaluados a través de múltiples pruebas de difícil interpretación. (AU)


With the increasing population aging, dementia or major neurocognitive disorder affects a growing number of people,incurring a substantial burden on healthcare services. Clinical practice guidelines recommend providing cognitive stimulation therapies to affected individuals, and the use of technological tools for implementing therapies on a large scale is increasingly common despite the uncertainty about their benefits.In this article, we reviewed the most up-to-date evidence on the effectiveness of computerized tools for cognitive training in patients with dementia. We found some studies that suggest that there could be a possible cognitive improvement in patients with dementia and in the quality of life of their caregivers. However, most studies were not of good methodological quality, were carried out with a limited number of patients, in short periods of time, and the outcomes were evaluated through multiple tests that were difficult to interpret. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/therapy , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Telerehabilitation , Cognitive Training/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Personal Autonomy , Computers, Handheld , Mobile Applications , Memory, Short-Term
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 83, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522874

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the consumption of drugs for Alzheimer's disease on the Brazilian private market and its geographical distribution from 2014 to 2020. METHODS National data from the Brazilian National System of Controlled Product Management were used, regarding sales of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine from January 2014 to December 2020. Sales data were used as a proxy for drug consumption and expressed as defined daily dose/1,000 inhabitants/year at national, regional, federative unit and microregion levels. RESULTS Drug consumption went from 5,000 defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants, in 2014, to more than 16,000/1,000 inhabitants, in 2020, and all federative units showed positive variation. The Brazilian Northeast had the highest cumulative consumption in the period but displayed microregional disparities while the North region had the lowest consumption. Donepezil and memantine were the most consumed drugs, with the highest growth in consumption from 2014 to 2020. CONCLUSION The consumption of medicines indicated to treat Alzheimer's disease tripled in Brazil between 2014 and 2020, which may relate to the increase in the prevalence of the disease in the country, greater access to health services, and inappropriate use. This challenges managers and healthcare providers due to population aging and the increased prevalence of chronic-degenerative diseases.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o consumo de medicamentos para a doença de Alzheimer no mercado privado brasileiro e sua distribuição geográfica entre os anos de 2014 e 2020. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados do Sistema Nacional de Gerenciamento de Produtos Controlados relativos às vendas de donepezila, galantamina, rivastigmina e memantina, entre janeiro de 2014 a dezembro de 2020, em todo o território nacional. Os dados de venda foram utilizados como proxy para o consumo dos medicamentos, avaliado em dose diária definida (DDD)/1.000 habitantes/ano em nível nacional, regional, por unidade federativa e microrregião. RESULTADOS O consumo dos medicamentos passou de 5.000 DDD/1.000 habitantes em 2014 para mais de 16.000 DDD/1.000 habitantes em 2020, e todas as unidades de federação apresentaram variação positiva. A região Nordeste apresentou o maior consumo acumulado no período, porém exibiu disparidades microrregionais. A região Norte apresentou o menor consumo. Os medicamentos mais consumidos foram donepezila e memantina, os quais também apresentaram maior crescimento do consumo no intervalo de tempo entre os anos de 2014 e 2020. CONCLUSÃO O consumo de medicamentos para o tratamento da doença de Alzheimer triplicou no Brasil entre os anos de 2014 e 2020, o que pode estar relacionado ao aumento da prevalência da doença no país e/ou maior acesso a serviços de saúde, assim como estar ligado, também, à utilização inapropriada destes medicamentos. Este é um desafio para gestores e profissionais de saúde num cenário de envelhecimento populacional e aumento da prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Drug Utilization , Drugs from the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Care , Prescription Drugs , Alzheimer Disease , Brazil , Memantine , Chronic Disease , Rivastigmine , Donepezil , Galantamine
12.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 117 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518686

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as síndromes demenciais são condições crônicas de saúde que levam a importante declínio cognitivo e prejuízo funcional, especialmente para as atividades de vida diárias e atos da vida civil. O relatório médico visa nortear e auxiliar a decisão judicial e pode identificar a extensão, a gravidade e a eventual reversibilidade da incapacidade do indivíduo a ser interditado. A incapacidade é obtida por meio do processo de interdição. Objetivos: descrever e analisar as informações contidas nos relatórios médicos juntados aos processos de pessoas curateladas com síndromes demenciais; realizar entrevistas com seis magistrados das respectivas varas de família da comarca de Belo Horizonte analisadas; e após as análises dos dados, propor um modelo de relatório a ser confeccionado por médicos assistentes. Métodos: estudo transversal com dois braços, sendo um descritivo, transversal e retrospectivo de pesquisa documental de processos judiciais eletrônicos de curatela, de indivíduos acima de 18 anos portadores de diagnóstico de demência, nas 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, 9a e 11a varas de família do Tribunal de Justiça de Minas Gerais (TJMG). O outro braço do estudo é descritivo por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com os juízes de varas de família da comarca de Belo Horizonte, com abordagens quantitativas e qualitativas. Resultados: a amostra foi formada na sua maior parte por mulheres idosas, de alta escolaridade e viúvas. A curatela foi solicitada por filhos em 76,4% dos processos analisados. Houve predomínio do sexo feminino com a nomeação do curador, na sua maioria de filhas. Geriatria e Medicina de Família e comunidade se destacaram como especialidades que mais emitiram o relatório médico inicial (54,1%). A amostra apresentou predomínio da descrição do diagnóstico etiológico por demência de Alzheimer (61,1%) com prevalência do sexo feminino em portadores dessa etiologia (45,8%). Foi realizada a concordância do laudo médico pericial e o relatório médico. A avaliação de referência foi o laudo médico pericial. Na descrição da doença, 61,1% com diagnóstico de demência de Alzheimer; e no laudo pericial, 52,8%. Houve sensibilidade de 89,47% e especificidade de 70,59% do relatório médico perante o laudo pericial. O coeficiente de Kappa foi 0,6063, indicando concordância moderada. A análise descritiva de códigos da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID) no relatório médico esteve presente em 66,7% e 94,4% dos laudos periciais. O tempo de tramitação do processo (em meses) apresentou mediana de 20 meses. As varas de família B e D relataram resultado estatisticamente significativo, as medianas foram, respectivamente, 13,5 e 29 meses, referente ao período de tramitação desses processos (p=0,022). Conclusões: o relatório médico no contexto do processo judicial de curatela mostrou significativa importância para o portador de uma síndrome demencial, contribuindo para o esclarecimento de quais direitos e exercícios de atos da vida civil ainda poderão ser por ele praticados. O presente trabalho apurou a necessidade de treinamento da equipe multiprofissional da rede de atenção primária à saúde, para acolher devidamente o paciente e orientar as famílias/cuidadores de forma a resguardar e preservar os direitos do curatelado.


Introduction: Dementia syndromes are chronic health conditions that lead to significant cognitive decline and functional impairment, especially in daily life activities and acts of civil life. The medical report aims to guide and assist the judicial decision and can identify the extent, severity and possible reversibility of the incapacity of the individual to be interdicted. Disability is obtained through the interdiction process. Objectives: To describe and analyze the information contained in the medical reports attached to the processes of people under care with dementia syndromes. Conduct interviews with 6 magistrates from the respective family courts of the analyzed Belo Horizonte district. After analyzing the data, propose a report model to be prepared by assistant physicians. Methods: A cross-sectional study with two arms, one of which is descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective of documentary research on electronic judicial processes of guardianship, of individuals over 18 years of age with a diagnosis of dementia, in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th and 11th courts of family of the Court of Justice of Minas Gerais (TJMG). The other arm of the study is descriptive through semi-structured interviews with judges from family courts in the district of Belo Horizonte with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results: The sample consisted mostly of elderly women with high education and widows. The guardianship was requested by sons in 76.4% of the processes analyzed, there was a predominance of females with the appointment of the guardian, mostly daughters. Geriatrics and Family and Community Medicine stood out as the specialties that issued the most initial medical reports (54.1%). The sample showed a predominance of the description of the etiological diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia (61.1%) with a predominance of females in patients with this etiology (45.8%). The expert medical report and the medical report were agreed. The reference assessment was the expert medical report. In the description of the pathology, 61.1% diagnosed with Alzheimer's Dementia and in the expert report 52.8%. There was a sensitivity of 89.47% and specificity of 70.59% of the medical report compared to the expert report. The Kappa coefficient was 0.6063, indicating moderate agreement. The descriptive analysis of ICD codes in the medical report was present in 66.7% and 94.4% of the expert reports. The processing time of the process (in months) presented a median of 20 months. Family courts B and D showed a statistically significant result, the medians were respectively 13.5 and 29 months, referring to the processing period of these processes (p=0.022). Conclusions: The medical report in the context of the judicial guardianship process is of significant importance for the person with dementia syndrome, contributing to the clarification of which rights and exercises of acts of civil life can still be practiced by him. The present work pointed out the need for training of the multidisciplinary team of the primary health care network, to properly welcome the patient and guide the families/caregivers in order to safeguard and preserve the rights of the guardianship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Medical Records , Caregivers , Dementia , Alzheimer Disease
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
14.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20233006, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia are preventable and highly prevalent diseases, as is systemic arterial hypertension. Thus, it is speculated that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be neuroprotective against AD. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if the use of ARBs confers a neuroprotective effect on AD, through a systematic review. Methods: Studies published on Embase, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed were evaluated. The selection of the studies included those that evaluated the use of antihypertensive drugs in individuals with a previous diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. The data were extracted with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) form. The risk of bias was evaluated by the EPOC "Risk of bias tool." Results: A total of 12 articles were identified, and 3 articles were selected. Two of them analyzed the use of ARB/ACEI versus other antihypertensives and the development of dementia. Conclusion: There is a tendency for ARBs to be superior to other antihypertensives in preventing dementia.


RESUMO: A doença de Alzheimer (DA) e a demência são doenças potencialmente preveníveis, assim como a hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Dessa forma, especula-se que os bloqueadores dos receptores de angiotensina (BRA) tenham efeito neuroprotetor contra a DA. Objetivo: Avaliar se o uso de BRA confere efeito neuroprotetor para DA, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: Foram avaliados estudos publicados nas plataformas Embase, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed). Os estudos incluídos avaliaram o uso de anti-hipertensivos em indivíduos com diagnóstico prévio de comprometimento cognitivo leve. Os dados foram extraídos com base no formulário da EPOC. Risco de viés foi avaliado por meio da ferramenta da Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) "Risk of bias tool". Resultados: Foram encontrados 12 artigos e três foram selecionados. Dois analisaram o uso de BRA/IECA vs. o uso de outros anti-hipertensivos e o desenvolvimento de demência. Conclusão: Há uma tendência de que os BRA sejam superiores a outros anti-hipertensivos na prevenção da demência.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2023. 236 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444751

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem como objeto de análise os usos e sentidos das práticas de treinamento cerebral na realidade brasileira. Este tipo de treinamento, também chamado de treinamento cognitivo e ginástica cerebral, diz respeito à prática guiada de determinados exercícios e jogos com o objetivo de preservar ou melhorar as habilidades cognitivas e/ou a cognição como um todo. O objetivo central deste trabalho é mapear e analisar os sentidos atribuídos pelas empresas de treinamento cerebral e seus clientes às próprias atividades de treinamento cerebral. Para atingir tal objetivo realizamos a análise de conteúdo de dois conjuntos de dados: a) informações textuais dos sites oficiais das três franquias de treinamento cerebral existentes no Brasil (Supera, Super Cérebro e Ginástica do Cérebro) assim como das principais plataformas virtuais brasileiras (Supera Online, NeuroForma, Afinando o Cérebro e Mente Turbinada); b) transcrições de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez clientes destas empresas, com idades entre 22 e 87 anos, e que praticavam regulamente tais atividades. Após analisarmos o conteúdo dos sites e das entrevistas pudemos observar que os sentidos do treinamento cerebral se relacionam, para os clientes, a uma série de medos e esperanças ­ e também à busca por diversão e sociabilidade. Dentre os medos destaca-se aquele relacionado à possibilidade de desenvolver a doença de Alzheimer ou algum outro quadro demencial que prejudique suas funções cognitivas e os levem a perder a autonomia e se tornarem dependentes de outras pessoas. Por outro lado, a busca por atividades de treinamento cerebral se relaciona também à esperança de reverter ou interromper o "declínio cognitivo" e de evitar, assim, o desenvolvimento de uma demência. As empresas, por sua vez, fomentam em seus clientes e potenciais clientes, através dos seus sites publicitários, diferentes formas de esperança, em especial a esperança de um futuro com capacidade cognitiva nas diversas etapas da vida. É possível dizer que o que há em comum entre aquilo que é vendido pelas empresas e aquilo que é comprado por seus clientes é a esperança. Apontamos, por fim, para as técnicas de treinamento cerebral como tecnologias da esperança, devido ao fato de serem utilizadas pelas empresas do ramo para fomentarem em seus clientes e potenciais clientes a crença de que é possível agir no presente de forma a preservar e aprimorar as habilidades cognitivas, a prevenir doenças como o Alzheimer e a prolongar o tempo de vida com saúde, autonomia e independência... (AU)


The main goal of the present doctoral thesis is to analyze the uses and meanings of the practices of cerebral training in Brazil. This type of training, also known as cognitive training and cerebral gymnastics, is related to the guided practice of specific exercises and games to preserve or improve cognitive skills and/or cognition in general. The main objective of this work is to map and analyze the definitions attributed to cerebral training companies and their clients to their brain training activities. To achieve this goal, we analyzed two groups of data: a) textual information available on the official websites of three Brazilian franchises focused on brain training (Super, Super Cérebro e Ginástica do Cérebro), as well the leading Brazilian virtual platforms (Supera Online, NeuroForma, Afinando o Cérebro e Mente Turbinada); b) transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with ten regular consumers of these companies, ages from 22 to 87 years. After analyzing the contents available on the websites and interviews, we could observe that the aims of brain training are connected. Besides the search for fun and sociability on the client's side, there are a series of fears and hopes. Among fears, we could stand out as the ones connected to the possibility of developing a future Alzheimer's disease or any other type of dementia state that could harm their cognitive functions and, consequently, lead them to lose their autonomy and become dependent on others. On the other hand, the search for brain gymnastic activities is related to the hope to revert or interrupt the "cognitive decline" and avoid the development of dementia. However, on their side, the companies encourage their clients and potential clients, through their advertising websites, different ways to trigger their hopes, especially the hope of a future when they develop cognitive capacities in different parts of their lives. We could claim that what connects the message released and these types of products, bought and sold, is hope. We finally point out that the techniques of brain training are technologies of hope since the companies of the field use them to foment their clients and potential clients the belief that it is possible to achieve, in the present, some preservation and improvement of cognitive skills, to prevent some diseases as Alzheimer and to lengthen their life expectancy healthily, enjoying autonomy and independence...(AU)


Subject(s)
Neurosciences/instrumentation , Cognitive Training , Cognition , Dementia , Active Life Expectancy , Hope
16.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 28: e45268, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1406372

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. A autonomia privada existencial, como expressão da dignidade da pessoa humana, representa para o indivíduo a possibilidade de agir em conformidade com valores e significados eleitos essenciais na elaboração do seu projeto de vida. Neste estudo, seus autores, dois terapeutas ocupacionais, dois advogados e uma psicóloga, somam saberes e dialogam com intuito de demarcar a relevância da autonomia privada existencial nas condições de demência avançada, nos estados vegetativos permanentes e na iminência de morte. Na tarefa a que se propõem, os autores ponderam sobre suas experimentações e interlocuções enquanto profissionais de formação acadêmica diversificada, inclinados a ofertar espaços para comunicar vida e acolher dores. São apresentadas e discutidas as bases jurídicas da autonomia privada, assim como os pressupostos da Logoterapia de Viktor Frankl em defesa da liberdade de vontade e da dignidade no final da vida.


RESUMEN La autonomía existencial privada, como expresión de la dignidad de la persona humana, representa para el individuo la posibilidad de actuar de acuerdo con valores y significados elegidos esenciales en la elaboración de su proyecto de vida. En este estudio, sus autores, dos terapeutas ocupacionales, dos abogados y un psicólogo suman conocimiento y diálogo con el fin de demarcar la relevancia de la autonomía privada existencial en condiciones de demencia avanzada, en estados vegetativos permanentes y muerte inminente. En la tarea que proponen, los autores reflexionan sobre sus vivencias e interlocuciones como profesionales con una formación académica diversificada, inclinados a ofrecer espacios para comunicar la vida y acoger el dolor. Se presentan y discuten las bases legales de la autonomía privada, así como los supuestos de la Logoterapia de Viktor Frankl en defensa de la libertad de voluntad y dignidad al final de la vida.


ABSTRACT. Existential private autonomy, as an expression of the dignity of the human person, represents for the individual the possibility of acting in accordance with essential values and meanings for elaboration of their life project. The authors of this study, two occupational therapists, two lawyers and a psychologist gather their knowledge and dialogue to demarcate the relevance of existential private autonomy in conditions of advanced dementia, in permanent vegetative states and imminent death. In the task proposed, the authors pondered over their experiences and dialogues as professionals with a diversified academic background, inclined to provide spaces to communicate life and welcome pain. The legal bases of private autonomy are presented and discussed, as well as the assumptions of Viktor Frankl's Logotherapy in defense of freedom of will and dignity at the end of life.


Subject(s)
Right to Die/ethics , Persistent Vegetative State/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Logotherapy/education , Psychology , Volition , Personal Autonomy , Allied Health Personnel/education , Ethics , Freedom , Respect , Logotherapy/legislation & jurisprudence , Logotherapy/ethics , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
18.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220090, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439980

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Till present, only a few countries have developed support programs for caregivers and families of patients with dementia aimed to improve knowledge, skills, and strategies to deal with the patient's symptoms. However, prior to offering this special support, it is important to identify beliefs and thoughts shared by informants related to cognition in elderly people. Questionnaires are instruments that allow having this information, such as the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ), which was designed to assess normal and pathological changes in the aging process. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about cognition, aging, and dementia as evaluated by the KMAQ in people who are in contact with elderly people, with and without cognitive impairment. Methods: A total of 78 relatives and caregivers of elderly patients were classified into two groups: group 1: relatives of patients with dementia (n1=48), and group 2: relatives of patients without cognitive impairment (n2=30). They were asked to answer some questionnaires about dementia, including the KMAQ. Results: Comparing the questionnaire's scores for normal cognitive changes items (g1: 0.53 vs. g2: 0.53, p-value: 0.99) did not show differences between the knowledge in both groups, nor shows the scores for pathological cognitive changes items (g1: 0.55 vs. g2: 0.55, p-value: 0.969). Conclusions: It seems that being in contact with dementia does not improve knowledge about it. Knowledge of normal changes in cognition could make it possible to recognize "red flags" suggestive of neurodegenerative processes, allowing for earlier diagnosis and more options for treatment.


RESUMO. Até o presente momento, poucos países desenvolveram programas destinados a cuidadores e familiares de pacientes com demência, objetivando o aprimoramento de conhecimentos, habilidades e estratégias para lidar com os sintomas dos pacientes. Entretanto, antes de prestar esse suporte especial, faz-se importante identificar crenças e pensamentos compartilhados por informantes acerca da cognição em pessoas idosas. Os questionários são instrumentos que permitem obter essa informação, a exemplo do Questionário de Conhecimento de Memória e Envelhecimento (KMAQ, sigla em inglês), que foi elaborado para avaliar mudanças normais e patológicas no processo de envelhecimento. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento sobre cognição, envelhecimento e demência pela aplicação do KMAQ em pessoas que estão em contato com pessoas idosas com e sem comprometimento cognitivo. Métodos: Setenta e oito familiares e cuidadores de pacientes idosos foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 — parentes de pacientes com demência (n1=48); e grupo 2 — parentes de pessoas sem comprometimento cognitivo (n2=30). Foi-lhes solicitado responder a questionários sobre demência, incluindo o KMAQ. Resultados: Quando analisadas as pontuações do questionário para os itens de mudanças normais no envelhecimento (g1: 0,53 vs. g2: 0,53, valor p: 0,99) não tivemos diferenças significativas no conhecimento entre os dois grupos, não havendo diferenças na pontuação para os itens de mudanças patológicas no envelhecimento (g1: 0,55 vs. g2: 0,55, valor p: 0,969). Conclusões: Estar em contato com a demência não parece melhorar o conhecimento sobre essa síndrome. Conhecer as mudanças normais na cognição durante o envelhecimento permite identificar "sinais de alarme" sugestivos de processos degenerativos, alcançando-se um diagnóstico precoce e mais opções para o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Dementia , Cognitive Aging , Caregiver Burden
19.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 322-326, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981271

ABSTRACT

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in the patients with dementia.Creative arts therapies (CAT) are one of the safe and effective non-pharmacological interventions for BPSD.This paper elaborates on the therapeutic effects of four common CAT,including art therapy,music therapy,dance therapy,and drama therapy,on BPSD.Despite the shortcomings,CAT offer a new gateway for the safe and noninvasive treatment of BPSD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Art Therapy , Music Therapy , Dementia/psychology
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441642

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La exploración de creencias y conocimientos sobre la demencia y su prevención permite conocer las concepciones erróneas sobre la salud cerebral y cognitiva, el conocimiento de los factores de riesgo para la demencia y las acciones implementadas por la población general para prevenir el declive cognitivo. La determinación de los factores protectores o de riesgo, permite el diseño de intervenciones encaminadas a potenciar el conocimiento sobre la prevención de las demencias. Objetivo: Explorar la evidencia disponible acerca de los factores protectores y de riesgo que tienen un impacto sobre la demencia y que incrementan o reducen el riesgo de desarrollarla; así como el nivel de conocimiento existente en el público general sobre la demencia y su prevención. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y documental en fuentes de datos digitales. Para la búsqueda se utilizaron, en inglés y español, las siguientes palabras clave: conocimiento público sobre demencia, factores protectores, factores de riesgo, prevención de demencia". Las consultas se realizaron en Scopus, EBSCO Health, PubMed (buscador), SciELO y PsycINFO. Conclusiones: La evidencia acumulada hasta la fecha sobre algunos factores, tales como dieta, nivel de colesterol, hipertensión, obesidad, depresión, inactividad física y cognitiva, y hábito de fumar, sustentan la importancia del estilo de vida en la prevención de las demencias. Las investigaciones sugieren que el conocimiento sobre el potencial para la prevención de la demencia es pobre, por lo que se hacen necesarios programas que incrementen el conocimiento público sobre la demencia y qué hacer para prevenirla (AU)


Introduction: The exploration of beliefs and knowledge about dementia and its prevention provides insight into misconceptions about brain and cognitive health, as well as knowledge about the risk factors for dementia and regarding actions implemented by the general population to prevent cognitive decline. The determination of protective or risk factors allows the design of interventions aimed at enhancing knowledge about dementia prevention. Objective: To explore the available evidence about the protective and risk factors that have an impact on dementia and that increase or reduce the risk of developing it; as well as the level of existing knowledge among the general public about dementia and its prevention. Methods: A literature and document review was carried out in digital data sources. The following keywords, in English and Spanish, were used for the search: conocimiento público sobre demencia [public knowledge about dementia], factores protectores [protective factors], factores de riesgo [risk factors], prevención de demencia [dementia prevention]. The consultations were performed in Scopus, EBSCO Health, PubMed (search engine), SciELO and PsycINFO. Conclusions: Up to date, the accumulated evidence about some factors, such as diet, cholesterol level, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical and cognitive inactivity, and smoking support the importance of lifestyle in dementia prevention. Research suggests that knowledge about the potential for dementia prevention is poor; therefore, programs are needed to increase public knowledge about dementia and about what to do to prevent it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Health , Risk Factors , Knowledge , Dementia/prevention & control
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