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1.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 490-499, dic. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178945

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dentin surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid or 17% ethylenedia-minetetraacetic acid (EDTA) before Internal Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide using the walking bleach technique. Material and Methods: This experimental in vitro study used 66 human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons, which were debrided, endodontically prepared, and pigmented with chromogens derived from blood decomposition. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=22). Group A: bleaching agent without dentin conditioning; group B: bleaching agent in dentin conditioned with phosphoric acid 37%; group C: bleaching agent in dentin conditioned with 17% EDTA. 4 applications of bleaching agent were used with a separation of 4 days between each session. The initial color (baseline) and after each application was determined by spectrophotometry, recording the CIE L*a*b* values and the total color variation between the initial parameters and the different evaluation times. Results: Data were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon test. This showed statistically significant differences for the total variation of the color between the study groups, with the control group in no case inferior to the rest. Conclusion: The application of 37% phosphoric acid increased the effectiveness of the bleaching agent when compared to 17% EDTA. However, these did not increase the effectiveness compared to the application of the bleaching agent without a previous dentin surface treatment.


Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del tratamiento de superficie dentinaria con ácido fosfórico al 37% o EDTA al 17% previo al blanqueamiento Interno con peróxido de hidrógeno al 35% por medio de la técnica Walking Bleach. Material y Métodos:Para este estudio experimental in vitro, se utilizaron 66 premolares humanos extraídos por indicación ortodóncica, los cuales fueron desbridados, preparados endodónticamente, y pigmentados con cromógenos derivados de la descomposición sanguínea. Las muestras fueron divididas aleatoriamente en 3 grupos (n=22). Grupo A: agente blanqueador sin acondicionamiento dentinario, grupo B: agente blanqueador en dentina acondicionada con ácido fosfórico 37% y grupo C: agente blanqueador en dentina acondicionada con EDTA 17%. Se utilizaron 4 aplicaciones de agente blanqueador con una separación de 4 días entre cada sesión. El color inicial (baseline) y tras cada aplicación fue determinado mediante espectrofotometría, registrando los valores CIE L*a*b* y la variación total de color entre los parámetros iniciales y los diferentes tiempos de evaluación. Resultados: Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente con la prueba de Wilcoxon, arrojando diferencias estadísticamente significativas para la variación total del color entre los grupos de estudio, siendo en ningún caso el grupo control inferior al resto. Conclusión: La aplicación de ácido fosfórico al 37% aumenta la eficacia del agente blanqueador al compararlo con el EDTA 17%, sin embargo, no aumentan la eficacia respecto a la aplicación del agente blanqueador sin un tratamiento de superficie dentinaria previo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Color , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Spectrophotometry , Bicuspid , In Vitro Techniques , Chile , Epidemiology, Experimental
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(5): 405-413, oct. 31, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179032

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study evaluated the influence of sonic vibration and thermocycling on the bond strength of fiberglass posts using conventional dual-cured and self-adhesive resin cements. Material and Methods: Ninety-six single-rooted endodontically treated teeth were divided randomly into eight groups according to the cement used (dual-cured or self-adhesive resin cement), use of sonic vibration during post accommodation, and aging conditions (24h in distilled water or 5,000 thermal cycles). The fiberglass posts (White Post DC1, FGM) were cleaned with alcohol, treated with silane and cemented with dual-cured (Allcem Core, FGM) or with self-adhesive resin cement (seT, SDI). For groups in which sonic vibration was used, the posts were accommodated, and sonic vibration was applied for 10 s using a special tip placed on top of the post (Sonic Smart Device, FGM). Pull-out tests were performed after storage in distilled water for 24h at 37°C or after thermocycling (5000 cycles, at 5°C and 55°C). The results were evaluated using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: Significant differences were not observed between the bond strengths of dual-cured (87.93±41.81 N) and self-adhesive cement (82.53±41.43 N). Bond strength for the sonic vibration groups (100.36±42.35 N) was significantly higher than for groups without sonic vibration (70.13±34.90 N). There were significant differences between specimens subjected to thermocycling (98.33±39.42 N) and those stored for 24h in distilled water (72.16±39.67 N). Conclusion: It can be concluded that both sonic vibration and thermocycling significantly improved bond strength of fiberglass posts with the two evaluated resin cements.


Introducción: Este estudio evaluó la influencia de la vibración sónica y el termociclado en la fuerza de unión de los postes de fibra de vidrio utilizando cementos de resina autoadhesivos y de curado dual convencionales Material y Métodos: Se dividieron aleatoriamente noventa y seis dientes tratados endodónticamente de raíz única en ocho grupos según el cemento utilizado (cemento de resina de curado dual o autoadhesivo), el uso de vibración sónica durante la acomodación posterior y las condiciones de envejecimiento (24 horas agua destilada o 5.000 ciclos térmicos). Los postes de fibra de vidrio (White Post DC1, FGM) se limpiaron con alcohol, se trataron con silano y se cementaron con cemento de curado dual (Allcem Core, FGM) o con cemento de resina autoadhesivo (seT, SDI). Para los grupos en los que se utilizó vibración sónica, se acomodaron los postes y se aplicó la vibración sónica durante 10 s utilizando una punta especial colocada en la parte superior del poste (Sonic Smart Device, FGM). Las pruebas de extracción se realizaron después del almacenamiento en agua destilada durante 24 horas a 37ºC o después del termociclado (5000 ciclos, a 5ºC y 55ºC). Los resultados se evaluaron mediante ANOVA de tres vías y la prueba de Tukey (α = 0.05). Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas entre las resistencias de adhesión del cemento de curado dual (87,93 ± 41,81 N) y el cemento autoadhesivo (82,53 ± 41,43 N). La fuerza de unión para los grupos de vibración sónica (100,36 ± 42,35 N) fue significativamente mayor que para los grupos sin vibración sónica (70,13 ± 34,90 N). Hubo diferencias significativas entre los especímenes sometidos a termociclado (98,33 ± 39,42 N) y los almacenados durante 24 h en agua destilada (72,16 ± 39,67 N). Conclusión: Se puede concluir que tanto la vibración sónica como el termociclado mejoraron significativamente la fuerza de unión de los postes de fibra de vidrio con los dos cementos de resina evaluados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibration , Post and Core Technique/instrumentation , Resin Cements/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass , Sonication/methods , Tooth Root , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Dentin/chemistry , Ultrasonic Waves
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e001, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055529

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study analyzed the effect of prior application of copaiba oil (CO) emulsions as a dentin cleaning substance on microleakage and microtensile adhesive strength. Twenty-five premolars and sixty-four molars were used for microleakage and microtensile assays. For the microleakage assays, specimens with standard class V cavities were divided (n = 5), according to the tested CO emulsions: CO10%X, CO10%Y, and CO10%Z, as well as chlorhexidine 2% (CHX) and distilled water (DW), as positive and negative controls, respectively. Restorations were performed using the Adper Single Bond® and/or Clearfil SE Bond® systems. Cervical, occlusal, distal and mesial sections were assessed for tracer penetration degree at the composite/tooth interface. For the microtensile assay, healthy molars were divided into sixteen groups, in which artificial caries were induced in half of the groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with CO10%X and CO10%Y, CHX and DW. Microtensile bond strength was measured by fixing each sample to the plate of a universal testing machine operated at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. Dentin treated with CO10%X showed a lower infiltration rate than dentin treated with the other CO emulsions, CHX2% and DW. According to the microtensile assay, both healthy and affected dentin treated with CO10%X and Adper Single Bond® adhesive system presented higher adhesive strength. CO emulsion, used as a dentin biomodifier, interfered positively in microleakage and improved adhesive strength after acid etching in the Adper Single Bond® adhesive system, or before applying the Clearfil SE Bond® self-etching system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Oils/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Leakage , Dentin/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e001, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089393

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study analyzed the effect of prior application of copaiba oil (CO) emulsions as a dentin cleaning substance on microleakage and microtensile adhesive strength. Twenty-five premolars and sixty-four molars were used for microleakage and microtensile assays. For the microleakage assays, specimens with standard class V cavities were divided (n = 5), according to the tested CO emulsions: CO10%X, CO10%Y, and CO10%Z, as well as chlorhexidine 2% (CHX) and distilled water (DW), as positive and negative controls, respectively. Restorations were performed using the Adper Single Bond® and/or Clearfil SE Bond® systems. Cervical, occlusal, distal and mesial sections were assessed for tracer penetration degree at the composite/tooth interface. For the microtensile assay, healthy molars were divided into sixteen groups, in which artificial caries were induced in half of the groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with CO10%X and CO10%Y, CHX and DW. Microtensile bond strength was measured by fixing each sample to the plate of a universal testing machine operated at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. Dentin treated with CO10%X showed a lower infiltration rate than dentin treated with the other CO emulsions, CHX2% and DW. According to the microtensile assay, both healthy and affected dentin treated with CO10%X and Adper Single Bond® adhesive system presented higher adhesive strength. CO emulsion, used as a dentin biomodifier, interfered positively in microleakage and improved adhesive strength after acid etching in the Adper Single Bond® adhesive system, or before applying the Clearfil SE Bond® self-etching system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Oils/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Leakage , Dentin/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190499, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Enzymatic degradation of the hybrid layer can be accelerated by the activation of dentin metalloproteinases (MMP) during the bonding procedure. MMP inhibitors may be used to contain this process. Objective To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC%), dentin bond strength (µTBS) (immediate and after 1 year of storage in water), and nanoleakage of an experimental (EXP) and a commercial (SB) adhesive system, containing different concentrations of the MMP inhibitor GM1489: 0, 1 µM, 5 µM and 10 µM. Methodology DC% was evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dentin bond strength was evaluated by µTBS test. Half of beams were submitted to the µTBS test after 24 h and the other half, after storage for 1 year. From each tooth and storage time, 2 beams were reserved for nanoleakage testing. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test to compare means (α=0.05). Results All adhesive systems maintained the µTBS after 1 year of storage. Groups with higher concentrations of inhibitor (5 µM and 10 µM) showed higher µTBS values than groups without inhibitor or with 1 µM. The nanoleakage values of all groups showed no increase after 1 year of storage and values were similar for SB and EXP groups, in both storage periods. The inhibitor did not affect the DC% of the EXP groups, but the SB5 and SB10 groups showed higher DC% values than those of SB0 and SB1. Conclusions The incorporation of GM1489 in the adhesive systems had no detrimental effect on DC%. The concentrations of 5 µM GM1489 for SB and 5 µM or 10 µM for EXP provided higher μTBS than groups without GM1489, in the evaluation after 1 year of storage; whereas the concentration of inhibitor did not affect adhesive systems nanoleakage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Bonding/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Leakage , Dentin/drug effects , Dental Etching/methods
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e098, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039306

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effect of 2% grape seed extract (GSE) containing phosphoric acid (PhA) on the bond strength to enamel and dentin. The control group was 37% PhA. The following three PhA formulations with 2% GSE and 20% ethanol were obtained: GSE5 = 5% PhA; GSE10 = 10% PhA; and GSE20 = 20% PhA. The enamel and dentin surfaces of molars were etched with the acid solutions, followed by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and composite resin application. The tensile bond strength (TBS) test evaluated the bond to enamel after 24 h, and the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test evaluated the bond to dentin after 24 h and 12-month water storage. Etched enamel and dentin were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The TBS data were submitted to one-way ANOVA, while µTBS data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The TBS (MPa) to enamel did not significantly differ among the control (48.1 ± 15.7), GSE5 (46.1 ± 9.6), GSE10 (49.8 ± 13.6) and GSE20 (44.1 ± 11.9) groups (p = 0.537). The µTBS (MPa) to dentin of the control (28.4 ± 14.4) and GSE20 (24.1 ± 8.1) groups were significantly higher than those of the GSE5 (16.8 ± 7.4) and GSE10 (17.5 ± 6.6) groups at 24 h (p < 0.006). After 12-month storage, only GSE5 (21.0 ± 7.8) and GSE10 (17.6 ± 8.0) did not show significantly decreased μTBS (p > 0.145). SEM micrographs showed a shallower enamel etching pattern for GSE5. AFM images showed the formation of collagenous globular structures for GSE5 and GSE10. The different acid solutions did not influence the TBS to enamel, and the µTBS to dentin was stable over time when dentin was etched with GSE5 and GSE10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Grape Seed Extract/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e052, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011663

ABSTRACT

Abstract This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of dentin pretreatment with 100% ethanol (EWBT - ethanol wet bonding technique) and different adhesive protocols in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCL) after 6 months. Patients presenting at least one NCCL were included. NCCLs (n=148) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: NE (Non-EWBT + three-step etch-and-rinse (Scotchbond Multi Purpose, 3M ESPE [MP]), E (EWBT + MP); EB (EWBT + [Bond - third step of MP]), and EU (EWBT + universal adhesive (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Conventional acid-etching (Condac 37%, FGM) and nanohybrid resin composite (Z350, 3M ESPE) were used. Trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.61) evaluated the restorations at baseline (7 days) and 6-month recall using the USPHS modified criteria. Data were subjected to Chi square (α = 0.05). Differences in the success rate were found for the treatments (p = 0.003). EB presented the lowest success rate compared with the other groups (p < 0.02). No significant differences were detected among NE, E, and EU (p > 0.49). The survival rates were 97.23%, 97.30%, 78.95%, and 97.30% for NE, E, EB, and EU, respectively. Regarding postoperative sensitivity, a significant reduction was found for groups E (p = 0.027) and EU (p < 0.01) after 6 months. After 6 months, EWBT associated to the hydrophobic adhesive system had the highest failure rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Dental Bonding/methods , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Tooth Wear/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Stress Analysis , Dentin/chemistry , Ethanol
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e057, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011660

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA) as a single irrigant on the smear layer, on the intraradicular dentinal bond strength, and on the penetrability of an epoxy-based resin sealer into the dentinal tubules. A total of 120 roots were distributed into 4 groups according to the irrigant used in root canal preparation: 1% PAA (PAA); 2.5% NaOCl followed by final irrigation with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl); 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl); and saline solution (SS). The smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The bond strength of an epoxy-based resin sealer (AH Plus) to root dentin was evaluated by the push-out test and penetrability of the sealer into dentinal tubules was observed by confocal laser microscopy. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-test (α = 0.05). The use of 1% PAA as single root canal irrigant provided smear layer removal and improved the penetrability and bond strength of AH Plus to root dentin in a manner similar to that of the NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl group (p > 0.05). The NaOCl and SS groups had higher values of smear layer and lower values of sealer penetrability and dentin bond strength than the PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). Thus, 1% PAA has the potential to be used as a single irrigant in root canals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peracetic Acid/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Smear Layer/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Bonding/methods , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180453, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study was designed for the chemical activation of a 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching gel to increase its whitening effectiveness and reduce its toxicity. Methodology First, the bleaching gel - associated or not with ferrous sulfate (FS), manganese chloride (MC), peroxidase (PR), or catalase (CT) - was applied (3x 15 min) to enamel/dentin discs adapted to artificial pulp chambers. Then, odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells were exposed for 1 h to the extracts (culture medium + components released from the product), for the assessment of viability (MTT assay) and oxidative stress (H2DCFDA). Residual H2O2 and bleaching effectiveness (DE) were also evaluated. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA complemented with Tukey's test (n=8. p<0.05). Results All chemically activated groups minimized MDPC-23 oxidative stress generation; however, significantly higher cell viability was detected for MC, PR, and CT than for plain 35% H2O2 gel. Nevertheless, FS, MC, PR, and CT reduced the amount of residual H2O2 and increased bleaching effectiveness. Conclusion Chemical activation of 35% H2O2 gel with MC, PR, and CT minimized residual H2O2 and pulp cell toxicity; but PR duplicated the whitening potential of the bleaching gel after a single 45-minute session.


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Bleaching Agents/toxicity , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ferrous Compounds/chemistry , Catalase/chemistry , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Chlorides/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Manganese Compounds/chemistry , Color , Peroxidase/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/chemistry , Dental Pulp/diagnostic imaging , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Odontoblasts/drug effects
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to compare two in vitro erosion protocols, in which one simulates in vivo conditions experienced by patients with gastroesophageal disorders or bulimia (HCl-pepsin protocol), and the other simulates the diet of an individual who consumes a high volume of erosive beverages (citric acid protocol). In addition, the mechanical properties and surface gloss of eroded human dentin were compared with those of sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Blocks of cervical dentin were used: sound human dentin (n=10), human dentin with erosive lesions (n=10), and bovine dentin (n=30). Twenty bovine blocks were subjected to either of two erosion protocols (n=10/protocol). In the first protocol, samples were demineralized using HCl-pepsin solution, then treated with trypsin solution. In the second protocol, samples were demineralized with 2% citric acid. Toothbrushing was performed in both protocols using a toothbrushing machine (15 s with a 150 g load). Ten bovine dentin blocks were not subjected to any erosive treatment. All samples of bovine and human dentin were analyzed to obtain Martens hardness values (MH), elastic modulus (Eit*) and surface gloss. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were performed to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results Sound human and eroded human dentin groups showed similar MH and Eit* values (p>0.05); however, sound human dentin showed a higher surface gloss value when compared to eroded human dentin (p<0.05). Sound bovine dentin and HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin treatments resulted in similar values for both MH and Eit* (p>0.05), but HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin and citric acid-treated bovine dentin resulted in lower surface gloss than sound bovine dentin (p<0.05). Conclusions The HCl-pepsin protocol modified bovine dentin properties that could be similar to those that occur on human dentin surfaces with erosive lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pepsin A/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Citric Acid/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180111, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975872

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several anti-proteolytic dentin therapies are being exhaustively studied in an attempt to reduce dentin bond degradation and improve clinical performance and longevity of adhesive restorations. Objectives This study assessed the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on long-term bond strength when incorporated into adhesives. Material and Methods Adhesive systems were formulated with EGCG concentrations of 0 wt%: (no EGCG; control); 0.5 wt% EGCG; 1.0 wt% EGCG, and 1.5 wt% EGCG. Flexural strength (FS), modulus of elasticity (ME), modulus of resilience (MR), compressive strength (CS), degree of conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), percentage of water sorption (%WS), percentage of water solubility (%WL) and cytotoxicity properties were tested. Dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS) was evaluated after 24 h and again after 6 months of water storage. The adhesive interface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of FS, ME, MR, CS and PS. EGCG-doped adhesives increased the DC relative to the control group. EGCG concentrations of 1.0 wt% and 0.5 wt% decreased the WS of adhesives. WL decreased in all cases in which EGCG was added to adhesives, regardless of the concentration. EGCG concentrations of 1.0 wt% and 0.5 wt% reduced cytotoxicity. EGCG concentrations of 1.0 wt% and 0.5 wt% preserved µTBS after 6 months of storage, while 1.5 wt% EGCG significantly decreased µTBS. SEM: the integrity of the hybrid layer was maintained in the 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt% EGCG groups. Conclusion EGCG concentrations of 1.0 wt% and 0.5 wt% showed better biological and mechanical performance, preserved bond strength and adhesive interface, and reduced cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Reference Values , Solubility , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Camphor/analogs & derivatives , Camphor/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Catechin/toxicity , Catechin/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dentin-Bonding Agents/toxicity , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/toxicity , Compressive Strength , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Polymerization , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Flexural Strength , Methacrylates/toxicity
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 469-474, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974186

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo objetivou determinar o limiar de redução na espessura do compósito de cor da dentina necessário para resultar em mudanças de cor perceptíveis e aceitáveis em restaurações simuladas. Três sistemas de compósitos (Charisma Diamond, IPS Empress Direct e Filtek Z350 XT) foram avaliados utilizando corpos-de-prova cilíndricos construídos com cores de dentina e esmalte. A opacidade dos compósitos foi avaliada usando cilindros de 1,0 mm de espessura sobre fundo preto e branco. Uma cor inicial padrão foi estabelecida para cada sistema pela combinação de esmalte de 1,0 mm de espessura com 3,0 mm de cilindros de resina na cor de dentina sobre um fundo escuro (n = 9). Em seguida, foram calculadas as alterações de cor (∆E00) causadas por reduções sequenciais de 0,1 mm nos cilindros de resina na cor de dentina. Mudanças de opacidade em cilindros na cor de dentina e cilindros combinados de esmalte e dentina foram também avaliadas após cada redução de espessura. Regressão polinomial foi realizada com médias de ∆E00 em função da espessura dos cilindros na cor de dentina; e os limiares de aceitabilidade (∆E00 = 1,77) e perceptibilidade (∆E00 = 0,81) foram calculados. Regressões lineares também foram realizadas para ∆E00 em função da opacidade dos cilindros na cor de dentina e do par combinado de cilindros de esmalte-dentina. Com exceção da Charisma, os compósitos de esmalte apresentaram menor opacidade do que os de dentina. Alterações de cor perceptíveis e aceitáveis foram observadas quando os cilindros na cor de dentina foram mais finos que 2,0-2,4 mm e 1,1-1,4 mm, respectivamente. Nenhuma diferença entre os sistemas compostos foi observada. Em conclusão, reduções no compósito de dentina menor que 0,6 mm não produziu mudanças de cor perceptíveis, e mudanças de cor clinicamente significantes apenas foram observadas com reduções maiores que 1,6 mm.


Abstract This study determined the reduction threshold in thickness of the dentin shade composite necessary to result in perceptible and acceptable color changes on simulated restorations. Three composite systems (Charisma Diamond, IPS Empress Direct, and Filtek Z350 XT) were evaluated using cylinder-shaped specimens built-up with dentin and enamel shades. The opacity of the composites was assessed using 1.0 mm thick specimens over black and white backgrounds. A baseline color was established for each system by combining 1.0 mm thick enamel shade with 3.0 mm of dentin shade cylinders over a dark background (n = 9). Then, the color changes (∆E00) caused by sequential 0.1 mm reductions on dentin shade cylinders were calculated. Opacity changes on dentin shade cylinders and combined enamel-dentin pair cylinders were also assessed after each thickness reduction. Polynomial regression was performed with averages of ∆E00 as a function of thickness of dentin shade cylinders; and acceptability (∆E = 1.77) and perceptibility (∆E = 0.81) thresholds were calculated. Linear regressions were also performed for ∆E00 as function of opacity of dentin shade cylinders and combined enamel-dentin pair of cylinders. Except for Charisma, enamel shades presented the lowest opacity than dentin one. Perceptible and acceptable color changes were observed for dentin shade cylinders thinner than 2.0-2.4 mm and 1.1-1.4 mm, respectively, were used. No difference among the composite systems was observed. In conclusion, reductions on dentin shade composite lower than 0.6-mm did not yield perceptible color changes, and clinically significant color changes only were observed within reductions higher than 1.6-mm.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Surface Properties , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Dental Porcelain , Esthetics, Dental , Optical Phenomena , Aluminum Silicates
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 268-274, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951545

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was to evaluate the influence of different dentin preparation mode in the smear layer characteristics (SL), hybrid layer (HL), and microtensile bond strength (µTBS) to dentin with two resin cements. The occlusal dentin of 120 third molars was exposed. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=30) according to the dentin preparation mode: 1- fine grain diamond bur; 2- coarse grain diamond bur; 3- multi laminate carbide steel bur; and, 4- ultrasonic CV Dentus diamond bur. Each treated dentin group was divided into 2 sub-groups (n=15) according to the resin cement: (1) RelyX U200 and (2) RelyX ARC. Resin composite blocks were cemented on dentin. After storage at 37o C for 24 h, beams with a cross section area of 1.0 mm2 were obtained, and tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two additional teeth for each sub-group were prepared to analyze the SL and HL on a scanning electron microscopy. According to Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn tests, there was no significant difference in µTBS among the rotary instruments within each resin cement group. RelyX ARC obtained higher µTBS values compared to RelyX U200 (p<0.05). RelyX ARC formed evident HL, which was not observed for RelyX U200. The dentin mode preparation did not influence the µTBS of the resin cements. The SL was different for all instruments. The cementing agent is more determinant in the hybrid layer formation and bond strength to dentin than the instruments applied on dentin.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes modos de preparação da dentina nas características da smear layer (SL), da camada híbrida (CH) e na resistência de união à microtração (RUµT) à dentina com dois cimentos resinosos. A dentina oclusal de 120 terceiros molares humanos foi exposta. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=30) de acordo com o modo de preparação da dentina: 1 - ponta diamantada de granulação fina; 2 - ponta diamantada de granulação grossa; 3 - ponta de carboneto de aço multilaminada; 4 - ponta diamantada ultrassônica. Cada grupo foi subdividido em dois subgrupos (n=15) de acordo com o cimento resinoso: (1) RelyX U200 e (2) RelyX ARC. Blocos de resina composta foram cimentados na dentina. Após armazenamento a 37 °C por 24 h, as amostras foram cortadas para obter palitos com área de 1,0 mm2, os quais foram testados em máquina de ensaio universal com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Dois dentes adicionais por subgrupo foram preparados para analisar as características da SL e da CH em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. De acordo com o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Dunn, não houve diferença significativa na RUµT entre os instrumentos rotatórios para cada cimento resinoso. RelyX ARC obteve maiores valores de RUµT em comparação ao RelyX U200 (p<0,05). RelyX ARC formou uma CH evidente, o que não foi observado para o RelyX U200. O modo de preparação da dentina não influenciou na RUµT dos cimentos resinosos. A SL foi diferente para todos os instrumentos. O agente de cimentação foi mais determinante na formação da camada híbrida e na resistência de união do que os instrumentos utilizados para preparar a dentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tensile Strength , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dentin/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymethacrylic Acids , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Smear Layer , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate , Dental Stress Analysis , Molar, Third/chemistry
14.
Dent. press endod ; 8(1): 29-33, Apr-Jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-883677

ABSTRACT

Introdução: várias substâncias utilizadas como medicação intracanal têm sido associadas ao enfraquecimento da estrutura dentária, particularmente se usadas por períodos prolongados. Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5% e da pasta de hidróxido de cálcio na composição inorgânica da dentina. Métodos: doze canais instrumentados de dentes monorradiculares, divididos em quatro grupos de 3 dentes cada, foram seccionados longitudinalmente em duas partes iguais, após a remoção da coroa. Em seguida, o grupo A foi irrigado com hipoclorito de sódio e armazenado no hidróxido de cálcio; o grupo B foi irrigado com hipoclorito de sódio e armazenado em soro fisiológico; o grupo C foi irrigado com solução salina e armazenado em soro fisiológico; o grupo D foi irrigado com soro fisiológico e armazenado em hidróxido de cálcio. Os dentes foram armazenados por 1 e 3 meses e, subsequentemente, analisados por microssonda eletrônica. Resultados: após a análise da composição química, a relação cálcio-fósforo (Ca/P) foi relativamente constante. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que nem o hidróxido de cálcio nem o hipoclorito de sódio afetaram o componente inorgânico dos dentes, sustentando a ideia de que o principal efeito dessas substâncias está na parte orgânica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Calcium Hydroxide , Dentin/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Sodium Hypochlorite
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 88-92, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888729

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of tooth bleaching with high-concentration of hydrogen peroxide on alterations of translucency parameter (TP) and color of dentin and enamel. The crown of five human molars was sectioned into four slices parallel to buccal surface. The dentin of external slices containing buccal/ lingual enamel was fully removed with diamond bur; while these slices were used to assess alterations on enamel. Alterations on dentin were assessed into the center of internal slices. The color of specimens was measured over white and black backgrounds using a spectrophotometer (CieL*a*b) at baseline, allowing to calculate the TP by difference between the color measured over each background. Specimens were submitted to three 15-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide followed by their storage in water for one-week. Afterwards, the color measurements were repeated at both backgrounds. Color (∆L, ∆a, ∆b and ∆E) and translucency (∆TP) changes were calculated and data individually analyzed by T-test (α = 0.05). Influence of hard tissue and assessment time on each color parameter was also analyzed by 2-way repeated measure ANOVA (α = 0.05). Tooth bleaching resulted in increased lightness for the enamel, whereas no alteration on this parameter occurred for dentin. No difference between the tooth hard tissues was observed regards the other color parameters and ∆E. A slightly reduction on TP was observed only for the enamel. In conclusion, 35% hydrogen peroxide caused similar color and translucency changes on dentin and enamel.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou os efeitos do clareamento dental com peróxido de hidrogênio em alta concentração nas alterações do parâmetro de translucidez (PT) e cor da dentina e esmalte. A coroa de cinco molares humanos foi seccionada em quatro fatias paralelas à superfície vestibular. A dentina das fatias externas contendo esmalte vestibular/ lingual foi totalmente removida com ponta diamantada, sendo estas fatias usadas para verificar as alterações no esmalte. Alterações na dentina foram verificadas no centro das fatias internas. A cor das amostras foi mensurada sobre fundos preto e branco usando um espectrofotômetro (CieL*a*b) no início, permitindo calcular o PT pela diferença de cor medida sobre cada fundo. As amostras foram submetidas a três aplicações de 15 minutos de peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% seguido pelo seu armazenamento em água por uma semana. Após isto, as mensurações de cor foram repetidas em ambos os fundos. Mudanças de cor (∆L, ∆a, ∆b e ∆E) e translucidez (∆PT) foram calculadas e os dados analisados pelo Teste T (α = 0,05). A influência do tecido duro e do momento de avaliação em cada parâmetro de cor foi também analisado através de ANOVA de duas vias para medidas repetidas (α = 0,05). O clareamento dental resultou em maior luminosidade (∆L) para o esmalte, enquanto que nenhuma alteração neste parâmetro ocorreu para a dentina. Nenhuma diferença entre os tecidos duros dentais foi observada em relação aos outros parâmetros de cor e ∆E. Uma leve redução na PT foi observada apenas para o esmalte. Como conclusão, peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% causou similar alteração de cor e translucidez no esmalte e na dentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Color , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 68-75, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888730

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated application protocol (etch-and-rinse/ER and self-etching/SE) and dentin wettability (wet and dry) on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and transdentinal cytotoxicity of ScotchbondTM Universal (SU) adhesive system. The μTBS values and fracture mode were registered 24 h after adhesive system application and resin composite block build-up (n=5). For analysis of transdentinal cytotoxicity, odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells were seeded on pulpal surface of dentin discs (0.4 mm thick) adapted to artificial pulp chambers (n=8). The adhesive system was applied to occlusal surface, followed by 24-h incubation time. Cell viability (Alamar Blue) and morphology (SEM) were assessed. Adper Single Bond 2 and Clearfil SE Bond were used as positive controls of the ER and SE application protocols, respectively. No treatment was performed on negative control (NC) group. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=5%). Higher μTBS values were found for ER mode in comparison with SE protocol (p<0.05). Dentin wettability had no effect on bond strength of SU in both the ER and SE techniques (p>0.05). Most fractures involved hybrid layer and/or adhesive layer. Neither variable prevented the intense toxic effects of adhesive systems on MDPC-23 cultured cells, since intense reduction in cell viability (±88%) and severe alterations in cell morphology were observed for all groups compared to NC, with no differences among them (p>0.05). Therefore, it was concluded that application of SU following the ER protocol had better adhesive performance. However, this adhesive system featured intense transdentinal cytotoxicity to pulp cells, regardless of application protocol and dentin wettability.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o protocolo de aplicação (convencional/ER e autocondicionante/SE) e o grau de umidade da dentina (úmida e seca) sobre a resistência de união à microtração (μTBS) e a citotoxicidade transdentinária do sistema adesivo ScotchbondTM Universal (SU). Os valores de μTBS e o modo de fratura foram registrados 24 h após aplicação do sistema adesivo e restauração com resina composta pela técnica incremental. Para avaliação da citotoxicidade transdentinária, células odontoblastóides MDPC-23 foram semeadas na face pulpar de discos de dentina (0,4 mm de espessura) adaptados a câmaras pulpares artificiais (n = 8). O sistema adesivo foi aplicado na superfície oclusal, seguido de incubação por 24 h. A viabilidade e morfologia celular foram avaliadas pelo teste de Alamar Blue e MEV, respectivamente. Adper Single Bond 2 e Clearfil SE Bond foram utilizados como controle positivo do protocolo de aplicação ER e SE, respectivamente. Nenhum tratamento foi realizado no grupo controle negativo (NC). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de ANOVA e Tukey (α = 5%). Maiores valores de μTBS foram encontrados para o modo ER em comparação com o protocolo SE (p < 0,05). O grau de umidade da dentina não apresentou efeito na resistência de união do SU em ambos os protocolos ER e SE (p > 0.05). A maioria das fraturas envolveu a camada híbrida e / ou camada adesiva. Ambas as variáveis não preveniram o intenso efeito citotóxico dos sistemas adesivos sobre as células MDPC-23 em cultura, uma vez que redução intensa na viabilidade celular (± 88%) e alterações severas na morfologia celular foram observadas para todos os grupos quando comparados ao NC, sem diferenças entre eles (p > 0.05). Desta forma, foi concluído que a aplicação do SU seguindo o protocolo ER apresentou melhor performance adesiva. No entanto, esse sistema adesivo promoveu intensa citotoxicidade transdentinária sobre células pulpares, independente do protocolo de aplicação e grau de umidade dentinária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Tensile Strength , Cell Line , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e102, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974459

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the bond longevity of a universal adhesive system to bovine dentin, under different modes of adhesive application and artificial aging. Bovine dentin was exposed, and the smear layer was standardized by sandpaper polishing. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups: ethanol (E) and non-ethanol (N). Groups were subdivided according to adhesive mode of application into etch-and-rinse (Er) and self-etching (S). Resin blocks were built onto the treated surface, and the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 48 h. Half of the specimens (n = 10) were subjected to thermomechanical aging (A for aged and Na for non-aged). Resin/dentin beams were obtained and subjected to microtensile test in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using a three-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). There was interaction among the three factors (p=0.0003). The use of ethanol resulted in higher values, except for the Er and Na groups (E_Er_Na = N_Er_Na). The mode of application was similar, except for the N and A groups (N_S_A > N_Er_A). For the A groups, the values were lower, except in the cases using ethanol, in which the results were not affected. The study concluded that the use of ethanol resulted in higher microtensile bond strength values, even after aging. The mode of adhesive application did not influence the results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/analysis , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Temperature , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/chemistry , Smear Layer
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e104, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974458

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the three-year lifespan of the bond to dentin of experimental self-etch adhesives containing benzodioxole derivatives - 1,3-benzodioxole (BDO) and piperonyl alcohol (PA) - as co-initiator alternative to amines. Adhesive resins were formulated using Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, camphorquinone and different co-initiators: BDO, PA or ethyl 4-dimethylamino benzoate (EDAB - amine). An experimental self-etch primer was used to complete the two-step, self-etch adhesive system. Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) was used as commercial reference. Bond strength to human dentin was assessed by microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test, and failure mode was classified. Morphology of the dentin bonding interface was assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Irrespective of the dental adhesives evaluated, µTBS was higher after 24 hours compared with that after 1.5 and 3 years (p ≤ 0.001). However, adhesives with BDO and PA as co-initiators showed significantly higher bond strength than the bonding resin with EDAB (p ≤ 0.002), independent of the time evaluated. The commercial adhesive CSE showed similar bond strength compared with the other groups (p ≥ 0.05). Mixed failures were mainly observed after 24 hours, while adhesive failures were more frequently observed after 1.5 and 3 years. No notable differences in homogeneity and continuity along the bonded interfaces were detected among the materials in the SEM analysis. In conclusion, benzodioxole derivatives are feasible alternative co-initiators to tertiary amine in camphorquinone-based self-etching dental adhesive formulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzyl Alcohols/chemistry , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dioxoles/chemistry , Benzodioxoles/chemistry , para-Aminobenzoates/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Camphor/analogs & derivatives , Camphor/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Bonding/methods , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32(supl.1): e76, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974469

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Endodontic treatment is a common dental procedure used for treating teeth which the pulp tissue has become irreversibly inflamed or necrotic as a result of the carious process or dental trauma. This procedure which involves mechanical and chemical preparation of root canal may affect several mechanical and physical properties of the tooth structure. The endodontic treatment can also influence the longevity of the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth and biomechanics during the oral function. For restoring endodontically treated teeth several factor and clinical decisions should be observed. The decision of the fiberglass post usage and the restorative materials are related to several factors such as the quantity and quality of remaining dental structure, presence of ferrule, post cementation length and final coronal restoration. In this review, the authors will address the effect of the endodontic treatment procedures on canal shape and mechanical properties of a tooth, and also discuss the parameters and the biomechanical principles of root canal treated teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Post and Core Technique , Tooth, Nonvital/therapy , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Biomechanical Phenomena , Treatment Outcome , Tooth, Nonvital/pathology , Dental Stress Analysis , Dentin/pathology , Dentin/chemistry , Glass
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170384, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954495

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To investigate the chemical interactions between a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC) (KetacTM Molar Easymix, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Bavaria, Germany) and human dentin. It was also analyzed the dynamics of GIC setting mechanism based on the time intervals required for the GIC and the GIC mixed with dentin to achieve stability. Material and Methods Each constituent of GIC - powder (P) and liquid (L) - and powdered dentin (D), as well as the associations P+L, D+L, and P+L+D in the concentrations of 29%, 50%, 65%, 78%, 82%, and 92% of GIC were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Results New optical absorption bands and/or Raman bands, which were not present in P, L, or D, were observed in the associations. The concentrations of 29% and 50% of GIC showed higher interaction, revealing that the amount of dentin influences the formation of new optical absorption or scattering bands. FTIR bands showed that the setting time to achieve bond stability was longer for the high-viscosity GIC (38±7 min) than for the sample with 29% of GIC (28±4 min). Conclusions The analysis revealed the formation of new compounds or molecular rearrangements resulting from the chemical interactions between GIC and dentin. Moreover, this study provides an effective method to evaluate the dynamics of the setting mechanism of GICs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Viscosity , Materials Testing , Adhesiveness , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
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