Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 223
Filter
1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1623-1630, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134489

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aims to investigate the Effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the stereological parameters in the dentate gyrus and the morphology of granular hippocampal neurons in adult mice. Adult male mice (n=20, weight average: 45 g) were randomly divided into four groups including: group receiving saline (controls), low-dose (LD) 2.5 mg/kg TiO TiO2 NPs, medium-dose (MD) 5 mg/kg TiO2 NPs and high-dose (HD) 10 mg/kg TiO2 NPs, daily using gavage for 35 days. To estimate the volume of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and sub-layers of dentate gyrus the Cavalieri principle was used. The physical dissector was used to determine the numerical density of dentate gyrus granular cells. For analyzing the morphology of dentate gyrus granular cells the qualitative Golgi staining was used. Our data showed that the total volume of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and its sublayers including molecular, granular and polymorph in TiO2 treated mice decreased significantly compared to the control group. Moreover, the total number and numerical density of dentate gyrus granular sub layer cells showed a significant reduction in all three experimental groups compared to the control group. The granular cells of the dentate gyrus had shorter dendritic length and decreased dendritic branches in the TiO2-treated in comparison with the control mice. These data can justify the disorders related to memory, learning and hippocampus neurons damages due to using of TiO2 NPs.


RESUMEN: En este estudio se analizaron los efectos de las nanopartículas de dióxido de titanio (TiO2 NP) sobre los parámetros estereológicos en el giro dentado y la morfología de las neuronas granulares del hipocampo en ratones adultos. Se dividieron aleatoriamente ratones machos adultos (n = 20, promedio de peso: 45 g) en cuatro grupos: grupo que recibió solución salina (controles), dosis baja (LD) 2,5 mg/kg NP de TiO2, dosis media (MD) 5 mg/kg de NP de TiO2 y dosis altas (HD) de 10 mg/kg de NP de TiO2, por vía utilizando sonda durante 35 días. Para estimar el volumen del hipocampo, el giro dentado y las subcapas del giro dentado se utilizó el principio de Cavalieri. Se utilizó el disector físico para determinar la densidad numérica de las células granulares del giro dentado. Para analizar la morfología de las células granulares del giro dentado se usó la tinción cualitativa de Golgi. Nuestros datos mostraron que el volumen total del hipocampo, el giro dentado y sus subcapas, incluyendo la molecular, granular y polimorfos, en ratones tratados con TiO2, disminuyó significativamente en comparación con el grupo de control. Además, el número total y la densidad numérica de las células de la subcapa granular del giro dentado mostró una reducción significativa en los tres grupos experimentales en comparación con el grupo control. Las células granulares del giro dentado tenían una longitud dendrítica menor y ramas dendríticas disminuidas en los ratones tratados con TiO2 en comparación con los ratones del grupo control. Estos datos pueden justificar los trastornos relacionados con la memoria, el aprendizaje y los daños en las neuronas del hipocampo debido al uso de NP de TiO2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Titanium/pharmacology , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Nanoparticles , Hippocampus/drug effects
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 777-784, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878225

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of chronic stress (CS) on dopamine (DA) level and synaptic efficiency in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) during spatial learning and memory. Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into control group and CS group (n = 10). CS group was treated with chronic mild unpredictable stress, and control group did not receive any treatments. The levels of epinephrine and corticosterone (CORT) in serum were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Meanwhile, the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and concentration of DA in the DG region were determined by in vivo electrophysiology, microdialysis and HPLC techniques during MWM test in rats. After that, the DA D1 receptor (D1R) and its key downstream members in DG were examined by immunohistochemistry or Western blot assay. The results showed that the levels of epinephrine and CORT in the serum of the rats in CS group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). In CS group rats, the escape latency was significantly prolonged and the number of platform crossing was markedly decreased during MWM test, compared with those in control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the amplitude of fEPSP in the DG was not changed during MWM test in CS rats, while it was significantly increased on the 3rd day of MWM test in control group (P < 0.05). Compared with baseline or control group, CS group showed significantly increased DA level from the 1st to 3rd days of MWM test in the DG (P < 0.05). In addition, the protein expression of D1R was markedly up-regulated in the DG in CS group, while the protein expression levels of p-PKA, p-CREB and BDNF were significantly reduced, compared with those in control group. These results suggest that CS may impair spatial learning and memory abilities in rats through the enhancement of the DA levels in the hippocampal DG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dentate Gyrus , Dopamine , Hippocampus , Male , Maze Learning , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spatial Learning , Spatial Memory
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 881-887, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) increases the storage capacity of synapses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Irisin is a myokine generated from FNDC5 (a gene precursor) during exercise. Although intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of irisin fortifies LTP in mice with Alzheimer's disease, the effects of intra-DG injection of irisin on the LTP in rats remains to be elucidated in vivo. In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (saline), irisin (0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/rat), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). After treatment, the population spike (PS) amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were measured in the DG of rats in vivo. Moreover, following completion of the experiments, the stimulating and recording sites in the hippocampus were confirmed histologically from brain sections. Furthermore, biochemical assays like malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were evaluated (the antioxidant markers were analyzed in the plasma). Our results suggest that all doses of irisin (0.5, 1, 1.5 μg/rat) caused an increase in the EPSP slope and PS amplitude when compared with the control group. In addition, the results obtained showed that irisin decreased TOS and MDA levels while increasing TAC levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in plasma. The present report provides direct evidence that irisin affects the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus.


RESUMO A indução de potenciação de longo prazo (LTP) aumenta a capacidade de armazenamento das sinapses no giro denteado (DG) do hipocampo. A irisina é uma miocina gerada a partir do FNDC5 (um precursor genético) durante o exercício. Embora a administração intra-Cornu Ammonis1 de irisina fortaleça a LTP em camundongos com doença de Alzheimer, os efeitos da injeção intra-denteada de irisina sobre a LTP em ratos ainda precisam ser elucidados in vivo. Neste estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em um grupo controle (solução salina), irisina (0,5, 1 e 1,5 μg / rato) e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO). Após o tratamento, a amplitude do pico populacional (PS) e a variação dos potenciais pós-sinápticos excitatórios (EPSP) foram medidos no DG de ratos in vivo. Além disso, após a conclusão das experiências, os locais de estimulação e registro no hipocampo foram confirmados histologicamente a partir de secções do cérebro. Adicionalmente, ensaios bioquímicos como malondialdeído (MDA), capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e status oxidante total (TOS) foram avaliados (os marcadores antioxidantes foram analisados no plasma). Nossos resultados sugerem que todas as doses de irisina (0,5, 1, 1,5 μg / rato) causaram um aumento na variação da EPSP e na amplitude da PS quando comparadas com o grupo controle. Além disso, os resultados obtidos mostraram que a irisina diminuiu os níveis de TOS e MDA, enquanto aumentou os níveis de TAC como um marcador da peroxidação lipídica no plasma. O presente estudo fornece evidências diretas de que a irisina afeta a plasticidade sináptica dependente de atividade no DG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Neuropeptides/administration & dosage , Fibronectins/administration & dosage , Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Microinjections/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antioxidants/analysis
4.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 14(2): 35-39, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102455

ABSTRACT

La isquemia cerebral es el tipo de accidente cerebrovascular más común, generando altas tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad a nivel mundial. El entendimiento de la fisiopatología de la lesión cerebral ha requerido de la implementación de modelos experimentales que permitan evaluar los fenómenos celulares, sobre todo aquellos a largo plazo. Por tal razón, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las áreas exofocales a un mes y cuatro meses post-isquemia cerebral en un modelo experimental. Ratas Wistar fueron sometidas a una isquemia focal transitoria (t-MCAo) y un grupo fueron sacrificados al mes y otro grupo a los cuatro meses post-isquemia para su posterior análisis histológico. Los cortes fueron teñidos con Nissl y se realizó inmunohistoquímica de la proteína Tau. Nuestros resultados muestran tres áreas de lesión exofocal tanto al mes como a los cuatro meses post-isquemia: el giro dentado, la amígdala y el tálamo. Estas regiones se han asociado al control emocional, lo cual sugiere que a largo término post-isquemia se tengan en cuenta hallazgos clínicos que evalúen cambios emocionales en los pacientes que han sufrido un evento isquémico cerebral.


Cerebral ischemia is the most common type of stroke, which generates high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. The understanding of the pathophysiology of brain injury has required the implementation of experimental models that allow the evaluation of cellular phenomena, especially those in the long-term. For this reason, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the exofocal areas at one month and four months after cerebral ischemia. Wistar rats were subjected to transient focal ischemia (t-MCAo) and one group was sacrificed one month and another group at four months' post-ischemia for subsequent histological analysis. The cuts were stained with Nissl and immunohistochemistry of the Tau protein was performed. Our results show three areas of exofocal lesion both one month and four months' post-ischemia: the thalamus, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala. These regions have been associated with emotional control, which suggests that in the long-term post-ischemia clinical findings that evaluate emotional changes in patients who have suffered a cerebral ischemic event should be considered.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Thalamus/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Dentate Gyrus/pathology , Amygdala/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Disease Models, Animal
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 537-546, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763774

ABSTRACT

Silent information regulator 2 (Sirtuin2 / SIRT2) is a NAD⁺-dependent deacetylase that regulates the cellular oxidative stress response. It modulates transcriptional silencing and protein stability through deacetylation of target proteins including histones. Previous studies have shown that SIRT2 plays a role in mood disorders and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we report that chronic stress suppresses SIRT2 expression in the hippocampus. Molecular and biochemical analyses indicate that the stress-induced decrease in the SIRT2 expression downregulates synaptic plasticity-related genes in the hippocampus through the increase of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (Ehmt2) (also known as G9a). shRNA-mediated knockdown of SIRT2 in the dentate gyrus alters the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes in a way similar to those induced by chronic stress, and produces depression-like behaviors. Our results indicate that SIRT2 plays an important role in the response to stress, thereby modulating depression-like behaviors.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Down-Regulation , Hippocampus , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Histones , Mood Disorders , Neuronal Plasticity , Oxidative Stress , Protein Stability , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although, accumulating evidence is delineating a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role for lithium (Li), inconsistent findings have also been reported in human studies especially. Moreover, the effects of Li infusion into the hippocampus are still unknown. The aims of this work were (a) to assess whether basal synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus are different in regard to intrahippocampal Li infusion; (b) to assess spatial learning and memory in rats chronically treated with LiCO₃ in the Morris water maze. METHODS: Field potentials were recorded form the dentate gyrus, stimulating perforant pathways, in rats chronically (20 mg/kg for 40 days) or acutely treated with LiCO₃ and their corresponding control rats. In addition, performance of rats in a Morris water maze was measured to link behaviour of rats to electrophysiological findings. RESULTS: LiCO₃ infusion into the hippocampus resulted in enhanced LTP, especially in the late phases, but attenuated LTP was observed in rats chronically treated with Li as compared to controls. Li-treated rats equally performed a spatial learning task, but did spend less time in target quadrant than saline-treated rats in Morris water maze. CONCLUSION: Despite most data suggest that Li always yields neuroprotective effects against neuropathological conditions; we concluded that a 40-day treatment of Li disrupts hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying memory processes, and that these effects of prolonged treatment are not associated with its direct chemical effect, but are likely to be associated with the molecular actions of Li at genetic levels, because its short-term effect preserves synaptic plasticity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Humans , Learning , Lithium , Long-Term Potentiation , Memory , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuroprotective Agents , Perforant Pathway , Rats , Spatial Learning , Spatial Memory , Water
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the ultrastructure of hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with Alzheimer's disease.@*METHODS@#Forty SPF Wistar male rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham operation group, a model group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The rats in the model group and the acupuncture group were treated with injection of 5 μL Aβ at bilateral hippocampus, while the rats in the sham operation group were treated with injection of 5 μL 0.9% NaCl. Three days after modeling, the rats in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) for 20 min, once a day, six treatments constituted a course, and totally two courses were given with an interval of 1 day between courses. The rats in the other groups received normal diet and no treatment was given. Before modeling, four days after modeling and after treatment, water maze test was performed to observe the escape latency and the number of crossing platforms. The hippocampal dentate gyrus was collected and transmission electron microscope was applied to observe the ultrastructure changes of neurons and astrocytes.@*RESULTS@#①Four days after modeling, compared with the normal group and the sham operation group, the escape latency was significantly prolonged and the number of crossing platforms was reduced in the model group (all <0.01); after treatment, compared with the model group, the escape latency was significantly reduced and the number of crossing platforms was increased in the acupuncture group (both <0.01). ②In the normal group and the sham operation group, the morphology of neurons and astrocytes was intact, the nuclear and membrane structure were clear, and the morphology of organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes was normal. In the model group, the morphology of neurons was irregular, the nucleus was severely constricted with edema in the cytoplasm, the color of heterochromatin was deepened, the endoplasmic reticulum was expanded, the granulation was removed and the number of mitochondria was decreased, even with malformed-like change in mitochondrial cristae; there was severe edema around astrocytes, few organelles in the cytoplasm, severe swelling of mitochondria and mild expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. In the acupuncture group, the edema of the neuron and astrocytes was still evident, and the mitochondrial was mildly swollen but relieved compared with that in the model group, and there were no obvious abnormalities in neuronal endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve the ultrastructure of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with Alzheimer's disease induced by Aβ.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Astrocytes , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Male , Neurons , Peptide Fragments , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 486-496, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775423

ABSTRACT

MicroRNA-132 (miR-132), a small RNA that regulates gene expression, is known to promote neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system and adult brain. Although exposure to psychoactive substances can increase miR-132 expression in cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) and the adult brain of rodents, little is known about its role in opioid addiction. So, we set out to determine the effect of miR-132 on differentiation of the NSCs and whether this effect is involved in opioid addiction using the rat morphine self-administration (MSA) model. We found that miR-132 overexpression enhanced the differentiation of NSCs in vivo and in vitro. Similarly, specific overexpression of miR-132 in NSCs of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) during the acquisition stage of MSA potentiated morphine-seeking behavior. These findings indicate that miR-132 is involved in opioid addiction, probably by promoting the differentiation of NSCs in the adult DG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Dentate Gyrus , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Male , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Metabolism , Opioid-Related Disorders , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 154-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786408

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on novel object recognition, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus. To facilitate penetration into the blood–brain barrier and neuronal plasma membrane, we created a Tat-HSP70 fusion protein. Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (10% glycerol), control-HSP70, or Tat-HSP70 protein once a day for 21 days. To elucidate the delivery efficiency of HSP70 into the hippocampus, western blot analysis for polyhistidine was conducted. Polyhistidine protein levels were significantly increased in control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups compared to the control or vehicle-treated group. However, polyhistidine protein levels were significantly higher in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control-HSP70-treated group. In addition, immunohistochemical study for HSP70 showed direct evidences for induction of HSP70 immunoreactivity in the control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups. Administration of Tat-HSP70 increased the novel object recognition memory compared to untreated mice or mice treated with the vehicle. In addition, the administration of Tat-HSP70 significantly increased the populations of proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus compared to those in the control or vehicle-treated group based on the Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) was significantly enhanced in the dentate gyrus of the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. Western blot study also demonstrated the increases of DCX and pCREB protein levels in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. In contrast, administration of control-HSP70 moderately increased the novel object recognition memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Tat-HSP70 promoted hippocampal functions by increasing the pCREB in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Membrane , Cell Proliferation , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hippocampus , Hot Temperature , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Memory , Mice , Neurons , Phosphorylation
10.
Medisan ; 22(9)nov.-dic. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976174

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en 160 cortes histológicos de la fascia dentada del hipocampo de ratones BALB/c y ratas Wistar blancas, en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biomédicas de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Santiago de Cuba, de septiembre de 2013 a igual mes de 2014, con vistas a determinar las transformaciones histológicas que ocurren en dicha fascia en el segundo y sexto días posnatales. La observación microscópica de estos cortes se realizó empleando del software Image J. La extensión de la fascia al sexto día de vida llegó a ser mayor en los ratones; los máximos incrementos del grosor en ambos tipos de roedores se encontraron en el hilus, y el estrato granuloso fue de menor crecimiento en las ratas. La celularidad en los roedores presentó mayores proporciones en las tres regiones del hilus al segundo día, pero disminuyó en el sexto día, mientras que las zonas relacionadas con el hilus mantuvieron una mayor cantidad de células; sin embargo, el número celular disminuyó en ambas regiones moleculares de la fascia de las ratas.


A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in 160 histological cuts of the hippocampus fascia dentata from mice BALB/c and rats white Wistar, in the Laboratory of Biomedical Investigations from Santiago de Cuba Medical University, from September, 2013 to the same month in 2014, with the aim of determining the histological transformations that take place in this fascia in the second and sixth posnatal days. The microscopic observation of these cuts was carried out using the software Image J. The extension of the fascia at the sixth day of life was larger in the mice; the maximum increases of thickness in both types of rodents were in the hilus, and the granular stratum was of smaller growth in rats. The celularity in the rodents presented larger proportions in the three regions from the hilus at the second day, but it decreased at the sixth day, while the areas related to the hilus maintained a greater quantity of cells; however, the cellular number diminished in both molecular regions of the rats fascia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Mice , Rats , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Dentate Gyrus/growth & development , Mice/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/growth & development , Dentate Gyrus/anatomy & histology , Mice/growth & development
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728627

ABSTRACT

The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia. At 7 days after photothrombotic ischemic injury, the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was increased in both TLR2 knock-out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. However, the increment rate of BrdU-positive cells was lower in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The number of doublecortin (DCX) and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells in HDG was decreased after photothrombotic ischemia in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The survival rate of cells in HDG was decreased in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. In contrast, the number of cleaved-caspase 3 (apoptotic marker) and the number of GFAP (glia marker)/BrdU double-positive cells in TLR2 KO mice were higher than that in WT mice. These results suggest that TLR2 can promote adult neurogenesis from neural stem cell of hippocampal dentate gyrus through increasing proliferation, differentiation, and survival from neural stem cells after ischemic injury of the brain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Bromodeoxyuridine , Dentate Gyrus , Drosophila , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ischemia , Mammals , Mice , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Survival Rate , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptors
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of prenatal mobile phone exposure on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) in dentate gyrus of offspring rats.@*METHODS@#The rat model of prenatal mobile phone exposure was established and there were three groups including control group, short term maternal exposure group and long term maternal exposure group(=6). From pregnant day 1 to day 17, pregnant rats in long term and short term maternal exposure group were exposed to an mobile phone in talking mode for 6 h/d and 24 h/d, respectively. Length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight were observed. The cell morphology in dentate gyrus of offspring rats at the age of 1 month was studied by cresyl violet staining. The immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of rat offspring were detected, and the expression of DCX and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus of rat offspring were evaluated by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#There was no difference in length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight among three groups. The morphological changes of pyramidal cells in the polymorphic layer and DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were obvious in rat offspring of long term maternal exposure group. There were less PCNA-positive cells in dentate gyrus and decreased expression of DCX and BDNF in hippocampus by Western blot in long term maternal exposure group compared with control and short term maternal exposure group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long term prenatal mobile phone exposure might inhibit the expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of rat offspring by down-regulating BDNF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Phone , Dentate Gyrus , Metabolism , Female , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Metabolism , Radio Waves , Rats
13.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 176-184, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718851

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed chronological changes in the immunoreactivity and expression level of myelin basic protein (MBP), one of the most abundant proteins in the central nervous system, in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control; ZLC). In the ZLC group, body weight steadily increased with age; the body weight of the ZDF group, however, peaked at 30 weeks of age, and subsequently decreased. Based on the changes of body weight, animals were divided into the following six groups: early (12-week), middle (30-week), and chronic (52-week) diabetic groups and their controls. MBP immunoreactivity was found in the alveus, strata pyramidale, and lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 region, strata pyramidale and radiatum of the CA3 region, and subgranular zone, polymorphic layer, and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. MBP immunoreactivity was lowest in the hippocampus of 12-week-old rats in the ZLC group, and highest in 12-week-old rats in the ZDF group. Diabetes increased MBP levels in the 12-week-old group, while MBP immunoreactivity decreased in the 30-week-old group. In the 52-week-old ZLC and ZDF groups, MBP immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampus, similar to the 30-week-old ZDF group. Western blot results corroborated with immunohistochemical results. These results suggested that changes in the immunoreactivity and expression of MBP in the hippocampus might be a compensatory response to aging, while the sustained levels of MBP in diabetic animals could be attributed to a loss of compensatory responses in oligodendrocytes.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Central Nervous System , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Models, Animal , Myelin Basic Protein , Myelin Sheath , Oligodendroglia , Rats
14.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 203-210, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718848

ABSTRACT

Stress severely disturbs physiological and mental homeostasis which includes adult neurogenesis in hippocampus. Neurogenesis in hippocampus is a key feature to adapt to environmental changes and highly regulated by multiple cellular signaling pathways. The primary cilium is a cellular organelle, which acts as a signaling center during development and neurogenesis in adult mice. However, it is not clear how the primary cilia are involved in the process of restraint (RST) stress response. Using a mouse model, we examined the role of primary cilia in repeated and acute RST stress response. Interestingly, RST stress increased the number of ciliated cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). In our RST model, cell proliferation in the DG also increased in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the analysis of ciliated cells in the hippocampal DG with cell type markers indicated that cells that were ciliated in response to acute RST stress are neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that RST stress response is closely associated with an increase in the number of ciliated neurons and leads to an increase in cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cilia , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Homeostasis , Humans , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Organelles
15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 239-247, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718843

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri is a medicinal plant with a long history of use in Ayurveda, especially in the treatment of poor memory and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we hypothesized that Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) can improve memory via increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. BME was administered to 7-week-old mice once a day for 4 weeks and a novel object recognition memory test was performed. Thereafter, the mice were euthanized followed by immunohistochemistry analysis for Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and western blot analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BME-treated mice showed moderate increases in the exploration of new objects when compared with that of familiar objects, leading to a significant higher discrimination index compared with vehicle-treated mice. Ki67 and DCX immunohistochemistry showed a facilitation of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation following the administration of BME in the dentate gyrus. In addition, administration of BME significantly elevated the BDNF protein expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and increased CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that BME improves novel object recognition by increasing the cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus, and this may be closely related to elevated levels of BDNF and CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacopa , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Proliferation , Cognition Disorders , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Discrimination, Psychological , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 689-695, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690555

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G. littoralis extract-treated groups (n = 13 in each group). Vehicle and G. littoralis extract were orally administrated for 28 days. To examine neurogenic effects of G. littoralis extract, we performed immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, an indicator for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, an immature neuronal marker) and double immunofluorescence staining for BrdU and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, a mature neuronal marker). In addition, we examined expressional changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its major receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) using Western blotting analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, significantly increased number of BrdU-immunoreactive () and DCX cells (48.0 ± 3.1 and 72.0 ± 3.8 cells/section, respectively) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and BrdU/NeuN cells (17.0 ± 1.5 cells/section) in the granule cell layer as well as in the SGZ. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB (about 232% and 244% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively) were significantly increased in the DG of the mice treated with 200 mg/kg of G. littoralis extract.</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>G. littoralis extract promots cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and neuronal maturation in the hippocampal DG, and neurogenic effects might be closely related to increases of BDNF and TrkB proteins by G. littoralis extract treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apiaceae , Chemistry , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Cell Biology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptor, trkB , Metabolism
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715129

ABSTRACT

This study investigated whether α-asarone could promote proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells into the neuronal cell types in in vitro and ex vivo studies. For in vitro assay, neural progenitor cells were isolated from fetal cerebral cortex (E15) and checked cell proliferation rate and neural progenitor cell marker in neurospheres. Treatment of α-asarone, particularly at a concentration of 3 µM, promoted the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and effectively differentiated neural progenitor cells into neurons. For ex vivo assay, a hippocampi slice culture system from 7 day postnatal rat fetuses was used. Although slight tissue damage was observed in the hippocampus after the high concentration (100 µM) of α-asarone, however, α-asarone enhanced the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in dentate gyrus region and also effectively differentiated into neuroblast at concentration of 30 µM. Consequently, α-asarone promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and effectively differentiates neural progenitor cells into neurons. Therefore, our results support the therapeutic benefits of α-asarone for treating neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cerebral Cortex , Dentate Gyrus , Fetus , Hippocampus , In Vitro Techniques , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Rats , Stem Cells
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715046

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we compared the cell-specific expression and changes protein levels in the glucose transporters (GLUTs) 1 and 3, the major GLUTs in the mouse and gerbil brains using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In both mouse and gerbils, GLUT1 immunoreactivity was mainly found in the blood vessels in the dentate gyrus, while GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. GLUT1-immunoreactivity in blood vessels and GLUT1 protein levels were significantly decreased with age in the mice and gerbils, respectively. In addition, few GLUT3-immunoreactive cells were found in the subgranular zone in aged mice and gerbils, but GLUT3-immunoreactivity was abundantly found in the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus in mice and gerbils with a dot-like pattern. Based on the double immunofluorescence study, GLUT3-immunoreactive structures in gerbils were localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that GLUT3 expression in the hippocampal homogenates was slightly, although not significantly, decreased with age in mice and gerbils, respectively. These results indicate that the reduction in GLUT1 in the blood vessels of dentate gyrus and GLUT3 in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus may be associated with the decrease in uptake of glucose into brain and neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus. In addition, the expression of GLUT3 in the astrocytes in polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus may be associated with metabolic changes in glucose in aged hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Astrocytes , Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gerbillinae , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Glucose , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Mice
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 226-237, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714905

ABSTRACT

An abnormal reorganization of the dentate gyrus and neurotoxic events are important phenotypes in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effects of morin, a bioflavonoid constituent of many herbs and fruits, on epileptic seizures have not yet been elucidated, though its beneficial effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, are well-described in various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with morin hydrate (MH) can reduce the susceptibility to seizures, granule cell dispersion (GCD), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, and the increases in the levels of apoptotic molecules and inflammatory cytokines in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure mouse model. Our results showed that oral administration of MH could reduce susceptibility to seizures and lead to the inhibition of GCD and mTORC1 activity in the KA-treated hippocampus. Moreover, treatment with MH significantly reduced the increased levels of apoptotic signaling molecules and pro-inflammatory mediators in the KA-treated hippocampus compared with control mice, suggesting a neuroprotective role. Therefore, these results suggest that morin has a therapeutic potential against epilepsy through its abilities to inhibit GCD and neurotoxic events in the in vivo hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cytokines , Dentate Gyrus , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fruit , Hippocampus , Humans , Kainic Acid , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Phenotype , Seizures , Sirolimus
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717679

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although aging causes functional declines in cognition, the molecular mechanism underlying these declines remains largely unknown. Recently, the spindle checkpoint kinase budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-related 1 (BubR1) has emerged as a key determinant for age-related pathology in various tissues including brain. However, the neurobehavioral impact of BubR1 has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the role of BubR1 in behavioral function. METHODS: To investigate the neurobiological functions of BubR1 in vivo, we utilized transgenic mice harboring BubR1 hypomorphic alleles (BubR1 H/H mice), which produce low amounts of BubR1 protein, as well as mice that have specific knockdown of BubR1 in the adult dentate gyrus. To assess anxiety-like behavior, the above groups were subjected to the elevated plus maze and the light-dark test, in addition to utilizing the tail-suspension and forced-swim test to determine depression-like behavior. We used novel object recognition to test for memory-related function. RESULTS: We found that BubR1 H/H mice display several behavioral deficits when compared to wild-type littermates, including increased anxiety in the elevated-plus maze test, depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test, as well as impaired memory function in the novel object recognition test. Similar to BubR1 H/H mice, knockdown of BubR1 within the adult dentate gyrus led to increased anxiety-like behavior as well as depression-like behavior, and impaired memory function. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates a requirement of BubR1 in maintaining proper affective and memory-related behavioral function. These results suggest that a decline in BubR1 levels with advanced age may be a crucial contributor to age-related hippocampal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Alleles , Animals , Anxiety , Brain , Cognition , Dentate Gyrus , Hindlimb Suspension , Hippocampus , Humans , Memory , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pathology , Phosphotransferases
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL