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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211359, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252506

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the effects of an intervention for the prevention of obesity on the prevalence of dental caries disease in Spanish children. Methods: Two cities participated intervention study nested in a cohort IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants): Huesca, where there was a 2-year intervention, which encouraged less sugar consumption; and Zaragoza (control). The prevalence of caries was evaluated by examining the 1st permanent molars in the 7-11 age range, using the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System). These teeth erupt at 6 years of age and at the baseline (2007-2008) were free of caries because they were not present in the oral cavity. As outcomes, white spots were selected, combining the ICDAS criteria 1 and 2, and untreated caries, combining criteria 4, 5 and 6. Their association with socioeconomic variables, BMI (Body Mass Index), frequency of sugar intake, sex and parents' perceptions of their children, was investigated. To do so, the chi-square test was applied (p<0.05). Results: The sample consisted of 281 children. The prevalence of white spots and untreated caries was higher in Huesca, despite the intervention. There was no association between the outcomes and the variables studied (p>0.05). Conclusion: The intervention for the prevention of obesity did not exert any association with the prevalence of caries in Spanish children


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Oral Health , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Obesity
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(7): 2625-2634, jul. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278774

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi analisar a associação de fatores socioeconômicos com a prevalência de cárie dentária em adolescentes de São Luís, Maranhão, para responder se as iniquidades sociais persistem na distribuição desta doença. Este é um estudo transversal aninhado a uma coorte prospectiva. Incluímos 2.413 adolescentes de 18-19 anos, avaliados em 2016 (2º seguimento). O desfecho foi a ocorrência de dentes com cárie dentária não tratada (sim ou não), avaliada pelo índice CPO-D. Características socioeconômicas e demográficas foram as variáveis independentes. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritivas e de regressão de Poisson, calculando-se razões de prevalência (RPs) brutas e ajustadas (alpha=5%). Pertencer às classes econômicas C (RP=1,23; IC95%:1,11-1,37) ou D-E (RP=1,48; IC95%: 1,32-1,65), estar casado/morar com companheiro (RP=1,22; IC95%:1,07-1,39), ter pais separados (RP=1,11; IC95%1,03-1,19) e maior número de pessoas na residência (RP=1,05; IC95%:1,03-1,07) foram associadas a maior prevalência de cárie dentária. Apesar da implementação da Política Nacional de Saúde Bucal, as iniquidades sociais em saúde bucal de adolescentes persistem. É fundamental que o modelo de atenção à saúde vigente busque a reorientação das estratégias de educação em saúde, direcionando-as a populações vulneráveis.


Abstract This study aimed to analyze the association of socioeconomic factors with the prevalence of dental caries in adolescents from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to answer whether social inequalities persist in distributing this disease. This is a cross-sectional study nested in a prospective cohort. We included 2,413 adolescents aged 18-19 years evaluated in the 2016 second follow-up. The outcome was teeth with untreated dental caries (yes or no) assessed by the DMFT index. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were the independent variables. Descriptive statistical and Poisson regression analyses were performed, calculating crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) (alpha=5%). Belonging to economic classes C (PR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37) or D-E (PR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.32-1.65), being married/living with a partner (PR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.07-1.39), having separated parents (PR=1.11; 95% CI 1.03-1.19) and a greater number of people in the household (PR=1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.07) were associated with a higher prevalence of dental caries. Social inequalities in adolescent oral health persist despite the implementation of the National Oral Health Policy. The current health care model should seek to reorient health education strategies, targeting them at vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , DMF Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
4.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(2): e3069, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289397

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La caries dental y la enfermedad periodontal son las enfermedades bucodentales más prevalentes, con una tendencia al aumento de las maloclusiones. Se considera la promoción de salud como un proceso educativo a través del cual la comunidad logra ejercer control de su salud. Objetivo: Identificar las necesidades educativas sobre salud bucodental en el grado prescolar, en Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, durante el curso escolar 2017-2018. Método: Investigación descriptiva transversal en Sagua la Grande, durante el curso 2017-2018. La población quedó constituida por 326 niños, 24 docentes y 326 familias. La variable estudiada fue necesidades educativas sobre salud bucodental en el grado preescolar. Resultados: Se evidenció que no se realizan acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental. No existen proyectos ni un programa de capacitación sobre salud bucodental para los docentes que la sustente. No es concebida la salud bucal dentro del sistema de trabajo metodológico del sector. No se analizan contenidos de salud bucodental en consejos de dirección y preparaciones metodológicas Los docentes realizan escasas acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental. El nivel de conocimientos sobre salud bucodental fue evaluado de mal en los niños (74,23 por ciento), en docentes (41,67 por ciento) y familias (47,24 por ciento). Conclusiones: Se evidenció que no se realizan acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental y predominó el nivel de conocimientos sobre salud bucodental evaluado de mal en niños, docentes y familias(AU)


Introduction: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent oral conditions, with a tendency to an increase in malocclusions. Health promotion is considered to be an educational process by which the community gains control of their health. Objective: Identify the educational needs related to oral health in the preschool grade. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Sagua la Grande during the school year 2017-2018. The study population was 326 children, 24 teachers and 326 families. The variable analyzed was educational needs related to oral health in the preschool grade. Results: It was found that educational actions related to oral health are not performed, nor is there an oral health training program for teachers or projects supporting it. Oral health is not included in the system of methodological work for the sector. Oral health contents are not discussed in management meetings or methodological preparation sessions. Teachers conduct a scant number of oral health educational actions. Knowledge about oral health was evaluated as poor in 74.23 percent of the children, 41.67 percent of the teachers and 47.24 percent of the families. Conclusions: It was found that oral health educational actions are not performed and knowledge about oral health is poor among children, teachers and families(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Health Education, Dental/methods , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Malocclusion/etiology , Health Promotion/methods
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(2): e3156, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289395

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La caries es una de las enfermedades bucodentales más frecuentes y, por ser las primeras en emerger, los primeros molares permanentes son las piezas más susceptibles a esta afección. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de caries y factores asociados a esta en los primeros molares permanentes en escolares de segundo grado de primaria. Métodos: Estudio transversal, en estudiantes de segundo grado en 17 de 67 escuelas públicas de Acapulco, Guerrero. Un cuestionario autoadministrado se utilizó para obtener datos sociodemográficos y hábitos de higiene dental. La caries y la presencia de placa dentobacteriana se midieron a través de índices epidemiológicos, el CPOD (diente cariado, obturado y perdido) y el O'Leary. Se estimó la razón de momios e intervalo de confianza de 95 por ciento, ajustada por conglomerado, como medida de la fuerza de asociación mediante análisis multivariado. Resultados: Se revisaron 3332 primeros molares permanentes, el 21 por ciento tuvo caries, el 6 por ciento tuvo obturaciones y el 1 por ciento ya se había extraído. El índice CPOD de caries grupal fue 0,27. Cinco factores estuvieron asociados a la caries de los primeros molares permanentes: higiene dental deficiente (RMa = 2,87), técnica de cepillado dental inadecuada (RMa = 1,70), tomar alguna bebida dulce antes de ir a dormir (RMa = 1,68), visitar al dentista (RMa = 0,67) y aplicación de flúor (RMa = 0,61). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de caries en los primeros molares permanentes fue 21 por ciento dentro del rango reportado en otros estudios. Fueron identificados cinco factores asociados a la caries: higiene dental deficiente, técnica de cepillado inadecuado, consumo de azúcares antes de dormir, visitas al dentista y aplicación de flúor. Estos factores orientan sobre qué medidas preventivas se deben promover en los escolares para la preservación de sus piezas dentales(AU)


Introduction: Caries is the most frequent oral disease and the first permanent molars are very susceptible to this condition because they are the first teeth to emerge. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of caries its associated factors in the first permanent molars in second grade primary school children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in second grade students in 17 out of 67primary public schools in Acapulco, Guerrero. We applied a self-administered questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic data and dental hygiene habits. Caries and the presence of dentobacterial plaque were measured through epidemiological indices, CPOD (decayed, blocked and lost tooth) and O'Leary index. The odds ratio and 95 percent confidence interval, adjusted by cluster, were estimated as a measure of strength of association through multivariate analysis. Results: We reviewed 3 332 permanent first molars, 21 percent had cavities, 6 percent had seals and 1 percent had already been removed. The CPOD index of group caries was 0,27. We found five factors associated with caries of the first permanent molars: deficient dental hygiene (RMa=2,87), inadequate tooth brushing technique (RMa=1,70), drinking a sweet drink before bedtime (RMa=1,68), visiting the dentist (RMa=0,67) and fluoride application (RMa=0,61). Conclusions: Prevalence of caries in the first permanent molars was 21 percent, within the range reported in other studies. Five factors associated with caries were identified: poor dental hygiene, inadequate brushing technique, consumption of sugars before going to sleep, visits to the dentist and application of fluoride. These factors guide what preventive measures should be promoted in schoolchildren for the preservation of their teeth(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , School Health Services , Toothbrushing/methods , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Molar/injuries , Oral Hygiene/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 75-83, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345499

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in children and adolescents using fluoridated toothpaste, from areas with and without fluoridated water. Parents of 5-year-old children and 12-year-old adolescents from neighbourhoods that are supplied with and without fluoridated water answered questionnaires for determining socio-economic and demographic characteristics and habits related to oral health. The individuals were examined, and dental caries and fluorosis were measured by dmft/DMFT and TF indexes, respectively. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed (p < 0.05). Of 692 participants, 47.7% were 5-year-olds and 52.3% were 12-year-olds. The mean dmft/DMFT in the 5-year-olds/ 12-year-olds from Exposed and Not Exposed fluoridated water groups was 1.53 (± 2.47) and 3.54 (± 4.10) / 1.53 (± 1.81) and 3.54 (± 3.82), respectively. Children (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.71-4.75) and adolescents (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.05), who did not consume fluoridated water, had greater caries experience. Among adolescents, there was an association between fluoridated water and the prevalence of very mild/mild fluorosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.23-9.19) and moderate fluorosis (OR = 11.11, 95% CI = 4.43-27.87). Children and adolescents, who consumed fluoridated water, presented lower prevalence and severity of dental caries compared to those who used only fluoridated toothpaste as the source of fluoride. There is an association between water fluoridation and very mild/mild and moderate fluorosis in adolescents.


Resumo Este estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária e fluorose em crianças de 5 anos e adolescentes de 12 anos usuários de dentifrício fluoretado, em áreas com e sem água fluoretada. Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes responderam questionários para determinação de características socioeconômicas e demográficas e hábitos relacionados à saúde. Os indivíduos foram examinados e a cárie e a fluorose foram mensuradas pelos índices ceo-d / CPOD e TF, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas e de regressão logística (p <0,05). Dos 692 participantes, 47,7% tinham 5 anos e 52,3% tinham 12 anos. A média de ceod / CPOD em crianças de 5/12 anos dos grupos de exposto e não exposto à água fluoretada foi 1,53 (± 2,47) e 3,54 (± 4,10) / 1,53 (± 1,81) e 3,54 (± 3,82), respectivamente. Crianças (OR = 2,86, IC 95% = 1,71-4,75) e adolescentes (OR = 1,95, IC 95% = 1,24-3,05) que não consumiram água fluoretada tiveram maior experiência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes, houve associação entre a água fluoretada e a prevalência de fluorose muito leve / leve (OR = 5,45, IC 95%: 3,23-9,19) e fluorose moderada (OR = 11,11, IC 95% = 4,43-27,87). Crianças e adolescentes que consumiram água fluoretada apresentaram menor prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária em comparação com aqueles que usaram apenas dentifrício fluoretado como fonte de flúor. Houve uma associação entre a fluoretação da água e fluorose muito leve / leve e moderada em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentifrices , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , DMF Index , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1489-1500, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285931

ABSTRACT

Abstract Food insecurity is a complex phenomenon that affects the health and wellbeing of vulnerable families. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity, dental caries, oral health-related quality of life, and social determinants of health among Indigenous adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Kaingang adults aged 35-44 years old from the Guarita Indigenous Land, Brazil. Food insecurity was assessed through the EBIA scale. Dental caries was assessed using the DMFT index. Participants answered the OHIP-14 questionnaire and a structured interview. Descriptive and multivariate analyzes using Poisson regression models were performed. The final sample included 107 adults from 97 households. Approximately 95% lived in food insecure families. Severe food insecurity was present in 58% of the households. The phenomenon was associated to the Bolsa Família benefit, household size, and greater perception of oral health impacts on quality of life. The high number of families affected by food insecurity reveals the social vulnerability of the Kaingang people. Food insecurity in Kaingangs adults is associated to oral health perception and social determinants of health.


Resumo Insegurança alimentar é um fenômeno complexo que afeta a saúde e o bem-estar de famílias vulneráveis. Este estudo objetivou investigar a relação entre insegurança alimentar domiciliar, cárie dentária, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, e determinantes sociais de saúde entre indígenas adultos. Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com adultos Kaingang entre 35-44 anos da Terra Indígena Guarita, Brasil. Insegurança alimentar foi avaliada pela escala EBIA. Cárie dentária foi avaliada pelo índice CPOD. Participantes responderam o questionário OHIP-14 e uma entrevista estruturada. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e multivariadas usando modelos de regressão de Poisson. A amostra incluiu 107 adultos Kaingang de 97 domicílios. Aproximadamente 95% dos participantes viviam em famílias com insegurança alimentar. Insegurança alimentar grave esteve presente em 58% dos domicílios. O fenômeno foi associado ao Bolsa Família, densidade familiar e percepção dos impactos da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida. O alto número de famílias afetadas pela insegurança alimentar revela a vulnerabilidade social do povo Kaingang. Insegurança alimentar em adultos Kaingang está associada à percepção da saúde bucal e determinantes sociais da saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Quality of Life , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(1): 227-238, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250677

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and the incidence of severe caries in preschoolers. Methods: a cohort study was conducted with 132 pairs of mothers and children in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. Data collection was performed in 2 moments: when the children were between two and three years of age (baseline- 2013/2014) and after three years (T1-2016/2017). In both moments, children were evaluated for dental caries (International Caries Detection and Assessment System - ICDAS) and a questionnaire was administered to the mothers addressing socioeconomic aspects and thee habits of children. The outcome evaluated was the incidence of severe caries (Dentin caries - ICDAS Codes 5 and 6). Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, chi-squared test and Poisson hierarchical regression with robust variance. Results: children who breastfed for more than 24 months (RR = 2.24 CI95%= 1.23-4.08), those whose parents were separated (RR = 1.73 CI95%= 1.11-2.69), and those with estab-lished/severe caries (RR = 2.74 CI95%= 1.37-5.49) at baseline were at greater risk of incidence of severe caries after three years. Conclusion: breastfeeding for more than 24 months is a risk factor for incidence of severe caries. In addition, family structure and established or severe baseline caries were associated.


Resumo Objetivos: investigar a associação entre a duração da amamentação e a incidência de cárie grave em pré-escolares. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 132 pares de mães e crianças de Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil. As crianças foram avaliadas em dois momentos: dois e três anos de idade (baseline-2013/2014) e após três anos (T1- 2016/2017). Dados socioeconómicos e relativos aos hábitos das criançasforam obtidos por meio de entrevistas com as mães e a presença de cárie dentária foi diagnosticada segundo o protocolo "International Caries Detection and Assessment System - ICDAS". O desfecho foi a incidência de cárie grave (cárie em dentina - códigos ICDAS 5 e 6). Para análise dos dados empregou-se regressão hierárquica de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: crianças que amamentaram por mais de 24 meses (RR = 2,24 IC95%= 1,234,08), cujos pais viviam separados no baseline (RR = 1,73 IC95%= 1,11-2,69) e aquelas com cárie estabelecida ou grave no baseline (RR = 2, 74 IC950%= 1,37-5,49) estavam em maior risco de incidência de cárie grave após 3 anos. Conclusão: a amamentação por mais de 24 meses foi um fator de risco para a incidência de cárie dentária grave em pré-escolares. Além disso, estrutura familiar e cárie estabelecida ou grave no baseline estiveram associados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Feeding , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentin , Brazil/epidemiology , Oral Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies
9.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e3712, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156421

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de acercamientos a la mínima intervención en cariología en los temas sobre el proceso caries dental de los programas de asignaturas del plan de estudios D de la carrera de Estomatología. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, documental, analítica, a través de una lectura crítica y valorativa de los 20 programas de las asignaturas de la disciplina integradora del plan de estudios D de la carrera de Estomatología. Se realizó un análisis del contenido de cada uno de los programas de asignatura en busca de indicios de la inclusión en los mismos de temas relacionados con la caries dental y si estos se correspondían con los principios de la mínima intervención en cariología. Los datos extraídos fueron el nombre de la asignatura, año académico, total de horas del programa, inclusión de la temática del proceso caries dental, inclusión de temas relacionados con el proceso caries dental según la mínima intervención en cariología, literatura básica recomendada, especificidad de los temas tratados referentes al proceso caries dental. Resultados: De las 13 referencias básicas de los programas de estudio el 54 % se remontan a publicaciones del pasado siglo y el resto a inicios del presente. Los programas incluyen temas relacionados con la prevención y curación del proceso caries dental, factores de riesgo, etiología, conceptos, clasificaciones y características clínicas y en 3.er año la asignatura Epidemiología. Ese mismo año, y posteriores, los temas referentes se hacen redundantes y se repiten en asignaturas consiguientes. Conclusiones: Los programas de asignaturas de la disciplina integradora del plan de estudios D de la carrera de Estomatología carecen de la presencia de preceptos sobre la mínima intervención para el tratamiento de la caries dental excepto la de Odontopediatría(AU)


Objective: To determine the presence of the minimum intervention in cariology in the topics on the dental caries process of the subject programs of the Study Plan of the Stomatology career. Methods: A qualitative analytical documentary research was carried out through a critical and evaluative reading of the 20 programs of the subjects of the integrating discipline of the Study Plan D of the Stomatology career. An analysis of the content of each of the subject programs was carried out in search of indications of the inclusion in them of topics related to dental caries and if these were related to the principles of Minimum Intervention in Cariology. The data extracted were the name of the subject, academic year, total hours of the program, inclusion of the topic of dental caries process, inclusion of topics related to the dental caries process according to the minimal intervention in cariology, recommended basic literature, specificity of the topics covered referring to the dental caries process. Results: Of the 13 basic references of the study programs, 54% go back to publications of the last century and the rest to the beginning of the present. The programs include topics related to the prevention and cure of the dental caries process, risk factors, etiology, concepts, classifications and clinical characteristics and in the 3rd year the subject Epidemiology. That same year and later, the reference topics become redundant and are repeated in subsequent subjects. Conclusions: The subject programs of the integrating discipline of the Stomatology Career Curriculum lack the presence of precepts on the minimum intervention for the treatment of dental caries except that of Pediatric Dentistry(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Education, Medical/standards , Faculty, Dental/education , Programs of Study , Qualitative Research
10.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(1): 59-70, 2021. graf, tab, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152198

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar el riesgo de caries en pacientes de 6 a 12 años de edad, pertenecientes a las instituciones educativas para niños con necesidades especiales de la ciudad de Cuenca-Ecuador, 2016. Método: se realizó un estudio con diseño descriptivo, transversal, mediante la recolección de los datos de seis centros educativos para niños con necesidades especiales. La población del estudio estuvo constituida por 148 niños con discapacidad intelectual, múltiple, sensorial y motriz, distribuida en 61 pacientes del sexo femenino y 87 del sexo masculino. Para la recolección de los datos se emplearon dos instrumentos: el primero de ellos fue la ficha de evaluación de riesgo de caries dental (CAT), dirigido a niños mayores de 6 años, según la Asociación Americana de Odontología Pediátrica. El segundo fue la Encuesta de Estratificación de Nivel Socioeconómico del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC). En las tablas de una sola variable se valoró la frecuencia de porcentaje, mientras que en la asociación de variables se utilizó la prueba estadística Chi Cuadrado. Resultados: los niños que presentaron discapacidad múltiple evidenciaron el valor más relevante de riesgo de caries con un porcentaje del 71%; el grupo de pacientes con discapacidad motriz evidenció el menor valor de riesgo de caries con un porcentaje de 57%. Conclusión: el nivel de riesgo de caries es alto en pacientes con necesidades especiales, entre ellas sobresale la discapacidad múltiple. Se recomienda que la atención a estos pacientes sea temprana (prevención), oportuna, efectiva (profesional calificado) y con un seguimiento adecuado.


Objective: This study aims to determine the risk of caries in patients 6 to 12 years old, belonging/affiliated to educational institutions for children with special needs, of the city of Cuenca-Ecuador, 2016. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, using the collection of data from six educational institutions for children with special needs. The study population consisted of 148 children with intellectual, multiple, sensory and motor disabilities, distributed in 61 female and 87 male patients. Two instruments were used for the collection of data: the first one was the dental caries risk assessment form (CAT), aimed at children over 6 years of age, according to the American Association of Paediatric Dentistry. While, the second one was the Socioeconomic Level Stratification Survey of the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC). In single-variable tables, the percentage frequency was assessed, while Chi-Square was used for the association of variables. Results: The children who presented multiple disabilities showed the most relevant caries risk value, with a percentage of 71%, and the group of patients with motor disabilities indicated the lowest caries risk value, with a percentage of 57%. Conclusion: The caries risk level is high in special needs patients, among those, the multiple disabilities stand out. An early prevention and an effective (qualified professional) care is recommended for these patients, with an adequate follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Disabled Children , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dental Care for Disabled , Risk Assessment , Intellectual Disability
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887899

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the oral health status and awareness of urban children in Lhasa,aiming to provide a data basis for the prevention and treatment of children's caries and the promotion of oral health education. Methods A total of 504 Tibetan students were selected by cluster sampling from 2 primary schools in Chengguan District of Lhasa.All the participants were required to take oral health examination and complete a questionnaire about oral health awareness and behavior. Results The caries prevalence rate and mean decayed-missing-filled tooth(DMFT)of permanent teeth were 75.00% and 2.18±1.91,respectively.The rates of pit and fissure sealant and filling of permanent teeth were 3.77% and 6.81%,respectively.The caries prevalence rate of first permanent molars was 47.62%.The mean DMFT of permanent teeth and caries prevalence rate of first permanent molar were significantly higher in female group(


Subject(s)
Child , DMF Index , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Prevalence , Schools , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200890, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and molar-incisor hypomineralization, and their associations in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren. Methodology: Adolescents (n=411) were evaluated by two calibrated examiners for dental caries (DC), dental fluorosis (DF), and molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) using the CAST (Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment) instrument, Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) index, and MIH Severity Scoring System (MIH-SSS), respectively. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The sample comprised 42.75% boys and 57.25% girls. The prevalence of DC in permanent dentition was 94.75%, of which 29% were represented by dentin lesions. For DF, a prevalence of 40.75% was observed, with 69.32% mild, 12.88% moderate, and 17.79% severe. A positive association between the source of water and fluorosis was detected (p=0.01). The prevalence of MIH was 18%. Thirty adolescents (41.7%) presented with severe MIH. No association was found between DF or MIH and dentin DC or between MIH and DF at the individual level. However, a significant negative relationship was detected between DF and dentin carious lesions ( p <0.005) and DF and MIH ( p <0.00001) at the tooth level, whereas a positive association was observed between MIH and dentin carious lesions ( p <0.00001). A positive association was also observed between the severity of both conditions ( p <0.00001). Mild DF was the most prevalent problem observed. Cases of teeth with mild MIH were the most predominant in MIH-affected teeth. Conclusions: No association was observed among the dentin carious lesions, MIH, and DF at the participant level. However, a positive association between MIH and dentin carious lesions was found at the tooth level, whereas MIH, DF, and DF and dentin carious lesions showed a negative relationship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incisor , Molar
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e054, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249388

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dental caries remains highly prevalent in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). However, this disease can be controlled through interventions that implement evidence-based strategies in an affordable manner and that target all population groups instead of the most affluent only. Therefore, the aim of this report was to summarize the main scientifically documented community interventions and strategies based on restriction of sugars consumption, use of fluoride, and the use of occlusal sealants for caries control in LACC. A critical literature review was carried out in a systematic manner that included defined search strategies, independent review of the identified publications, and compilation of results in this report. Three systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases to identify studies related to community interventions and strategies for caries control in LACC. Of the 37 publications identified, twenty-six focused on fluoride use, eight on occlusal sealant use, and three on the restriction of sugar consumption. Documented community interventions for sugars restriction were scarce in the region and were based on food supplementation, sugar replacement, and education. Thus, local and/or national policies should prioritize investment in upstream, coherent, and integrated population-wide policies such as taxes on sugary drinks and stronger regulation of advertising and promotion of sugary foods and drinks mainly targeting children. The main fluoride-based strategies used drinking water, refined domestic salt, cow milk, toothpaste and, to a lesser extent, mouth-rinses, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gels, and varnishes to deliver fluoride to the population. Evidence of fluoride use was seen in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Studies reporting the use of occlusal sealants were mainly located in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Community interventions restricting sugar consumption should be implemented at the individual level and through public policies. The use of fluoride must be monitored at the local, regional, and national levels so as to achieve maximum anti-caries effect while also minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis. Moreover, fluoridated water and salt programs, used as a mutually exclusive community level strategy for caries control, should expand their benefits to reach non-covered areas of the LACC while also simultaneously providing adequate surveillance of the fluoride concentration delivered to the population. Regulating the concentration of soluble fluoride (for anti-caries effect) in dentifrice formulations is also necessary in order to provide the population with an effective strategy for disease control. Targeting culturally appropriate, economically sustainable caries control interventions to rural populations and native ethnic groups such as indigenous people, quilombolas (African-origin), and riverside Amazonian people remains a crucial challenge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Panama , Peru , Argentina , Uruguay , Brazil , Chile , Colombia , Caribbean Region , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Guatemala , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico , Nicaragua
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e052, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Robust epidemiological data allow for logical interventions taken in the interest of public health. Dental caries is a major public health problem driven by increased sugar consumption and various biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors, and is known to strongly affect an individual's quality of life. This study aims to critically review epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC) and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the population. Although the majority of national surveys did not include all age groups and several countries reported a reduction in the prevalence of cavitated carious lesions, most nations still exhibited a high burden of decayed teeth. OHRQoL evaluation was limited to children and older adults only, and was not included in any national survey. Study heterogeneity and methodological issues hindered comparison of evidence between studies and over time, and updating national level data on caries prevalence and its impact on OHRQoL should be prioritized in LACCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Aged , Quality of Life , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Oral Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e056, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249386

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dental caries can be effectively managed and prevented from developing into cavitated lesions while preserving tooth structure at all levels. However, the strong correlation between caries and socioeconomic factors may compromise the efficacy of preventive strategies. The high prevalence of persistent inequalities in dental caries in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC) is a matter of concern. The estimates of the burden of disease in some countries in this region are outdated or absent. This paper aims to summarize and present the final recommendations of a regional Consensus for Dental Caries Prevalence, Prospects, and Challenges for LACC. This consensus is based on four articles that were written by a team of Latin American experts, reviewed by dental associations, and presented and discussed in two consensus events. The following domains were explored: epidemiology, risk factors, prevention strategies, and management of dental caries with a focus on restorative procedures. Dental caries can manifest throughout the lifespan of an individual, making it a matter of concern for infants, children, adults, and older people alike. The prevalence rates of untreated caries in deciduous and permanent teeth are high in many parts of the world, including LACCs. Previous evidence suggests that the prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-olds is moderate to high in most Latin American countries. Moreover, the prevalence of treatment needs and dental caries in the adult and elderly population can also be regarded as high in this region. The risk/protective factors (e.g., sugar consumption, exposure to fluoride, and oral hygiene) probably operate similarly in all LACCs, although variations in the interplay of these factors in some countries and within the same country cannot be ruled out. Although salt and water fluoridation programs are implemented in many countries, there is a need for implementation of a surveillance policy. There is also room for improvement with regard to the introduction of minimal intervention techniques in practice and public health programs. Dental caries is a marker of social disadvantage, and oral health promotion programs and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of dental caries in LACCs must consider the complexity of the socioeconomic dynamics in this region. There is an urgent need to promote engagement of stakeholders, policymakers, medical personnel, universities, dental associations, community members, and industries to develop regional plans that enhance the oral health agenda for LACCs. A list of recommendations has been presented to underpin strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence and severity of dental caries and improving the quality of life of the impacted LACC population in the near future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Adult , Aged , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Prevalence , Caribbean Region , Consensus , Latin America/epidemiology
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e053, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Identifying the risk factors for dental caries is vital in epidemiology and clinical practices for developing effective preventive strategies, both, at the individual and collective levels. Different causality/determination models have been proposed to understand the development process of dental caries. In the present review, we designed a model inspired by the world-known social determinants models proposed in the 90s and more recently in the 10s, wherein the contextual factors are placed more externally and encompass the individual factors. The contextual factors included those related to the cultural and societal values, as well as the social and health government policies. The individual factors were classified into the following categories: socioeconomic (social class, occupation, income, and education level), demographic characteristics (age, sex, and ethnicity), behavioral factors (non-use of fluoride dentifrice, sugar consumption, poor oral hygiene, and lack of preventive dental care), and biological factors (recent caries experience/active caries lesions, biofilm retentive factors, developmental defects of the enamel, disabilities, saliva amount and quality, cariogenic biofilm). Each of these variables was addressed, while focusing on the current evidence from studies conducted in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). Based on the proposed model, educational aspects were addressed, and individual caries risk assessment and management decisions were proposed; further, implications for public health policies and clinical practice were described. The identification of modifiable risk factors for dental caries should be the basis for multi-strategy actions that consider the diversity of Latin American communities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Caribbean Region , Fluorides , Latin America/epidemiology
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e017, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Data on dental practices related to caries risk assessment (CRA) are scarce among Brazilian dentists. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CRA use by dentists and factors associated with its use, as well as to quantify dentists' ratings of the importance of specific factors when treatment planning. Dentists registered at the Regional Council of Dentistry of São Paulo State - Araraquara region were sent two paper questionnaires that comprised: a) characteristics of dentists themselves, their practices, and their patients; and b) the translated version of the "Assessment of Caries Diagnosis and Caries Treatment" Questionnaire from the U.S. National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Participants were 206 dentists who currently practiced in Araraquara and treated dental caries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis. Thirty-six percent of the dentists reported they perform CRA and, among them, 36% indicated they record the assessment on a special form that is kept in the patient chart. More years since dental school graduation (OR = 1.1, p = 0.002) and holding an advanced academic degree (OR=2.6, p=0.005) were associated with a higher likelihood of performing CRA, whereas exclusively using a private practice model (OR = 0.5, p = 0.016) was associated with a lower likelihood of performing CRA. The current oral hygiene and commitment to return for follow-up were the most important risk factors for treatment planning. In conclusion, CRA was not a routine procedure in daily practice among the majority of participating dentists. Specific demographic, practice and academic education characteristics were associated with performing CRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentists , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Assessment , Practice Patterns, Dentists' , Dental Caries/epidemiology
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142613

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different follow-up consultation intervals on caries incidence in children with low caries risk. The study was composed of 224 children aged between 3 and 5 years and with low risk of caries. The children were randomly allocated into two groups, according to two different follow-up consultation intervals: Group 1 (G1) - 12-month follow-up interval; Group 2 (G2) - 18-month follow-up interval. All oral clinical examinations were performed by a single examiner who was previously calibrated and blinded in relation to the study groups. An external dentist provided the advice on oral hygiene and diet and evaluated the children's socioeconomic conditions. The Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the differences between groups. Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association of caries incidence with the other variables. At the end of the study there was a significant difference between the groups regarding initial active lesions (p = 0.012), and children in G2 were at a higher risk of developing initial active lesions than those in G1 (p = 0.047). Children who had a higher number of teeth with initial active lesions in the follow-up consultations were at a higher risk of developing cavitated dentin caries (p = 0.001). Both follow-up intervals are justifiable. Although significant results have been observed for initial active caries lesions within the 18-month follow-up interval, it should be noted that these lesions can be treated using just preventive measures. Besides, different return interval had no effect in cavitated dentin lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Oral Hygiene , Regression Analysis , Follow-Up Studies
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e002, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132745

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This longitudinal study aimed to assess the association between the use of fixed orthodontic appliances and the incidence/increment of active caries lesions in adolescents and young adults over a one-year period. A total of 135 10-30-year-old individuals were divided into two groups: Group G0 was composed of individuals who required orthodontic treatment, but who did not undergo fixed orthodontic therapy over the study period (n=70); Group G1 was composed of individuals who used a fixed orthodontic appliance for 1 year (n=65). Data collection included a questionnaire and clinical oral examinations (plaque index, gingival index, and dental caries index), performed at baseline and after 1 year. Caries examination was performed by a single calibrated examiner, after tooth cleaning and drying, and included the recording of non-cavitated and cavitated, inactive and active lesions of all tooth surfaces. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between the group and the following study outcomes: incidence (binary variable) and increment (counting variable). The incidence of active caries lesions was 4.8% in G0 and 39.6% in G1. The mean increment of active caries lesions was 0.14 in G0 and 0.61 in G1. G1 showed a greater risk of developing active caries lesions than G0 (incidence analysis, adjusted IRR=9.48, 95%CI=2.62-34.30; increment analysis, adjusted IRR=4.13; 95%CI=1.94-8.79). In conclusion, this study showed that individuals undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy for 1 year had a significantly higher incidence and increment of active caries lesions than those without a fixed appliance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Longitudinal Studies , Dental Care
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