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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9282, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089351

ABSTRACT

Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder resulting from selective destruction of melanocytes. Emerging studies have suggested that T helper cell 17 (Th17) is potentially implicated in vitiligo development and progression. It was recently discovered that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) can modulate Th17-mediated adaptive immunity. However, the influence of mGluR4 on melanogenesis of melanocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we primarily cultured mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and then knocked down and over-expressed mGluR4 using transfection. Transduced BMDC were co-cultured with CD4+ T cells and the expression of Th17-related cytokines were measured. The morphology and melanogenesis of B16 cells were observed after being treated with co-culture medium of CD4+ T cells and transduced BMDC. We found that mGluR4 knockdown did not affect the co-stimulatory CD80 and CD86 upregulation after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but did increase the expression of Th17-related cytokines, and further down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and the downstream genes, decreased melanin production, and destroyed the morphology of B16 cells. Conversely, over-expression of mGluR4 reduced the expression of CD80 and CD86, suppressed the production of Th17-related cytokines, increased the expression of MITF, and did not destroy the morphology of B16 cells. Our study confirmed that mGluR4 modulated the Th17 cell polarization and resulted in the alteration of melanogenesis and morphology of B16 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest mGluR4 might be a potent target involved in the immune pathogenesis of vitiligo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Vitiligo/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/physiology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Vitiligo/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/immunology , Th17 Cells/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Melanins/biosynthesis , Melanocytes/cytology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 61 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000970

ABSTRACT

Os neutrófilos são essenciais para a resposta imune inata contra uma variedade de patógenos. Eles são capazes de modular a resposta imune através da produção de citocinas e quimiocinas, degranulação e a sua interação direta com outras células no local da infecção, tais como as células dendríticas. A interação entre as células do sistema imune inato é essencial para direcionar a resposta imune adaptativa, a qual é responsável pela eliminação de microrganismos e manutenção de memória imunológica. Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a interação de neutrófilos humanos com Leishmania braziliensis, através da análise da expressão de moléculas de superfície, liberação de enzimas presentes nos grânulos e produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS). Também foi avaliada a interação entre neutrófilos humanos infectados e células dendríticas, a fim de se observar o efeito desta interação na indução da ativação das células dendríticas. Metodologia: Os neutrófilos foram purificados a partir do sangue periférico de doadores saudáveis e as células dendríticas foram geradas in vitro. Os neutrófilos foram infectados ou não com L. braziliensis e co-cultivados com as células dendríticas. Em seguida, os sobrenadantes e as células foram coletadas para avaliar a liberação de enzimas, tais como mieloperoxidase (MPO) e metaloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). O fenótipo e a função dos neutrófilos foram analisados através da expressão de Mac-1 (CD18 e CD11b), CD16, CD62-L e produção de ROS...


Neutrophils are essential in the innate immune response against a variety of pathogens. They are able to modulate immune response by cytokine and chemokine production, release of granules and their direct interaction with other cells at the infection site. Dendritic cells are recruited in response to cytokines and chemokines produced by neutrophils. The interaction between cells of the innate immune system is essential for targeting the adaptive immune response, which is responsible for eliminating microorganisms and the maintenance of immunological memory. Objective: Evaluate the interaction of human neutrophils with Leishmania braziliensis, through the analysis of surface molecule expression, release of granules enzymes and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also evaluated the interaction between human infected neutrophils and dendritic cells, in order to observe the effect of this interaction on dendritic cells. Methodology: Neutrophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors and dendritic cells were generated in vitro. Neutrophils were infected or not with L. braziliensis and cocultured with DC. Afterwards, supernatants and cells were harvested to evaluate the release of granules enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Neutrophils phenotype and function were analyzed by the expression of Mac-1 (CD18 and CD11b), CD16 and ROS production...


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Leishmania braziliensis/growth & development , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/parasitology , Leishmania braziliensis/pathogenicity , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/parasitology , Neutrophils/pathology
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 92-100, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66236

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cancer stem cells have recently been thought to be closely related to tumor development and reoccurrence. It may be a promising way to cure malignant glioma by using glioma stem cell-targeted dendritic cells as a tumor vaccine. In this study, we explored whether pulsing dendritic cells with antigens of glioma stem cells was a potent way to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and anti-tumor immunity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cancer stem cells were cultured from glioma cell line U251. Lysate of glioma stem cells was obtained by the repeated freezing and thawing method. Dendritic cells (DCs) were induced and cultured from the murine bone marrow cells, the biological characteristics were detected by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The DC vaccine was obtained by mixing DCs with lysate of glioma stem cells. The DC vaccine was charactirizated through the mixed lymphocyte responses and cell killing experiment in vitro. Level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the supernatant was checked by ELISA. RESULTS: After stimulation of lysate of glioma stem cell, expression of surface molecules of DC was up-regulated, including CD80, CD86, CD11C and MHC-II. DCs pulsed with lysate of glioma stem cells were more effective than the control group in stimulating original glioma cells-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responses, killing glioma cells and boosting the secretion of IFN-gamma in vitro. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated DCs loaded with antigens derived from glioma stem cells can effectively stimulate naive T cells to form specific cytotoxic T cells, kill glioma cells cultured in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Apoptosis , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Glioma/therapy , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplastic Stem Cells/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199828

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effectiveness of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) vaccination on the induction of antitumor immunity in a mouse lymphoma model using EG7-lymphoma cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA). BMDCs treated with RG-II had an activated phenotype. RG-II induced interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. BMDCs stimulated with RG-II facilitate the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Using BMDCs from the mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we revealed that RG-II activity is dependent on TLR4. RG-II showed a preventive effect of immunization with OVA-pulsed BMDCs against EG7 lymphoma. These results suggested that RG-II expedites the DC-based immune response through the TLR4 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/metabolism , Animals , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neoplasms/immunology , Pectins/pharmacology , Phenotype , Protein Transport/drug effects , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/cytology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(6): 510-515, June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622775

ABSTRACT

A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM)-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC) maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Coculture Techniques , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interferon-gamma , Lymphocyte Activation
7.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 33-43, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626745

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-α/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-γ. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , /analysis , /immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Immunophenotyping , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153073

ABSTRACT

In this study, we showed the direct interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) and toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) via co-localization and binding by using confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays. FAP triggered the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a TLR4-dependent manner. In addition, FAP-induced cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was modulated in part by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). FAP-induced expression of CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, and MHC class II in TLR4+/+ BMDCs was not observed in TLR4-/- BMDCs. Furthermore, FAP induced DC-mediated CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and suppressed tumor growth with DC-based tumor vaccination in EG7 thymoma murine model. Taken together, these results indicate that the TLR4 agonist, FAP, a potential immunoadjuvant for DC-based cancer vaccination, improves the DC-based immune response via the TLR4 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Adhesins, Bacterial/genetics , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mycobacterium avium/genetics , Paratuberculosis/metabolism , Protein Binding , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism , Thymoma/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(6): 572-578, dic. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612157

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection, is a significant cause of mortality worldwide. It is currently accepted that death associated to sepsis is due to an immune hyperactivation state involving the development of a broad proinflammatory response along with alterations in the coagulation system. It is now clear that besides the inflammatory events, the clinical course of sepsis is characterized by the development of an anti-inflammatory response that could lead to death in its attempt to balance the initial response. The purpose of this review is to summarize current mechanisms that explain the pathogenesis of sepsis, underlying the role that cells with immunoregulatory properties play during the course of this complex syndrome. A better understanding of these processes will contribute in the search of more successful therapeutic strategies.


El síndrome de respuesta sistémica consecuencia de una infección, denominado sepsis, constituye una causa significativa de muerte en el mundo. Históricamente se ha aceptado que la muerte por sepsis se debe a un estado de hiperactivación inmunológica, que implica el desarrollo de una vasta respuesta pro-inflamatoria acompañada de alteraciones en el sistema de coagulación. Ahora es claro que además de los sucesos inflamatorios, el curso clínico de la sepsis se caracteriza por el desarrollo de una respuesta anti-inflamatoria que busca contrarrestar la respuesta inicial, y es ésta finalmente en gran parte responsable de la muerte de los pacientes. El propósito de esta revisión es resumir los mecanismos actuales que explican la patogénesis de la sepsis, y específicamente el papel que desempeñan las subpoblaciones celulares con propiedades inmuno-reguladoras durante el curso de la enfermedad. El mejor entendimiento de estos procesos contribuirá a la búsqueda de estrategias terapéuticas más exitosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Sepsis/etiology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189394

ABSTRACT

We investigated the immunostimulatory effects of a novel beta-glucan purified from Paenibacillus (P.) polymyxa JB115 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs), a type of potent antigen-presenting cells. beta-glucan isolated from P. polymyxa JB115 enhanced the viability and induced the maturation of DCs. beta-glucan markedly increased the cytokine production of DCs and surface expression of DC markers. In addition, DCs treated with beta-glucan showed a higher capacity to stimulate allogeneic spleen cell proliferation compared to those treated with medium alone. These results demonstrate the effect of beta-glucan on DC maturation and may increase the use of beta-glucan.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Immunophenotyping/methods , Interleukin-12/analysis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Paenibacillus/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , beta-Glucans/isolation & purification
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 990-998, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination for melanoma was introduced because melanoma carries distinct tumor-associated antigens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of DC vaccination for melanoma in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients with stage IV and one with stage II were enrolled. Autologous monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) were cultured and pulsed with tumor-lysate, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and cytokine cocktail for mature antigen-loaded DC. DC vaccination was repeated four times at 2-week intervals and 2-4x107 DC were injected each time. RESULTS: Reduced tumor volume was observed by PET-CT in three patients after DC vaccination. Delayed type hypersensitivity responses against tumor antigen were induced in five patients. Tumor antigen-specific IFN-gamma-producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot in two patients. However, the overall clinical outcome showed disease progression in all patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, DC vaccination using tumor antigen-loaded, mature MoDCs led to tumor regression in individual melanoma patients. Further standardization of DC vaccination protocol is required to determine which parameters lead to better anti-tumor responses and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Monocytes/cytology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135586

ABSTRACT

Background & objective: DCs trigger both innate and adaptive immune responses to control HIV infection and represent a viral reservoir acting as target and HIV carriers for infection of permissive CD4+ T-cells. DCs thus form a very attractive study subject to further our existing knowledge of HIV induced immunopathogenesis due to its diverse and crucial role in HIV infection establishment, viral dissemination, immune evasion, viral persistence, etc. We aimed to characterize the effect of HIV infection on myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell subsets in a group of HIV-1 subtype C infected treated or untreated Indian individuals. Methods: Blood DC subset numbers and immunophenotype were studied for 79 HIV infected subjects at various stages of disease and compared with 13 HIV-uninfected controls. Comparisons were also made between groups of subjects based on their CD4+ T cell counts and also experience of antiretrovirals. Results: Significant decreases were observed in blood DC counts and the two DC subsets in HIV infected individuals. Subjects with lowest CD4+ T cell counts also had a drastically reduced DC subset pool which correlated positively with plasma viraemia and negatively with CD4+ T cell counts. DC subsets from HIV infected subjects showed higher expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, and HIV-1 co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 which correlated positively with HIV-1 plasma viraemia. The alterations in blood DCs were partly resolved in ART receiving study subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Correlation between DC subset activation state and viraemia supports the role of DC activation on viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion.


Subject(s)
Adult , CD40 Antigens/metabolism , B7-2 Antigen/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Count , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1 , Humans , Immunophenotyping , India , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Viremia/blood
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177041

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells. OK432 (Picibanil(R)) was introduced as a potent stimulator of DC maturation in combination with prostaglandin-E2 and interferon-alpha. We compared the efficacy of a DC-prostate cancer vaccine using early-mature DCs stimulated with OK432, PGE2 and INF-alpha (OPA) with that of vaccines using other methods. On days 3 or 7 of DC culture, TNF-alpha (T), TNF-alpha and LPS (TL) or OPA were employed as maturation stimulators. DU145 cells subjected to heat stress were hybridized with mature DCs using polyethyleneglycol. T cells were sensitized by the hybrids, and their proliferative and cytokine secretion activities and cytotoxicity were measured. The yields of early-mature DCs were higher, compared to yields at the conventional maturation time (P<0.05). In the early maturation setting, the mean fusion ratios, calculated from the fraction of dual-positive cells, were 13.3%, 18.6%, and 39.9%, respectively (P=0.051) in the T only, TL, and OPA-treated groups. The function of cytotoxic T cells, which were sensitized with the hybrids containing DCs matured early with OPA, was superior to that using other methods. The antitumor effects of DC-DU145 hybrids generated with DCs subjected to early maturation with the OPA may be superior to that of the hybrids using conventional maturation methods.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dinoprostone/pharmacology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/immunology , Phenotype , Picibanil/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-630030

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells of the immune system. They can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes supplemented with GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF alpha. During induction, DCs will increase in size and acquire multiple cytoplasmic projections when compared to their precursor cells such as monocytes or haematopoietic stem cells which are usually round or spherical. Morphology of DCs can be visualized by conventional light microscopy after staining or phase-contrast inverted microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy. In this report, we described the morphological appearances of DCs captured using the above-mentioned techniques. We found that confocal laser scanning microscopy yielded DCs images with greater details but the operating cost for such a technique is high. On the other hand, the images obtained through light microscopy after appropriate staining or phase contrast microscopy were acceptable for identification purpose. Besides, these equipments are readily available in most laboratories and the cost of operation is affordable. Nevertheless, morphological identification is just one of the methods to characterise DCs. Other methods such as phenotypic expression markers and mixed leukocyte reactions are additional tools used in the characterisation of DCs.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells/cytology , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221148

ABSTRACT

Taxol has been used effectively in cancer therapies. Our previous study demonstrated that taxol induced altered maturation and improved viability of dendritic cells (DCs). However, the effects of taxol on DC viability have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, flow cytometric analyses revealed that taxol treatment significantly increased the number of viable DCs and the expression levels of a representative anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Furthermore, mobilization of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) from the cytosol to the nucleus in DCs was observed by confocal microscopy. An inhibition assay using N-p-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone confirmed that NF-kappaB was intimately involved in the effects of taxol on DC viability. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of taxol enhancement of DC viability. Since taxol is a popular anticancer agent used in clinic, this study may provide a rationale for the use of taxol in DC immunotherapy to treat cancer patients. Taken together, these results confirm that taxol increases DC viability, and this information may provide new insights for new clinical applications of both taxol and DCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Interleukin-12/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Confocal , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone/pharmacology , Transcription Factor RelA/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , bcl-X Protein/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76614

ABSTRACT

Increasing importance is being given to the stimulation of Th1 response in cancer immunotherapy because its presence can shift the direction of adaptive immune responses toward protective immunity. Based on chemokine receptor expression, CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ T cells as Th1-type cells were investigated its capacity in monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) maturation and polarization, and induction of antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro. The levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were decreased to the basal level compared with high production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2 in CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Co-incubation of activated CD4+ or CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ T cells with DC (CD4+/DC or CXCR3+CD4+/DC, respectively) particularly up-regulated IL-12 and CD80 expression compared with DC matured with TNF-alpha and LPS (mDC). Although there was no significant difference between the effects of the CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ and CD4+ T cells on DC phenotype expression, CXCR3+CD4+/DC in CTL culture were able to expand number of CD8+ T cells and increased frequencies of IFN-gamma secreting cells and overall cytolytic activity against tumor antigen WT-1. These results demonstrated that the selective addition of CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ T cells to CTL cultures could enhance the induction of CTLs by DC in vitro, and implicated on a novel strategy for adoptive T cell therapy.


Subject(s)
CD4 Antigens/immunology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Receptors, CCR4/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/cytology , Th1 Cells/immunology
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the characteristics of the mononuclear cells remaining in the leukoreduction system (LRS) chambers of Trima Accel(R) in comparison with those of standard buffy coat cells, and evaluated their potential for differentiation into dendritic cells. METHODS: Twenty-six LRS chambers of Trima Accel(R) were collected after platelet pheresis from healthy adults. Flow cytometric analysis for T, B, NK, and CD14+ cells was performed and the number of CD34+ cells was counted. Differentiation and maturation into dendritic cells were induced using CD14+ cells seperated via Magnetic cell sorting (MACS(R)) Seperation (Miltenyi Biotec Inc., USA). RESULTS: Total white blood cell (WBC) count in LRS chambers was 10.8x108 (range 7.7-18.0x108). The median values (range) of proportions of each cells were CD4+ T cell 29.6% (18.7-37.6), CD8+ T cell 27.7% (19.2-40.0), B cell 5.5% (2.2-12.1), NK cell 15.7% (13.7-19.9), and CD14+ cells 12.4% (8.6-32.3) respectively. Although total WBC count was significantly higher in the buffy coat (whole blood of 400 mL) than the LRS chambers, the numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes were not statistically different. The numbers of B cells and CD4+ cells were significantly higher in the buffy coat than the LRS chambers (P<0.05). The median value (range) of CD34+ cells obtained from the LRS chambers was 0.9x10(6) (0.2-2.6x10(6)). After 7 days of cytokine-supplemented culture, the CD14+ cells were successfully differentiated into dendritic cells. CONCLUSIONS: The mononuclear cells in LRS chambers of Trima Accel(R) are an excellent alternative source of viable and functional human blood cells, which can be used for research purposes.


Subject(s)
Adult , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Plateletpheresis/instrumentation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144426

ABSTRACT

A new approach to enhancing the effectiveness of vaccines is to deliver antigens selectively to dendritic cells (DC) in situ, via monoclonal antibodies specific for particular DC surface molecules. This can markedly enhance CTL responses and, via helper T cells, also enhance antibody responses. DC activation agents or adjuvants must also be administered for effective CTL responses, but in some cases good antibody responses can be obtained without adjuvants. Here we review the role of different DC subsets and different DC target molecules in obtaining enhanced immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Humans , Vaccines/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144419

ABSTRACT

A new approach to enhancing the effectiveness of vaccines is to deliver antigens selectively to dendritic cells (DC) in situ, via monoclonal antibodies specific for particular DC surface molecules. This can markedly enhance CTL responses and, via helper T cells, also enhance antibody responses. DC activation agents or adjuvants must also be administered for effective CTL responses, but in some cases good antibody responses can be obtained without adjuvants. Here we review the role of different DC subsets and different DC target molecules in obtaining enhanced immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Humans , Vaccines/immunology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 68(6): 423-427, nov.-dic. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-633581

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to characterize and quantify cells involved in immune response in metastasis-free regional lymph nodes (RLNs) draining different human epithelial tumors and compare them (by immunohistochemistry) with control lymph nodes from patients with non malignant diseases. We showed that T cells number was decreased in RLNs as compared to the controls with reduction in both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells subsets and an inverted ratio (CD4+: CD8+). B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells were decreased with respect to the controls. S100+ dendritic cells (DCs) and mature DCs were detected in T dependent areas. Their mean number was significantly lower as compared to control. Immature DCs were significantly diminished compared to RLN and control nodes. CD57+ cells, follicular T helper cells and/or NK cells, were localized in the clear zone of germinal centres and their mean number was significantly increased. There were no CD57+ cells in hypoplastic follicles. In this study we show that RLNs draining human cancer present reduction in almost all immune cells, except CD57+ cells. These findings may be related to the deficient anti-tumor immune response in patients with cancer and subsequent tumor progression.


El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar y cuantificar utilizando inmuno-histoquímica, las células involucradas en la respuesta inmune en ganglios linfáticos regionales (GLRs) que drenan distintos tumores epiteliales malignos humanos y compararlas con ganglios controles (GLCs) provenientes de pacientes sin enfermedad neoplásica maligna. Determinamos que los GLRs presentaban una marcada depleción de linfocitos B y T, células dendríticas (CD) foliculares y CD interdigitantes maduras respecto a los controles. En los linfocitos T, además de estar disminuidos, se observó una inversión de la relación T CD4+: T CD8+, a favor de los T CD8+. La depleción de CD inmaduras fue mayor respecto a las maduras. Las células CD57+, células foliculares T helper y/o células NK, localizadas en las zonas claras de los centros germinativos, presentaron un marcado incremento en los GLRs comparados con los GLCs, excepto en los casos de ganglios linfáticos con folículos hipoplásicos. En este estudio, demostramos que los GLRs que drenan carcinomas humanos presentan una significativa reducción en casi todas las células de la respuesta inmune, excepto las células NK. Estos hallazgos podrían estar relacionados con la deficiente respuesta antitumoral de los pacientes con cáncer y la subsiguiente progresión tumoral.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Immunity, Cellular , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/immunology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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