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Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002064, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222368


El dengue es un problema creciente para la salud pública mundial. En Argentina, los casos se han ido incrementado en los últimos años. La vacuna Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) fue aprobada por la Agencia Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología (ANMAT) en 2017, y actualmente está indicada para personas entre los 9 y 45 años de edad que residan enzonas endémicas. A partir de la consulta de una paciente sobre la posibilidad de vacunarse contra el dengue, la autora se plantea la pertinencia de su indicación, teniendo en cuenta la eficacia y seguridad de la vacuna. Luego de una búsqueda rápida se encontró evidencia que señala que la vacuna contra el dengue CYD-TDV mostró poca eficacia en comparación con otras vacunas disponibles en el mercado, siendo más segura y eficaz en personas que ya han sido infectadas anteriormente por el virus del dengue (sujetos seropositivos). En cambio, se observó un aumento del riesgo de dengue grave en los infectados por vez primera tras la vacunación (sujetos seronegativos). Se concluye que la estrategia recomendada consiste en vacunar únicamente a las personas que hayan tenido infección por dengue con anterioridad, consistiendo en una buena práctica la toma de decisiones compartidas con cada paciente. (AU)

Dengue is a growing problem for global public health. In Argentina, cases have been increasing in recent years. The Dengvaxia vaccine (CYD-TDV) was approved by the National Agency for Medicines, Food and Technology in 2017, and it is currently indicated for people between 9 and 45 years of age who reside in endemic areas. Based on the consultation of a patient about the possibility of being vaccinated against dengue, the author considers the relevance of its indication, taking into account the efficacy and safety of the vaccine. After a quick search, evidence was found that indicates that the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine showed little efficacy compared to other vaccines available on the market, being safer and more effective in people who have already been previously infected by the dengue virus (seropositive subjects). In contrast, an increased risk of severe dengue was observed in those infected for the first time after vaccination (seronegative subjects). It is concluded that the recommended strategy consists of vaccinating only people who have had dengue infection before, making shared decisions with each patient a good practice. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Vaccines/pharmacology , Patient Participation , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Public Health , Severe Dengue/etiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Vaccines/adverse effects , Dengue Vaccines/immunology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Decision Making, Shared
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 58-64, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089331


ABSTRACT Background: Although performance of rapid immunochromatographic tests (RITs) for dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2 and 3 is relatively settled, evidence on accuracy of RITs for DENV-4 are based on studies with small sample sizes and with discrepant results. Objectives: To assess accuracy and inter-observer agreement of RITs targeting dengue nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) antigen - Dengue NS1-Bioeasy™, Dengue NS1 Ag Strip-Bio-Rad™, IVB Dengue Ag NS1-Orangelife™ and Dengue NS1-K130-Bioclin™ in DENV-4 samples. Methods: Study sample (n = 324) included adults presenting at an emergency unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with fever of ≤72 h and two or more dengue symptoms. A serum sample from each patient was tested by each RIT. A positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was considered as the reference standard for dengue diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters analyzed for each RIT were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Each RIT was read by homogeneous (two junior nurses) or heterogeneous (one junior nurse and one senior biologist) pairs. Agreement was estimated by simple kappa with 95% confidence interval, positive (Ppos) and negative (Pneg) proportion concordance and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa, rated from poor (k < 0.0) to almost perfect (0.8 < k < 1.0), and perfect (k = 1). Results: NS1 RITs for DENV-4 diagnosis showed high specificity (95.9%-99.4%), but low sensitivity (14.7%-45.4%). Bioeasy™ had the best performance, with a positive likelihood ratio of 26.0 (95% CI: 8.4;81.0). Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for all evaluated RITs. Mismatches in confirmed dengue were more common for the Bioclin™ (Ppos 88.3-90.0 %) and Orangelife™ (Ppos 91.7-94.1 %) tests. Conclusions: For DENV-4, the tested RITs had high specificity, but lower sensitivity compared to published results for other serotypes. They should not be used for screening purposes. Different brands may have very different performances. This should be considered upon deciding of using RITs in DENV-4 outbreaks.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chromatography, Affinity/standards , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Serogroup
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 85-88, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089325


ABSTRACT The antigenic potential of seven immunogenic peptides of the dengue virus was evaluated in the sera of patients with dengue confirmed by IgM/IgG serology. Antibodies IgM and IgG against dengue virus peptides were analyzed by ELISA in 31 dengue sero-positive and 20 sero-negative patients. The P5 peptide showed significant IgG immunoreactivity mostly in the sera of patients with dengue without warning signs in comparison with patients with dengue with warning signs, correlating with mild disease. This finding suggests that the low antibody response against P5 epitope could be a risk factor for higher susceptibility to dengue virus infection with warning signs, and that P5 could be a potential antigen for vaccine development.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Peptides/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200225, 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135239


In the near future, the overlap of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue epidemics is a concrete threat in tropical regions. Co-epidemics of COVID-19 and dengue could be an overwhelming challenge for health systems in low- and middle-income countries. In this work, we investigated potential serological cross-reactions between COVID-19 and dengue patients. Among 32 COVID-19 positive sera, no positive Dengue virus (DENV) IgG/IgM results were observed. On the other hand, one false-positive result was observed among 44 DENV-positive sera tested for COVID-19 antibodies with each of the two rapid tests used. Further data on accuracy of COVID-19 diagnostic test are urgently warranted.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Dengue/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Dengue Virus/immunology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5078, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056051


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the performance of indirect immunofluorescence for serological diagnosis of dengue virus in a population with high prevalence of arboviruses. Methods: Two-hundred serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue fever were tested by immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assay BIOCHIP® mosaic. Specificity, sensitivity and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Discordant samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. Results: Of the 200 samples, 20% were positive and 80% negative for anti-dengue virus IgM antibodies in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 40 positives, 25% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these ten discordant results, only 20% were also negative in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 160 negatives in the immunoenzymatic test, 5% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these nine discordant results, 33% were positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.7 (0.572-0.829). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were respectively 75% and 94%. For anti-dengue virus IgG antibodies, of the 200 samples, 15.5% were positive and 84.5% were negative in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 31 positives, 12.9% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these four discordant results, 25% were negative in the PCR. Of the 169 negatives, 8% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these 14 discordant results, 64% were also positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.695 (0.563-0.83). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were 87.1% and 91.7%, respectively. Conclusion: For diagnosis of acute infection, the immunoenzymatic test is enough, and the use of additional methods is not warranted. Replacing the immunoenzymatic test by indirect immunofluorescence would compromise the sensitivity for IgM. However, indirect immunofluorescence can distinguish three arboviruses simultaneously, an advantage during concomitant epidemics.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho da imunofluorescência indireta no diagnóstico sorológico de dengue em uma população com alta prevalência de arboviroses. Métodos: Duzentas amostras de soro de pacientes com suspeita clínica de dengue foram testadas por ensaio imunoenzimático e imunofluorescência indireta mosaico BIOCHIP®. Foram calculados especificidade, sensibilidade e coeficiente Kappa. Nas amostras discordantes, realizou-se reação em cadeia da polimerase como método confirmatório. Resultados: Das 200 amostras, 20% foram positivas e 80% negativas para IgM antivírus da dengue no ensaio imunoenzimático. Das 40 positivas, 25% foram negativas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas dez negativas, apenas 20% eram também negativas na reação em cadeia da polimerase. Das 160 negativas no ensaio imunoenzimático, 5% foram positivas na imunofluorescência indireta. Por fim, dentre as nove discordantes, 33% tiveram vírus da dengue detectado na reação em cadeia da polimerase. O coeficiente Kappa foi 0,70 (0,57-0,82). Sensibilidade e especificidade por imunofluorescência indireta foram, respectivamente, 75% e 94%. Para IgG antivírus da dengue, de 200 amostras, 15,5% foram positivas e 84,5% negativas no ensaio imunoenzimático. Das 31 positivas, 12,9% foram negativas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas quatro discordantes, 25% apresentaram vírus da dengue não detectado na reação em cadeia da polimerase. Das 169 negativas, 8% foram positivas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas, 64% foram positivas também na reação em cadeia da polimerase. O coeficiente Kappa foi 0,695 (0,56-0,83). Sensibilidade e a especificidade por imunofluorescência indireta foram, respectivamente, 87,1% e 91,7%. Conclusão: Ensaio imunoenzimático seria suficiente para diagnóstico sorológico de infecção aguda, não justificando a incorporação da imunofluorescência indireta. Substituir ensaio imunoenzimático pela imunofluorescência indireta poderia comprometer a sensibilidade para IgM. Contudo, a imunofluorescência indireta auxilia diferenciar três arboviroses simultaneamente, sendo vantajoso em epidemias concomitantes.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Dengue/diagnosis , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW4890, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056050


ABSTRACT Objective To demonstrate the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage status in children younger than 5 years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out on the direct and indirect effects of pneumococcal vaccine in the carriage status, after implementation in childhood immunization programs. Studies carried out in children younger than 5 years were selected from the PubMed® and Virtual Health Library databases, and data collected after implementation of pneumococcal vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean, between 2008 and 2018. Results From 1,396 articles identified, 738 were selected based on titles and abstracts. After duplicate removal, 31 studies were eligible for full-text reading, resulting in 6 publications for analysis. All selected publications were observational studies and indicated a decrease in the carriage and vaccine types, and an increase in the circulation of non-vaccine serotypes, such as 6A, 19A, 35B, 21 and 38. We did not identify changes in the antimicrobial resistance after vaccine implementation. Conclusion A decrease in the carriage status of vaccine types and non-vaccine types was detected. The continuous monitoring of pneumococcal vaccine effect is fundamental to demonstrate the impact of the carriage status and, consequently, of invasive pneumococcal disease, allowing better targeting approaches in countries that included pneumococcal vaccine in their immunization programs. Our study protocol was registered in PROSPERO ( under number CRD42018096719.

RESUMO Objetivo Demonstrar o impacto das vacinas pneumocócicas conjugadas no estado de portador de Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças menores de 5 anos na América Latina e no Caribe. Métodos Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura sobre os efeitos diretos e indiretos da vacina pneumocócica no estado de portador em crianças menores de 5 anos, após a implantação da vacina nos calendários de imunização infantil. A partir de dados da PubMed®e da Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde, foram selecionados estudos de portador em crianças menores de 5 anos, com dados coletados após implementação da vacina de 2008 a 2018, na América Latina e no Caribe. Resultados Dos 1.396 artigos identificados, 738 foram selecionados mediante leitura de títulos e resumos. Após a extração dos duplicados, 31 foram elegíveis para leitura do texto completo, restando 6 artigos para análise. Todos os estudos selecionados eram observacionais e indicavam diminuição do portador e tipos vacinais, e aumento da circulação de sorotipos não vacinais, como 6A, 19A, 35B, 21 e 38. Não foi observada alteração na resistência antimicrobiana após a introdução da vacina. Conclusão Detectou-se redução no estado de portador, dos tipos vacinais e não vacinais. O monitoramento contínuo do efeito das vacinas pneumocócicas é fundamental, para demonstrar o impacto do estado de portador e, consequentemente, da doença pneumocócica invasiva, permitindo o melhor direcionamento nas ações em saúde para os países que incluíram a vacina no calendário de imunização. Nosso protocolo de estudo foi registrado no PROSPERO ( sob o número CRD42018096719.

Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Dengue/diagnosis , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology
Salvador; s.n; 2018. 79 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005558


INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é endêmico no Brasil desde 1981. O primeiro caso com transmissão autóctone de infecção por vírus Chikungunya (CHIKV) no Brasil foi confirmado em 2014, chamando a atenção das autoridades sanitárias, principalmente, devido a cronificação da artralgia. A partir de 2015 a circulação do vírus Zika (ZIKV) foi confirmada no país. OBJETIVO: Investigar aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos de pacientes com infecções por ZIKV, DENV e CHIKV, e o processo de cronificação dos sintomas articulares dos pacientes confirmados por Chikungunya. MÉTODO: De setembro de 2014 a julho de 2016 foi realizado um estudo de vigilância para doença febril, em um centro de emergência em saúde de Salvador, para identificação de pacientes com idade ≥6 meses, que referiram febre nos últimos 7 dias ou que apresentaram temperatura ≥37,8ºC durante o atendimento. Entrevistamos os pacientes para coletar dados demográficos e clínicos, e revisamos os prontuários para obter a suspeita diagnóstica. Amostras de sangue de fase aguda e convalescente foram coletadas. Realizou-se testes moleculares e sorológicos para confirmar o diagnóstico de DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV ou Flavivírus não específico. Os participantes com confirmação laboratorial para CHIKV foram acompanhados via contato telefônico, em média, um ano e cinco meses após a fase aguda da doença, a fim de investigar a evolução do quadro clínico e fatores de risco associados a cronificação da artralgia. RESULTADOS: Dos 948 participantes inclusos, 247 (26,1%) tinham evidência laboratorial de uma infecção arboviral, dos quais 224 (23,6%) eram infecções simples (DENV: 32, 3,4%; CHIKV: 159, 16,7%; ZIKV: 13, 1,4% e Flavivírus: 20, 2,1%), e 23 (2,4%) foram co-infecções (DENV / CHIKV: 13, 1,4%; FLAV / CHIKV: 9, 0,9%; e DEN / ZIKV: 1, 0,1%). Rash e prurido foram mais frequente em pacientes com infecção por ZIKV, e artralgia foi mais comum em pacientes com infecção por CHIKV. Dos 265 pacientes confirmados com infecção por CHIKV, 153 (57,7%) foram acompanhados por contato telefônico, e destes, 65 (42,5%) referiram artralgia crônica, e 47 (30,7%) estavam sintomáticos no momento do contato telefônico. Sexo feminino e idade estão associados ao risco de cronificação da artralgia. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados revelam um desafio para um diagnóstico clínico preciso de infecções por DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV em uma área de co-circulação, além disso, coinfecções são eventos frequentes. Destacamos a alta frequência da dor articular persistente após uma infecção por CHIKV, e o impacto da artralgia crônica nas atividades diárias e laborais dos pacientes

INTRODUCTION: Dengue has been endemic in Brazil since 1981. The first case with autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus infection in Brazil was confirmed in 2014, drawing attention of the health authorities, especially due to arthralgia chronification. Since 2015, the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was confirmed in the country. AIM: To investigate the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of patients with ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV infection and the process of chronification of the joint symptoms of the patients confirmed for Chikungunya. METHOD: From September 2014 to July 2016, a surveillance study for febrile illness was carried out at a health emergency center in Salvador, to identify patients aged ≥6 months who reported fever in the last 7 days or who presented a temperature ≥ 37.8ºC during medical care. We interviewed the patients to collect demographic and clinical data. In addition, we reviewed the medical records to have the diagnostic suspicion. Acute and convalescent phase blood samples were collected. Molecular and serological tests were performed to confirm the diagnosis of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV or non-specific Flavivirus. Participants with laboratory confirmation for CHIKV were assisted through telephone, on average, one year and five months after the acute stage of the disease to investigate the evolution of clinical picture and risk factors associated with arthralgia chronification. RESULTS: Of the 948 participants included, 247 (26.1%) had laboratory evidence of an arboviral infection, of which 224 (23.6%) were simple infections (DENV: 32, 3.4%, CHIKV: 159, 16.7%) and 23 (2.4%) were co-infections (DENV / CHIKV: 13, 1.4%, FLAV / CHIKV: 9, 0.9%, and DEN / ZIKV: 1, 0.1%). Rash and pruritus were more frequent in patients with ZIKV infection, and arthralgia was more common in patients with CHIKV infection. From the 265 patients confirmed with CHIKV infection, 153 (57.7%) were assisted by telephone and, among them, 65 (42.5%) reported chronic arthralgia and 47 (30.7%) remained symptomatic until the moment they were contacted. Female sex and age are associated with the risk of arthralgia chronification. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a challenge for an accurate clinical diagnosis of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infections in a cocirculation area, in addition, co-infections are frequent events. We highlight the high frequency of persistent joint pain after a CHIKV infection, and the impact of chronic arthralgia on patients' daily and work activities

Humans , Epidemiology/standards , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(3): 249-256, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899708


Dengue fever, caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection, is one of the most important diseases in the world, not only due to the high morbidity/mortality rates it causes, but also because of its great economic and social impact in tropical/subtropical countries. DENV infection has a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection or infection with mild symptoms to severe dengue that can lead to death. At present, no etiological treatment or effective globally distributed vaccine against the four DENV serotypes exists. Despite great efforts made to understand the mechanism associated with DENV disease pathogenesis the causes leading to severe dengue presentation have not been clarified. Some hypotheses seek to give a biological and physiological explanation to the clinical manifestations that appear during the infection. Based on the evidence that after contact with dendritic cells DENV alters the functionality of these cells, this review aims to describe the most relevant findings regarding the importance of dendritic cells in the context of DENV infection and progression of the illness.

El dengue, causada por el virus dengue (DENV), es una de las enfermedades más importantes no sólo por los altos índices de morbilidad/mortalidad, sino también por su gran impacto económico y social en los países de las regiones tropicales/subtropicales. La infección por el DENV cursa por un variado rango de manifestaciones clínicas que van desde una infección asintomática o con síntomas leves, hasta el dengue grave que puede ser fatal. En la actualidad, no se dispone de un tratamiento etiológico y tampoco de una vacuna eficaz mundialmente distribuida, contra los 4 serotipos del DENV. A pesar de los grandes esfuerzos orientados a entender el mecanismo asociado con la patogénesis de la enfermedad, aún no se ha logrado esclarecer de forma definitiva las causas que conllevan a las formas graves de enfermedad. Algunas hipótesis buscan dar una explicación biológica y fisiológica a las manifestaciones clínicas que se presentan durante la infección. Dado que una de ellas sugiere que luego del contacto con las células dendríticas el DENV altera su funcionalidad, la presente revisión tiene como objetivo describir los hallazgos más relevantes referentes a la importancia de dichas células en el marco de la infección por el DENV y progresión de la enfermedad.

Humans , Virus Replication/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Disease Progression , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(6): 458-468, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841802


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Dengue fever may present hemorrhages and cavitary effusions as result of exacerbated immune responses. We investigated hydro-alcoholic extracts from leaves (UGL) and bark (UGB) of the medicinal species Uncaria guinanensis with respect to antiviral effects in Dengue virus (DENV) infection and in immunological parameters associated with in vivo physiopathological features. METHODS Chemical profiles from UGB or UGL were compared in thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance using flavonoid compounds and a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched fraction as references. DENV-2-infected hepatocytes (Huh-7) were treated with extracts. Cell viability, DENV antigens and immunological factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or flow cytometry. FINDINGS The UGL mainly differed from UGB by selectively containing the flavonoid kaempferitrin. UGB and UGL improved hepatocyte viability. Both extracts reduced intracellular viral antigen and inhibited the secretion of viral non-structural protein (NS1), which is indicative of viral replication. Reduction in secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was achieved by UGB, of interleukin-6 by UGL, and of interleukin-8 by both UGB and UGL. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The U. guianensis extracts presented, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects for DENV and possibly a hepatocyte-protective activity. Further studies may be performed to consider these products as potential candidates for the development of an herbal product for the future treatment of dengue.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Chemokines/drug effects , Chemokines/immunology , Uncaria/chemistry , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antigens, Viral/drug effects , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 319-327, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841798


This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016. A significant increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults has also been reported. Factors involved in viral dissemination, neural pathogenesis and routes of transmission in Brazil are examined, such as the role of social and environmental factors and the controversies involved in the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement, to explain the incidence of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Responses to the Zika outbreak and the development of new products are also discussed.

Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications/virology , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Microcephaly/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Notification , Spatial Analysis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 161-167, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777371


Severe dengue pathogenesis is not fully understood, but high levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with dengue disease severity. In this study, the cytokine levels in 171 sera from Mexican patients with primary dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) from dengue virus (DENV) 1 (n = 116) or 2 (n = 55) were compared. DF and DHF were defined according to the patient’s clinical condition, the primary infections as indicated by IgG enzymatic immunoassay negative results, and the infecting serotype as assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Samples were analysed for circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-8 using a commercial cytometric bead array. Significantly higher IFN-γ levels were found in patients with DHF than those with DF. However, significantly higher IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were associated with DHF only in patients who were infected with DENV2 but not with DENV1. Moreover, patients with DF who were infected with DENV1 showed higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 than patients with DHF early after-fever onset. The IL-8 levels were similar in all cases regardless of the clinical condition or infection serotype. These results suggest that the association between high proinflammatory cytokine levels and dengue disease severity does not always stand, and it once again highlights the complex nature of DHF pathogenesis.

Female , Humans , Male , Cytokines/metabolism , Dengue Virus/immunology , Severe Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , Mexico , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Serogroup , Statistics, Nonparametric , Severe Dengue/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(1): e00095815, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772666


Abstract Dengue cases have increased in younger age groups in Brazil. Maternal anti-dengue antibodies can have a protective effect in the first months of life, but their decline can increase the risk of severe dengue. A prospective birth cohort was established in 2011-2012 in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, to determine the incidence of serotype-specific dengue infection and the kinetics of transferred maternal anti-dengue antibodies in the first years of life. This article describes the design, methods and preliminary results of this cohort study. 354 children underwent clinical and laboratory monitoring for two years, with 15% losses to follow-up. The overall rate of new infections was approximately 10% in the first year of follow-up. Information on the force of serotype-specific dengue infection and the evaluation of transferred maternal antibodies can contribute to understanding dengue etiopathogenesis.

Resumo Casos de dengue têm aumentado em grupos etários mais jovens no Brasil. Anticorpos antidengue maternos podem exercer efeito protetor nos primeiros meses de vida, mas seu declínio pode aumentar o risco de dengue grave. Uma coorte de nascimento prospectiva foi estabelecida na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 2011-2012, para determinar a incidência de infecção sorotipo-específica do dengue e cinética dos anticorpos antidengue materno-transferidos nos primeiros anos de vida. Este artigo descreve o desenho, os métodos e resultados preliminares deste estudo de coorte. Trezentas e cinquenta e quatro crianças foram acompanhadas clínico e laboratorialmente por dois anos, com 15% de perdas de seguimento. A taxa global de novas infecções foi de aproximadamente 10% na coorte de crianças no primeiro ano de seguimento. Informações sobre a força de infecção sorotipo-específica do dengue nos primeiros anos de vida, bem como a avaliação da cinética de anticorpos materno-transferidos poderão contribuir para a compreensão da etiopatogenia da doença.

Resumen Los casos de dengue han aumentado en los grupos de edad más jóvenes en Brasil. Los anticuerpos antidengue maternos pueden ejercer un efecto protector en los primeros meses de vida, pero su decremento puede aumentar el riesgo de dengue grave. Una cohorte de nacimientos prospectiva se estableció en la ciudad de Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 2011-2012, para determinar la incidencia de infección serotipo-específica de dengue y la cinética de los anticuerpos antidengue materno-transferidos durante los primeros años de vida. Este artículo describe el diseño, los métodos y resultados preliminares de este estudio de cohorte. 354 niños fueron acompañados clínicamente y en laboratorio durante dos años, con un 15% de pérdidas en el seguimiento. La tasa global de nuevas infecciones fue de aproximadamente un 10% en la cohorte de niños durante el primer año de seguimiento. La información sobre la fuerza de infección serotipo-específica del dengue en los primeros años de vida, así como la evaluación de la cinética de los anticuerpos materno-transferidos, podrá contribuir a la comprensión de la etiopatogenia de la enfermedad.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Endemic Diseases , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epidemiologic Methods , Dengue/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 54 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000960


Introdução: O sistema de vigilância epidemiológica da dengue tem um papel primordial nas atividades de prevenção e controle da doença. Em 2014, o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil atualizou a definição de caso usada pela vigilância para notificação de pacientes suspeitos de dengue. Entretanto, o desempenho da nova definição de caso ainda não foi avaliado, tão pouco foi avaliado a validade do sistema nacional de informação no registro de casos de dengue. Objetivo: Avaliar a validade do registro de casos suspeitos da dengue pelo SINAN e a nova definição de caso suspeito de dengue. Metodologia: Entre 2009 e 2011, pacientes atendidos em um centro de emergência de Salvador por uma doença febril aguda (DFA) de duração ≤7 dias foram entrevistados para coleta de dados sobre a presença das manifestações clínicas usadas na definição de caso suspeito de dengue. A leucometria foi obtida dos prontuários. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no dia do atendimento e após 14 dias, e testes de referência (ELISA-IgM, ELISA-NS1 e RT-PCR) foram usados para confirmação laboratorial da dengue. A base de dados do SINAN para 2009-2011 com o registro dos casos notificados de dengue no Distrito Sanitário para o nosso período de estudo foi obtida diretamente na coordenação de vigilancia epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. A sensibilidade (SEN), a especificidade (ESP), os valores preditivos positivo e negativo (VVP e VPN) dos registros de dengue no SINAN bem como dos sintomas utilizados na definiçao de casos foram estimado. O intervalo de confiança de 95% foi utilizado para todas as análises. O projeto foi aprovado pelo CEP-CPqGM- e CONEP. Resultados: No período de 2009-2011, 3.864 pacientes com DFA foram incluídos no estudo, 997 (25,8%) foram laboratorialmente confirmados para dengue e 2.867 (74,2%)...

Introduction: The epidemiological surveillance system dengue has a key role in the prevention and control of disease. In 2014, the Ministry of Health of Brazil updated the case definition used for surveillance for reporting suspected dengue patients. However, the performance of the new case definition has not yet been rated, so little was assessed the validity of the national system of information in the registry of dengue cases. Objective: Evaluate the validity of the registration of suspected cases of dengue by SINAN and the new definition of suspect dengue fever. Methods: Between 2009 and 2011, patients from an emergency center of Salvador by an acute febrile illness (DFA) ≤7 days were interviewed to collect data on the presence of clinical manifestations used in the definition of suspect dengue fever. The white blood cell count and the result of the tourniquet test were obtained from medical records. Blood samples were collected at treatment day and after 14 days, and reference tests (ELISA-IgM ELISA-NS1 and RT-PCR) were used for laboratory confirmation of dengue. The base SINAN data for 2009-2011 with registry of reported cases of dengue in the Sanitary District for our study period was obtained directly by coordinating epidemiological surveillance of the Municipal Health. The sensitivity (SEN), specificity ( ESP), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of dengue records in SINAN and symptoms used to define cases were estimated. The 95% confidence interval was used for all analyzes. The project was approved by CEP-CPqGM- and CONEP. Results: In the period 2009-2011, 3,864 patients with DFA were included in the study, 997 (25.8%) were laboratory confirmed dengue and 2,867 (74.2%)...

Humans , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/mortality , Dengue/pathology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission
Medical Forum Monthly. 2013; 24 (4): 6-8
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127237


Dengue is a severe arthropod borne viral disease characterized by fever, headache, retro - orbital pain, maculopapular rash, and thrombocytopenia. Disease is transmitted from one human to another by bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Disease now a days occurs in more than 100 countries worldwide. Study designed for screening suspected or probable cases to detect specific antibodies response in early stage of disease. Cross sectional study. This study was conducted at Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College Hospital, Sukkur from October, 2010 to October, 2012. Patients presenting with fever, bleeding tendencies, maculopapular rash or fever with thrombocytopenia were screened as per WHO criteria for suspected dengue infection. Blood was collected after 4 - 5 days of onset of illness. The serologic test was performed by using rapid immunochromatographic assay detection of anti dengue immunoglobulin M [IgM] antibodies. 162 cases were screened for dengue infection. 16 [9.9%] patients were positive with anti-dengue IgM. 12 patients were male and 04 were female. Platelets count was observed below 100 x 10[3] cmm[3] in patients with dengue infection. Identification of dengue virus infection in early acute phase of disease is significant for morbidity and mortality screening of suspected cases and anti-mosquito eradication measures should be taken for breading sites of vector, mass education, and awareness programs may be initiated

Humans , Female , Male , Dengue Virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1021-1029, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660650


Because an enriched environment (EE) enhances T-cell activity and T-lymphocytes contribute to immunopathogenesis during heterologous dengue virus (DENV) infections, we hypothesised that an EE increases dengue severity. To compare single serotype (SS) and antibody-enhanced disease (AED) infections regimens, serial intraperitoneal were performed with DENV3 (genotype III) infected brain homogenate or anti-DENV2 hyperimmune serum followed 24 h later by DENV3 (genotype III) infected brain homogenate. Compared AED for which significant differences were detected between the EE and impoverished environmental (IE) groups (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.0025), no significant differences were detected between the SS experimental groups (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.089). Survival curves from EE and IE animals infected with the AED regimen were extended after corticoid injection and this effect was greater in the EE than in the IE group (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.0162). Under the AED regimen the EE group showed more intense clinical signs than the IE group. Dyspnoea, tremor, hunched posture, ruffled fur, immobility, pre-terminal paralysis, shock and death were associated with dominant T-lymphocytic hyperplasia and presence of viral antigens in the liver and lungs. We propose that the increased expansion of these memory T-cells and serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitates the infection of these cells by DENV and that these events correlate with disease severity in an EE.

Animals , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dengue/virology , Ecology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 48-56, Feb. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612805


Dengue virus (DENV) and parvovirus B19 (B19V) infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37) and DENV-infected (36) patients and from healthy individuals (7). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , /blood , /blood , /blood , Dengue/blood , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/blood , Parvoviridae Infections/blood , Acute Disease , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , /immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Dengue/immunology , Immunoassay , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Prospective Studies , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(1): 92-95, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614559


Dengue virus is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Co-circulation of the four types of dengue viruses and expansion of dengue epidemic gave rise to infection enhancement and a big expansion of clinical aspects of the disease. Herein we report a case of a 25-year-old white woman with dengue fever and numerous associated autoimmune features. Our patient had proteinuria, an extensive right pleural effusion, a thin pericardial effusion and ascites. She had a low C3 level and positive antinuclear antibody; cryoglobulins were also positive. The numerous autoimmune features of this patient were a diagnostic challenge, since she was a young woman and could be easily mistaken for a rheumatologic patient in a newly open disease. Dengue infection probably was a triggering event causing an abnormal immune response. Therefore, dengue should be suspected in patients with hematological disorders and autoimmune features in endemic regions or those who have travelled to those regions.

Adult , Female , Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , Dengue/diagnosis