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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. Methodology: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). Results: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 μg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 μg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 μg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 μg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. Conclusions: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Biofilms/drug effects , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Myrtales/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Lactobacillus/drug effects
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975890

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Material and Methods: Enamel specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight treatment groups (n = 13), as follows: group 1 was inoculated with S. mutans grown in Brain Heart Infusion containing 1% sucrose (1% BHIS), as negative control; groups 2-4 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different rGO/Ag concentrations (0.08, 0.12, 0.16 mg/mL) + 1% BHIS; group 5-7 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different agents (0.16 mg/mL reduced graphene oxide, 0.16 mg/mL silver nanoparticles, 10 ppm NaF) + 1% BHIS; group 8 was mixed with 1% BHIS, without inoculation. Artificial enamel carious lesions were produced by S. mutans biofilm model for 7 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze roughness and morphology of the enamel surface. Polarized light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to measure the lesion depth and the relative optical density (ROD) of the demineralized layer. Results: Compared with the control groups, the rGO/Ag groups showed: (a) reduced enamel surface roughness; (b) much smoother and less eroded surfaces; (c) shallower lesion depth and less mineral loss. Conclusion: As a novel composite material, rGO/Ag can be a promising antibacterial agent for caries prevention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Silver/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Graphite/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Disease Progression , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180593, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019973

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is growing evidence that C. albicans is associated with dental caries, but its role on caries development needs to be better clarified. Objective: To evaluate at the hard tissue level the effect of C. albicans on the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms focusing on the mineral profile of induced carious lesions. This study also aimed to evaluate the effect of C. albicans on the acidogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Methodology: Dual-species (CA+SM) and single-species biofilms (CA or SM) were grown on the surface of enamel slabs in the presence of glucose/sucrose supplemented culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Demineralization was evaluated through percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC) and transversal microradiography analysis (ILM and LD) and pH of the spent medium was recorded daily. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction. Results: %SMC was statistically different among the biofilms at each time point being the highest for SM biofilms and the lowest for CA biofilms which also differed from CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 47.0±7.3; 48 h: 66.3±8.3; 72 h: 75.4±3.9); CA (24 h: 7.3±3.3; 48 h: 7.1±6.4; 72 h: 6.6±3.6); CA+SM (24 h: 35.9±7.39.1; 48 h: 47.2±9.5; 72 h: 47.6±9.5)]. pH of spent medium was statistically lower for SM biofilms compared to the other biofilms at each time point and remained constant over time while pH values increased from 24 to 72 h for both CA and CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 4.4±0.1; 48 h: 4.4±0.1; 72 h: 4.5±0.1); CA (24 h: 6.9±0.3; 48 h: 7.2±0.2; 72 h: 7.5±0.2); CA+MS (24 h: 4.7±0.2; 48 h: 5.1±0.1; 72 h: 6.1±0.6)]. IML and LD for SM biofilms increased over time while no difference was observed from 24 to 72 h for the other biofilms. Conclusions: The present data suggest that C. albicans has low enamel demineralization potential and the presence of C. albicans can reduce both the cariogenic and acidogenic potentials of S. mutans biofilms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism , Candida albicans/physiology , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Acids/metabolism , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170304, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893680

ABSTRACT

Abstract Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) is known for interacting with enamel reducing demineralization. However, no information is available about its potential antimicrobial effect. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-caries potential of TiF4 varnish compared to NaF varnish, chlorhexidine gel (positive control), placebo varnish and untreated (negative controls) using a dental microcosm biofilm model. Material and Methods A microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel previously treated with the varnishes, using inoculum from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. All experiments were performed in biological triplicate (n=4/group in each experiment). Factors evaluated were: bacterial viability (% dead and live bacteria); CFU counting (log10 CFU/mL); and enamel demineralization (transverse microradiography - TMR). Data were analysed using ANOVA/Tukey's test or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.05). Results Only chlorhexidine significantly increased the number of dead bacteria (68.8±13.1% dead bacteria) compared to untreated control (48.9±16.1% dead bacteria). No treatment reduced the CFU counting (total microorganism and total streptococci) compared to the negative controls. Only TiF4 was able to reduce enamel demineralization (ΔZ 1110.7±803.2 vol% μm) compared to both negative controls (untreated: ΔZ 4455.3±1176.4 vol% μm). Conclusions TiF4 varnish has no relevant antimicrobial effect. Nevertheless, TiF4 varnish was effective in reducing enamel demineralization under this model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus/drug effects , Titanium/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Streptococcus/growth & development , Microradiography , Colony Count, Microbial , Random Allocation , Placebo Effect , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e109, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974435

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the effect of human milk, alone and associated with sucrose, in the cariogenicity of biofilms in a microcosm biofilm model and compared with the cariogenicity of sucrose and bovine milk. Microcosm biofilms were grown in enamel discs in 24-well plates. Six growth conditions were studied: DMM (chemically defined artificial saliva - negative control), DMM with 1% of sucrose (DMM+s) (positive control), human milk with DMM, human milk with DMM+s, bovine milk with DMM, and bovine milk with DMM+s. After 5 days, the outcome variables surface hardness change (%SHC), microbiological composition of biofilms, and pH of supernatant were analyzed. All groups had significantly lower hardness loss compared to the DMM group with 1% of sucrose. Human and bovine milk associated with sucrose showed higher hardness loss. The supernatant pH values after 6 hours of different treatments were similar for the groups sucrose and human milk associated with sucrose (p>0.05). After 18 hours at rest in pure DMM, an increase in the pH of the supernatant was observed. Higher values of total microorganisms count were found for sucrose and bovine milk groups compared to the group supplemented only by DMM. Bovine milk group showed greater amount of total aciduric microorganisms in comparison to human milk group. Within the limits of this study, it can be infered that both human and cow milks have some cariogenic potential, although differing from sucrose in terms of mineral loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Sucrose/adverse effects , Cariogenic Agents/adverse effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Milk, Human/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Milk/microbiology , Diet, Cariogenic/adverse effects , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Milk, Human/chemistry
7.
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 132 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-906807

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-caries effects of two plant extracts. The first chapter dealt with a review of the literature whose objective was to discuss the antimicrobial potential of Brazilian natural agents on the biofilm related to dental caries and gingivitis/periodontal disease. The research of the articles was carried out using PubMed. We found a total of 23 papers. Most of the studies were performed using planktonic microorganisms or under clinical trials. Nineteen articles were focused on cariogenic bacteria. From these nineteen articles, eleven were also about periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four studies addressed only periodontopathogenic bacteria. The most tested Brazilian natural agents were green propolis, essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Copaifera sp. Most of the tested agents showed similar results when compared to positive control (essential oils and extracts) or better effect than negative control (green propolis). More studies involving protocols closer to the clinical condition and the use of response variables that allows understanding the mechanism of action of natural agents are necessary before the incorporation of these natural agents into dental products. The second chapter aimed to test the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves on the viability of the microcosm biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. The microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel, using human saliva pool mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva at 100, 10 and 0.1 µg/ml and Q. grandiflora at 100 and 0.1 µg/ml reduced cell viability similarly to the positive control and significantly more than negative control. M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 µg/ml were able to reduce the counting formation unit-CFU counting of lactobacilli sp. and Streptococcus mutans, while Q. grandiflora at 1000 and 1.0 µg/ml significantly reduced the S. mutans CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts did not reduce the production of extracellular polyssacharides, lactic acid and the development of enamel caries lesions. The third chapter aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of M. urundeuva and Q. grandiflora (alone or combined) on the viability of S. mutans biofilm and the prevention of enamel demineralization. S. mutans strain (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration were determined to choose the concentrations to be tested under the biofilm model. S. mutans biofilm (5x105 CFU/ml) was produced on bovine enamel using McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose for 3 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolated or combined) at concentrations equal or higher than 0.625 mg/ml was able to reduce the bacteria viability, whereas Q. grandiflora extract alone showed antimicrobial effect at 5 mg/ml only (p<0.05). On the other hand, none of the extracts was able to reduce the development of enamel caries lesions. Despite the tested natural extracts have antimicrobial effect; they are unable to prevent caries in enamel.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos antimicrobiano e anti-cárie de dois extratos de plantas. O primeiro capítulo se referiu a uma revisão da literatura cujo objetivo foi discutir o potencial antimicrobiano dos agentes naturais brasileiros sobre o biofilme relacionado à cárie dentária e à gengivite/doença periodontal. A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada usando o PubMed. Foram encontrados 23 trabalhos. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada utilizando microorganismos na fase planctônica ou ensaios clínicos. Dezenove artigos foram focados em bactérias cariogênicas. Dos dezenove artigos, onze também eram sobre bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Quatro estudos abordaram apenas bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Os agentes naturais brasileiros mais testados foram própolis verde, óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides e Copaifera sp. Os agentes testados apresentaram resultados similares quando comparados ao controle positivo (óleos essenciais e extratos) ou melhor efeito que o controle negativo (própolis verde). Mais estudos próximos da condição clínica e o uso de variáveis de resposta que permitam entender o mecanismo de ação são necessários, para permitir a incorporação desses agentes naturais em produtos odontológicos. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo testar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Myracrodruon urundeuva All. e Qualea grandiflora Mart. sobre a viabilidade do biofilme microcosmo e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. O biofilme microcosmo foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando pool de saliva humana misturada à saliva de McBain (0,2% de sacarose) durante 14 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva a 100, 10 e 0,1 µg/ml e Q. grandiflora a 100 e 0,1 µg/ml reduziram a viabilidade dos microrganismos de forma semelhante ao controle positivo e significativamente maior do que o controle negativo. M. urundeuva a 1000, 100 e 0,1 µg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a contagem de Unidade formadora de colônia-UFC para Lactobacilos totais e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto a Q. grandiflora a 1000 e 1,0 µg/ml reduziu significativamente a contagem de UFC para S. mutans. Os extratos naturais não conseguiram reduzir a produção de polissacarídeos extracelulares-PEC, ácido lático e o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte. O terceiro capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de M. urundeuva. e Q. grandiflora (sozinhos ou combinados) sobre a viabilidade do biofilme de S. mutans e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. Cepa de S. mutans (ATCC 21175) foi reativada em caldo BHI. Concentração inibitória mínima, concentração bactericida mínima, concentração inibitória mínima de biofilme e concentração de erradicação mínima de biofilme foram determinadas para escolher as concentrações a serem testadas sob o modelo de biofilme. O biofilme de S. mutans (5x105 CFU/ml) foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando saliva de McBain com 0,2% de sacarose durante 3 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolada ou combinada) nas concentrações iguais ou superiores a 0,625 mg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade das bactérias, enquanto que o extrato da Q. grandflora apresentou efeito antimicrobiano somente a 5 mg/ml (p<0,05). Nenhum dos extratos reduziu o desenvolvimento da lesão da cárie. Apesar dos extratos naturais terem efeito antimicrobiano, são incapazes de prevenir o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microradiography , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 22(5): 67-74, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaque accumulation and bond failure are drawbacks of orthodontic treatment, which requires composite for bonding of brackets. As the antimicrobial properties of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and mechanical properties of composite resins modified by the addition of TiO2 NPs. Methods: Orthodontics composite containing 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% NPs were prepared. 180 composite disks were prepared for elution test, disk agar diffusion test and biofilm inhibition test to collect the counts of microorganisms on three days, measure the inhibition diameter and quantify the viable counts of colonies consequently. For shear bond strength (SBS) test, 48 intact bovine incisors were divided into four groups. Composites containing 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% NPs were used for bonding of bracket. The bracket/tooth SBS was measured by using an universal testing machine. Results: All concentration of TiO2 NPs had a significant effect on creation and extension of inhibition zone. For S. mutans and S. sanguinis, all concentration of TiO2 NPs caused reduction of the colony counts. Composite containing 10% TiO2 NPs had significant effect on reduction of colony counts for S. mutans and S. sanguinis in all three days. The highest mean shear bond strength belonged to the control group, while the lowest value was seen in 10% NPs composite. Conclusions: Incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into composite resins confer antibacterial properties to adhesives, while the mean shear bond of composite containing 1% and 5% NPs still in an acceptable range.


RESUMO Introdução: o acúmulo de placa e as descolagens de braquetes são algumas desvantagens presentes no tratamento ortodôntico, no qual se requer o uso de materiais compósitos para a colagem dos braquetes. Objetivo: tendo em vista que as propriedades antimicrobianas das nanopartículas (NPs) de TiO2 já foram confirmadas, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as propriedades antimicrobianas e mecânicas de resinas compostas modificadas pela adição de NPs de TiO2. Métodos: compósitos ortodônticos contendo 0%, 1%, 5% e 10% de NPs foram preparados. Cento e oitenta discos de compósito foram preparados para o teste de eluição, o ensaio de difusão em ágar por disco, e o ensaio de inibição da formação de biofilme, para se calcular as contagens de microrganismos ao longo de três dias, medir o diâmetro da inibição e, consequentemente, quantificar as contagens de colônias viáveis. Para o teste de resistência da colagem ao cisalhamento (SBS), 48 incisivos bovinos intactos foram divididos em quatro grupos, nos quais os compósitos contendo 0%, 1%, 5% e 10% de NPs foram utilizados para colagem dos braquetes. A SBS da interface braquete/dente foi medida em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Resultados: todas as concentrações de NPs de TiO2 apresentaram efeito significativo na formação e na extensão da zona de inibição. Para o S. mutans e o S. sanguinis, todas as concentrações de NPs de TiO2 causaram redução na contagem das colônias. O compósito contendo 10% de NPs de TiO2 apresentou uma diminuição significativa na contagem de colônias de S. mutans e S. sanguinis durante os três dias. A média mais alta da SBS foi observada no grupo controle, enquanto o valor mais baixo foi observado para o compósito com 10% de NPs. Conclusões: a incorporação de nanopartículas de TiO2 nas resinas compostas lhes conferiu propriedades antibacterianas, e o valor médio da SBS das resinas contendo 1% e 5% de NPs apresentou-se dentro de uma faixa aceitável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Titanium/pharmacology , Dental Bonding , Composite Resins/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus sanguis/drug effects , Titanium/analysis , Cattle , Orthodontic Brackets , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Shear Strength , Incisor/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e89, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952126

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Streptococcus/growth & development , Streptococcus/drug effects , Time Factors , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Actinomyces/growth & development , Actinomyces/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e84, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952087

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial biofilms on changes in the surface microhardness of enamel treated with casein phosphopeptide—amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) with and without fluoride. Human enamel blocks with incipient caries-like lesions were divided into four groups of 13: G1: Saliva (Control); G2: fluoride dentifrice (Crest™, 1100 ppm as NaF); G3: CPP-ACP (MI Paste; Recaldent™); and G4: CPP-ACPF (MI Paste Plus; Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF). The specimens were soaked in demineralizing solution for 6 h and remineralized in artificial saliva for 18 h alternately for 10 days. The dentifrice was prepared with deionized water in a 1 : 3 ratio (w/w) or applied undiluted in the case of the CPP-ACP group. The surface microhardness (SMH) was evaluated at baseline, after artificial caries, after pH cycling and treatment with dentifrices, and after incubation in media with Streptococcus mutans for biofilm formation. The biofilms were exposed once a day to 2% sucrose and the biofilm viability was measured by MTT reduction. The percentage of change in surface microhardness (%SMHC) was calculated for each block. The data were analyzed by nonparametric test comparisons (α = 0.05). The %SMHC values observed in G2 were different from those of G1, G3, and G4 (p < 0.05). After biofilm formation, %SMHC was positive in G2 and G4 when compared to G1 and G3, but resistance to demineralization after biofilm formation was similar in all groups. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms did not influence the treatment outcomes of anticaries products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Caseins/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorides/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/drug effects , Dentifrices/chemistry , Hardness Tests
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 404-410, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792598

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP) in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w): 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE) was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (p<0.001) and DC in situ (p<0.001) values. SFE decreased after addition of 0.18% and 0.33% AgNP. Growth inhibition of S. mutans in liquid media was obtained after silver addition (p<0.05). Conclusions The addition of AgNP solutions to Transbond™ XT adhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Silver/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Particle Size , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Bonding/methods , Orthodontic Brackets/microbiology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Shear Strength , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e52, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate and starch is considered non-cariogenic for enamel and moderately cariogenic for dentine. However, the cariogenicity of the combination of starch and sucrose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this combination on Streptococcus mutans biofilm composition and enamel and dentine demineralization. Biofilms of S. mutans UA159 were grown on saliva-coated enamel and dentine slabs in culture medium containing 10% saliva. They were exposed (8 times/day) to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl (negative control), 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or 1% starch and 10% sucrose (starch + sucrose). To simulate the effect of human salivary amylase on the starch metabolization, the biofilms were pretreated with saliva before each treatment and saliva was also added to the culture medium. Acidogenicity of the biofilm was estimated by evaluating (2 times/day) the culture medium pH. After 4 (dentine) or 5 (enamel) days of growth, biofilms (n = 9) were individually collected, and the biomass, viable microorganism count, and polysaccharide content were quantified. Dentine and enamel demineralization was assessed by determining the percentage of surface hardness loss. Biofilms exposed to starch + sucrose were more acidogenic and caused higher demineralization (p < 0.0001) on either enamel or dentine than those exposed to each carbohydrate alone. The findings suggest that starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Young Adult , Starch/chemistry , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Dietary Sucrose/chemistry , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-1, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777198

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Cultured Milk Products , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Over Studies , Cultured Milk Products/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus/growth & development , Microbiota , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Sucrose/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 76(6): 709-712, nov.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-569196

ABSTRACT

A respiração oral pode causar deformações na arcada dentária e representar risco a cáries e doenças periodontais, podendo ser agravado pela utilização de aparelhos fixos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o grau de mineralização do esmalte dentário e a microbiota cariogênica bucal de respiradores orais que utilizaram disjuntores maxilares. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 20 pacientes respiradores orais com atresia maxilar, idades entre 9 e 13 anos. A mineralização do esmalte dentário foi medida pela técnica de fluorescência, antes da instalação do disjuntor maxilar e após sua remoção. A microbiota cariogênica foi avaliada pelo No Caries®. Na análise estatística utilizamos o teste "t" (p<0,05), e a microbiota oral analisada por incidência. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante no grau de mineralização do esmalte dentário após a disjunção maxilar, com valor médio de 3,08. O teste colorimétrico demonstrou que 45 por cento diminuiu e 15 por cento aumentou o potencial à cárie dentária, sendo que 40 por cento permaneceu inalterado após o uso do disjuntor maxilar. CONCLUSÃO: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante no grau de mineralização do esmalte dentário nos pacientes respiradores orais após a utilização de disjuntor, porém dentro da faixa de normalidade clínica, e um número pequeno de pacientes aumentou o potencial cariogênico durante o tratamento ortodôntico.


Mouth breathing may cause deformities on the dental arch and be a risk factor for caries and periodontal disease; fixed orthodontic appliances compound the problem. AIM: to evaluate mineralization of tooth enamel and the oral cariogenic microbiota of mouth breathers that are using maxillary expanders. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a prospective study of 20 mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia, aged from 09 to 13 years. Enamel mineralization was measured using a fluorescence technique, before installing the expander and after its removal. The cariogenic microbiota was evaluated by the No Caries®. The t test (p<0.05) was applied for the statistical analysis, and the oral microbiota was analyzed by incidence. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the enamel mineralization level after maxillary expansion; the mean value was 3.08. The colorimetric test showed that the caries development potential was reduced in 45 percent, increased in 15 percent, and unaltered in 40 percent after maxillary expander use. CONCLUSION: there was a statistically significant difference in enamel mineralization after maxillary expansion; this difference was within the clinically normal range; the cariogenic potential increased in a small number of patients during orthodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Breathing/complications , Mouth/microbiology , Orthodontic Appliances/adverse effects , Palatal Expansion Technique , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorescence , Maxilla/abnormalities , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Saliva/microbiology
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(2): 186-193, Mar.-Apr. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI) and fluorescence camera (FC) to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Dental Plaque Index , Dental Plaque/diagnosis , Biofilms , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorescence , Indicators and Reagents , Observer Variation , Photography, Dental , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 18(3): 185-191, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471438

ABSTRACT

In situ dental biofilm composition under sugar exposure is well known, but sugar effect on the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in dental biofilm has not been explored. This study evaluated S. mutans genotypic diversity in dental biofilm formed in situ under frequent exposure to sucrose and its monosaccharide constituents (glucose and fructose). Saliva of 7 volunteers was collected for isolation of S. mutans and the same volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances, containing enamel slabs, which were submitted to the following treatments: distilled and deionized water (negative control), 10 percent glucose + 10 percent fructose (fermentable carbohydrates) solution or 20 percent sucrose (fermentable and EPS inductor) solution, 8x/day. After 3, 7 and 14 days, the biofilms were colleted and S. mutans colonies were isolated. Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) of S. mutans showed that salivary genotypes were also detected in almost all biofilm samples, independently of the treatment, and seemed to reflect those genotypes present at higher proportion in biofilms. In addition to the salivary genotypes, others were found in biofilms but in lower proportions and were distinct among treatment. The data suggest that the in situ model seems to be useful to evaluate genotypic diversity of S. mutans, but, under the tested conditions, it was not possible to clearly show that specific genotypes were selected in the biofilm due to the stress induced by sucrose metabolism or simple fermentation of its monosaccharides.


A composição do biofilme dental in situ exposto a açúcares é bem conhecida, mas o efeito dos açúcares na diversidade genotípica de S. mutans no biofilme dental ainda não foi explorada. Este estudo avaliou a diversidade genotípica de S. mutans no biofilme dental formado in situ sob frequente exposição à sacarose e seus monossacarídeos constituintes (glicose e frutose). Primeiramente, saliva de voluntários foi coletada para isolamento de S. mutans e os mesmos voluntários usaram um dispositivo intraoral palatino, contendo blocos de esmalte, que foram submetidos 8x/dia aos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada e deionizada (controle negativo), solução de glicose 10 por cento + frutose 10 por cento (carboidratos fermentáveis) e solução de sacarose 20 por cento (fermentável e indutor de PEC). Após 3, 7 e 14 dias, os biofilmes foram coletados e colônias de S. mutans foram isoladas. A técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase usando primers arbitrários (AP-PCR) demonstrou que o genótipo salivar foi detectado em quase todas as amostras de biofilme, independente do tratamento, e parece refletir aqueles genótipos presentes em maiores proporções no biofilme. Além do genótipo salivar, outros foram encontrados nos biofilmes, mas em uma menor proporção e foram distintos entre os tratamentos. Os dados sugerem que o modelo in situ é útil para a avaliação da diversidade genotípica de S. mutans. Porém, nas condições do presente estudo, não foi possível demonstrar que genótipos específicos foram detectados no biofilme devido ao estresse induzido pelo metabolismo da sacarose ou fermentação de seus monossacarídeos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Mouth/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Sucrose/metabolism , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Over Studies , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Double-Blind Method , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Stress, Physiological , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism
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