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Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(1): e011-e011, ene.-abr. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIPECS | ID: biblio-1095510


Durante el tratamiento del conducto se pueden producir complicaciones como las perforaciones a diferentes niveles, y la más común es la de furca, asociada con la apertura cameral. No obstante, en la actualidad, los cementos bio cerámicos permiten obtener un mejor pronóstico. Se presenta el caso de un primer molar inferior derecho con perforación de furca, el cual fue sellado con Biodentine®. (AU)

During the root canal treatment procedure, complications such as perforations at different levels may occur, the most common being furcal perforation associated with the cameral opening. However, the bioceramic cements currently available can provide better outcomes. We present a case of a right lower first molar with furcation, which was sealed with Biodentine®. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Furcation Defects , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Follow-Up Studies
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-5, jan. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1103252


Objetivo: comparar a capacidade de adesão do cimento biocerâmico EndoSequence BC e do cimento resinoso AH Plus através de uma revisão integrativa. Material e Métodos: os bancos de dados online Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science e BVS foram utilizados para a revisão da literatura. Os critérios de elegibilidade incluíram artigos disponíveis na íntegra nas bases de dados pesquisadas, em inglês, e o conteúdo referente à adesão do cimento Endosequence BC sealer em comparação ao AH Plus. Resultados: foram encontrados 45 artigos. Após a remoção duplicada, 22 artigos foram selecionados. Após a leitura dos resumos, textos completos e aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, foram incluídos no total oito artigos. Em relação à capacidade de adesão dos cimentos testados, o AH Plus apresentou melhor adesão do que o cimento BC sealer em três artigos e menor adesão em dois artigos. Força de adesão semelhante foi observada entre os grupos em três estudos. Conclusões: com base nos estudos incluídos, o AH Plus apresenta maior resistência de união quando comparado ao BC Sealer

Aim: To compare the adhesion capacity of the bioceramic EndoSequence BC sealer and the AH Plus sealer through an integrative review. Methodology: The Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and VHL online databases were used for the literature review. Eligibility criteria comprised articles available in full on the researched databases, in English, and content addressing Endosequence BC sealer adhesion compared to AH Plus sealer. Results: A total of 45 articles were found. After duplicate removal, 22 articles were selected. After reading the abstracts, full texts and applying the inclusion criteria, eight articles in total were included in the present study. Concerning the adhesion capacity of the tested cements, the AH Plus was reported as presenting better adhesion than the BC sealer in three articles, and less adhesion in two articles. Similar adherence strength was observed between groups in three studies. Conclusions: Based on the included studies, the AH Plus displays greater bond strength when compared to the BC Sealer.

Root Canal Filling Materials , Resin Cements , Dental Cements , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Silicates/chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811430


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of radix molaris (RM) (entomolaris and paramolaris) in the mandibular first permanent molars of a sample Saudi Arabian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 884 CBCT images of 427 male and 457 female Saudi citizens (age 16 to 70 years) were collected from the radiology department archives of 4 dental centers. A total of 450 CBCT images of 741 mature mandibular first molars that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The images were viewed at high resolution by 3 examiners and were analyzed with Planmeca Romexis software (version 5.2).RESULTS: Thirty-three (4.5%) mandibular first permanent molars had RM, mostly on the distal side. The incidence of radix entomolaris (EM) was 4.3%, while that of radix paramolaris was 0.3%. The RM roots had one canal and occurred more unilaterally. No significant difference in root configuration was found between males and females (p > 0.05). Types I and III EM root canal configurations were most common, while type B was the only RP configuration observed.CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of RM in the mandibular first molars of this Saudi subpopulation was 4.5%. Identification of the supernumerary root can avoid missing the canal associated with the root during root canal treatment.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Dental Pulp Cavity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Molar , Prevalence
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811429


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the cell viability and migration of Endosequence Bioceramic Root Canal Sealer (BC Sealer) compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus.MATERIALS AND METHODS: BC Sealer, MTA Fillapex, and AH Plus were placed in contact with culture medium to obtain sealers extracts in dilution 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. 3T3 cells were plated and exposed to the extracts. Cell viability and migration were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Scratch assay, respectively. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test (p < 0.05).RESULTS: The MTT assay revealed greater cytotoxicity for AH Plus and MTA Fillapex at 1:1 dilution when compared to control (p < 0.05). At 1:2 and 1:4 dilutions, all sealers were similar to control (p > 0.05) and MTA Fillapex was more cytotoxic than BC Sealer (p < 0.05). Scratch assay demonstrated the continuous closure of the wound according to time. At 30 hours, the control group presented closure of the wound (p < 0.05). At 36 hours, only BC Sealer presented the closure when compared to AH Plus and MTA Fillapex (p < 0.05). At 42 hours, AH Plus and MTA Fillapex showed a wound healing (p > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: All tested sealers demonstrated cell viability highlighting BC Sealer, which showed increased cell migration capacity suggesting that this sealer may achieve better tissue repair when compared to other tested sealers.

3T3 Cells , Animals , Calcium , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Fibroblasts , Mice , Pemetrexed , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811427


OBJECTIVES: The obturation quality of MTA, Biodentine, Total Fill BC root canal sealer (RCS), and warm gutta-percha (WGP) in teeth with simulated internal root resorption (IRR) was evaluated by using micro-computed tomography.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardized IRR cavities were created using 40 extracted maxillary central incisor teeth and randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 10). IRR cavities were filled with MTA, Biodentine, Total Fill BC RCS (bulk-fill form) and WGP + Total Fill BC RCS. Percentage of voids between resorptive cavity walls and obturation material (external void), and inside the filling materials (internal voids) were measured.RESULTS: Total Fill BC sealer in the bulk-fill form presented significantly highest values of external and internal void percentages (p < 0.05). Biodentine showed a significantly lowest external void percentage (p < 0.05). WGP + Total Fill BC RCS presented significantly lower values of internal void percentages than all groups (p < 0.05), except Biodentine (p > 0.05).CONCLUSION: None of the filling materials were created void-free obturation in resorption cavities. Biodentine may favor its application in teeth with IRR over Angelus MTA and bulk-fill form of Total Fill BC.

Calcium , Dental Pulp Cavity , Gutta-Percha , Incisor , Pemetrexed , Root Resorption , Tooth
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811425


OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to assess the anatomy of mandibular first molars.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vivo study, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumes of 312 bilateral intact first mandibular molars from 156 patients (79 men and 77 women; average age, 35.6 ± 11.2 years) were investigated in terms of the direction of each canal's curvature in the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions (direction of the position of the apex in relation to the longitudinal axis of the root), the presence of an isthmus (a narrow, ribbon-shaped communication between 2 root canals) in 3 segments (0–2, 2–4, and 4–6 mm) from the apex), and the presence and number of accessory canals (smaller canals besides the main root canals, connecting the pulp to the periodontium). Data were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05).RESULTS: Mesiolingual canals were mostly buccally and distally inclined, while mesiobuccal and distolingual canals were mostly distally curved. Isthmuses were more common in younger patients (χ2 test, p < 0.05). The average numbers of accessory canals in the apical, middle, and coronal segments were 9.9 ± 4.2, 6.9 ± 2.9, and 9.3 ± 3.0 canals per segment, respectively (analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Age and sex were not associated with the number of accessory canals (p > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The complex anatomy of these teeth deserves attention during non-surgical or surgical endodontic treatment. Around the apex, isthmuses might be more prevalent in younger and female individuals.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Female , Humans , Male , Molar , Tooth
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 448-456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114920


Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic multiresistance and the acquisition of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be one of the main pathogens in persistent endodontic infections, therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotype and resistance genotype of strains of E. faecalis isolated from teeth with persistent endodontic lesions, to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry. Thirteen strains of E. faecalis of different pulsotype were analyzed to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using the Epsilometer test (E- test) and the presence of beta-lactamases with nitrocefin test. Finally, the detection of ARG was performed with a molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and confirmed by the sequencing of the amplification products. Fisher's exact test was used, using 95 % confidence. Regarding the phenotype of resistance, the evaluated strains, independent of the pulsotype, were totally resistant to the action of metronidazole. Antibiotics with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after metronidazole include tetracycline and erythromycin. In contrast, lower MIC are applied to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. The nitrocefin test was positive only in one strain. Genotypically, two genetically distant strains isolated from a single patient, presented a genotype of resistance to erythromycin, determined by the presence of the ermB gene. No statistically significant relationship was found between phenotypic resistance and the presence of ARG in relation to erythromycin (p> 0.05). It was concluded that isolates of E. faecalis from persistent endodontic infections showed phenotypes of resistance to several antimicrobial agents, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Periodic evaluation of susceptibility to antibiotics is suggested as an important practice for the surveillance of antibiotic resistance in oral strains.

Los enterococos son importantes patógenos nosocomiales debido a su multi resistencia intrínseca y la adquisición de nuevos genes de resistencia a los antibióticos (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis es uno de los principales patógenos en infecciones endodónticas persistentes, por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar el fenotipo y el genotipo de resistencia de cepas de E. faecalis aisladas de dientes con lesiones endodóncicas persistentes, a los antibióticos comúnmente recetados en odontología. Se analizaron 13 cepas de E. faecalis de diferentes pulsotipos para evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos, amoxicilina, amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico, tetraciclina, eritromicina y metronidazol, utilizando la prueba de Epsilometría (E-test) y la presencia de beta-lactamasas con prueba de nitrocefina. Finalmente, la detección de ARG se realizó con una técnica molecular de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y se confirmó mediante la secuenciación de los productos de amplificación. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, con un 95 % de confianza. En cuanto al fenotipo de resistencia, las cepas evaluadas, independientes del pulsotipo, fueron totalmente resistentes a la acción del metronidazol. Los antibióticos con los valores más altos de concentración mínima inibitoria (CMI) después del metronidazol incluyen tetraciclina y eritromicina. En contraste, las CMI mas bajas se aplican a la combinación de amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico. La prueba de nitrocefina fue positiva solo en una cepa. Genotípicamente, dos cepas distantes genéticamente, aisladas de un mismo paciente fueron positivas para el gen ermB. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la resistencia fenotípica y la presencia de ARG en relación con la eritromicina (p> 0,05). Se concluyó que los aislamientos de E. faecalis de infecciones endodónticas persistentes mostraron fenotipos de resistencia a varios agentes antimicrobianos, todos los cuales fueron susceptibles a amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico. Se sugiere una evaluación periódica de la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos como una práctica importante para la vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos en las cepas orales.

Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clavulanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 387-392, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114912


Los objetivos principales del tratamiento de endodoncia no quirúrgico son la prevención y/o tratamiento de periodontitis apical junto con la resolución de signos y síntomas de las lesiones pulpares irreversibles. Debido a la compleja morfología del sistema de conductos radicular, la persistencia de un conducto no tratado puede mantener la contaminación y sintomatología pulpar y periapical. La prevalencia para MV2 reportado a nivel mundial para el primer molar superior varía ampliamente según las técnicas in vivo o ex vivo empleadas en cada estudio, es por esto que el presente trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar la prevalencia de MV2 en primeros molares superiores en base a cuatro técnicas diagnósticas aplicadas ex vivo. Se realizó un estudio transversal observacional en 101 primeros molares superiores extraídos bajo consentimiento informado para determinar la prevalencia del conducto MV2 y su morfología en base a las técnicas de radiografía ortoradial, tomografía Cone Beam, apertura coronaria con microscopio quirúrgico (16x) y cortes radiculares axiales de aplicación ex vivo. La prevalencia encontrada para MV2 por cada técnica fue de 81,1 % para cortes radiculares y tomografía Cone Beam, 59,4 % para la apertura coronal con microscopio (16x) y 32,6 % con radiografía ortoradial. En el 3,96 % de la muestra se encontró un tercer conducto mesiovestibular en base a la técnica de corte radicular. La morfología interna del sistema de conductos radiculares fue de 36 % clase II, 19 % clase I y 16 % clase IV de Vertucci. Los resultados del presente estudio están en concordancia con lo reportado en la literatura y confirman la mayor prevalencia reportada en estudios ex vivo para esta situación. La presencia de MV2 en el primer molar superior es una condición frecuente que el endodoncista debe considerar, empleando técnicas imagenológicas y tecnologías de magnificación para asegurar el éxito terapéutico en estos dientes.

The main objectives of non-surgical endodontic treatment are the prevention and / or treatment of apical periodontitis, as well as resolving signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpal lesions. Considering the complex morphology of the root canal system, the a canal left untreated, can generate contamination, pulp and periapical symptoms. The prevalence for MV2 reported worldwide for the upper first molar, varies depending on the ex vivo or ex vivo techniques used in each study. Consequently, the present work aims to assess the prevalence of MV2 in first upper molars based on four ex vivo diagnostic techniques applied. An observational crosssectional study was performed in 101 upper first molars extracted under informed consent to determine the prevalence of the MV2 duct and its morphology based on orthoradial radiography, Cone Beam tomography, coronary opening with a surgical microscope (16x), and axial root cuts applied ex vivo. The prevalence found for MV2 by each technique was 81.1 % for root cuts and Cone Beam tomography, 59.4 % for coronal opening with a microscope (16x) and 32.6 % with orthoradial radiography. In 3.96 % of the sample, a third mesiovestibular canal was found based on the root cutting technique. The internal morphology of the root canal system was 36 % Vertucci´s class II, 19 % class I and 16 % class IV. The results of the present study coincide with that reported in the literature, and confirm the higher prevalence reported in ex vivo studies for this situation. The presence of MV2 in the upper first molar is a frequent condition that the endodontist must consider, using imaging techniques and magnification technology to ensure therapeutic success in these teeth.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Molar/anatomy & histology , Chile , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 358-362, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114907


In patients who need endodontic re-treatment, and where the prognosis for surgical or non-surgical re-treatment is poor or treatment may be risky, one alternative is to opt for extraction of the affected tooth and replacement by an implant. However treatment by intentional reimplantation (IR) is also a possibility. The object of the present study was to present a case of a patient aged 71 years who needed endodontic re-treatment, where IR treatment was selected. The patient reported spontaneous pain which disappeared completely with the use of analgesics. This tooth had previously been treated endodontically around 1 year earlier, and no pain was reported in the first two months after treatment.Nonetheless, about 3 months before the present consultation, intensity of the symptoms had increased with a sensation of pressure in the apical-coronal direction. Cone-beam computerised tomography (CBCT) showed a periapical lesion in tooth 3.7. Based on the clinical and imaging examinations, acute apical periodontitis was diagnosed in tooth 3.7.The tooth was treated by IR. It was carefully extracted and inspected for cracks or perforations. It was treated under the microscope with root resection, and then retrograde obturation was carried out with bioceramic material. The tooth was then repositioned in its alveolus. It was immobilised for 15 days, after which the patient could return gradually to normal masticatory function. In the 6 months check-up the patient presented no pain or sensitivity to percussion. No root resorption or periapical radiolucency was observed in the periapical X-ray. We conclude that IR is an alternative to extraction followed or not by prosthetic treatment, for patients who need endodontic re-treatment. The treatment presents good levels of success, and of acceptance by the patient.

En pacientes que necesitan de retratamiento endodóntico y el retratamiento quirúrgico o no quirúrgico tiene un pronóstico desfavorable o puede ser riesgoso, se puede optar por la extracción del diente afectado y su reemplazo por implante o se puede elegir el tratamiento mediante la técnica de reimplante intencional (RI). El objetivo del presente estudio fue presentar un caso de paciente de 71 años con necesidad de retratamiento endodóntico, donde se optó por la realización del RI. Paciente relatava dolor espontáneo que desaparecia completamente con el uso de analgésicos. Este diente ya había sido tratado endodónticamente hace alrededor de 1 año, y el paciente noreportó dolor en los primeros dos meses después del tratamiento.No obstante, hace aproximadamente 3 meses la intensidad de los síntomas aumentó, junto con la sensación de presión en el sentido ápice-corona. La tomografía computarizada cone-beam (TCCB) mostró lesión periapical en el diente 3.7. Basado en el examen clínico e imagenológico se diagnosticó periodontitis apical aguda en el diente 3.7.Para el tratamiento se realizó la técnica de RI, siendo extraído el diente cuidadosamente, e inspeccionado a fin de localizar fisuras o perforaciones. El diente fue tratado bajo microscopio y se realizó la resección de la raíz. Se realizó la obturación retrógrada con material biocerámico. Enseguida el diente fue reposicionado en su alveolo, la inmovilización fue realizada durante 15 días y la paciente logró retornar gradualmente a su función masticatoria. En el seguimiento de 6 meses la paciente no presentó dolor o sensibilidad a la percusión. En la radiografía periapical no se observó resorción radicular o radiolucencia periapical. Concluimos que el RI en pacientes que necesitan retratamiento endodóntico es una alternativa a la realización de la exodoncia seguida o no, de tratamiento protético, donde existe una buena aceptación por parte del paciente y éxito en el tratamiento.

Humans , Female , Aged , Periodontitis , Tooth Replantation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/surgery , Molar/surgery
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-9, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1104426


Objective: To assess the efficacy of agitation of chlorohexidine (CHX) and Silver nanoparticles "AgNps" with 810nm diode laser or sonic endoactivator compared to side ­vented needle on infected root canals with Enterococcus "E" Faecalis biofilms. Material and Methods: Sixty-five extracted human premolars with single oval canals were instrumented by protaper system up to F3. Biofilms of E. faecalis were generated based on a previously established protocol. Two teeth were used to check the biofilm formation, then the remaining Teeth were randomly divided into three equal experimental groups according to agitation techniques used: group 1 (810 nm diode laser with 1 watt) , group 2 (sonic endoactivator) and group 3 (Side vented needle). Each group was further divided into three equal subgroups according to the irrigant solution into; subgroup A: chlorohexidine, subgroup B: silver nanoparticles and subgroup C: distilled water: Confocal laser scanning microscopy "CLSM" was used to assess bacterial viability. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical analyses with P = 0.05. Results: Regarding the activation method, all groups had a significantly high percentage of dead bacteria (P < 0.05). However, Laser was significantly the highest and Endoactivator the least (P < = 0.001). Diode laser agitation of AgNps irrigant showed the highest reduction percentage of bacteria (78.1%) with a significant difference with both CHX and water irrigation, Conclusion: Under the condition of the present study; results reinforced that laser activation is a useful adjunct, 810 nm diode laser agitation of AgNps or chlorhexidine was more effective in disinfection of oval root canals than endoactivator and side vented needle techniques. (AU)

Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da agitação de clorohexidina (CHX) e nanopartículas de prata (AgNps) , com laser de diodo de 810 nm ou endoativador sônico, em comparação à agulha de ventilação lateral, em canais radiculares infectados com biofilmes de Enterococcus "E"; Faecalis. Material e Métodos: Sessenta e cinco pré-molares humanos com um único canal oval, extraídos, foram instrumentados pelo sistema protaper até F3. Os biofilmes de E. faecalis foram gerados com base em um protocolo previamente estabelecido. Foram utilizados dois dentes para verificar a formação do biofilme, e os dentes restantes foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos experimentais iguais, de acordo com as técnicas de agitação utilizadas: grupo 1 (laser de diodo 810 nm com 1 watt), grupo 2 (endoativador sônico) e grupo 3 (Agulha com ventilação lateral). Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos iguais, de acordo com a solução irrigante; subgrupo A: clorohexidina, subgrupo B: nanopartículas de prata e subgrupo C: água destilada: A microscopia confocal de varredura a laser foi usada para avaliar a viabilidade bacteriana. Os dados foram analisados por análises estatísticas apropriadas com P = 0,05. Resultados: Em relação ao método de ativação, todos osgrupos apresentaram percentual significativamente alto de bactérias mortas (P < 0.05). No entanto, para o laser foi significativamente o mais alto e, para oendoativador, o menos alto (P < = 0.001). A agitação com laser de diodo doirrigante AgNps apresentou a maior porcentagem de redução de bactérias (78,1%), com diferença significativa tanto para irrigação com CHX quanto comágua. Conclusão: Sob as condições do presente estudo; os resultadosreforçaram que a ativação a laser é um complemento útil, a agitação por laserde diodo de 810 nm de AgNps ou clorexidina foi mais eficaz na desinfecção dos canais radiculares ovais do que as técnicas de endoativador e agulha com ventilação lateral. (AU)

Humans , Enterococcus faecalis , Dental Pulp Cavity , Metal Nanoparticles , Lasers, Semiconductor
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-8, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1104268


Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between canal configuration, distance between mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) orifices and the degree of canals curvature in the mesial root of permanent mandibular first molars in a sample of Sudanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: A total of 143 extracted mandibular first molars were processed and scanned with CBCT to determine the configuration of the mesial root canals according to the Vertucci classification. The interorificial distance and the degree of canal curvature in clinical (CV) and proximal (PV) views using Schneider technique were assessed. Results: The commonest canal configuration was type IV (53.1%). The interorificial distance was significantly shorter in type VI compared to other types (P < 0.05). Significant association was found for type IV between the MB and ML canal in the primary curvature regarding CV and PV, and for type II regarding PV in primary and secondary curvature (P < 0.05). In type IV the degree of secondary curvature of MB canal regarding PV, and in the ML canal in CV was significantly lower compared to other types (P < 0.05). Significant correlation was seen in PV of primary curvature in the MB for type VI (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The interorificial distance and secondary curvatures in CV for MB canal were found to be key factors for predicting root canal patterns in PV (AU)

Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a relação entre a configuração do canal, a distância entre os orifícios de entrada dos canais mesiovestibular (MB) e mesiolingual (ML) e o grau de curvatura dos canais na raiz mesial dos primeiros molares inferiores permanentes em uma amostra da população sudanesa usando tomografia computadorizada cone-beam(TCCB). Material and Methods: Um total de 143 primeiros molares inferiores extraídos foram processados e escaneados com TCCB para determinar a configuração dos canais radiculares mesiais de acordo com a classificação de Vertucci. A distância inter orificios e o grau de curvatura do canal nas vistas clínica (CV) (acredito que a tradução seja essa mesma, seria como uma foto intra oral clínica/perguntei a um endodontista, mas não soube me responder) e proximal (PV) usando a técnica de Schneider foram avaliados. Resultado: A configuração mais comum do canal foi do tipo IV (53,1%). A distância inter-orificios foi significativamente menor no tipo VI em comparação com outros tipos (P <0,05). Correlação significativa foi observada na PV da curvatura primária no MB para o tipo VI (P <0,05). Conclusão: A distância inter orifícios e as curvaturas secundárias na CV para o canal MB foram consideradas fatores-chave na predição dos padrões do canal radicular na PV (AU)

Bicuspid , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dental Pulp Cavity
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-9, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1103728


Objective: Endodontically obturated teeth have lower fracture resistance depending on the obturating material and technique. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa Division) and OrthoMTA III (BioMTA, Daejeon, Korea) as an obturating material on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: Thirty extracted human maxillary central incisors were decoronated and instrumented using Protaper instruments (size F5). Irrigation was performed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite between each instrument change followed by 7% maleic acid for one minute. Finally, canals were flushed with 5 ml of PBS solution for one minute. Samples were then divided into three groups. Group I- positive control (no root canal filling); Group II- obturation with ProRoot MTA; Group III- obturation with OrthoMTA III. Ten teeth were randomly selected as a negative control in which no treatment was performed. All the specimens were then subjected to fracture strength testing using universal testing machine. For evaluation of biomineralization, six maxillary central incisors were divided into two groups. Group I obturated with ProRoot MTA and group II obturated with OrthoMTA III. These samples were subjected to SEM analysis. Results: Positive control group demonstrated the least fracture resistance, while OrthoMTA III group showed the highest fracture resistance. There was no significant difference between negative control group and ProRoot MTA groups (p=0.821). OrthoMTA III group showed better tubular biomineralization when compared to ProRoot MTA. Conclusions: Root canals obturated with OrthoMTA III had better fracture resistance and increased tubular biomineralization compared to ProRoot MTA. Since root canals obturated with OrthoMTA III had better fracture resistance, it can be used as a promising obturating material.(AU)

Objetivo: Dentes obturados endodonticamente apresentam menor resistência à fratura, dependendo do material e da técnica de obturação. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa Division) e OrthoMTA III (BioMTA, Daejeon, Coréia) como material obturador na resistência à fratura de dentes tratados endodonticamente. Material e Métodos: Trinta incisivos centrais superiores humanos extraídos foram decoronados e instrumentados com instrumentos Protaper (tamanho F5). A irrigação foi realizada com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% entre cada troca de instrumento, seguida por ácido maleico a 7% por um minuto. Finalmente, os canais foram lavados com 5 ml de solução de PBS por um minuto. As amostras foram então divididas em três grupos. Grupo I - controle positivo(sem preenchimento do canal radicular); Grupo II - obturação com ProRoot MTA; Grupo III -obturação com OrthoMTA III. Dez dentes foram selecionados aleatoriamente como controle negativo, no qual nenhum tratamento foi realizado. Todas as amostras foram então submetidas atestes de resistência à fratura usando uma máquina de teste universal. Para avaliação da biomineralização, seis incisivos centrais superiores foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo Iobturado com ProRoot MTA e grupo II obturado com OrthoMTA III. Essas amostras foram submetidas à análise SEM. Resultados: O grupo controle positivo demonstrou a menor resistência à fratura, enquanto o grupo OrthoMTA III apresentou a maior resistência à fratura. Não houve diferença significativa entre o grupo controle negativo e os grupos ProRoot MTA (p= 0,821). O grupo OrthoMTA III apresentou melhor biomineralização tubular quando comparado ao ProRoot MTA. Conclusões: Os canais radiculares obturados com OrthoMTA III apresentaram melhor resistência à fratura e maior biomineralização tubular em comparação como ProRoot MTA. Como os canais radiculares obturados com OrthoMTA III apresentaram melhor resistência à fratura, podendo ser utilizado como um material obturador promissor.(AU)

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity , Flexural Strength , Biomineralization
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-9, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1096449


Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of root canal fillings and their relationship with apical periodontitis (AP) in a selected Turkish population. Material and Methods: The cases in this study was formed of patients attending routine dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Birun. 1024 patients were examined with panoramic radiographs and 1780 endodontically treated teeth with present periapical radiographs. Endodontic treatment quality was evaluated by obturation length, density, taper quality and iatrogenic errors. Presence of AP was analysed according to Ørstavik's periapical index (PAI). The chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Results: Statistically significant relationship was found between both the tooth type and location with obturation quality (p: 0.000; p < 0.05). Obturation quality of maxillary and mandibular molars are significantly less than the other tooth types in the same location. Apical periodontitis were noticed in 740 teeth (41.6%). Inadequate obturation quality was found to be significantly effective on the periapical status of tooth types both in maxilla and mandible (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of inadequate root canal obturations of endodontically treated teeth of the selected Turkish population was high, especially in molar teeth and women. Even though radiographic obturation quality is not the only success criteria in endodontic treatment, it is still one of the most important criteria regarding the positive correlation of "inadequate" obturations with AP(AU)

Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a qualidade dos preenchimentos do canal radicular e sua relação com a periodontite apical (PA) em uma amostra da população turca. Material e Métodos: Os casos deste estudo foram formados por pacientes em tratamento odontológico de rotina na Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Birun. Mil e vinte e quatro pacientes foram examinados com radiografias panorâmicas e 1780 dentes tratados endodonticamente com radiografias periapicais presentes. A qualidade do tratamento endodôntico foi avaliada pelo comprimento da obturação, densidade, qualidade do cone e erros iatrogênicos. A presença de PA foi analisada de acordo com o índice periapical de Ørstavik (IPA). O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para análises estatísticas. Resultados: Foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significante entre o tipo e a localização do dente com a qualidade da obturação (p: 0,000; p < 0,05). A qualidade da obturação dos molares superiores e inferiores é significativamente menor que os outros tipos de dentes no mesmo local. Periodontite apical foi observada em 740 dentes (41,6%). A qualidade inadequada da obturação mostrou ser significativamente eficaz no estado periapical dos tipos de dentes, tanto na maxila quanto na mandíbula (p < 0,05). Conclusão: A frequência de obturação inadequada do canal radicular de dentes tratados endodonticamente na população turca selecionada foi alta, principalmente em dentes molares e mulheres. Embora a qualidade da obturação radiográfica não seja o único critério de sucesso no tratamento endodôntico, ainda é um dos critérios mais importantes em relação à correlação positiva das obturações "inadequadas" com a PA.(AU)

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Root Canal Obturation , Radiography , Dental Pulp Cavity
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-8, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1049397


Background: the efficiency of the diagnostic aids plays an important role in the treatment plan. This study aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy of dental pulse oximeter with a customized sensor holder, thermal test and electric pulp tester in assessing the actual pulp status and to evaluate the oxygen saturation level in control healthy teeth, non-vital and teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Material and methods: thirty-seven single canal teeth requiring endodontic therapy were included in the study. The selected teeth were tested with dental pulse oximeter, electric pulp test, cold spray, and heated gutta percha stick. Between each test a time lag of 2 minutes was allowed for the central sensitization to occur. Three blinded operators were involved in the study. The actual status of the pulp was evaluated after the initiation of endodontic treatment, by direct visual examination of the accessed cavity. The data was statistically analysed using (ANOVA) Analysis of Variance and Post-hoc Tukey test. Results: sensitivity of pulse oximeter, heat test, cold and electric pulp test, was 100, 25, 50, and 12, respectively. The specificity of these tests was 100, 72 81, and 77, respectively. The ANOVA showed that there was statistical difference between all the groups (p=0.0005). Post-Hoc Tukey revealed that there was statistical difference among all the groups, nonvital group (p=0.0005), control group (p=0.01) and for irreversible pulpitis (p=0.01). The overall diagnostic accuracy of pulse oximeter was 100% followed by cold test 66%, heat test to be 49% and electric pulp test to be 45%. Conclusion: the custom-made holder used in the present study aided in providing accurate response for pulp vitality testing. In this study the diagnostic accuracy was high with dental pulse oximeter followed by cold, heat and the least was electric pulp tester in different pulpal conditions. (AU)

Fundamentação: a eficiência dos meios de diagnóstico desempenha um papel importante no plano de tratamento. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a precisão diagnóstica do oxímetro de pulso odontológico com um suporte de sensor personalizado, teste térmico e testador de polpa elétrico na avaliação da condição pulpar e na avaliação do nível de saturação de oxigênio em dentes controle saudáveis, não vitais e dentes com pulpite irreversível. Material e métodos: trinta e sete dentes de canal único que necessitavam de terapia endodôntica foram incluídos no estudo. Os dentes selecionados foram testados com oxímetro de pulso, teste pulpar elétrico, spray frio e bastão de guta-percha aquecido. Entre cada teste, foi permitido um intervalo de tempo de 2 minutos para a sensibilização central ocorrer. Três operadores cegos foram envolvidos no estudo. A condição real da polpa foi avaliada após o início do tratamento endodôntico, por meio de exame visual direto da cavidade de acesso. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e pelo teste Post-hoc de Tukey. Resultados: a sensibilidade do oxímetro de pulso, teste de calor, de frio e teste pulpar elétrico foi de 100, 25, 50 e 12, respectivamente. A especificidade desses testes foi de 100, 72 81 e 77, respectivamente. O teste de ANOVA mostrou que houve diferença estatística entre todos os grupos (p = 0,0005). O teste Post-Hoc de Tukey revelou que houve diferença estatística entre todos os grupos, grupo não-vital (p = 0,0005), grupo controle (p = 0,01) e pulpite irreversível (p = 0,01). A precisão diagnóstica geral do oxímetro de pulso foi de 100%, seguida pelo teste a frio de 66%, o teste de calor a 49% e o teste pulpar elétrico a 45%. Conclusão: o suporte personalizado utilizado no presente estudo ajudou a fornecer uma resposta precisa para o teste de vitalidade pulpar. Neste estudo, a precisão diagnóstica foi alta com o oxímetro de pulso dental, seguido do teste com frio e calor, sendo o teste elétrico o menos eficaz nas diferentes condições pulpares testadas.(AU)

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 13(1): [32-43], 15/07/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1006278


Os microrganismos têm um papel essencial na etiopatogenia das principais alterações pulpares e periapicais. O resultado da terapia endodôntica em dentes contendo polpa necrosada e infectada depende da desinfecção bem-sucedida e obturação adequada do sistema de canais radiculares. A eliminação de microrganismos pode ocorrer pela ação mecânica, associado à irrigação dos canais radiculares. No entanto, apesar dos recentes avanços em termos de técnicas e instrumentos de preparo, diversas áreas do canal ainda permanecem com detritos dentinários e micro-organismos mesmo após a instrumentação. Isto ocorre em grande parte devido à complexidade anatômica. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão de literatura é apresentar diferentes abordagens para suplementar a desinfecção dos canais radiculares, incluindo a irrigação ultrassônica passiva (IUP), a irrigação final com clorexidina, Endovac®, o sistema Self-Adjusting File (SAF®), XP- Endo Finisher® e a terapia fotodinâmica (TF).

Microorganisms have an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of the pulp and periapical changes. The outcome of endodontic therapy in teeth with necrotic and infected pulp depends on successful disinfection and adequate filling of the root canal system. The elimination of microorganisms can occur by mechanical action, associated with irrigation of the root canals. However, despite recent advances in terms of techniques and tools of preparation, several areas of the canal remain with dentinal debris and microorganisms even after instrumentation. This occurs mainly due to anatomical complexity. Thus, the objective of this literature review is to present different approaches to supplement the disinfection of root canals, including passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), final irrigation with chlorhexidine, Endovac®, Self-Adjusting File system (SAF®), XP- Endo Finisher ® and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT).

Root Canal Therapy , Disinfection , Dental Pulp Cavity
Dent. press endod ; 9(1): 37-42, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1007600


Objetivo: avaliar a resistência máxima à flexão (MFS), módulo de elasticidade (E), microdureza Knoop (KHN) e rugosidade de superfície (Ra) da dentina radicular tratada com solução de clorexidina a 2% (CHX). Métodos: foram selecionados 50 incisivos bovinos com ápice fechado, e trinta raízes foram cortadas em barras de dentina (DB) e divididas em três grupos (n = 10): Controle (sem tratamento), G1 (NaOCl 2,5% + EDTA 17%) e G2 (CHX 2% + H2O). As DB foram submetidas ao ensaio de resistência flexural de três pontos, para se obter os valores de MFS e E. Vinte raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente ao meio e inseridas em resina acrílica; as superfícies pulpares foram lixadas e polidas e, em seguida, irrigadas de acordo com o grupo (G1 ou G2; n = 20 metades por grupo) e submetidas aos testes de KHN e Ra. Foi realizada análise de MEV. Os dados foram analisados por meio dos testes de ANOVA de um e dois critérios, seguidos do teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Resultados: os valores de MFS (p < 0,05) e E (p < 0,01) foram maiores para G2. A KHN foi reduzida após o tratamento com cada irrigante endodôntico (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre eles (p = 0,115). A Ra foi maior para o G1 (p < 0,001). Conclusões: a solução de clorexidina a 2% melhora as propriedades mecânicas de MFS, E e Ra da dentina radicular. (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the maximum flexural strength (MFS), elastic modulus (E), Knoop microhardness (KHN), and surface roughness (Ra) of root dentin treated with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution. Materials and methods: Fifty bovine incisors with closed apex were selected. Thirty roots were cut into dentin bars (DB) and divided into three groups (n=10): control (no treatment), G1 (2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA) and G2 (2% CHX + H2O). The DB were submitted to the three-point flexural strength test to obtain the MFS and E. Twenty roots were cut longitudinally into two half-halves and placed in acrylic resin. The pulp surfaces were sanded and polished. They were rinsed according to the group (G1 or G2; n = 20 per group) and subjected to the KHN and Ra tests. SEM analysis was made. Data were analysed by one- and two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (a = 0.05). Results: The values of MFS (P < 0.05) and E (P < 0.01) were higher for G2. The KHN reduced after both endodontic irrigation treatments (P < 0.001), with no differences between them (P = 0.115). Ra was higher for G1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: 2% CHX improved the mechanical properties of MFS, E and Ra of root dentin (AU).

Chlorhexidine , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Sodium Hypochlorite
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-772701


OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of XP-endo Finisher (XPF) file and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in the smear layer removal of the root canal.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 human single-rooted premolars were selected and decoronated to standardize their canal length to 16 mm. Tooth samples were prepared using a S3 rotary system to prepare root canal with the file size of 3S and then randomly divided into 6 groups according to the final irrigation protocol, as follows: XPF 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min (group A); XPF 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min, followed by 4 mL of 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 1 min (group B); PUI of 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min (group C); PUI of 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min, followed by 4 mL of 17% EDTA for 1 min (group D); 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min by using a syringe and a 30 G side-vented needle (group E); and 3 mL of 3% NaOCl for 1 min by using a syringe and a 30 G side-vented needle, followed by 4 mL of 17% EDTA for 1 min (group F). After the completion of the root canal preparation, the teeth were split into two longitudinally. The mean numbers of the visible open dentinal tubules in the apical and middle thirds of the root canals were evaluated via scanning electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#The whole surfaces of the root canals in groups A, C, and E were covered by a smear layer. Groups A and C possessed significantly higher number of visible open dentinal tubules than in group E (P0.05). The apical third of the samples in groups B and D and in the middle thirds of canals in group F exhibited a small amount of smear layer, and the dentinal tubules were open or semi-open. The root canal surfaces in the apical third of the samples in group F were covered by a smear layer, and the dentinal tubules were sealed or semisealed. The smear layers in the middle third of the samples in groups B and D were removed, and the dentinal tubules were more visibly open than those of the four other groups (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The difference between XPF and PUI in terms of the smear layer removal of the root canals was insignificant. Hence, XPF, as a new irrigation agitation technique, can aid in improving smear layer removal.

Dental Pulp Cavity , Edetic Acid , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Smear Layer , Sodium Hypochlorite
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-772694


OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to determine the prevalence and related factors of deciduous caries in 3-5-year-old preschool children in Chongqing city. Results will be used to provide a basis for the establishment and adjustment of prevention and intervention of caries in preschool children.@*METHODS@#We referred to the Fourth National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey. Data included caries prevalence in preschool children, and the questionnaires were distributed to children' parents in Chongqing city. Results were inputted by Epidata 3.1 and statistically analyzed using SPSS 21.0.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1 350 preschool children were included in the study. We found that maxillary deciduous central incisor and mandibular deciduous molars were susceptible to decay. The prevalence of primary teeth caries in preschool children in Chongqing city was 51.4% (694/1 350). The mean decayed-missing-filled-teeth (dmft) index was 2.34. The caries prevalence and mean dmft between age groups were statistically significant (P0.05). Approximately 61.7% of caries cases were concentrated in a small number (36.1%) of individuals. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age, highest educational level of parents, intake frequency of sweetened beverages and carbonated drinks, toothache or similar discomfort experience over the past year, dentist visits, and parents' assessment of teeth and oral health status of children were the factors influencing the prevalence of deciduous caries (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#More than half of the preschool children had dental caries. Majority of caries were concentrated in a small number of individuals. The age of children, highest educational level of parents, intake frequency of sweetened beverages and carbonated drinks, toothache or discomfort experience over the past year, dentist visits, and parents' assessment of teeth and oral health status of children were associated with the prevalence of deciduous caries.

Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , DMF Index , Dental Caries , Epidemiology , Dental Pulp Cavity , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Tooth, Deciduous
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-764441


PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of patients and teeth referred to a university dental hospital for endodontic problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January, 2017 to December, 2018, patients who were referred to a university dental hospital for endodontic problem were collected from clinical records. A total of 1171 patient records were analyzed. The status of the referred teeth was divided into three groups according to whether they were treated endodontically based on radiographs and clinical records at the time of referred visit. RESULTS: 69.9% of the referred teeth were maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. The average time from referral to actual visit is 9.03 days and 65.6% of the case referred with referring letter. The most primary reasons of referral were persistent clinical symptom (pain, swelling, and sinus tract) (37.9%), diagnosis difficulty (16.7%), blockage of canal space (13.8%) and difficult tooth anatomy (11.4%). In the case of referral before endodontic treatment, the most primary reason of referral was failure to make a proper diagnosis. If the teeth were referred in the middle of endodontic treatment, the most primary reason of referral was persistent clinical symptom and blockage of canal space. In the case of referral after root canal filling, the most primary reason of referral was persistent clinical symptom. CONCLUSION: In the case of molars, the rate of persistent clinical symptom and blockage of canal space were the most primary reason of referral, and the rate of apical surgery and management of trauma was high in the case of anterior teeth.

Dental Pulp Cavity , Diagnosis , Humans , Molar , Referral and Consultation , Tooth
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-764423


When inflammatory products are found in both periodontal and pulpal tissues simultaneously, a periodontal-endodontic combined lesion is established. The treatment of periodontal-endodontic combined lesions includes root canal therapy and periodontal regenerative procedure for resolution of both the apical and marginal inflammatory lesions. The present study reports the treatment of periodontal-endodontic combined lesions in the mandibular anterior area with root canal therapy, followed by guided tissue regeneration therapy. Teeth with severe bone destruction in each case could be preserved, without extraction, over a 3-year period. Therefore, it appears that treatment of periodontal-endodontic combined lesions in the mandibular anterior area using guided tissue regeneration technique after root canal therapy may provide clinical advantages.

Dental Pulp Cavity , Guided Tissue Regeneration , Periodontitis , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth