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2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 6(4): 21-26, Oct.-Dec. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905062

ABSTRACT

Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndromes are rare neurological diseases that differ from multiple sclerosis (MS), owing to unusual clinicoradiological and pathological findings, and poor responses to treatment. The distinction between them and the criteria for their diagnoses are poorly defined due to the lack of advanced research studies. Balo's concentric sclerosis (BCS) and Schilder's disease (SD) are two of these syndromes and can present as monophasic or in association with chronic MS. Both variants are difficult to distinguish when they present in acute stages. We describe an autopsy case of middle-aged female with a chronic history of MS newly relapsed with atypical demyelinating lesions, which showed concurrent features of BCS and SD. We also describe the neuropathological findings, and discuss the overlapping features between these two variants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS/pathology , Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 49(2)abr.-jun. 2013. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686918

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hemianopsia homônima ocorre apenas na presença de lesão retroquiasmática, sendo uma rara apresentação de doença desmielinizante. Objetivo: Relatar um caso raro de hemianopsia homônima como manifestação inicial de síndrome clinicamente isolada. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão de 809 prontuários médicos de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM) tratados no Hospital da Lagoa (Rio de Janeiro) entre 1995 e 2011, para identificação de casos de hemianopsiahomônima como manifestação inicial da doença. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 48 anos, apresentou em agosto de 2011 quadro de hemianopsia homônima esquerda incongruente associada à lesão em topografia do trato óptico direito, evidenciada na RM de crânio, que também revelou lesões periventriculares e em substância branca subcortical, compatíveis com doença desmielinizante. O exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) revelou hiperproteinemia leve com síntese intratecal de IgG e IgM, e o estudo do potencial visual evocado mostrou comprometimento parcial das vias ópticas bilateralmente. Concluído o diagnóstico de síndrome clinicamente isolada, a paciente foi submetida à pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona, com remissão das queixas visuais e melhora acentuada do campo visual no segundo exame realizado. O diagnóstico de EM foi concluído em dezembro de 2011, com o resultado da segunda RM, que revelou redução no tamanho da lesão em topografia do trato óptico direito e persistência das lesões focais periventriculares e subcorticais, com o surgimento de novas lesões frontais captantes de contraste. Conclusão: Embora a neurite óptica seja a manifestação ocular mais frequente da síndrome clinicamente isolada, deve-se estar atento a outras formas atípicas de apresentação para que se possa fazer um diagnóstico precoce. Os defeitos de campo visual na EM geralmente têm bom prognóstico com o tratamento adequado...


Introduction: Homonymous hemianopia occurs only in the presenceof retrochiasmatic injury, being a rare presentation of demyelinatingdisease. Objective: To report a rare case of homonymoushemianopia as the initial manifestation of clinically isolated syndrome.Method: We conducted a review of medical records of 809 patientswith multiple sclerosis (MS) treated at Hospital da Lagoa (Rio de Janeiro) between 1995 and 2011, being found only one case of homonymous hemianopia as the initial manifestation of the disease. Case report: Female patient, 48 years old, presented in August 2011 incongruous left homonymous hemianopia associated with lesion in topography of the right optic tract evidenced in MRI, which also revealed lesions in periventricular and subcortical white matter, consistent with demyelinating disease. CSF revealed mild hyperproteinemia with intrathecal synthesis of IgG and IgM, and visual evoked potential study showed partial compromise of the optic pathways bilaterally. Completed the diagnostic of clinically isolated syndrome, the patient underwent pulse therapy with methylprednisolone, with remission of visual complaints and marked improvement of the visual in the second examination performed. The diagnosis of MS was completed in December 2011 with the result of the second MRI, which revealed a reduction in the lesion size in the right optic tract topography and persistence of periventricular and subcortical focal lesions, with theemergence of new frontal lesions uptake of contrast. Conclusion:Although optic neuritis is the most common ocular manifestation ofclinically isolated syndrome, we should be mindful of other atypicalforms of presentation so that we can make an early diagnosis. Thevisual defects in MS usually have a good prognosis with appropriatetreatment...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Hemianopsia/diagnosis , Hemianopsia/drug therapy , Optic Neuritis , Skull , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Neurologic Examination/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use
4.
Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2013; 8 (4): 31-34
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-139783

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [ADEM] is one of the demyelinating disorders of central nervous system [CNS] causing acute or relapsing-remitting encephalopathy. We report a male child, who presented with fever, fits and altered sensorium, with two identical events, 3 1/2 months apart. Neuroimaging showed high signal lesions on the T2 weighted images reflecting areas of demyelination and edema, consistent with ADEM. He responded with complete recovery after pulse steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG] therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Diagnosis, Differential , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1096-1102, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342232

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative therapy for many hematological diseases, but there are many complications following allo-HSCT, among which neurological complications (NC) are one of the most commonly described ones. However, little is known about idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients following allo-HSCT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A nested case-control study was conducted in a large cohort of 1365 patients, who underwent allo-HSCT at the Institute of Hematology and Peking University People's Hospital, between January 2004 and December 2009, 36 patients of whom developed CNS IIDDs. Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate Cox regression were applied in our statistical analysis using SPSS 16.0.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The cumulative incidence of all cases of IIDDs at 6 years posttransplantation was 3.6%. Thirty-five patients (97.2%) suffered IIDDs after transplantation, 16 patients (44.4%) between day 0 to day 100 post-transplantation, 10 patients (27.8%) between day 100 to 1 year post-transplantation, and 9 patients (25.0%) 1 year post-transplantation. Multivariate regression analysis identified donor type (P = 0.031), infection (P = 0.009), and acute lymphatic leukemia (P = 0.017) as independent risk factors for posttransplantation IIDDs. The median survival time of patients with IIDDs was 514 days after transplantation (95%CI: 223 - 805). Survival at 6 years was significantly lower in patients who developed the diseases compared to those who did not (26.6% vs. 73.5%, P < 0.001). Of the 36 patients experiencing IIDDs, 58.3% (n = 21) died. The causes of death were graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (n = 4), underlying disease relapse (n = 3), infections (n = 12), and other causes (n = 2).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>IIDDs is an uncommon but serious complication of allo-HSCT, especially in patients with a primary diagnosis of acute lymphatic leukemia, mismatched transplants, and infections. Our study results indicate that patients with IIDDs tend toward a poor prognosis following allo-HSCT.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Central Nervous System , Child , Child, Preschool , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 48(4): 7-13, out.-dez. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666934

ABSTRACT

Após a dissecção de cérebro de uma paciente em 1868, Charcot definiu uma evidência histopatológica mais assertiva para a esclerose múltipla (EM): "sclerose en plaque". Entretanto, mais de um século depois, poucos estudos examinando o substrato patológico específico de fenótipos clínicos diferentes da EM são encontrados na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo é uma revisão da literatura sobre achados post-mortem (autopsia, exame histopatológico e técnicas imuno-histoquímicas) em pacientes com EM. Utilizando os termos "autopsy", "necropsy", "pathology", "post-mortem" e "multiple sclerosis", a pesquisa foi desenvolvida sobre a literatura e recursos presentes no MEDLINE no período janeiro 1990 a agosto 2012. Artigos relevantes baseados em análise macro/microscópica das lesões da EM e o uso de técnicas imuno-histoquímicas (marcadores imunológicos e neurobiológicos) foram revistos. Tratados de patologia cirúrgica e neuropatologia em suas últimas edições foram também consultados. Além dos estudos no início dos anos 2000 que identificaram padrões diferentes de desmielinização em casos de autópsia, considerando a perda de mielina, a geografia e extensão das lesões, a destruição dos oligodendrócitos e a evidência do dano imunopatológico, estudos mais detalhados e baseados em aspectos anatomopatológicos e implicações patogênicas são raros. A maioria destes poucos e específicos estudos reportam que as lesões da EM tipicamente aparecem na substância branca, mas são também abundantes na substância cinza, heterogeneidade de lesões inter-paciente e homogeneidade intra-paciente, graus diferentes para perda de mielina e estágios de atividade, foco de atividade inflamatória que origina gliose fibrilar, distrofia de oligodendrócitos e densidade axonal central diminuída. Desmielinização é um importante indicador de progressão clínica e a remielinização pode ser incompleta ou decresce com a cronicidade da doença. A importância das lesões na substância branca de aparência normal e na substância cinzenta tem sido cada vez mais reconhecida em recentes estudos com técnicas imuno-histoquímicas. Não há ainda um consenso se as diferenças entre as formas clínicas são fundamentalmente quantitativas ou qualitativas em relação ao substrato patológico e mais estudos sobre autopsias utilizando exame histopatológico e técnicas modernas de imuno-histoquímica são necessários para dirimir esta questão. Um melhor entendimento sobre a heterogeneidade das lesões da esclerose múltipla proporcionará o desenvolvimento de métodos terapêuticos mais direcionados e eficazes.


After dissection of a female brain in 1868, Charcot outlined a more assertive histopathological evidence of Multiple Sclerosis: "sclerose en plaque". However, more than a century later, very few studies examining the specific underlying pathology of a defined MS clinical phenotype are found in literature. The purpose of this study is to provide a literature review of post-mortem findings (histopathology and immunohistochemical techniques) in MS patients. The literature in MEDLINE was searched from January 1990 to August 2012 using the terms "autopsy", "necropsy", "pathology", "postmortem" and "multiple sclerosis". Relevant papers based on macroscopic/microscopic analysis of the MS lesions and the use of broad spectrum of immunological and neurobiological markers (immunohistochemistry) were reviewed. Textbooks of Surgical Pathology and Neuropathology in latest editions were also consulted.Besides the studies in the early 2000s that identified different patterns of demyelination in autopsy cases, consider the myelin impairment, the geography and extension of lesions, the oligodendrocyte destruction and the evidence of immunopathological damage, more detailed studies based on anatomopathological aspects and pathogenic implications are rare. Most of these few specific studies reported that MS lesions typically appear in the white matter, but are also abundant in grey matter, inter-patient lesions heterogeneity with intra-patient homogeneity, different degree of myelin loss and stage of activity, focus of inflammatory activity that gives way to fibrillary gliosis, oligodendrocyte dystrophy and decreased central axonal density. Demyelination is an important pathological correlate of clinical progression and remyelination could be incomplete or decreases with disease chronicity. The importance of healthy-appearing white matter damage and grey matter demyelination has been increasingly recognized in recent studies using immunohistochemical techniques. There is still no consensus on whether the differences between the clinical forms of MS are fundamentally quantitative or qualitative in relation to the pathological substrate, and more detailed studies with data on autopsies is required to resolve this issue. A better understanding of the pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS lesions will lead the development of more effective treatment methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Inflammation/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Biomarkers , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
7.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 6(2): 100-103, ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687058

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Esclerosis Múltiple es una enfermedad crónica desmielinizante, de etiología desconocida, que afecta al sistema nervioso central. Aqueja principalmente a mujeres entre 20 y 40 años, siendo una de las principales causas de discapacidad en población joven. Ocurre por un proceso inflamatorio autoinmune en la sustancia blanca del sistema nervioso central, generando lesiones desmielinizantes que son causantes de la sintomatología. Su forma de presentación clínica es variable, siendo la más frecuente la forma Remitente Recurrente, que se caracteriza por recuperaciones entre los episodios de reagudización, que en la mayoría de los casos con son completas. PRESENTACIÓN DEL CASO: Paciente de 21 años, sexo femenino, con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple remitente recurrente, que en control médico, luego de seis meses desde confirmado el diagnóstico e iniciado el tratamiento con Interferón beta 1a y estando asintomática, presenta remielinización total de todas las lesiones objetivado a través una resonancia nuclear magnética sin hallazgos patológicos. DISCUSIÓN: La remielinización de las lesiones, causante de la remisión de los síntomas, suele ser parcial y con mielina más delgada, la que se identifica en la resonancia nuclear magnética como “placas de sombra”. La remielinización total de todas las lesiones del sistema nervioso central ha sido escasamente descrita, presentándose sólo en un 2,6 por ciento de los pacientes, y plantea la presencia de factores intrínsecos aún desconocidos involucrados en la capacidad de regeneración de la mielina a nivel central, abriendo una nueva línea investigativa.


INTRODUCTION: Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease, with unknown etiology, that affect the central nervous system. Mainly affects women between 20 and 40 years old, and is one of the most important causes of young people disability. It happens because an autoimmune inflammatory process in the white matters at the central nervous system, producing demyelinating lesions that causes the symptoms. The clinical presentation is changeable, the most frequent is the relapsing remitting form, it is marked by periods of improvement between worsening ones, which in most cases is not complete. CASE REPORT: Female, 21 years old, with the diagnoses of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, that in a medical control, after six months since the diagnosis confirmation and the beginning of the treatment with interferon beta 1a and without symptoms, has a total remyelination of the injuries at the central nervous system, without pathological evidence at the magnetic resonance imaging. DISCUSSION: The remyelination of the injuries, that cause the remission of the symptoms, is usually partial with lower quality myelin, which is thinner and is identify by magnetic resonance imaging as “shadow plaques”. The total remyelination of all the injuries at the central nervous system is scantily reported, only in 2.6 percent of the patients, and propose that inherent factors are involve at the myelin regeneration process, opening a new investigative line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Paresthesia , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 18(1): 83-87, jun. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649076

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Devic o neuromielitis óptica (NMO) es una entidad clínica infrecuente autoinmune, desmielinizante e inflamatoria que se caracteriza por la presencia de hallazgos clínicos, imagenológicos y de laboratorio que evidencian neuritis óptica, mielitis aguda con lesión longitudinal de más de tres segmentos medulares y seropositividad para anticuerpos IgG específicos para el canal de acuaporina 4. Caso: Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 28 años con diagnóstico inicial de Esclerosis múltiple de hace 14 meses, quien consulta al servicio de urgencias del Hospital Universitario San Jorge de Pereira por disminución progresiva de la fuerza en miembros inferiores y retención urinaria con cinco días de evolución. Como antecedentes refiere neuritis óptica bilateral en tratamiento con Interferón Beta, con pobre mejoría clínica y corticoide parenteral para los cuadros agudos. Se realiza resonancia magnética de columna vertebral que reporta columna lumbar sin alteraciones y columna dorsal con mielopatía en los segmentos T5-T8, posible desmielinización. Cuadro hemático, química sanguínea, Proteína C Reactiva, complemento C3 y C4 dentro de los rangos normales. Discusión: La presentación aislada de neuritis óptica como debut en un cuadro clínico nos lleva a sospechar inicialmente en una enfermedad desmielinizante tipo esclerosis múltiple, lo que puede alterar el manejo inicial de los pacientes con neuromielitis óptica de base.


Background: Devic’s syndrome or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and demyelinating uncommon clinical entity characterized by the presence of clinical, imagining and laboratory evidence of optic neuritis, acute myelitis with longitudinal injury in more than three spinal segments and finally, NMO IgG seropositive for antibodies specific for the aquaporin channel 4. Case: We report a 28 years old woman diagnosed with multiple sclerosis 14 months ago, who consulted to emergency of Hospital Universitario San Jorge from Pereira by progressive reduction of strength in lower extremities and unrinary retention with duration of five days. She had a history of bilateral optic neuritis in treatment with interferon Beta 1-B, with poor clinical improvement, and parenteral corticosteroid for acute symptoms. Is performed a spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reported a lumbar spine without changes and a dorsal spine with myelopathy in segments T5-T8, possible demyelinitation. Blood count, blood chemistry, C Reactive Protein, complement C3 and C4 within normal ranges. Discussion: The presentation of isolated optic neuritis as a clinical debut leads us to suspect initially in a demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis type which can alter the initial management of patients with NMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Demyelinating Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Optic Neuritis
9.
MedUNAB ; 14(3): 167-179, dic. 2011-mar. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674993

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar una revisión acerca de la esclerosis múltiple en pacientes pediátricos, haciendo énfasis en los factores fisiopatológicos, los métodos diagnósticos, los principales diagnósticos diferenciales, el tratamiento y el pronóstico, para, de esta forma, lograr suministrar conocimientos claves y actualizados sobre esta patología. Métodos: La búsqueda de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y Scopus, introduciendo las palabras clave “multiple sclerosis”, “children”, “pediatric multiple sclerosis”, “pathophysiology”, “diagnosis”, “diagnostic criteria” y “treatment”. Los artículos seleccionados debían tener fecha de publicación posterior al año 2000, ser revisiones de tema o ensayos clínicos y estar publicados en los idiomas inglés o español. Resultados y Conclusiones: La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad con una tasa de incidencia de 2 a 4 por 100.000 habitantes en Colombia, de la cual la población pediátrica representa entre 2,7 a 5.0% de los casos. Las causas que se han atribuido a la enfermedad son múltiples, incluyendo factores ambientales como infecciones virales o bacterianas, exposición a humo de cigarrillo o deficiencia de vitamina D, entre otras, factores genéticos y factores inmunológicos. Su diagnóstico se basa en los hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos, previa exclusión de enfermedades más comunes. Su tratamiento se divide en tres ejes: el tratamiento de eventos agudos, el tratamiento modificador de la enfermedad y el tratamiento sintomático. Para el primero los medicamentos de primera elección son los corticoides, para el segundo son los medicamentos inmunomoduladores como acetato de glatiramer, y para el tercero se debe realizar un enfoque multidisciplinario. Su pronóstico a largo plazo es variable y depende en alguna medida de la respuesta al tratamiento.


Objective: Review about Multiple Sclerosis in pediatric patients, emphasizing in pathophysiological factors, di agnos t i c met hods , mai n di f f er ent i al di agnos i s ,t r eat ment , and pr ognosi s, t hus pr ovi di ng cur r entknowledge about this pathology. Methods: Search of articles was made in PubMed and Scopus databases with key words “multiple sclerosis”, “children”, “pediatric mul t i pl e scl er osi s” , “ pat hophysi ol ogy” , “ di agnosi s” ,“diagnostic criteria”, and “treatment”. Selected articles must have a publication date after 2000, reviews or clinical trials, and have been published in English or Spanish languages. Results and Conclusions: Multiple sclerosis is a disease with an incidence of 2 to 4 per 100,000 habitants in Colombia, and pediatric population represents 2.7 to 5% of the cases. Multiple causes had been related to the disease, including environmental factors, such as viral or bacterial infections, tobacco smoke exposure or Vitamin D deficiency, among others; genetic and immunologic causes are exposed too. Diagnosis is based in clinical and imaging features, excluding previously other morecommon diseases. Management is divided in three axes: treatment of acute event, disease-modifying therapies and symptomatic therapy. The treatment of acute events is usually with corticoid therapy, for disease-modifying therapy the first election are immunomodulatory drugs, such as Glatiramer Acetate and for symptomatic therapy is necessary a mul t i di sci pl i nary approach. Long-termprognosis is variable and depends of treatment response. [Farfán JD, Espitia OM. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. MedUNAB 2011; 14:167-179].


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Multiple Sclerosis , Pediatrics , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/mortality , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339036

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the seroprevalence and diagnostic value of aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) in patients with inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating diseases.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-two patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), 68 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 4 with optic neuritis (ON), and 41 with transverse myelitis (TM) were included in this study. The TM group comprised 19 patients with non-longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (nLETM), 14 with monophasic longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (mLETM), and 8 with recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (rLETM). The serum levels of AQP4-Ab was detected by indirect immunofluorence assay in these patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AQP4-Ab was detected in 72.2% (52/72) patients with NMO, 5.9% (4/68) patients with MS, 25.0% (1/4) patients with ON, and 17.1% (7/41) patients with TM, showing a significant difference in the positivity between NMO and MS groups (P<0.01). AQP4-Ab seropositivity rate was 5.3% (1/19) in nLETM patients, 62.5% (5/8) in rLETM patients and 7.1% (1/14) in mLETM patients, significantly higher in rLETM than in nLETM (P<0.01) and mLETM groups (P<0.05), but no statistical difference was found between rLETM and NMO groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A high seroprevalence of AQP4-Ab is observed in patients with NMO and rLETM, which support the hypothesis that NMO and rLETM belong to NMO spectrum disorders. AQP4-Ab can serve as a useful index for diagnosing NMO and differential diagnosis from MS. More attention and effective immunosuppressive treatments should be given to patients positive for AQP4-Ab.</p>


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 4 , Allergy and Immunology , Autoantibodies , Blood , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Multiple Sclerosis , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Neuromyelitis Optica , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 71(4): 145-155, oct.-dic. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589234

ABSTRACT

La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EMAD) es la leucoencefalopatía adquirida de mayor presentación en la edad pediátrica, de naturaleza inflamatoria-autoinmune, generalmente monofásica, polisintomática, y asociada a compromiso del estado de conciencia. Frecuentemente es precedida por un proceso infeccioso o por una inmunización. Se revisó la literatura médica de los últimos años considerando los aspectos etiopatogénicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Se presentan los últimos criterios diagnósticos para la EMAD y sus formas recurrentes, así como la importancia de los diagnósticos diferenciales, entre ellos la Esclerosis Múltiple Pediátrica(EMP). Las imágenes de Resonancia Magnética (IRM) constituyen el estudio de elección para detectar lesiones desmielinizantes.


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acquired leucoencephalopathy, that occurs more frequently during childhood, of inflammatory autoimmune condition, usually monophasic, polysymptomatic and associated with sensory deterioration. It is a frequently preceded by infections or vaccinations. Recent medical literature was reviewed considering etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, diagnosis and treatment aspects. The current diagnostic criteria for ADEM, its variants and the relevance of differential diagnostics, like Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis (PMS) are included. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is recommended to detect demyelination injuries. High doses of steroids are still the therapeutic alternative for ADEM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Steroids , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Child Care , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS/etiology , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS/pathology , Inflammation/physiopathology
12.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 71(1): 112-118, oct.-dic. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589239

ABSTRACT

La Encefalomielitis Aguda Diseminada (EMAD) es una leucoencefalopatía adquirida, de naturaleza inflamatoria, autoinmune, de presentación predominante en la edad pediátrica; generalmente es monofásica, polisintomática y con frecuente compromiso del estado de conciencia. No hay marcadores biológicos para su reconocimiento, por lo que la presentación clínica aunada a los hallazgos en la Resonancia Magnética cerebral son los que permiten realizar una adecuada aproximación diagnóstica. Su curso es generalmente favorable, sin embargo, el tratamiento con esteroides puede resultar beneficioso. Se presenta la experiencia con 16 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital de Niños “J.M de Los Ríos”, Caracas-Venezuela, en un periodo de 8 años (abril 2000-abril 2008), a la luz de los últimos criterios propuestos para la clasificación de la EMAD.


Acute Disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acquired inflammatory autoimmune nature leucoencephalopathy, which occurs more frequently in the pediatric age group. It is usually monophasic, polysymptomatic and with frequent deteriorating consciousness. There are no biological markers for diagnosis, therefore the clinical presentation coupled with findings in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging allow a proper diagnostic approach. Its course is generally favorable; however treatment with brain steroids can be beneficial. We present the experience with 16 patients treated at children’s Hospital “J.M de Los Ríos”, Caracas-Venezuela, in a period of 8 year (April 2000–April 2008), in the light of recent proposed criteria for the classification of ADEM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/classification , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS/diagnosis , Steroids , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/pathology , Child Care , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Neurology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270218

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relations between anti-myelin basic protein antibody (anti-MBP) variation and myelinoclasis in the brain stem following brain trauma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In rat models of brain trauma, MBP content and anti-MBP titer in the blood were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at different time points after brain trauma, and the degree of myelinoclasis in the brain stem slices was assessed with osmic acid staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Early after brain trauma, MBP content in the blood increased followed by significant reduction 10 days later. Four days after the trauma, anti-MBP titer was markedly increased, accompanied by obvious exacerbation of myelinoclasis in the brain stem, both reaching the highest levels on day 10, at the point of which anti-MBP titer increased by 4 folds and the number of myelinoclasis by 10 folds compared with the control group. Anti-MBP titer and brain stem myelinolysis both lowered 30 days later. Correlation analysis showed an intimate positive correlation between anti-MBP titer and the degree of myelinoclasis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>After brain trauma, MBP is released as a specific antigen into the blood to stimulate the immune system for anti-MBP production, and the antibody is intimately related to the brain stem myelinoclasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Metabolism , Brain Injuries , Brain Stem , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Male , Myelin Basic Protein , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcription Factors , Blood , Allergy and Immunology
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