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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366204

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Toothache/epidemiology , Oral Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Indonesia/epidemiology
2.
Odontol. Clín.-Cient ; 20(3)jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1372000

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo compreender a relação entre o Senso de Coerência (SOC) dos responsáveis e a experiência de cárie dentária dos escolares de 5 a 10 anos da Escola de Educação Básica da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (EEBAS/UFPB). Participaram do estudo 120 crianças e responsáveis. Os exames clínicos foram realizados na própria escola, após assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE) pelos responsáveis. Os responsáveis responderam o SOC-13. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. Foi encontrado que os valores de ceo-d e CPO-d variaram 0 a 8, com 76,2% de valor para o componente cariado. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre o SOC dos responsáveis e a experiência de cárie dos alunos. Também não foi encontrada relação entre o SOC e ceo-d, idade, sexo e série escolar. No entanto, o SOC parece ter uma influência significativa no comportamento e impactar em aspectos socioeconômicos... (AU)


This study aimed to comprehend the relationship between parental Sense of Coherence (SOC) and dental caries experience in children aged 5-10 years at the Basic School of Federal University of Paraiba. The sample was composed of 120 children and their parents. Clinical examinations were performed at the school, after signing the Term of Free and Informed Consent (TFIC) by the parents. The parental SOC was measured using the 13-item version (SOC-13). The data obtained were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. The values of dmft and DMFT ranged from 0 to 8, with a predominance of the decayed component (76.2%). There was no statistically significant association between parental SOC and dental caries experience in the students. In addition, parental SOC was not significantly associated with dmft, age, gender, or school grade. Nonetheless, the SOC seems to have a significant influence on behavior and impact on socio-economic aspects... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Socioeconomic Factors , Child , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health , Dental Care for Children , Dental Caries , Sense of Coherence
3.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e210349, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340066

ABSTRACT

Considerando-se as especificidades dos problemas éticos em saúde bucal, esta pesquisa objetivou construir uma proposta de Inventário de Problemas Éticos na Atenção Primária à Saúde (IPE-APS) para a saúde bucal (SB), estudo metodológico desenvolvido por um comitê de juízes. Após levantamento prévio de 32 problemas éticos específicos, fez-se sua equivalência com quarenta itens do IPE-APS: de itens; de semântica e conteúdo; de avaliação dos itens não equivalentes; de avaliação dos problemas específicos não equivalentes. Apontaram-se 18 itens do IPE-APS equivalentes a 17 problemas específicos, confluindo para 16 itens finais. Dos 22 itens não equivalentes, 5 foram mantidos. Incluíram-se os 15 problemas éticos específicos não equivalentes. Evidenciou-se a complexidade do trabalho de equivalência de inventários de natureza ética. Chegou-se à proposta de um IPE-APS-SB de 36 itens. (AU)


Considering the specificities of ethical problems in oral health, the aim of this study was to develop a proposal for an Inventory of Ethical Problems in Primary Health Care (IPE-APS) for oral health (SB). A methodological study was developed by a committee of judges. Thirty-two previously identified specific ethical problems were matched to the 40 items of the IPE-APS: items; semantics and content; evaluation of unmatched items; evaluation of unmatched specific problems. Eighteen of the items of the IPE-APS were matched to 17 specific problems, converging into 16 final items. Five of the 22 unmatched items were maintained and 15 unmatched specific ethical problems were included. The findings reveal the complexity of matching ethical Inventories. We achieved the aim of proposing a 46-item IPE-APS for oral health. (AU)


Llevando en consideración las especificidades de los problemas éticos en salud bucal, esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de construir una propuesta de Inventario de Problemas Éticos en la Atención Primaria de la Salud (IPE-APS) para la salud bucal (SB). Estudio metodológico desarrollado por un comité de jueces. Después de un levantamiento de 32 problemas éticos específicos, se realizó su equivalencia con cuarenta ítems del IPE-APS: de ítems; semántica y de contenido; evaluación de los ítems no equivalentes; evaluación de los problemas específicos no equivalentes. Se señalaron 18 ítems del IPE-APS equivalentes a 17 problemas específicos, confluyendo para 16 ítems finales. De los 22 ítems no equivalentes, 5 se mantuvieron. Se incluyeron los 15 problemas éticos específicos no equivalentes. Se dejó en evidencia la complejidad del trabajo de equivalencia de inventarios de naturaleza ética. Se llegó a la propuesta de un IPE-APS-SB de 36 ítems. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/ethics , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Dental Health Services/ethics , Bioethics , Ethics, Dental
4.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-11, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1293076

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim is to evaluate the perspectives of dentists' clinical approaches in terms of their knowledge and education regarding oral-systemic health relation of geriatric patients with a digital survey. Materials and Methods: The demographics, oral-systemic health-related lectures in participants' dentistry education, the level of awareness of the oral-systemic health relationship, and behaviors related to clinical applications were investigated on a digital platform with 49 multiple-choice questions. The results were analyzed with the SPSS 24.0 program. Results: Of a total of 410 dentists (206 women and 204 men), 23% have doctoral and/or specialty titles. While 93.1% of dentists had taken systemic health-related lectures, 21.3% of them rated these courses as "adequate" and 49.3% as weak. 72% of the participants received medical history only at the initial appointment, while 17.9% of them received it at each appointment. Dentists more often associate diabetes and cardiovascular diseases with periodontitis, compared to the development of dental caries. Dentists who think that they should work with physicians in the treatments of geriatric patients with systemic diseases refer more patients to physicians per year (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Dentists have found the lectures on the relationship between oral-systemic health of geriatric patients in dentistry education inadequate. Besides, there is a lack of information on the effects of systemic diseases on caries development, intra-oral findings, and knowledge on treatment approaches. Dentists believe that defining a curriculum that emphasizes interdisciplinary work and organizing scientific activities in partnership with medical associations will play an important role in establishing awareness of oral-systemic health. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo é avaliar as perspectivas das abordagens clínicas dos dentistas em relação ao seu conhecimento e educação sobre a relação da saúde oral e sistêmica de pacientes geriátricos através de um questionário digital. Material e Métodos: Os dados demográficos, as aulas relacionadas à saúde oral-sistêmica na educação odontológica dos participantes, o nível de conhecimento da relação saúde oral e sistêmica e os comportamentos relacionados às aplicações clínicas foram investigados em uma plataforma digital com 49 questões de múltipla escolha. Os resultados foram analisados com o programa SPSS 24.0. Resultados: De um total de 410 dentistas (206 mulheres e 204 homens), 23% possuem título de doutor e / ou especialidade. Enquanto 93,1% dos dentistas tiveram aulas sobre saúde sistêmica, 21,3% avaliaram esses cursos como "adequados" e 49,3% como fracos. 72% dos participantes recebem histórico médico apenas na consulta inicial, enquanto 17,9% deles recebem em cada consulta. Os dentistas associam mais frequentemente diabetes e doenças cardiovasculares à periodontite, em comparação ao desenvolvimento de cárie dentária. Os dentistas que acham que devem trabalhar em conjunto com médicos no tratamento de pacientes geriátricos com doenças sistêmicas encaminham mais pacientes ao médico por ano (p <0,001). Conclusões: Os cirurgiões-dentistas consideram inadequadas as palestras sobre a relação entre saúde oral e sistêmica de pacientes geriátricos no ensino de odontologia. Além disso, faltam informações sobre os efeitos das doenças sistêmicas no desenvolvimento de cárie, achados intraorais e conhecimento sobre as abordagens de tratamento. Os dentistas acreditam que a definição de um currículo que enfatize o trabalho interdisciplinar e a organização das atividades científicas em parceria com as associações médicas terá um papel importante no estabelecimento da consciência sobre a saúde oral e sistêmica (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health , Interdisciplinary Communication , Education, Dental , Geriatric Dentistry
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess clinical dental status in military firefighters of Rio de Janeiro State and compare data with Brazilian National and Regional oral health surveys. Material and Methods: A sample of 926 military firefighters was examined using the visible biofilm index, the DMFT index and the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Clinical exams were performed by 15 trained dentists. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction were used. Results: Higher biofilm accumulation was associated with increased age. The mean DMFT index for the whole sample of this study was 12.74 (±7.03), and the 'filled' component was the most prevalent (69.9%), whereas the 'decayed' and 'missing' components were, respectively, 8.4% and 21.7%. There was a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases with increasing age, ranging from 57.1% in firefighters of 34 years or less to 70.5% in the ones between 35 and 44 years old and 75.4% in participants at age 45 years or older. Clinical dental status of the military firefighters who belonged to the age group 35-44 was better than the one observed for the Brazilian population at the same age range. However, pathological conditions that can be solved with health promotion strategies associated with dental procedures of low complexity still persist. Conclusion: These results suggest that the availability of dental health care services itself does not represent the most effective approach to the oral health problems found in the studied population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Oral Health , Health Care Surveys/methods , Firefighters , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis/diagnosis , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Health Services , Dental Plaque , Dentists
6.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 266-273, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352686

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar as naturezas do sofrimento psicológico ocasionado por problemas bucais. Métodos: Esta pesquisa adotou uma abordagem qualitativa e caráter exploratório-descritivo, utilizando-se da entrevista semiestruturada e da observação assistemática como instrumentos de coleta de dados. Para a análise dos dados da pesquisa foi utilizada a análise do conteúdo e a amostra da pesquisa foi de 25 participantes, entre homens e mulheres, que buscaram atendimento odontológico em uma clínica de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil nos meses de maio e junho de 2020. Resultados: todos os participantes foram afetados psiquicamente pela existência de problemas bucais, o que gerou problemas de autoestima e autoimagem. Com o início do tratamento, os participantes relataram uma melhora na autoestima, não minimizando, contudo, outros tipos de sentimentos provenientes do problema bucal, como desconforto, dores e bullying. Conclusão: Problemas bucais podem gerar sofrimento psicológico aos pacientes, prejudicando sua autoimagem, acarretando, muitas das vezes, no isolamento e dificuldade em relacionar-se com outras pessoas. Portanto, um sorriso harmonioso é importante não somente por questões estéticas, mas para que o indivíduo se sinta bem consigo mesmo.


Aim:To investigate the nature of psychological distress caused by oral problems. Methods: This research adopted a qualitative approach and exploratory-descriptive design, employing, as data collection tools, a semi-structured interview and an unsystematic observation. For the research's data analysis, content analysis was used, and the research sample featured 25 participants, between men and women, who sought out dental care in a Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil dental clinic between May and June 2020. Results: All the participants were affected psychologically by the existence of oral problems, which led to self-esteem and self-image problems. With the start of treatment, the participants reported an improvement in self-esteem and self-image, not minimizing, however, other types of feelings that come with oral problems, like discomfort, pain, and bullying. Conclusion: Oral problems can cause psychological pain to the patients, harming their self-esteem and self-image, often leading to isolation and trouble interacting with other people. Therefore, a harmonious smile is important not only for esthetic reasons, but also for individuals to feel good about themselves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Self Concept , Smiling/psychology , Dental Care/psychology , Psychological Distress , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health , Interviews as Topic , Bullying/psychology , Embarrassment
7.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(3): 173-180, 30-09-2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of concern with oral health and associated factors among older adults. METHODS: Individuals aged >60 years were included from the cities Cruz Alta and Veranopolis, Brazil. Oral health examination and a structured questionnaire were applied in 569 individuals. The main outcome was concern with oral health (yes or no), which was determined by a validated questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted by Poisson regression with robust variance to assess the association between outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of concern with oral health was 30.58% (n = 174). Non-white individuals presented significantly higher prevalence ratio (PR) of being concerned about their oral health (PR = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.62). Individuals with medium or high level of education, not retired and without any health problems presented higher PR of being concerned with their oral health when compared to their controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, those that reported toothbrushing frequency > 2 times/day (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.48) and non-edentulous (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.12 -2.01) also presented higher PR of being concern with their oral health. Older adults that were not concerned with tooth alignment (PR = 0.57; 95%CI 0.44 - 0.74) or tooth color (PR = 0.41; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.54) demonstrated lower concern with their oral health. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of concern with oral health among the older adults was low and associated with non-white individuals, medium and high level of education, individuals not retired, absence of health problems, higher toothbrushing frequency, mild temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and non-edentulism. Additionally, concern with esthetical aspects may be related with this outcome.


OBJETIVO: Esse estudo objetivou verificar a prevalência de preocupação com a saúde bucal e fatores associados em idosos. METODOLOGIA: Idosos com idade ≥60 anos foram incluídos das cidades de Cruz Alta e Veranópolis, Brasil. Exame de saúde bucal e um questionário estruturado foram aplicados em 569 indivíduos. O desfecho primário foi preocupação com saúde bucal (sim ou não), a qual foi determinada por um questionário validado. Análises uni- e multivariadas foram realizadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para verificar a associação entre o desfecho e as variáveis independentes. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de preocupação com a saúde bucal foi de 30,58% (n = 174). Indivíduos não brancos apresentaram razão de prevalência (RP) significativamente maior de serem preocupados com a sua saúde bucal (RP = 1,28 ­ intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95% 1,01 ­ 1,62). Indivíduos com nível educacional médio ou alto, não aposentados e sem qualquer problema de saúde apresentaram maior RP de serem preocupados com sua saúde bucal quando comparados com seus controles (p < 0,05). Além disso, idosos que reportaram escovar os dentes ≥ 2 vezes/dia (RP = 1,58; IC95% 1,01 ­ 2,48) e não edêntulos (RP = 1,50; IC95% 1,12 ­ 2,01) também apresentaram maior RP de serem preocupados com sua saúde bucal. Idosos não preocupados com alinhamento dentário (RP = 0,57; IC95% 0,44 ­ 0,74) ou com a cor dos dentes (RP = 0,41; IC95% 0,31 ­ 0,54) demonstraram menor preocupação com a saúde bucal. CONCLUSÃO: Prevalência de preocupação com a saúde bucal em idosos foi baixa e associada com indivíduos não brancos, com nível educacional médio ou alto, indivíduos não aposentados, ausência de problemas de saúde, alta frequência de escovação, desordem temporomandibular (DTM) leve e não edêntulos. Além disso, preocupação com aspectos estéticos pode estar relacionada com isso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Concept , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Health of the Elderly
8.
San Salvador; Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Primera Edición; 08.10.2020. 67 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1122047

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Considerando la revisión bibliográfica realizada y los datos oficiales disponibles, se podría afirmar que El Salvador sufre un analfabetismo epidemiológico en lo referente a las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático, debido entre otras múltiples causas a la carencia o limitado número de estudios con rigor científico-metodológico, que reflejen la situación global de las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático en diferentes grupos etarios. Ante ello, se realiza la primera encuesta de salud bucal a nivel nacional, apegada a lo establecido metodológicamente por la OMS, criterios actualizados y considerando muestras representativas de diferentes edades, zonas geográficas del país y condiciones sociodemográficas. Objetivos: Determinar la condición de salud bucal y las necesidades de tratamiento de la población salvadoreña a través de la aplicación de diferentes indicadores epidemiológicos, caracterizar la población según condición sociodemográfica, identificar sus conocimientos y prácticas en salud bucal. Metodología: El diseño corresponde a un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, característico de una encuesta de salud oral y metodología Pathfinder según OMS. El trabajo de campo se efectuó en 24 municipios de El Salvador, entre 2016 y 2017. La muestra total fue de 3881 salvadoreños, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en seis grupos etarios (2-5, 5-6, 6-12, 13-17,18-30, 31-45 y 60 a más), siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado por conglomerados sugerida por el Manual de Encuestas de Salud Bucodental de la OMS, 2013. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS V25, donde fueron calculadas las medias, desviaciones estándar y porcentajes de las variables analizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health , Health Surveys , Oral Hygiene Index , Periodontal Index , Dental Caries , Fluorosis, Dental
9.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 23(3): 333-340, 2020-08-04.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1116706

ABSTRACT

El estado de salud bucal en Uruguay fue conocido luego del relevamiento nacional po-blacional realizado entre 2010 y 2011. Las patologías más prevalentes detectadas fueron la caries y las paradenciopatias. Además, se estudió maloclusiones, pérdida dentaria y lesiones de la mucosa. La información se complementó con otros estudios epidemiológi-cos, como el realizado en relación con trastornos témporo mandibulares, que evidenció que la mitad de la población uruguaya presenta síntomas y/o signos vinculados con dicho desorden. El Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, que funciona desde 2008, concentra efectores públicos y privados y ha intentado cumplir con un Programa Nacional de Salud Bucal. Brinda prevención, promoción y tratamiento de patologías orales de complejidad menor, por lo que quedan muchas prestaciones por fuera del sistema. La formación de recursos humanos es suficiente para cubrir las necesidades de la población, pero la odon-tología en general, y la especializada aún más, resultan muy costosas y no son accesibles a todos los que la precisan.


Oral health status in Uruguay was known after the national population survey carried out between 2010 and 2011. The most detected prevalent pathologies were caries and para-denciopathies. In addition, malocclusions, dental loss and mucosal lesions were studied. The information was complemented with other epidemiological studies, in relation with to temporomandibular disorders, which showed that half of the Uruguayan population presents symptoms and / or signs related to said disorder. The National Integrated Health System, which has been operating since 2008, concentrates public and private effectors and has attempted to comply with a National Oral Health Program. It provides preven-tion, promotion and treatment of oral pathologies of lesser complexity, so many benefits remain outside the system. Training human resources is sufficient to meet the needs of http://dx.doi.org/10.15381/os.v23i3.18134 the population, but dentistry in general, and specialized, are very expensive and are not accessible to all who need it


Subject(s)
Uruguay , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Dental Health Surveys
10.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 9-13, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Cáncer Bucal es una enfermedad de importancia en Salud Pública. En Panamá, se desconoce la incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad y no se dispone de información por tipo de patología, lesión, localización, ni estudios de conocimientos, ac­ titudes y prácticas, relacionados a los factores de riesgo. Objetivo General: analizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de prevención de Cáncer Bucal en la población mayor de 15 años. Materiales y Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en las Regiones Sanitarias de San Miguelito, Metropolitana y Panamá Oeste. Se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia en 42 instalaciones de salud del primer nivel de atención, a la población que acudió al servicio odontológico durante cuatro meses. Se aplicó una encuesta de Conocimiento, Actitudes y Prácticas de prevención de factores de riesgo al cáncer bucal, considerando variables de estilo de vida. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizaron los programas Epi Info versión 7.2 y XLSTAT 2019 y presentados los datos en medidas paramétricas y no paramétricas. Resultados: se encuestó un total de 3,832 personas mayores de 15 años. La mayor proporción fueron mujeres en edades de 25 y 34 años. En relación al conocimiento, el 81% desconoce los factores de riesgo de cáncer bucal y según la actitud, el 63% no asiste al control odontológico periódicamente. Las prácticas reflejaron hábitos relaciona­ dos al consumo de tabaco y alcohol. Conclusión: La población mayor de 15 años del estudio, desconoce los factores de riesgo del cáncer bucal y manifiesta limitada actitud de práctica preventiva.


Introduction: Oral Cancer is an importance disease in Public Health. In Panama, the in­ cidence and prevalence of the disease is unknown and there is no information available by type of pathology, injury, location, or studies of knowledge, attitudes and practices re­ lated to risk factors. General Objective: to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practi­ ces of prevention of Oral Cancer in the population over 15 years old. Materials and Methods: cross­sectional descriptive study, carried out in San Miguelito, Metropolitan and Panamá Oeste Health Regions. Sampling was carried out for convenience in 42 health facilities of the first level of health care, to the population that attended the dental service during four months. A survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of preven­ tion of risk factors to oral cancer was applied, considering Lifestyle variables. For the statistical analysis, the Epi Info version 7.2 and XLSTAT 2019 programs were used and the data presented in parametric and non­parametric measurements. Results: a total of 3,832 people over 15 years of age were surveyed. The highest propor­ tions were women between the ages of 25 and 34. In relation to knowledge, 81% do not know the risk factors for oral cancer and according to the attitude, 63%, do not attend pe­ riodically to a dental control. The practices reflected habits related to consumption of to­ bacco and alcohol. Conclusion: The population over 15 years old of the study ignores the risk factors of oral cancer and manifests a limited attitude of preventive practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mouth Neoplasms/psychology , Public Health Dentistry , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Population Studies in Public Health , Evaluation Studies as Topic
11.
Odontoestomatol ; 22(36): 55-64, 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1143365

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) comparten factores de riesgo conductuales y metabólicos con las enfermedades bucales y ambas representan un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia ENT y sus factores de riesgo conductuales y metabólicos en personas que concurrieron a la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de la República. Metodos: Estudio transversal en el que se aplicó un cuestionario sobre características sociodemográficas y hábitos vinculados a factores de riesgo comportamentales. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas, de presión arterial y glicemia capilar. Resultados: Fueron encuestados 602 individuos Conclusiones: En función de las prevalencias elevadas de varios factores de riesgo, se recomienda la instalación de un programa preventivo-educativo en las salas de espera de la Facultad.


Resumo As doenças não transmissíveis (DNT) compartem fatores de risco comportamentais e metabólicos com as doenças bucais, as duas representam um problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência DNT e os fatores de risco comportamentais e metabólicos em pessoas que concorreram à Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade da República. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, onde foi aplicado um questionário relativo às características sociodemográficas e hábitos ligados com fatores de risco comportamentais. Se realizaram medições antropométricas, de pressão arterial e glicemia capilar. Resultados: Foram pesquisados 602 indivíduos. Constatou-se uma alta prevalência de inatividade física, ingestão problemática de álcool, consumo excessivo de sal, hipertensão e diabetes. Estes valores foram acima dos encontrados a nível nacional. Conclusão: Dada a alta prevalência encontrada de vários fatores de risco, recomenda-se a instalação de um programa educacional-preventivo nas salas de espera da Faculdade.


Summary Non-communicable diseases (NCD) share behavioral and metabolic risk factors with oral diseases and both represent a public health problem. Objective: to find out the prevalence of NCD and its behavioral and metabolic risk factors in people who attend at College of Odontology of the University of the Republic. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted and a questionnaire related to socio-demograhic characteristics and habits linked to behavioral risk factors was applied. Anthropometric measurements of arterial pressure and capillary glucose were taken, Results: The final sample were 602 individuals. A high prevalence of physical inactivity, problematic alcohol intake, excessive salt consumption, hypertension and diabetes was found. These figures were larger than those found at the national level. Conclusions: Due to the high prevalence of various risk factors, the installation of a preventive-educational program in the waiting rooms of the Faculty is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Health , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e207468, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1116578

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and associated factors among the 12-year-old population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the SB-Minas Gerais 2012 study were used. The presence of poor OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) and its dimensions (physical, psychological and social domains). Independent variables included sociodemographic factors and variables related to the use of dental care and oral health conditions. The association between the outcomes and the independent variables were tested using logistic regression and the results reported as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: Prevalence of poor OHRQoL was 31.4%; the psychological domain was the most affected (22.6%). Pain and dissatisfaction with oral health were associated with poor OHRQoL on overall OIDP and all its domains. Non-whites had greater poor OHRQoL than whites on overall OIDP and physical domain. Conclusion: Self-perceived oral health and social inequalities were associated with poor OHRQoL


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 30, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094416

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate socio-demographic, family and behavioral factors associated with oral health literacy (OHL) in adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/guardians answered a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data. The adolescents answered validated instruments on family cohesion and adaptability (family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scale), drug use (alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test), type of dental service used for last appointment and OHL (Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Oral Health Literacy in Dentistry). Two dentists were trained to evaluate OHL (K = 0.87-0.88). Descriptive analysis was performed, followed by Poisson regression analysis (α = 5%). A directed acyclic graph was used to select independent variables in the study. RESULTS The following variables remained associated with better OHL: high mother's schooling level (RR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.03-1.12), high income (RR = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01-1.09), white ethnicity/skin color (RR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.01-1.10), married parents (RR = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01-1.09), "enmeshed" family cohesion (RR = 1.21; 95%CI: 1.12-1.30), "structured" (RR = 1.06; 95%CI: 1.01-1.12) or "rigid" (RR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.04-1.19) family adaptability, having more than five residents in the home (RR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01-1.14) and having used a private dental service during the last appointment (RR = 1.08; 95%CI: 1.03-1.13). CONCLUSION Family functioning and socio-demographic factors influence the level of oral health literacy among adolescents.


Subject(s)
Family , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/education , Adolescent Behavior , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Pilot Projects , Dental Health Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-10, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1087815

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Este estudo avaliou o acesso aos serviços odontológicos em áreas cobertas pela Estratégia Saúde da Família em Campina Grande, Paraíba, comparando as séries temporais dos anos de 2009 e 2014. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo quantitativo, analítico, com desenho do tipo transversal, de base populacional, do seguimento de dois estudos, com dados primários coletados prospectivamente, longitudinal ou de seguimento. O estudo teve como variável dependente o acesso a saúde bucal, e no grupo de variáveis independentes encontram-se os fatores sociodemográficos. A análise dos dados foi realizada através do SPSS 18.0, em duas etapas: uma descritiva e outra analítica. Na primeira foram feitas as distribuições de frequência das variáveis quantitativas, na segunda foram testadas as associações, utilizando-se o teste qui quadrado de Pearson. Para todas as análises foi considerado significante o nível de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: Os fatores sociodemográficos associados ao acesso no estudo de 2009 foram: idade, estado civil, renda do respondente e escolaridade. Em 2014, além desses, esteve associada a renda familiar. Conclusão: Constata-se que o acesso aos serviços odontológicos não ocorre de forma igualitária, não sendo a população de baixa renda a que mais se beneficia, indicando, pois, uma lacuna na equidade do acesso.


Aim:This study evaluated the access to dental services in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, comparing the time series of the years 2009 and 2014. Methods: This was a quantitative, analytical study with a population-based cross-sectional design, following two studies, with prospectively collected, longitudinal, or follow-up primary data. The study had access to oral health as the dependent variable, and socio-demographic factors in the group of independent variables. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0, in two steps: one descriptive and one analytical. In the first, frequency distributions of quantitative variables were made, while in the second, associations were tested using Pearson's chi-square. For all analyzes, a level of 5% (p <0.05) was considered significant. Results: The socio-demographic factors associated with access in the 2009 study were: age, marital status, respondent income, and education. In 2014, besides these, the study was associated with family income. Conclusion: It appears that access does not occur equally, and it is not the low-income population that benefits most, thus indicating a gap in equity of access.


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Dental Care , National Health Strategies , Dental Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether psychosocial status is associated with orthodontic treatment needs in high school students using the Psychosocial Impact of the Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and the Index of Orthodontic Need (IOTN). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 95 adolescents, both genders, aged 15-17 years old. PIDAQ was used to assess psychosocial status. The IOTN Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC) and the IOTN Dental Health Component (DHC) was used to assess treatment needs. Examination of the oral cavity was carried out with the help of the IOTN ruler by observing the MOCDO components: missing teeth, overjet, crossbite, displacement, and overbite. The Chi-square test was used to determine the association of psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need. The reliability test was carried out by using Cronbach's Alpha test (0.978). Results: There was an association between psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-AC (p=0.001) and between psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-DHC (p=0.140). Conclusion: There is an association between psychosocial status based on the PIDAQ and subjective orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-AC, but there is no association between psychosocial status based on the PIDAQ and objective orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-DHC in students of SMAN 27 Jakarta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Orthodontics , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Overbite , Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need/methods , Indonesia/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychosocial Impact
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the oral hygiene and dental caries status on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, also it's with SLE disease activity. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. The study was conducted on 93 SLE patients from 2017 to 2019 on Saiful Anwar Hospital Indonesia. All SLE patients had clinical examination using DMF-T, Personal Hygiene Performance-Modified (PHP-M), Calculus Index (CI), Debris Index (DI), Plaque Index (PI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). Clinical examination and laboratory tests are conducted to assess the activity of SLE measured using. The data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA test. Results: A total of 74% of subjects with SLE had dental caries. PHP-M with SLE severity was found significant (p<0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.982). Plaque with SLE severity was found significant (p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.938). OHI-S with SLE severity was found significant (p<0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.953). DMF-T levels with SLE severity was found significant (p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.974). It showed that the severity of disease activity was related to poor oral hygiene and a high incidence of dental caries. Conclusion: There is a correlation between oral hygiene, dental caries and SLE severity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene/education , Autoimmune Diseases , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Oral Hygiene Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Indonesia/epidemiology
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135512

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-behavioural risk factors for dental caries among children at selected LGAs in Lagos State. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 592 school children in four Local Government Areas of Lagos, Nigeria. The presence of caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 16.0% with mean dmft for age 6 being 1.3 ± 1.57 while the mean DMFT for age 12 was 0.15 ± 0.67. The mean Sic for age 6 was 1.5 ± 0.53 while the mean SiC for age 12 was 1.09 ± 0.29. The mean SiC values was significantly higher in the primary and permanent dentition among those who had never visited the dentist, female students, those who don't use fluoridated toothpaste and those who eat sweets and candy several times a day. After logistic regression analysis, those with no previous dental visit (OR=3.05; CI: 1.72-4.67) and females (OR=1.55; CI: 1.16-1.62) still had significantly higher SiC Values. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries was low in the study population. Being female, non-use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and not visiting the dentist were significant predictors of dental caries among children attending private schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Toothpastes/chemistry , Logistic Models , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Health Care Surveys , Dentists , Fluorides
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(5): 378-385, oct. 31, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1248139

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the oral health status perception of adolescents and young adults in drug dependence treatment. Material and Method: a qualitative research model was proposed. The theoretical sample by saturation consisted of adolescent population and young adults hospitalized in the Portal Amarillo center (the National Drug Information and Reference Center, Montevideo, Uruguay). Inclusion criteria: a) being between 15 and 24 years old. b) being in treatment for drug abuse. Exclusion criteria: a) non-lucid patients. b) non-collaborating patients. Results: participants considered oral health as having clean, white and aligned teeth; and oral disease as the presence of caries, bleeding gums and communicable diseases; chewing, aesthetics and taste were seen as altered functions. Before becoming drug consumers, oral hygiene was regular, after meals and as instructed; once addiction began, hygiene was very irregular at best (if they remember to do it), and without reinforcement of the instruction. Prior to drug consumption, participants were students or held a job; they had a good family life, with a partner or in search of one. After consumption, they report self-marginalization, loss of contact with partners and children, isolation from the family and social discrimination. Addiction makes it difficult for them to access dental care, except in urgent situations. Conclusions: Young people in treatment for drug dependence are aware that addiction damages oral health, deteriorating aesthetics, affecting oral functions, self-esteem and quality of life.


Objetivo: conocer la percepción de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes vinculados al consumo abusivo de drogas a partir de la situación de dependencia. Materiales y Métodos: se planteó un modelo de investigación cualitativo. La muestra teórica por saturación fue población adolescente y adulta joven que se asistió en régimen de internación en el Portal Amarillo. Criterios de inclusión: a) tener entre 15 y 24 años. b) estar en tratamiento por consumo de drogas. Criterios de exclusión: a) pacientes no lúcidos. b) pacientes no colaboradores. Resultados: los participantes refieren como salud bucal tener los dientes limpios, blancos y alineados; como enfermedad caries, sangrado de encías y enfermedades transmisibles; y como funciones alteradas la masticación, la estética y el gusto. Antes de la situación de dependencia la higiene bucal era regular, después de las comidas y con instrucción recibida, a partir de la dependencia la higiene fue muy irregular, si se acordaban y sin refuerzo de la instrucción. Previo al consumo eran individuos integrados al estudio o al trabajo, con vida familiar ordenada, con pareja o en procura de tenerla; posteriormente al consumo relatan automarginación con pérdida de contacto con la pareja e hijos, aislamiento de la familia y discriminación social. El consumo dificulta el acceso a la atención odontológica, excepto en situaciones de urgencia. Conclusion: Las personas jóvenes en tratamiento por dependencia a las drogas perciben el deterioro de su salud bucal a partir de la situación de consumo, alterando la estética, las funciones orales, la autoestima y la calidad de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Oral Health , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Oral Hygiene , Perception , Uruguay , Dental Health Surveys , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(2): e1751, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093219

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El proceso salud-enfermedad en el adulto mayor está influenciado directamente por los determinantes sociales de la salud, por tanto, la salud bucal no escapa de ello. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de los determinantes sociales y las condiciones de salud bucal en adultos mayores. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 339 individuos de 60 años y más del Consultorio No. 5 del Policlínico Plaza de la Revolución, durante el periodo comprendido desde mayo de 2015 a enero 201. Se utilizó el interrogatorio y el examen clínico de la cavidad bucal, previo consentimiento informado de los participantes. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, ocupación, bienestar económico, estructura y funcionamiento familiar, condiciones de la vivienda, hábitos alimentarios y condiciones de salud bucal. Resultados: El grupo de edad más representado fue el de 60 a 69 años con el 53,4 por ciento, con predominio del sexo femenino. Solo el 27,9 por ciento de los adultos mayores que trabajaban tenían buenas condiciones de salud bucal y más del 60 por ciento de los examinados que refirieron no tener bienestar económico, presentaron una salud bucal regular. Predominaron las familias funcionales con condiciones de salud bucal evaluadas de buena y regular. El 73,5 por ciento de los que habitaban en viviendas en buen estado presentaron también buenas condiciones de salud bucal. Los adultos mayores con buenas condiciones de salud bucal representaron el 82,4 por ciento de los que poseen hábitos alimentarios adecuados. Conclusiones: El comportamiento favorable de los determinantes analizados pone de manifiesto su influencia positiva sobre el estado de salud bucal de los adultos mayores(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The health-disease relationship in the elderly is directly influenced by social health determinants, and such influence includes oral health. Objective: Determine the behavior of social determinants and oral health conditions in the elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of 339 subjects aged 60 years and over from Consultation Office No. 5 of Plaza de la Revolución Polyclinic from May 2015 to January 2016. The study was based on interrogation and clinical examination of the oral cavity, prior informed consent by participants. The variables analyzed were age, sex, occupation, economic status, family structure and functioning, housing conditions, eating habits and oral health conditions. Results: The 60-69 age group was the best represented (53.4 percent), with a predominance of the female sex. Only 27.9 percent of the elderly people who had a regular job had good oral health conditions, and more than 60 percent of the patients examined who reported a low economic status had fair oral health conditions. There was a predominance of functional families with oral health conditions evaluated as good or fair. 73.5 percent of those with good housing conditions also had good oral health conditions. Elderly patients with good oral health conditions represented 82.4 percent of those with adequate eating habits. Conclusions: The favorable behavior of the determinants analyzed reflects their positive influence on the oral health status of elderly people(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Health Status , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(1): e1794, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003867

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A ansiedade é uma condição emocional relacionada a situações desconhecidas comumente associada ao atendimento odontológico. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de ansiedade dos pacientes frente ao atendimento odontológico. Métodos: O presente estudo, do tipo transversal analítico, foi realizado com uma amostra de conveniência composta por 300 pacientes oriundos de um centro de referencia em Odontologia da região sul do estado do Ceará - Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre idade, sexo, percepção da saúde bucal, dor de dente, experiência pregressa à tratamentos odontológicos e sobre aspectos psicológicos. O status de ansiedade dos pacientes foi avaliado através do instrumento Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa local sob o número de protocolo 1.759.075. Resultados: Dos 300 pacientes selecionados para o estudo, 222 (74,0 porcento) eram do sexo feminino e 78 (26,0 porcento) do masculino, com idade média de 32,7 anos. Em relação à ansiedade, 22,7 porcento (n= 68) dos indivíduos foram considerados ansiosos. Através da análise bivariada verificou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o status de ansiedade e os indivíduos do sexo feminino (p= 0,004) e pacientes com histórico de experiências desagradáveis no dentista (p= 0,015). Conclusão: A prevalência de ansiedade é maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino e experiências odontológicas pregressas desagradáveis ou de sofrimento podem se configurar como um importante fator associado à ansiedade odontológica(AU)


Introducción: La ansiedad es una afección emocional relacionada con las situaciones desconocidas comúnmente asociadas con la atención dental. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado de ansiedad de los pacientes durante el cuidado dental. Métodos: El presente estudio, del tipo transversal analítico, fue realizado con una muestra de conveniencia compuesta por 300 pacientes atendidos en un centro de referencia en Odontología de la región sur del estado Ceará - Brasil. Se recolectó información sobre edad, sexo, percepción de salud bucal, dolor de muelas, tratamientos dentales previos y aspectos psicológicos. El estado de ansiedad se evaluó usando el instrumento Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación local con el número de protocolo 1.759.075. Resultados: De los 300 pacientes seleccionados para el estudio, 222 (74.0 por ciento) eran mujeres y 78 (26,0 por ciento) eran hombres, con una media de 32,7 años. Con respecto a la ansiedad, el 22,7 por ciento (n= 68) de los pacientes del estudio presentaron ansiedad. El asesoramiento de análisis bivariado mostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el estado de ansiedad y las mujeres (p= 0,004) y pacientes con historial de experiencias desagradables en el dentista (p= 0,015). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de la ansiedad es mayor en las mujeres, y las experiencias odontológicas desagradables previas o el sufrimiento pueden ser un factor importante asociado con la ansiedad dental(AU)


Introduction: Anxiety is an emotional state related to the unfamiliar situations commonly associated with dental care. Objective: Evaluate the anxiety status of patients during dental care. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of a convenience sample composed of 300 patients attending a dental care reference center in the southern region of the state of Ceará in Brazil. Information was collected about age, sex, perception of oral health, toothache, previous dental treatment and psychological aspects. Anxiety status was evaluated with the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. The study was approved by the local Research Ethics Committee with protocol number 1.759.075. Results: Of the 300 patients selected for the study, 222 were women (74.0 percent) and 78 were men (26.0 percent); mean age was 32.7 years. Regarding anxiety, 22.7 percent (n= 68) of the patients studied had anxiety symptoms. Bivariate analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between anxiety and women (p= 0.004) and patients with a history of unpleasant experiences at the dentist (p= 0.015). Conclusions: Prevalence of anxiety is higher among women. Previous unpleasant experiences or suffering at the dentist may be important factors associated to dental anxiety(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dental Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Dental Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
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