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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(4): 195-204, jul.-ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292500

ABSTRACT

Desde los sesentas, con la invención del vidrio bioactivo, los tratamientos de remineralización se han popularizado entre los cirujanos dentistas y su utilización es cada vez mayor; la remineralización, en conjunto con las adecuadas medidas de higiene preventiva, representa uno de los mejores abordajes mínimamente invasivos y a un costo comparativamente bajo. Este estudio documental tiene por objetivo establecer una mejor comprensión del uso clínico de los biomateriales que inducen la remineralización de la superficie del esmalte dental y dentina. Se realizó una exploración utilizando motores de búsqueda (bases de datos en PubMed, Medigraphic, y Science Direct). El proceso de localización de los estudios relevantes se efectuó introduciendo palabras clave como: silicatos de calcio, fosfopéptidos de caseína-fosfato de calcio amorfo, remineralización, esmalte y dentina, incluyéndose en el procedimiento artículos de antigüedad no superior a siete años, en español e inglés, publicados en revistas científicas aprobadas por pares.Actualmente, no es posible remineralizar del todo la estructura dentaria, por lo cual, en un futuro cercano, los esfuerzos de la odontología de remineralización deben apuntar al desarrollo de agentes biomiméticos inteligentes que restauren al cien por ciento la estructura dental perdida (AU)


Since the sixties, with the invention of bioactive glass, remineralization treatments have become popular among dental surgeons. Their usage is increasing; remineralization, in conjunction with appropriate preventive hygiene measures, represents one of the best minimally invasive treatments at a relatively low cost. This documentary study aims to establish a better understanding of the clinical use of biomaterials that induce remineralization of the surface of teeth enamel and dentin. A search was conducted using search engines (PubMed and Medigraphic databases, and Science Direct). The search process for the relevant studies was carried out by introducing keywords such as calcium silicates, phosphopeptides of amorphous calcium casein-phosphate, remineralization, enamel and dentin, including in the search articles no older than seven years in Spanish and English published in scientific reviewed journals. Currently, it is not possible to completely remineralize the dentary structure so, in the near future, remineralization dentistry efforts should aim to develop (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Remineralization/instrumentation , Biocompatible Materials , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Phosphopeptides/therapeutic use , Caseins , Calcarea Silicata/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 31(61): 15-20, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353865

ABSTRACT

Existen muchas patologías pigmentarias que alteran la estética del color dentario; algunas de ellas pueden circunscribirse a la superficie externa del esmalte y por ende ser tratadas con una técnica microabrasiva para su eliminación. La indicación de un tratamiento más agresivo en relación al blanqueamiento convencional, dependerá no solo de la ubicación de la lesión, sino también de la severidad de la misma, de la calidad de la estructura del tejido adamantino y de la anatomía dentaria entre muchas otras variables (AU)


ere are many pigment pathologies that alter the aesthetics of tooth color; Some of them can be confined to the outer surface of the enamel and therefore be treated with a microabrasive technique for their removal. e indication of a more aggressive treatment in relation to conventional whitening will depend not only on the location of the lesion, but also on its severity, the quality of the structure of the adamantine tissue and the dental anatomy among many other variables (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enamel Microabrasion , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Esthetics, Dental , Tooth Discoloration/therapy , Fluorosis, Dental/therapy
3.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre ; 61(2): 30-38, jul-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281073

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A técnica de microabrasão pode ser realizada através de pasta pronta para uso, disponível comercialmente, ou o profissional pode manipulá-la no consultório. Objetivo: Verificar o efeito da apresentação comercial do ácido clorídrico a 10% na manipulação de pasta para microabrasão sobre a superfície do esmalte. Metodologia: Foram selecionados incisivos bovinos e divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a apresentação comercial do ácido clorídrico (líquido ou em gel). O tratamento foi realizado através de dez aplicações com 10s de duração cada, intercaladas por lavagem de 10s. Vinte incisivos (n=10) foram utilizados para se determinar a perda de estrutura do esmalte. Cada amostra foi pesada, em balança analítica, antes e após submissão à microabrasão. Outras 20 amostras (n=10) foram utilizadas para determinação da rugosidade superficial média (Ra) utilizando-se um rugosímetro. Três amostras de cada grupo do experimento anterior foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e outras três amostras adicionais foram preparadas como controle (baseline) para análise em MEV. Resultados: Verificou-se diferença estatística significativa entre a massa final e a inicial e rugosidade superficial das amostras, independente da apresentação comercial do ácido. Nas imagens de MEV observou-se presença de superfície regular para o grupo controle (baseline). Nas demais imagens verificou-se superfície com considerável irregularidade e dissolução discreta do esmalte. Conclusões: O tratamento realizado causou perda significativa de estrutura e aumentou a rugosidade superficial dos espécimes, independente da apresentação comercial do ácido e sem apresentar diferença entre os grupos ao final. A apresentação comercial do ácido não parece ser um fator a interferir no tratamento. (AU)


Introduction: The microabrasion technique can be performed using a commercially available paste, or the dentist can prepare it in his office. Objective: To verify the effect of hydrochloric acid commercial presentation in the handling of microabrasion paste on the enamel surface. Methodology: Bovine incisors were divided into two groups, according to the commercial presentation of 10% hydrochloric acid (liquid or gel). The treatment was carried out through ten applications of 10 s duration each, intercalated with a 10s wash. Twenty teeth (n=10) were used to determine the loss of enamel structure. Each sample was weighed on an analytical balance before and after submission to microabrasion. Another 20 teeth (n=10) were used to determine the average surface roughness (Ra) using a rugosimeter. Three samples from each group of the previous experiment were selected, randomly, and another three additional samples were repared as a control (baseline) for SEM analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the final and initial mass and the surface roughness of the samples, regardless of the acid commercial presentation. In the SEM images, a regular surface was observed for the control group (baseline). In the other images, there was a surface with considerable irregularity and a slight dissolution of the enamel. Conclusions: The treatment carried out. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Enamel Microabrasion , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Hydrochloric Acid/therapeutic use , Hydrochloric Acid/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Statistical Analysis , Gravimetry , Incisor
4.
Rev. ADM ; 77(1): 22-27, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087921

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy en día, la mayoría de los pacientes requieren tratamiento de ortodoncia fija convencional, la cual utiliza procedimientos adhesivos afines con la superficie amelodentinaria. Aunque existen diferentes técnicas adhesivas que pueden ofrecer adecuados niveles de resistencia al desalojo, el uso del hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) como agente desproteinizante no ha sido bien definido en materiales de cementación en aparatología ortodóncica convencional. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los niveles de resistencia al desalojo con pruebas de microtensión y análisis topográfico con microscopia electrónica de barrido. Material y métodos: 20 bloques de esmalte bovino fueron expuestos superficialmente a soluciones acondicionadoras (ácido ortofosfórico al 37%) con y sin agente desproteinizante (NaClO al 5.25%); finalmente, brackets individuales de ortodoncia fueron cementados con sistemas adhesivos y resinas compuestas de casas comerciales (Ormco y 3M). Las pruebas de resistencia al desalojo fueron realizadas con una máquina de fuerzas universales y el análisis topográfico con microscopia electrónica de barrido. Resultados: El uso del NaClO al 5.25% y la marca Ormco tuvieron estadísticamente los mejores niveles de adhesión que el grupo sin desproteinización y la casa comercial 3M, respectivamente. La topografía adamantina expuesta al agente desproteinizante mostró características de superficie relacionadas con el patrón de grabado tipo I. Conclusión: El uso de un agente desproteinizante (NaClO 5.25%) así como una marca comercial (Ormco) en particular podrían definir el aumento en los niveles de adhesión en superficies adamantinas con aparatología ortodóncica convencional (AU)


Introduction: Nowadays, patients require conventional fixed orthodontic treatment, which uses adhesive procedures related to the dentinal denture surface. Although there are different adhesive techniques that can offer adequate levels of bonding resistance, the use of NaClO as a deproteinizing agent has not been well defined in cementing materials in conventional orthodontic appliances. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of bond resistance using micro tension tests and topographic analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Material and methods: Twenty-blocks of bovine enamel were exposed superficially to conditioning solutions (37% orthophosphoric acid) with and without deproteinizing agent (5.25% NaClO); finally, individual orthodontic brackets were cemented with adhesive systems and resin composites of different trademarks (Ormco and 3M). Bonding resistance tests were performed with a universal force machine and topographic analysis was made with scanning electron microscopy. Results: The use of 5.25% NaClO and the Ormco brand had statistically better levels of adhesion than the group without deproteinization and the 3M brand, respectively. Adamantine topography exposed to the deproteinizing agent showed surface characteristics related to the type I etching pattern. Conclusion: The use of a deproteinizing agent (NaClO 5.25%) as well as a trademark (Ormco) in particular conditions could define the increase in adhesion levels on adamantine surfaces with conventional orthodontic appliances (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Phosphoric Acids , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Composite Resins
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190720, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134776

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study evaluated the clinical effect of violet LED light on in-office bleaching used alone or combined with 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Methodology A total of 100 patients were divided into five groups (n=20): LED, LED/CP, CP, LED/HP and HP. Colorimetric evaluation was performed using a spectrophotometer (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, Δb) and a visual shade guide (ΔSGU). Calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P) ratio was quantified in the enamel microbiopsies. Measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), after bleaching (T B ) and in the 14-day follow-up (T 14 ). At each bleaching session, a visual scale determined the absolute risk (AR) and intensity of tooth sensitivity (TS). Data were evaluated by one-way (ΔE, Δa, ΔL, Δb), two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Ca/P ratio), and Tukey post-hoc tests. ΔSGU and TS were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, and AR by Chi-Squared tests (a=5%). Results LED produced the lowest ΔE (p<0.05), but LED/HP promoted greater ΔE, ΔSGU and Δb (T 14 ) than HP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in ΔE and ΔSGU for LED/CP and HP groups (p>0.05). ΔL and Δa were not influenced by LED activation. After bleaching, LED/CP exhibited greater Δb than CP (p>0.05), but no differences were found between these groups at T 14 (p>0.05). LED treatment promoted the lowest risk of TS (16%), while HP promoted the highest (94.4%) (p<0.05). No statistical differences of risk of TS were found for CP (44%), LED/CP (61%) and LED/HP (88%) groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in enamel Ca/P ratio among treatments, regardless of evaluation times. Conclusions Violet LED alone produced the lowest bleaching effect, but enhanced HP bleaching results. Patients treated with LED/CP reached the same efficacy of HP, with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and none of the bleaching protocols adversely affected enamel mineral content.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Phototherapy/methods , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Carbamide Peroxide/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Light , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Colorimetry , Combined Modality Therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190163, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090782

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of commercial whitening dentifrices on erosive tooth wear (ETW) of bovine enamel samples, in comparison with commercial regular dentifrices. Methodology Sixty bovine crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, polished and then had their baseline profile determined. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=12/group), according to the type of commercial dentifrice to be tested: GI - Crest Anti-cavity Regular; GII - Crest 3D White; GIII - Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint; GIV - Colgate Optic White; GV - Placebo (negative control, fluoride-free dentifrice). The samples were submitted to daily erosive and abrasive challenges for 3 days. The erosive challenges were performed 3 times a day by immersing the specimens in 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5) for 90 s. Each day after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were subjected to the abrasive challenge for 15 s, using a toothbrushing machine (Biopdi, São Carlos, SP, Brazil), soft toothbrushes and slurry (1:3 g/ml) of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). The specimens were kept in artificial saliva between the challenges. The final profile was obtained and the ETW (µm) was calculated. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p<0.05). Results All dentifrices tested significantly reduced the enamel wear in comparison with the Placebo, except GIII. The median (95% CI) ETW was 1.35 (1.25-1.46)bc for GI, 1.17 (1.01-1.34)cd for GII, 1.36 (1.28-1.45)ab for GIII, 1.08 (1.04-1.14)d for GIV and 2.28 (2.18-2.39)a for GV. Conclusion When dentifrices from the same manufacturer were compared, the whitening dentifrices led to similar or less wear than the regular ones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Toothpastes/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Toothbrushing/adverse effects , Toothpastes/chemistry , Materials Testing , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry
7.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 60(1): 41-43, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119674

ABSTRACT

Este es un estudio ex vivo donde se evalúa la variación en peso de veintiún piezas dentarias sometidas a un ácido dental de uso dental y, posteriormente, a la acción del gel remineralizante, objeto de este estudio, obteniéndose por diferencia de peso la cantidad de material mineral, que queda retenida en la pieza. La acción del ácido ortofosfórico ha producido una disminución del peso entre 28-30% de la pieza dentaria. Luego de la aplicación del gel remineralizante, ésta aumentó entre 15-18% del peso, considerando este aumento como significativo (p menor 0.05). Este aumento demuesta la acción remineralizante, ya que después del lavado este aumento se mantiene (AU)


This is an in vitro study where the variation in weight of twenty-one dental pieces subjected to a dental acid and subsequently to the action of the remineralizing gel is evaluated, obtaining by weight difference the amount of hydroxyapatite that is retained in the piece. The action of orthophosphoric acid causes a decrease in weight between 28-30% of the tooth. After the application of the remineralizing gel, it increases between 15-18% by weight considering this significant increase (p less 0.05) (AU)


Subject(s)
Tooth Remineralization/methods , Gels , Phosphoric Acids , Acid Etching, Dental , Effectiveness , In Vitro Techniques , Dental Enamel/drug effects
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e098, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039306

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effect of 2% grape seed extract (GSE) containing phosphoric acid (PhA) on the bond strength to enamel and dentin. The control group was 37% PhA. The following three PhA formulations with 2% GSE and 20% ethanol were obtained: GSE5 = 5% PhA; GSE10 = 10% PhA; and GSE20 = 20% PhA. The enamel and dentin surfaces of molars were etched with the acid solutions, followed by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and composite resin application. The tensile bond strength (TBS) test evaluated the bond to enamel after 24 h, and the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test evaluated the bond to dentin after 24 h and 12-month water storage. Etched enamel and dentin were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The TBS data were submitted to one-way ANOVA, while µTBS data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The TBS (MPa) to enamel did not significantly differ among the control (48.1 ± 15.7), GSE5 (46.1 ± 9.6), GSE10 (49.8 ± 13.6) and GSE20 (44.1 ± 11.9) groups (p = 0.537). The µTBS (MPa) to dentin of the control (28.4 ± 14.4) and GSE20 (24.1 ± 8.1) groups were significantly higher than those of the GSE5 (16.8 ± 7.4) and GSE10 (17.5 ± 6.6) groups at 24 h (p < 0.006). After 12-month storage, only GSE5 (21.0 ± 7.8) and GSE10 (17.6 ± 8.0) did not show significantly decreased μTBS (p > 0.145). SEM micrographs showed a shallower enamel etching pattern for GSE5. AFM images showed the formation of collagenous globular structures for GSE5 and GSE10. The different acid solutions did not influence the TBS to enamel, and the µTBS to dentin was stable over time when dentin was etched with GSE5 and GSE10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Grape Seed Extract/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e0088, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019596

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main of the study was quantify the effect of two ceramics with two underlying resin cements on apparent fluorescence levels. Buccal surfaces of two bovine incisors were ground flat producing one enamel and one dentin substrate. The veneers were fabricated (0.5 and 1.0 mm thickness) using two ceramics (IPSe.max Press and IPSe.max Zirpress, Ivoclar Vivadent). Veneers were cemented using either light-cured (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) or self-adhesive dual (Rely X U200, 3M ESPE) cement. The layered Control group materials had no cement application. Semi-quantitative fluorescence image analysis (Matlabs software, Matworks) involved processing the images as captured under each daylight (DL, Gretagmacbeth) and ultraviolet illuminants (UVA, Sylvania) within a neutral-gray lightbox (Macbeth Spectral Light). Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence values was performed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The e.max Zirpress on the dentin substrate produced greater fluorescence (p < 0.05) when subjected to UV illumination and more fluorescence (p < 0.05) than e.max Press in both cement groups. Light-cured cement produced higher (p < 0.05) fluorescence than the dual-cement with e.max Press on enamel under UV illumination. The fluorescence for e.max Press on the dentin substrate was greater (p < 0.05) than for e.max Zirpress using dual self-adhesive cement subjected to daylight illumination. Thus, it is possible to conclude that the combination of ceramic and cement produce definite, significant effects on the apparent fluorescence, vital quality for restorative dentistry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Ceramics/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Veneers , Dentin , Dentin/drug effects , Optical Imaging/methods , Light
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989477

ABSTRACT

Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p< 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e037, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001598

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique, based on the application of a constant low-intensity electric current to facilitate the release of a variety of drugs, whether ionized or not, through biological membranes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of iontophoresis using different electric current intensities on the uptake of fluoride in dental enamel with artificial caries lesions. In this in vitro operator-blind experiment, bovine enamel blocks (n = 10/group) with caries-like lesions and predetermined surface hardness were randomized into 6 groups: placebo gel without fluoride applied with a current of 0.8 mA (negative control), 2% NaF gel without application of any current, and 2% NaF gel applied with currents of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mA. Cathodic iontophoresis was applied for 4 min. The concentration of loosely bound fluoride (calcium fluoride) and firmly bound fluoride (fluorapatite) was determined. The results were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Iontophoresis at 0.8 mA, combined with the application of fluoridated gel (2% NaF), increased fluoride uptake in enamel with caries-like lesions, as either calcium fluoride or fluorapatite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Iontophoresis/methods , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Apatites/analysis , Surface Properties/drug effects , Calcium Fluoride/analysis , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Disease Models, Animal , Electricity , Hardness/drug effects
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e044, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001614

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soluble and insoluble fluoride concentrations in commercial varnishes, and their remineralization effect on artificial caries enamel lesions using surface and cross-sectional microhardness evaluations. Forty bovine enamel blocks were separated into four groups (n=10): control (no treatment), Enamelast (Ultradent Products), Duraphat (Colgate-Palmolive) and Clinpro White Varnish (3M ESPE). Surface enamel microhardness evaluations were obtained, artificial enamel caries lesions were developed by dynamic pH-cycling, and the varnishes were then applied every 6 days, after which the enamel blocks were submitted to dynamic remineralization by pH cycles. After removal of the varnishes, the enamel surfaces were reassessed for microhardness. The blocks were sectioned longitudinally, and cross-sectional microhardness measurements were performed at different surface depths (up to 300 μm depth). Polarized light microscopy images (PLMI) were made to analyze subsurface caries lesions. The fluoride concentration in whole (soluble and insoluble fluoride) and centrifuged (soluble fluoride) varnishes was determined using an extraction method with acetone. The data were analyzed to evaluate the surface microhardness, making adjustments for generalized linear models. There was a significant decrease in enamel surface microhardness after performing all the treatments (p<0.0001). Enamelast and Duraphat showed significantly higher enamel microhardness values than the control and the Clinpro groups (p = 0.0002). Microhardness loss percentage was significantly lower for Enamelast (p = 0.071; One-way ANOVA). PLMI showed that subsurface caries lesions were not remineralized with the varnish treatments. No significant differences in the in-depth microhardness levels (p = 0.7536; ANOVA) were observed among the treatments. Enamelast presented higher soluble and insoluble fluoride concentrations than the other varnishes (p < 0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests). Enamelast and Duraphat varnishes promoted enamel surface remineralization, but no varnish remineralized the subsurface lesion body. Although insoluble and soluble fluoride concentration values did not correspond to those declared by the manufacturer, Enamelast presented higher fluoride concentration than the others.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e038, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001609

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to enamel surrounding real-life carious cavities. Twenty-eight permanent molars (n = 7) with carious lesions in dentin were subjected to selective carious tissue removal to firm dentin and had their crowns sectioned longitudinally. A universal adhesive system (Single Bond Universal [SBU] used in either etch-and-rinse and self-etch strategies) was compared with an etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB) and a self-etch Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) adhesive systems (control systems). Adhesives were applied on the enamel, assumed demineralized, surrounding the cavity margins and on sound enamel (control substrate). Composite cylinders were built (0.72 mm2) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) test was performed after 24 h of water storage. The µSBS values (MPa) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Bond strength values obtained in demineralized enamel surrounding carious cavity margins were significantly lower than that obtained in sound enamel (distant from carious cavity margins) (p = 0.035). The bonding strategy of the SBU did not influenced the bond strength values, which were higher than that obtained with ASB. CSE showed similar µSBS values to ASB and SBU in the self-etch mode. In conclusion, the bond strength to enamel assumed demineralized is lower than to sound enamel. The enamel surrounding carious cavities jeopardize the bonding of universal adhesive system. The bond strength of universal adhesive is similar, regardless to bonding strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding/methods , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Resin Cements/therapeutic use , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/therapeutic use , Shear Strength , Dentin/drug effects
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. Methodology: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). Results: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 μg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 μg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 μg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 μg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. Conclusions: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Biofilms/drug effects , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Myrtales/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Lactobacillus/drug effects
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180589, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of remineralization promoting agents containing casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or CPP-ACP in combination with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) after 6 and 12 weeks. Methodology: White spot lesions were created on 123 sectioned premolars (246 specimens) with a demineralization solution during a 96 hours pH-cycling regime. Two experimental groups were created: a CPP-ACP group (Tooth Mousse™), and a CPP-ACPF group (Mi Paste Plus™). Additionally, two control groups were created, one using only a conventional toothpaste (1450 ppm fluoride) and another one without any working agents. All teeth were also daily brushed with the conventional toothpaste except the second control group. Tooth Mousse™ and Mi Paste Plus™ were applied for 180 seconds every day. The volume of demineralization was measured with transverse microradiography. Six lesion characteristics regarding the lesion depth and mineral content of WSLs were also determined. Results: The application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF had a significant regenerative effect on the WSLs. Compared to Control group 1 and 2 the volume of demineralization after 6 weeks decreased significantly for CPP-ACP (respectively p<0.001 and p<0.001) and CPP-ACPF (respectively p=0.001 and p=0.003). The same trend was observed after 12 weeks. For the CPP-ACPF group, WSL dimensions decreased significantly between 6 and 12 weeks follow-up (p=0.012). The lesion depth reduced significantly after application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF but increased significantly in the Control groups. Mineral content increased for CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF after an application period of 12 weeks, but this was only significant for CPP-ACP. Conclusions: Long-term use of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF in combination with a conventional tooth paste shows beneficial effects in the recovery of in vitro subsurface caries lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Caseins/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Fluorides/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/chemistry , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Caseins/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180188, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984574

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sources of calcium and phosphate have been added to dental restorative materials to improve their anticaries effect. Objective This study evaluated the effect of adding calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) to resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on the physico-mechanical properties, ion release, and enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Specimens were fabricated for each experimental group: RMGIC without CaGP (Control), RMGIC with 1, 3 and 9% CaGP. To determine the release of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), six specimens were immersed in demineralization and remineralization solutions for 15 days. In another experimental trial, the following physico-mechanical properties were evaluated at time intervals of 1 and 7 days after fabrication: compressive strength (n=12), diametral tensile strength (n=12), surface hardness of material (n=6) and the degree of conversion of monomers (n=8). To study enamel demineralization, specimens (n=12) were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling. Subsequently, surface and cross-sectional hardness and the concentration of F, Ca and P in enamel were determined. Results The addition of CaGP to RMGIC led to higher mean release of F, Ca and P when compared with control (p<0.001). Mechanical properties were within the range of those of the ionomer cements after addition of 1% and 3% CaGP. The degree of conversion did not differ between groups at the 1st and the 7th day (p>0.439). The addition of 3% and 9% CaGP reduced mineral loss and increased F, Ca and P in the enamel when compared with control (p<0.05). Conclusion The addition of 3% CaGP in RMGIC increased the release of F, P and Ca, reduced enamel demineralization, and maintained the physico-mechanical properties within the parameters for this material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glycerophosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Photomicrography , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Compressive Strength , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180233, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze color change, microhardness and chemical composition of enamel bleached with in-office bleaching agent with different desensitizing application protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventeen polished anterior human enamel surfaces were obtained and randomly divided into nine groups (n = 13). After recording initial color, microhardness and chemical composition, the bleaching treatments were performed as G1: Signal Professional White Now POWDER&LIQUID FAST 38% Hydrogen peroxide(S); G2: S+Flor Opal/0.5% fluoride ion(F); G3: S+GC Tooth Mousse/Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste(TM); G4: S+UltraEZ/3% potassium nitrate&0.11% fluoride(U); G5: S+Signal Professional SENSITIVE PHASE 1/30% Nano-Hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) suspension(SP); G6: S-F mixture; G7: S-TM mixture; G8: S-U mixture; G9: S-SP mixture. Color, microhardness and chemical composition measurements were repeated after 1 and 14 days. The percentage of microhardness loss (PML) was calculated 1 and 14 days after bleaching. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Welch ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett T3 tests (p<0.05). Results: Color change was observed in all groups. The highest ΔE was observed at G7 after 1 day, and ΔE at G8 was the highest after 14 days (p<0.05). A decrease in microhardness was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after 1 day. The microhardness of all groups increased after 14 days in comparison with 1 day after bleaching (p>0.05). PML was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after bleaching and none of the groups showed PML after 14 days. No significant changes were observed after bleaching at Ca and P levels and Ca/P ratios at 1 or 14 days after bleaching (p>0.05). F mass increased only in G2 and G6, 1 day after bleaching (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of desensitizing agents containing fluoride, CPP-ACP, potassium nitrate or n-HAP after in-office bleaching or mixed in bleaching agent did not inhibit the bleaching effect. However, they all recovered microhardness of enamel 14 days after in-office bleaching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin Desensitizing Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Caseins/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Color , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Nitrates/chemistry
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975890

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Material and Methods: Enamel specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight treatment groups (n = 13), as follows: group 1 was inoculated with S. mutans grown in Brain Heart Infusion containing 1% sucrose (1% BHIS), as negative control; groups 2-4 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different rGO/Ag concentrations (0.08, 0.12, 0.16 mg/mL) + 1% BHIS; group 5-7 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different agents (0.16 mg/mL reduced graphene oxide, 0.16 mg/mL silver nanoparticles, 10 ppm NaF) + 1% BHIS; group 8 was mixed with 1% BHIS, without inoculation. Artificial enamel carious lesions were produced by S. mutans biofilm model for 7 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze roughness and morphology of the enamel surface. Polarized light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to measure the lesion depth and the relative optical density (ROD) of the demineralized layer. Results: Compared with the control groups, the rGO/Ag groups showed: (a) reduced enamel surface roughness; (b) much smoother and less eroded surfaces; (c) shallower lesion depth and less mineral loss. Conclusion: As a novel composite material, rGO/Ag can be a promising antibacterial agent for caries prevention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Silver/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Graphite/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Disease Progression , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180044, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiation-related caries are one the most undesired reactions manifested during or after head and neck radiotherapy. Fluoride application is an important strategy to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralizaton. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the topical application of fluoride during irradiation on dental enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Thirty molars were randomly divided into three groups: Non-irradiated (NI), Irradiated (I), Irradiated with fluoride (IF). Each group was subdivided according to the presence or absence of pH-cycling (n=5). In the irradiated groups, the teeth received 70 Gy. The enamel's chemical composition was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (organic matrix/mineral ratio - M/M and relative carbonate content - RCC). Vickers microhardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) were evaluated at three depths (surface, middle and deep enamel). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the enamel's morphology. Results: The FTIR analysis (M/M and RCC) showed significant differences for irradiation, pH-cycling and the interaction between factors (p<0.001). Without pH-cycling, IF had the lowest organic matrix/mineral ratio and relative carbonate content. With pH-cycling, the organic matrix/mineral ratio increased and the relative carbonate content decreased, except for IF. VHN was influenced only by pH-cycling (p<0.001), which generated higher VHN values. ANOVA detected significant differences in E for irradiation (p<0.001), pH-cycling (p<0.001) and for the interaction between irradiation and pH-cycling (p<0.001). Increased E was found for group I without pH-cycling. With pH-cycling, groups I and IF were similar, and showed higher values than NI. The SEM images showed no morphological changes without pH-cycling. With pH-cycling, fluoride helped to maintain the outer enamel's morphology. Conclusions: Fluoride reduced mineral loss and maintained the outer morphology of irradiated and cycled enamel. However, it was not as effective in preserving the mechanical properties of enamel. Radiotherapy altered the enamel's elastic modulus and its chemical composition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cariostatic Agents/radiation effects , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/radiation effects , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
20.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 32(1): 29-35, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010419

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the deproteinization of primary enamel by analyzing etching pattern types, with and without the application of 5% NaOCl before acid etching with 37% H3PO4. Fifteen extracted human primary molars were randomly selected for the present in vitro study; 1mm x 1mm blocks were prepared and divided into two groups (n = 21). These groups were treated as follows: Group AAcid Etching with 37% H3PO4 gel for 15 s; Group B5% NaOCl for 60 s + Acid Etching with 37% H3PO4for 15 s. The specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. The images were evaluated for quality types I and II etching of the enamel surface using ImageJ software. Datasets were checked for normality by KolgomorvSmirnov test and the nonparametric unpaired MannWhitney test was applied. The mean surface area of type I and II etching pattern values was 1922.314 µm2for Group A and 3840.473 µm2Group B. We conclude that deproteinization with 5% NaOCl prior to acid etching can be used to increase the area of adhesion and the quality of the etching pattern (AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la desproteinización del esmalte primario a través de los tipos de patrones de grabado, con y sin NaOCl 5% utilizado antes del grabado ácido con H3PO4 37%. Quince dientes primarios humanos extraídos se seleccionaron al azar para el presente estudio in vitro, se prepararon bloques de 1mm x 1 mm y se dividieron en dos grupos (n = 21). Estos grupos se trataron de la siguiente manera: Grupo A: Grabado ácido con H3PO4 37% en gel durante 15 segundos; Grupo B: NaOCl 5% durante 60 segundos + Grabado ácido con H3PO4 37% durante 15 segundos. Las muestras se prepararon para el análisis de microscopía electrónica de barrido. Las imágenes obtenidas se evaluaron principalmente por la calidad de los grabados tipo I y II de la superficie del esmalte primario, utilizando el software Image J. Los datos se analizaron en cuanto a su normalidad mediante la prueba de KolgomorvSmirnov, se utilizó pruebas no paramétricas: Prueba de MannWhitney no pareada. Como resultado, se encontró que el área de superficie media de los valores de patrón de grabado de tipo I y II para el Grupo A era 1922,314 µm2 y el Grupo B era 3840,473 µm2. Finalmente, llegamos a la conclusión de que se puede usar la desproteinización con NaOCl 5% antes del grabado ácido para aumentar el área de adhesión y la calidad del patrón de grabado (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphoric Acids , Sodium Hypochlorite , Tooth, Deciduous , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Peru , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Statistical Analysis
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