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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 75-81, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368364

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A más de un año del inicio de la pandemia, el seguimiento y la atención presencial de pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes se ha visto modificado. Según la evidencia, pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple (EM), síndrome desmielinizante aislado (SDA), Síndrome Radiológico Aislado (SRA) o enfermedades del espectro de neuromielitis óptica (NMO) no parecen ser un grupo de riesgo para COVID19 por el hecho de tener la enfermedad. La presencia de ciertas condiciones puede hacerlos susceptibles de cursar infección severa. Se ha descripto una asociación de curso grave con drogas anti CD20, faltan datos sobre la respuesta a vacunas COVID19 en esta población. Objetivos: Establecer características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes que han padecido COVID-19 y describir su evolución. Caracterizar población vacunada, evaluar acceso al seguimiento médico/ terapéutico durante la pandemia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 168 pacientes con EM, SDA y SRA y 33 pacientes con NMO correspondientes al Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin. Mediante encuesta telefónica se evaluó adherencia al tratamiento, evolución clínica, infección COVID-19, vacunación y acceso durante la pandemia. Resultados: Se encontraron 49 pacientes que desarrollaron COVID-19 en el grupo de pacientes con EM, y 7 en el grupo de NMO. Del primer grupo ninguno requirió internación, mientras que en el segundo, 2 fueron hospitalizados y uno de ellos falleció. La complicación post-COVID más frecuente fue: astenia prolongada y 3 pacientes presentaron un brote de la enfermedad de base en los 3 meses posteriores. Cerca del 90% de nuestra población ya contaba con al menos 1 dosis de vacuna para SARS-CoV2. Se interrogó sobre el acceso a la consulta neurológica y casi el 70% de los pacientes otorgó máximo puntaje al acceso a consultas virtuales. Conclusión: Los pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes que cursaron COVID-19 no tuvieron complicaciones severas por la infección, con solamente 2 pacientes cursando un brote en los 3 meses posteriores. No observamos reacciones adversas severas post vaccinales, ni infección posterior, sólo 2 pacientes presentaron un brote en el período post aplicación. Gran cantidad de pacientes percibieron acceso fluido a sus neurólogos de manera virtual, lo que podría relacionarse con alta tasa de adherencia a sus tratamientos a pesar de la limitación a la consulta presencial.


Introduction: More than a year after the start of the pandemic, the follow-up and face-to-face care of patients with demyelinating diseases has been modified. According to the evidence, patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), isolated demyelinating syndrome (ADS), Isolated Radiological Syndrome (RAS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum diseases do not seem to be a risk group for COVID19 due to the fact that they have the disease. The presence of certain conditions can make them susceptible to severe infection. A severe course association with anti-CD20 drugs has been described, data on the response to COVID19 vaccines in this population are lacking. Objectives: To establish clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with demyelinating diseases who have suffered from COVID-19 and describe their evolution. Characterize the vaccinated population, evaluate access to medical/therapeutic follow-up during the pandemic. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study. The medical records of 168 patients with MS, ADS and ARS and 33 patients with NMO corresponding to the Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin were reviewed. Through a telephone survey, adherence to treatment, clinical evolution, COVID-19 infection, vaccination, and access during the pandemic were evaluated. Results: 49 patients who developed COVID-19 were found in the MS patient group, and 7 in the NMO group. Of the first group, none required hospitalization, unlike in the second, 2 were hospitalized and one of them died. The most frequent post-COVID complication was: prolonged asthenia and 3 patients presented an outbreak of the underlying disease in the following 3 months. Close to 90% of our population already had at least 1 dose of SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Access to the neurological consultation was questioned and almost 70% of the patients gave the highest score to access to virtual consultations. Conclusion: Patients with demyelinating diseases who had COVID-19 did not have severe complications from the infection, with only 2 patients having an outbreak in the subsequent 3 months. We did not observe severe post-vaccinal adverse reactions, nor subsequent infection, only 2 patients presented an outbreak in the post-application period. A large number of patients perceived fluid access to their neurologists virtually, which could be related to a high rate of adherence to their treatments despite the limitation to face-to-face consultation


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Evolution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Aftercare , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 113-118, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352964

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante crónica que produce discapacidad progresiva, por lo que el tratamiento se centra en retrasar la progresión, prevenir recaídas y disminuir los síntomas de manera efectiva. Realizamos un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, de un solo centro, con los pacientes admitidos en la unidad de enfermedades desmielinizantes, desde diciembre 2017 hasta febrero 2020. Del total de pacientes, 62.5% recibieron tratamiento con ocrelizumab y completaron seguimiento por 12 meses, sin progresión de la enfermedad. Con este estudio, resaltamos la importancia y la efectividad de los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad.


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease that causes progressive disability, so treatment focuses on slowing progression, preventing relapses, and effectively reducing symptoms. We conducted an observational, descriptive, longitudinal, single-center study with patients admitted to the demyelinating diseases unit from December 2017 to February 2020. Of the total number of patients, 62.5% received treatment with ocrelizumab and completed 12-month follow-up, without disease progression. With this study, we highlight the importance and effectiveness of disease-modifying treatments


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Patients , Effectiveness , Demyelinating Diseases , Aftercare , Disease Progression
3.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(3): 423-447, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340191

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante, degenerativa, crónica, autoinmune e inflamatoria, que afecta al sistema nervioso central. Esta afección constituye la primera causa de invalidez neurológica en adultos jóvenes. Objetivo: caracterizar a los pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple ingresados en el servicio de Neurología del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro¼. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal con los pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple ingresados en el servicio de Neurología del Hospital Universitario Clínico-Quirúrgico «Arnaldo Milián Castro¼, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, durante el período de enero 2018 - diciembre 2019; la población de estudio quedó constituida por 30 pacientes. Resultados: el promedio de edad de debut fue de 38,7 años. La relación entre pacientes con color de piel blanca y no blanca fue 9:1, y la de mujeres y hombres de 14:1. La esclerosis múltiple recidivante-remitente representó el 70 %, y el grado mínimo de discapacidad el 60 %. El 48,27 %, 41,37 % y 37,93 % de los pacientes presentaron lesiones supratentoriales, infratentoriales y en número de dos a cuatro, respectivamente. Conclusiones: predominó el sexo femenino con edad de debut entre los 20 a 29 años. Los síntomas más comunes fueron: las alteraciones motoras, sensitivas y cerebelosas. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la esclerosis múltiple recidivante-remitente y el grado de discapacidad mínimo. Las lesiones supratentoriales e infratentoriales y la cantidad de lesiones en número dos a cuatro fueron las más frecuentes; la mayoría de los casos presentó cambio de intensidad del cuerpo calloso.


ABSTRACT Introduction: multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating, degenerative, chronic, autoimmune and inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. This condition is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults. Objective: to characterize patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis admitted to the Neurology service at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis admitted to the Neurology Service at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, from January 2018 to December 2019; the study population consisted of 30 patients. Results: the average age at debut was 38.7 years. The ratio between patients with white and non-white skin color was 9: 1, and that of women and men was 14: 1. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis accounted for 70%, and the minimum degree of disability for 60%. The 48.27%, 41.37% and 37.93% of the patients had supratentorial and infratentorial lesions and two to four in number, respectively. Conclusions: female gender predominated with the age at debut between 20 to 29 years. Motor, sensory and cerebellar alterations were the most common symptoms. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was the predominant clinical presentation and minimal degree of disability. Supratentorial and infratentorial lesions and the number of lesions in number two to four were the most frequent; most of the cases had a change in intensity of the corpus callosum.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis
5.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 06-11, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353760

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que cursa con la desmielinización y la neurodegeneración a nivel del sistema nervioso central. Existen tres tipos de EM en función de la progresión de la enfermedad, pero la mayor parte de los pacientes tienden a presentar déficits cognitivos. Por lo tanto, resulta imprescindible el desarrollo de programas de entrenamiento cognitivos dirigidos a la mejora de estos déficits y, en definitiva, a la mejora de la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. En este sentido, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue la puesta en marcha de un programa de entrenamiento cognitivo dirigido a un paciente con esclerosis múltiple progresiva primaria (EMPP) a lo largo de un año. Los resultados pusieron de manifiesto que algunos de los déficits cognitivos que presentó inicialmente el paciente mejoraron tras varios meses de intervención. En este sentido, el paciente presentó notables mejoras en el control inhibitorio y la flexibilidad cognitiva. No obstante, los déficits en la velocidad de procesamiento se mantuvieron constantes a lo largo de toda la intervención. Asimismo, aparecieron otros déficits a lo largo de la intervención que remitieron tras la adecuación de los objetivos de intervención. Por todo ello, nuestro estudio reforzó la importancia de la puesta en marcha de los programas de rehabilitación cognitiva dirigidos a pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes para paliar las secuelas cognitivas derivadas de las mismas. Además, es importante que estos programas de entrenamiento cognitivo sean revisados periódicamente para adecuar los objetivos del tratamiento.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves demyelination and neurodegeneration at the level of the central nervous system. Despite the different characteristics of each of the three types of MS, most patients with this disease present significant cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is essential to develop cognitive training programs to improve these deficits and, ultimately, increase the quality of life of these patients. Thus, the main objective of this study was to implement a one-year cognitive training program with a patient with progressive primary multiple sclerosis (PPMS). The results showed that some of the cognitive deficits the patient initially presented improved after several months of intervention. In this regard, the patient presented noteworthy improvements in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, deficits in processing speed remained constant throughout the intervention. Likewise, other deficits appeared during the intervention that remitted after adapting the intervention objectives to the patient's needs. Therefore, our study reinforces the importance of implementing cognitive rehabilitation programs for patients with demyelinating diseases to alleviate the cognitive sequelae they produce. In addition, it is important to evaluate these cognitive training programs periodically in order to adapt the objectives and improve the patient's functionality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Demyelinating Diseases , Treatment Outcome , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Memory/physiology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 32-37, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353737

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica, autoinmune y neurodegenerativa; que tiene como principal característica la desmielinización de los axones en el sistema nervioso. Los medicamentos modificadores de la enfermedad (MME) logran retrasar la aparición de los síntomas y modificar parcialmente el progreso de la desmielinización y daño neuronal, resultando cada vez más complejo determinar un esquema terapéutico estandarizado según la condición particular de cada paciente. En este artículo se presenta una revisión actualizada de la evidencia clínica que ha llevado al uso de los esquemas terapéuticos en EM. La mayoría de los medicamentos aprobados actualmente son utilizados para la EM remitente-recurrente y se pueden dividir de acuerdo a la eficacia y seguridad. Los medicamentos de primera línea han mostrado una baja o moderada eficacia y alta seguridad; después de usar estos fármacos sin lograr una buena respuesta o ante una enfermedad avanzada se usan medicamentos de segunda y tercera línea que tienen una alta eficacia, pero son menos seguros, presentando mayores efectos secundarios y riesgos asociados para los pacientes. El ocrelizumab es el único fármaco aceptado para la EM primaria progresiva y el siponimod fue aprobado como una alternativa para la EM secundaria progresiva. El desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos y el seguimiento clínico de los ya aprobados permitirá establecer un mejor abordaje terapéutico logrando así mejorar la calidad de vida de cada paciente.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease; whose main characteristic is the demyelination of axons in the nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs (DMD) can delay the onset of symptoms and partially modify the progression of demyelination and neuronal damage, making it increasingly complex to determine a standardized therapeutic scheme that is individualized to each patient. This article presents an updated review on the clinical evidence that has led to the use of current therapeutic schemes in MS with focus on DMD. Current medications in treating relapsing-remitting MS can be divided according to efficacy and safety. First-line drugs have shown low or moderate efficacy and high safety. Second- and third-line drugs are used after a poor response or in cases of advanced disease. These drugs are highly effective, but less safe, presenting greater side effects and associated risks for patients. Ocrelizumab is the only accepted drug for primary progressive MS and siponimod is accepted as an alternative for secondary progressive MS. The development of new medications and the clinical follow-up of those already approved will allow establishing a better therapeutic approach, thus improving the quality of life of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Demyelinating Diseases/drug therapy
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(2): 103-111, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is classified as a neglected tropical disease, which affects mainly Latin America and Africa in spite of some reports in North America and Europe. NCC represents the cause of up to 30% of the reported cases of epilepsy in endemic countries. The NCC injuries present direct relation to the development stage, location, and number of parasites as well as to the host immune response. This study aimed the characterization of the inflammatory response and tissue injuries by means of the analyses of the periventricular and parenchymatous demyelination through the experimental intraventricular NCC infection. Therefore, BALB/c mice were submitted to experimental NCC inoculation with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Their brains were removed at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation (DAI), and analyzed after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl. It was possible to observe ventriculomegaly, inflammatory infiltration composed by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, and foamy macrophages. The presence of inflammatory cells was associated with neurodegeneration detected by the areas with demyelination observed initially in the periventricular area and lately in the parenchyma. In conclusion, the presence of cysticerci and the consequent inflammation were able to promote initial periventricular demyelination followed by parenchymatous demyelination as the infection progressed.


Resumo A neurocisticercose (NCC) é classificada como uma doença tropical negligenciada que afeta principalmente a América Latina e a África, apesar de alguns relatos na América do Norte e na Europa. A NCC é responsável por cerca de 30% dos casos de epilepsia em países endêmicos. Estas lesões parecem ter estreita relação com o estádio de desenvolvimento, com a localização e o número de parasitas, bem como a resposta imune do hospedeiro. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a resposta de células inflamatórias e as lesões teciduais pela análise da desmielinização periventricular e parenquimatosa ao longo da infecção experimental de NCC intraventricular. Para tanto, camundongos BALB/c foram submetidos a NCC experimental através da inoculação de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps. O encéfalo foi retirado aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após inoculação (DAI) e analisado após coloração por Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE), Luxol Fast Blue e Nissl. Observou-se ventriculomegalia, processo de infiltração inflamatório composto por células polimorfonucleares, mononucleares e macrófagos espumosos. A presença de células inflamatórias foi associada com neurodegeneração, observada pelas áreas de desmielinização que foram inicialmente periventricular e mais tardiamente no parênquima. Em conclusão, observa-se que a presença dos cisticercos e a inflamação foram capazes de promover desmielinização periventricular inicial e parenquimatosa conforme houve progressão tardia da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Demyelinating Diseases , Neurocysticercosis , Taenia , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1821-1828, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055122

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a capacidade de diferenciação das células-tronco da polpa dentária canina em células progenitoras neurais bem como quantificar obtenção e viabilidade celular, durante três passagens em cultura. As células foram extraídas da polpa dentária de dois cadáveres caninos, com aproximadamente dez meses de idade, que foram a óbito em decorrência de traumatismo automotivo. Após três subculturas, realizou-se avaliação da viabilidade celular por quantificação em câmara de Neubauer. A partir disso, induziu-se diferenciação neural em meio de cultura neurobasal (Gibco™), com células aderidas ao plástico ou suspensas em placas tratadas com agarose. Após sete e 14 dias em cultivo indutor, observou-se morfologia e perfil imunofenotípico utilizando citometria de fluxo e imunocitoquímica fluorescente. Aos 14 dias as células apresentaram alto grau de expressão para marcadores anti-nestina e anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP). Anteriormente, obteve-se ao 25º dia, média de 18x106 células viáveis indiferenciadas oriundas do tecido pulpar. Sugere-se que as células-tronco indiferenciadas da polpa dentária canina apresentem índices satisfatórios de diferenciação em células progenitoras neurais, aderidas ou suspensas em cultura. A polpa dentária dos dentes decíduos caninos, fornece células indiferenciadas viáveis em quantidade adequada.(AU)


The objective of this study was to verify the differentiation capacity of canine tooth pulp stem cells in neural progenitor cells as well as to quantify the attainment and viability during three culture passages. The cells were extracted from the dental pulp of two canine cadavers, with approximately ten months of age, which died due to automotive trauma. After three subcultures, cell viability evaluation was performed by Neubauer chamber quantification. Neural differentiation was induced in neurobasal culture medium (Gibco ™), with cells adhered to the plastic or suspended in agarose-treated plates. After seven and 14 days in inducer culture, morphology and immunophenotypic profile were observed using flow cytometry and fluorescent immunocytochemistry. At 14 days the cells had a high degree of expression for anti-nestin and anti-glial fibrillary acidic (anti-GFAP) markers. Previously, an average of 18x106 undifferentiated viable cells from the pulp tissue were obtained on the 25th day. It is suggested that the undifferentiated canine pulp stem cells present satisfactory differentiation indices in neural progenitor cells, adhered or suspended in culture. The dental pulp of deciduous canine teeth provides viable undifferentiated cells in adequate quantity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dental Pulp/ultrastructure , Neural Stem Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/veterinary , Demyelinating Diseases/veterinary , Flow Cytometry/veterinary
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 805-814, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012357

ABSTRACT

Intermittent fasting diet (IF) as a restrictive regimen prevents neural degeneration and stimulates overexpression of various neurotropic factors in the hippocampus of animal models. This study evaluates the potential effect of the IF in the prevention of learning and memory dysfunction and improving the alterations in the number and volume of neurons in an ethidium bromide (EB) induced mouse model of demyelination.Mice were randomly assigned into N group (Normal Diet and normal saline injection), F group (IF and normal saline injection), EBN group (Normal Diet and EB injection), EBF group (IF and EB injection). The hidden platform test was carried out based on path length, escape latency and swim speeds of mice. Stereological studies were determined by the Cavalieri and the Optical Dissector technique. Maintenance of mice on the IF results in significantly decreased the body weight and biochemical parameters, increased total number of neurons and volume of the hippocampus, and improved learning and memory parameters of adult male mice. However, IF in EBF group did not show as excellently as F group. The EBF group displayed significantly spatial memory improvement than that in EBN group. There were no statistically significant differences between EBF and EBN groups in stereological and learning parameters, though the EBF group displayed faster escape latencies, and swam faster and shorter path lengths than the EBN group in these parameters. Therefore as a conclusion, The IF fairly improved some adverse effects of EB in experimental demyelination models.


La dieta de ayuno intermitente (AI) como régimen restrictivo, previene la degeneración neural y la estimación de la presencia de diversos factores neurotrópicos en el hipocampo de modelos animales. Este estudio evalúa el efecto potencial de la AI en la prevención del aprendizaje y la disfunción de la memoria y mejora las alteraciones en el número y el volumen de las neuronas en un modelo de desmielinización, en ratón, inducido con bromuro de etidio (BE). Los ratones se asignaron al azar en el grupo N (dieta normal e inyección salina normal), Grupo A (AI e inyección salina normal), Grupo BEN (dieta normal e inyección BE), Grupo EBF (inyección AI y BE). La prueba de la plataforma oculta se llevó a cabo en función de la longitud del trayecto, la latencia de escape y la velocidad de nado de los ratones. Los estudios estereológicos fueron determinados por la técnica de Cavalieri y la técnica del disector óptico. En el grupo AI disminuyeron significativamente el peso corporal de los ratones, los parámetros bioquímicos, el número total de neuronas y el volumen del hipocampo, y los parámetros de aprendizaje y la memoria de los ratones machos adultos. Sin embargo, el grupo AI en BEF no se mostró tan bien como el grupo A. El grupo EBF mostró una mejora en la memoria espacial significativamente mayor que la del grupo BEN. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos A, BE y BEN en los parámetros estereológicos y de aprendizaje, aunque el grupo EBF mostró latencias de escape más rápidas, y nado en las rutas más rápidas y más cortas que el grupo BEN en estos parámetros. Por lo tanto, como conclusión, el grupo AI mejoró bastante algunos efectos adversos de la BE en los modelos de desmielinización experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Fasting , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Hippocampus/pathology , Body Weight , Disease Models, Animal , Ethidium/toxicity , Learning , Mice, Inbred BALB C
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 485-492, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Because of the need for a standardized and accurate method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) inflammatory activity, different magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions should be compared in order to choose the most sensitive sequence for clinical routine. Objective To compare the sensitivity of a T1-weighted image to a single dose of gadolinium (Gd) administration both with and without magnetization transfer to detect contrast enhancement in active demyelinating focal lesions. Methods A sample of relapsing-remitting MS patients were prospectively examined separately by two neuroradiologists using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The outcome parameters were focused on Gd-enhancement detection attributed to acute demyelination. All MR examinations with at least one Gd-enhancing lesion were considered positive (MR+) and each lesion was analyzed according to its size and contrast ratio. Results Thirty-six MR examinations were analyzed with a high inter-observer agreement for MR+ detection (k coefficient > 0.8), which was excellent for the number of Gd-enhancing lesions (0.91 T1 spin-echo (SE), 0.88 T1 magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) sequence and 0.99 magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE). Significantly more MR+ were reported on the T1 MTC scans, followed by the T1 SE, and MPRAGE scans. Confidently, the T1 MTC sequence demonstrated higher accuracy in the detection of Gd-enhancing lesions, followed by the T1 SE and MPRAGE sequences. Further comparisons showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the contrast ratio and area of Gd-enhancement on the T1 MTC images when compared with both the SE and MPRAGE images. Conclusion Single-dose Gd T1 MTC sequence was confirmed to be the most sensitive acquisition for predicting inflammatory active lesions using a 1.5 T magnet in this sample of MS patients.


RESUMO No que se refere à necessidade de um método preciso e padronizado para a detecção de atividade inflamatória em esclerose múltipla (EM), diferentes aquisições de RM devem ser comparadas com objetivo de escolher a sequência mais sensível para a rotina clínica. Objetivo Comparar a sensibilidade das sequências ponderadas em T1 após a administração endovenosa de uma única dose de gadolínio, com e sem a adição da transferência de magnetização, para detectar a impregnação das lesões desmielinizantes focais agudas. Métodos Uma amostra de pacientes com EM-RR foi prospectivamente avaliada separadamente por dois neurorradiologistas em um equipamento de RM de 1,5 Tesla. Os parâmetros de desfecho foram direcionados para a avaliação da detecção de impregnação pelo Gd atribuída à desmielinização aguda. Todos os exames de RM que demonstraram ao menos uma lesão com impregnação pelo Gd foram considerados positivos (RM+) e cada lesão foi analisada de acordo com suas dimensões e contraste. Resultados Trinta e seis exames de RM foram analisados. Os avaliadores demonstraram elevada concordância para a detecção de RM+ (coeficiente> 0,8), sendo excelente quanto ao número de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd (0,91 SE, 0,88 T1 MTC e 0,99 MPRAGE). A sequência T1 MTC apresentou número significativamente maior de RM+, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. De forma análoga, a sequência T1 MTC demonstrou maior acurácia na detecção de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. As demais comparações demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo na relação de contraste e na área de impregnação pelo Gd nas imagens T1 MTC quando comparadas às imagens SE e MPRAGE. Conclusão A sequência T1 MTC com uma única dose de Gd confirmou ser a sequência mais sensível em demonstrar lesões inflamatórias agudas em equipamento de 1,5 T nessa coorte de pacientes com EM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Multiple Sclerosis
12.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(1): 25-30, Ene-Jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120640

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Guillain Barré (SGB) se caracteriza por la manifestación de manera aguda o subaguda de un conjunto de signos y síntomas que demuestran la afectación del sistema nervioso periférico, expresada en parálisis fláccida y arreflexia, que eventualmente pueden complicarse amenazando la vida y/o posteriormente cronificarse si no se instauran tratamientos específicos de manera oportuna. Las causas más importantes del SGB se atribuyen a agentes infecciosos los cuales desencadenan un mecanismo de respuesta autoinmune que afectan tanto la mielina como el axón. La presente investigación caracterizó el SGB en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga entre los años 2010 y 2016(AU)


Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is characterized by acute or subacute manifestation of peripheral nervous system alterations such as flaccid paralysis and arreflexia, which can eventually be life-threatening and/or become chronic if specific treatments are not established in a timely manner. The main causes of GBS are attributed to infectious agents which trigger an autoimmune response that affect both the myelin and the axon. GBS is the most frequent cause of flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population. The present investigation characterized the GBS in patients admitted to the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga in the period 2010 to 2016(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Demyelinating Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pediatrics , Enterovirus , Cytomegalovirus , Zika Virus
13.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 57(3): 283-294, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058124

ABSTRACT

Resumen La polineuropatía desmielinizante inflamatoria crónica (CIDP por sus siglas en inglés) corresponde a un espectro de diferentes fenotipos clínicos caracterizados por lesiones de naturaleza autoinmune, inflamatoria y desmielinizante, que afectan primariamente nervios periféricos y raíces nerviosas. Generalmente, los pacientes con CIDP presentan un curso crónico de discapacidad neurológica, pero hasta un tercio de los casos puede exhibir un curso remitente-recidivante. El fenotipo clásico involucra compromiso simétrico de la fuerza muscular y la sensibilidad proximal y distal, asociado a arreflexia generalizada. El diagnóstico requiere la demostración de la desmielinización de nervios mediante electromiografía o biopsia de nervios. Debido a la afectación de personas relativamente jóvenes, laboralmente activos, y a la gran discapacidad neurológica que puede generar, el tratamiento debiera ser iniciado precozmente. Los pilares de la terapia en su fase inicial son los corticoides intravenosos en altas dosis, inmunoglobulina intravenosa y la plasmaféresis, mientras que la terapia de mantención se basa, principalmente, en el uso de corticoides orales a bajas dosis. Este artículo presenta el caso de un paciente evaluado en nuestro hospital y diagnosticado con CIDP, y expone una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de la enfermedad.


Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) can be defined as a spectrum of different clinical phenotypes which are characterized by autoimmune, inflammatory and demyelinating injuries, primarily affecting the peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Most patients with CIDP have a chronic course of neurological disability, but about a third of cases exhibit a relapsing-remitting course. Classic phenotype of CIDP involves symmetric compromise of proximal and distal muscle strength and sensitivity, associated with generalized areflexia. For an accurate diagnosis, demonstration of nerve demyelination by electromyography or nerve biopsy is required. Due to the affectation of relatively young, labor-active people and the high risk for neurological disability by the disease, treatment should be initiated early. The predominant lines of therapy, in its initial phase, are high-dose intravenous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis, while the maintenance therapy is mainly based on low-dose oral corticosteroids. This article presents a case report of a patient evaluated in our hospital and diagnosed with CIDP and exposes an updated literature review about this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Nerves , Polyneuropathies , Autoimmune Diseases , Demyelinating Diseases
14.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 35(2): 73-78, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1050489

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Guillain Barré (SGB) es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante aguda de probable etiología autoinmune, relacionada con diversos procesos infecciosos. Se caracteriza por debilidad muscular y disminución de los reflejos, pudiendo presentar un patrón clásico simétrico ascendente o con variables. La gravedad y pronóstico son variables, pudiendo comprometer los músculos torácicos derivando en insuficiencia respiratoria. Han sido descritos brotes endémicos asociados a diversos agentes infecciosos. Se presenta el reporte de 4 casos con el patrón más frecuente de SGB en los cuales se hizo el diagnóstico clínico confirmado por estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo o electromiografía con progresión agresiva, 3 de ellos ameritando el traslado a unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI) para su tratamiento. Presentaron distintos factores de riesgo infecciosos como la suspensión de terapia antiretroviral y síntomas gastrointestinales, principalmente diarrea acuosa previo al debut de la paresia. Se implementó el tratamiento haciendo uso de plasmaféresis en uno de los casos e inmunoglobulina endovenosa en el resto con resultados variables. Se resalta la importancia del diagnóstico oportuno de esta patología ante la presencia de paresia y arreflexia con o sin patrón característico con la finalidad de atender la progresión de los mismos de forma adecuada, mejorar el pronóstico y evitar o disminuir las secuelas de los pacientes(AU)


Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating inflammatory disease with probable autoimmune etiology related to diverse infectious processes. It is characterized by muscle weakness and diminished reflexes and may present an ascending symmetrical pattern or with other variables. The severity and prognosis are variable, and the thoracic muscles can be affected, resulting in respiratory failure. Endemic outbreaks associated with various infectious agents have been described. A report of 4 cases is presented in which the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid study or electromyography, with aggressive progression, 3 of them requiring to be transferred to the intensive care unit. The patients presented different infectious risk factors such as the interruption of anti-retroviral therapy and gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly watery diarrhea prior to the onset of the symptoms. The treatment was implemented using plasmapheresis in one of the cases and intravenous immunoglobulin in the rest with variable results. The importance of the timely diagnosis of this pathology in the presence of paresis and dimished reflexes with or without the characteristic pattern is highlighted in order to address the progression, appropriate management, improve the prognosis and avoid or reduce the sequelae of patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Demyelinating Diseases/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Electromyography , Internal Medicine , Noxae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759973

ABSTRACT

Trigeminal neuralgia is caused by compression of trigeminal nerve root and it leads to demyelination gradually. It was almost idiopathic and occurred unexpected. The upper cervical spinal cord contains the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus. Fibers with cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion enter in the upper pons and descend caudally to C2 level. We experienced a rare patient with facial pain, which was paroxysmal attack with severe pain after a clear event, cervical spinal injury (C2). So, this case reminds us of a possible cause of trigeminal neuralgia after a trauma of the head and neck.


Subject(s)
Cell Body , Cervical Cord , Demyelinating Diseases , Facial Pain , Head , Humans , Neck , Odontoid Process , Pons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Injuries , Trigeminal Ganglion , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Neuralgia
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and results in serious disability. Although many disease-modifying therapy drugs have been developed, these drugs have shown limited clinical efficacy and some adverse effects in previous studies, therefore, there has been reasonable need for less harmful and cost-effective therapeutics. Herein, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane (SFN) in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: The EAE mice were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated EAE group and SFN-treated EAE group. After EAE mice induction by auto-immunization against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide, we evaluated EAE symptom scores and biochemical analyses such as infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination of the spinal cord. Furthermore, western blotting was performed using the spinal cords of EAE mice. RESULTS: In the behavioral study, the SFN-treated EAE mice showed favorable clinical scores compared with PBS-treated EAE mice at the 13th day (1.30 ± 0.15 vs. 1.90 ± 0.18; P = 0.043) and 14th day (1.80 ± 0.13 vs. 2.75 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). Additionally, the biochemical studies revealed that SFN treatment inhibited the inflammatory infiltration, demyelinating injury of the spinal cords, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the EAE mice. CONCLUSION: The SFN treatment showed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in the EAE mice. Conclusively, this study suggests that SFN has neuroprotective effects via anti-inflammatory processing, so it could be a new therapeutic or nutritional supplement for MS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Mice , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Neuromyelitis Optica , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Spinal Cord , Treatment Outcome , Up-Regulation
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764671

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of ghrelin on memory impairment in a rat model of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: Randomized controlled groups and the posttest design were used. We established the representative animal model of vascular dementia caused by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and administered 80 µg/kg ghrelin intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. First, behavioral studies were performed to evaluate spatial memory. Second, we used molecular biology techniques to determine whether ghrelin ameliorates the damage to the structure and function of the white matter and hippocampus, which are crucial to learning and memory. RESULTS: Ghrelin improved the spatial memory impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze test. In the white matter, demyelination and atrophy of the corpus callosum were significantly decreased in the ghrelin-treated group. In the hippocampus, ghrelin increased the length of hippocampal microvessels and reduced the microvessels pathology. Further, we confirmed angiogenesis enhancement through the fact that ghrelin treatment increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related protein levels, which are the most powerful mediators of angiogenesis in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: We found that ghrelin affected the damaged myelin sheaths and microvessels by increasing angiogenesis, which then led to neuroprotection and improved memory function. We suggest that further studies continue to accumulate evidence of the effect of ghrelin. Further, we believe that the development of therapeutic interventions that increase ghrelin may contribute to memory improvement in patients with vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , Carotid Artery, Common , Corpus Callosum , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Demyelinating Diseases , Ghrelin , Hippocampus , Humans , Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Microvessels , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Myelin Sheath , Neuroprotection , Pathology , Rats , Spatial Memory , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Water , White Matter
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766817

ABSTRACT

Extrapontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder usually caused by rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. We present an 82-year-old female patient with general weakness, and severe hyponatremia (103 mEq/L) which was corrected 14 mEq/L during 21 hours. She was stuporous and presented status epilepticus. Brain T2-weighted image showed high signal intensities of bilateral thalami and electroencephalogram monitoring indicated right hemisphere lateralized periodic discharges, maximal in the right frontal region. This case shows that status epilepticus can occur in a patient of extrapontine myelinolysis involved bilateral thalami without pontine lesions.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Brain , Demyelinating Diseases , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Status Epilepticus , Stupor
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761389

ABSTRACT

With increasing sensitivity, availability, and use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past three decades, there is also an increase in incidental abnormal findings. The most common findings of these incidental abnormalities are white matter lesions that are interpreted as demyelinating based on radiological criteria. MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients without typical MS symptoms and with normal neurologic findings are now defined as a radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) which reported relatively low incidence, especially hard to find case report in Korea. The natural history and pathophysiologic processes of RIS remain largely unknown. The nature, prevalence, and long-term prognosis of RIS, as well as the role of disease-modifying therapy should be established in the future.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Natural History , Neurologic Manifestations , Prevalence , Prognosis , White Matter
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