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Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 448-452, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978057


Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con una leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) que desarrolló una fusariosis diseminada por Fusarium verticillioides durante un episodio prolongado de neutropenia febril post quimioterapia. Fue exitosamente tratado cuando se usó terapia combinada de voriconazol más anfotericina B deoxicolato.

We report a case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who developed a disseminated infection by Fusarium verticillioides during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. He was successfully treated only after combination therapy with voriconazole plus amphotericin B deoxycolate was used, but not when these compounds were used in an isolated form.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Fusariosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fusariosis/etiology , Fusariosis/pathology , Neutropenia/etiology , Neutropenia/pathology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 420-423, ago. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978053


Resumen Introducción: La criptococcosis es una infección micótica oportunista grave, Cryptococcus neoformans es la principal especie de importancia médica, pudiendo manifestarse como meningitis, neumonía o criptococcemia. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con infección por Cryptococcus sp. entre el 01/01/13 y 30/06/16, en el HCVB. Materiales y Métodos: Se identificaron los cultivos con desarrollo de Cryptococcus sp., y a partir de éstos se obtuvo los registros de los pacientes, los que fueron analizados por dos revisores independientes. Resultados: Se recopiló la información de 13 pacientes, que presentaron 15 casos de infección por C. neoformans. De los 13 pacientes, 11 (84,6%) eran de sexo masculino, con una mediana de edad de 35 años. 11 pacientes (84,6%) padecían infección por VIH, uno (7,7%) tenía el antecedente de leucemia linfática crónica, y uno (7,7%) de etilismo crónico. De los 15 casos, nueve (60%) presentaron infección meníngea; cinco (33,3%) presentaron criptococcemia sin compromiso del LCR; y uno (6,6%) presentó infección pulmonar. De los 13 pacientes, ocho (53,3%) se encontraban fallecidos al año de seguimiento. Conclusiones: La infección por Cryptococcus sp. es una patología que debe ser sospechada en pacientes con inmunodeficiencia de predominio celular. La infección meníngea fue la forma más frecuente de presentación. Persiste presentando una elevada mortalidad.

Background: Cryptococcosis is a severe opportunistic mycotic infection, caused mainly by Cryptococcus neoformans. It can present as meningitis, pneumonia or cryptococcemia. Aim: To characterize patients with Cryptococcus infection between January 1°, 2013 and June 30, 2016, in Hospital Carlos van Buren, Valparaíso, Chile. Methods: We identified retrospectively those cultures with Cryptococcus sp. growth, and then obtained their clinical files which were analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: We were able to obtain data from 13 of 15 patients who presented with Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Out of all, 11 (84.6%) were males, with a median age of 35 years old. 11 (84,6%) were HIV positive, 1 (7,7%) had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 1 (7,7%) refered alcohol abuse. Out of the 15 episodes, 9 (60%) had meningeal infection; 5 (33.3%) were cryptococcemia without meningeal involvement and 1 (6.6%) presented as a pulmonary infection. Eight patients were deceased at one year follow up. Conclusions: Cryptococcus sp. infection must be suspected in patients with cellular immunodeficiencies. Meningeal involvement is the most frequent form of clinical presentation. It still has a high mortality rate.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 712-714, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897020


Abstract Basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal skin infection that rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. This study reported a 5-year-old boy with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis that had been misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal lymphoma. He was treated by surgical resection and a combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate with an acceptable response and no recurrence.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Colonic Diseases/microbiology , Zygomycosis/pathology , Zygomycosis/drug therapy , Zygomycosis/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/microbiology , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Colonic Diseases/pathology , Colonic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Combinations , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/pathology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 478-482, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896990


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs available for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment in Brazil have specific characteristics in terms of operability, effectiveness, toxicity, and cost. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct costs of therapies recommended by the Ministry of Health (MH) for VL treatment in Brazil. METHODS: The analytical perspective used was that adopted by the Brazilian Public Health System. Three drugs and four regimens were included: 1) N-methyl glucamine antimoniate intramuscularly at 20mg per kg per day for 30 days; 2) N-methyl glucamine antimoniate intravenously at 20mg per kg per day for 30 days; 3) amphotericin B deoxycholate at 1mg per kg per day for 21 days; and 4) liposomal amphotericin B at 3mg per kg per day for a 7 days treatment. RESULTS: The estimated direct costs of treatment for an adult patient using N-methylglucamine antimoniate administered via the intramuscular and intravenous routes were USD 418.52 and USD 669.40, respectively. The estimated cost of treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate was USD 1,522.70. Finally, the estimated costs of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B were USD 659.79, and USD 11,559.15 using the price adopted by the WHO and the Drug Regulation Board, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates the economic feasibility of replacing N-methyl glucamine antimoniate with liposomal amphotericin B, which allows a shorter treatment period with less toxicity compared with other treatments, provided that the purchase value used by the WHO and transferred to the MH is maintained.

Humans , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/economics , Organometallic Compounds/economics , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Brazil , Amphotericin B/economics , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Deoxycholic Acid/economics , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/economics , Meglumine/economics , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 67-74, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842815


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Despite their high toxicity, antimonials and amphotericin B deoxycholate are commonly used for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Few studies showing conflictive data about their efficacy and adverse events in pediatric population are available. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate vs. that of N-methylglucamine antimoniate in treating pediatric VL in Brazil. METHODS This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm and controlled pilot clinical trial. Treatment naïve children and adolescents with VL without signs of severe illness were treated with N-methylglucamine antimoniate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days) or amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days). All patients were diagnosed with positive direct examination and/or positive PCR for Leishmania spp. performed in bone marrow samples. The primary efficacy end-point was VL cure determined after 180 days of completion of treatment. The analysis was performed using intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS In total, 101 volunteers were assessed. Efficacy was similar for both groups. The antimonial (n=51) and amphotericin B groups (n=50) had a cure rate of 94.1% and 100%, and 94% and 97.9% according to ITT and PP analyses, respectively. All patients reported adverse events (AE). Serious AE incidence was similar in both groups. Five individuals were excluded from the study because of severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS N-methylglucamine antimoniate and amphotericin B deoxycholate have similar efficacy and adverse events rate in pediatric patients with VL.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Meglumine/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121889


Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is an endemic parasitic disease in some parts of the world which is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia in most of the cases. Herein we report an 11 month-old male infant with diagnosis of kala-azar who presented with pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to gain weight, and no history of fever. Surprisingly, fever started after beginning of meglumine antimoniate treatment in this patient. As far as we are aware of, this is a rare presentation of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, clinicians especially in endemic areas are highly recommended to include kala-azar among differential diagnosis of unexplained anemia without fever to prevent misdiagnosis of this potentially fatal, but treatable condition.

Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Combinations , Endemic Diseases , Fever , Humans , Infant , Iran , Leishmania infantum/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Male , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Splenomegaly/parasitology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(1): 23-27, feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639647


El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la incidencia, frecuencia, características clínicas y evolución de los pacientes con mucormicosis atendidos en el Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires, entre los años 1982 y 2010. Durante ese período se diagnosticaron 10 casos de mucormicosis. Los tres primeros entre 1982 y 2004 y los últimos 7 entre 2005 y 2010. La incidencia y frecuencia de esta enfermedad, para el período 1980-2004 fue 0.13 pacientes/año y 0.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.00 a 0.3) respectivamente. En el período 2005-2010 la incidencia fue 0.86 pacientes/año y la frecuencia de 1.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.5 a 2.4). Hubo nueve casos de mucormicosis rinosinuso-orbitaria, siete en pacientes con diabetes mellitus, uno en una paciente con una hemopatía maligna y neutropenia, y el restante en un paciente con HIV/sida que además estaba neutropénico y con un síndrome hemofagocítico. En una paciente se realizó el diagnóstico post mortem de mucormicosis pulmonar. El diagnóstico se efectuó por la observación de filamentos cenocíticos en los diez casos. Hubo desarrollo de mucorales en los cultivos de 8/9 pacientes; cinco Rhizopus spp y tres Mucor spp. Todos los pacientes recibieron un tratamiento inicial con anfotericina B deoxicolato, que en tres de ellos fue continuado con anfotericina B liposomal, y cirugía. Tres enfermos recibieron además un tratamiento adyuvante con oxigeno hiperbárico. La mortalidad fue 30%.

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. It is characterized by rapid progression and high morbidity and mortality in the absence of early diagnosis and prompt treatment. It was an infrequent disease, but in recent years, its incidence appears to have increased. The aim of this paper is to report the cases of mucormycosis diagnosed from 1982 to 2010 at the Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martín, University of Buenos Aires. We diagnosed 10 cases of mucormycosis; the first three between 1982 and 2004 and the last 7 between 2005 and 2010. The incidence from 1980 to 2004 was 0.13 patient-years and the frequency 0.1/10 000 discharges (95% CI 0.00- 0.3). In the period 2005 to 2010, the incidence was 0.86 patients per year with 1.1/10 000 discharges (95% CI 0.5-2.4). There was a pulmonary mucormycosis case (in a patient treated with corticosteroids) and nine rhinocerebral cases, two in neutropenic and seven in diabetic patients. The diagnosis was made by observation of cenocytic hyphae in 10/10 patients. Mucorales were recovered in 8/9 cultures (5 Rhizopus spp and 3 Mucor spp.). In one case diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis was made post-mortem. Nine patients were treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (in 3 patients supplemented with liposomal amphotericin B) and surgery. Three patients underwent hyperbaric chamber. Seven patients had favorable outcome. In conclusion, mucormycosis is a rare disease, but its incidence has increased over the past five years. A good evolution of the patients is linked to early diagnosis and treatment.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Nose Diseases/epidemiology , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Incidence , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/pathology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/pathology , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/drug therapy , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(1): 26-29, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-579826


INTRODUCTION: Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in Brazil, especially in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, where Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated from the soil. H. capsulatum may compromise unusual areas, including the oropharynx, particularly in patients presenting disseminated histoplasmosis; which is associated with a state of immunosuppression, such as AIDS. METHODS: During database analysis of a total of 265 cases of histoplasmosis, the medical records of 11 patients with histological or microbiological diagnoses of oral histoplasmosis (OH) between 1987 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: This work reports 11 cases of OH, the majority presenting histopathological or microbiological evidence of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH). In the patients with DH, OH was the first manifestation of histoplasmosis. Five of the 11 patients discussed were HIV-seropositive with clinical and laboratory findings of AIDS. Four patients presented active pulmonary tuberculosis concomitant with histoplasmosis. Treatment was based on the use of itraconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate. Eight patients responded successfully to therapy after one year, two did not come back for reevaluation and one died despite adequate therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Oral histoplasmosis is closely associated with immunosuppression status, especially in patients presenting AIDS; moreover, in many cases, OH is the first sign of disseminated histoplasmosis.

INTRODUÇÃO: Histoplasmose é uma micose sistêmica, endêmica no Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, onde Histoplasma capsulatum foi isolado do solo. H. capsulatum pode acometer áreas não-usuais, como cavidade orofaríngea, particularmente em pacientes com histoplasmose disseminada, por sua vez, associada com estado de imunossupressão, como na AIDS. MÉTODOS: A partir de 265 casos de histoplasmose em um banco de dados de um laboratório de micologia, foram analisados retrospectivamente 11 prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico histológico ou microbiológico de histoplasmose oral (HO) entre 1987 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Reportamos neste trabalho onze casos de HO, a grande maioria com evidências histopatológicas e microbiológicas de histoplasmose disseminada (HD). Nos pacientes com HD, HO foi a primeira manifestação de histoplasmose. Cinco dos onze casos relatados eram portadores do vírus do HIV, todos com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de AIDS. Quatro pacientes do total tinham concomitantemente tuberculose pulmonar e histoplasmose. Tratamento foi baseado no uso de itraconazol e anfotericina B principalmente. Oito pacientes tiveram sucesso terapêutico após um ano, dois não retornaram para reavaliação e um faleceu apesar da adequada terapia antifúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Histoplasmose oral está associada muitas vezes com estado de imunossupressão, especialmente em pacientes com AIDS. Em muitos casos pode representar o primeiro sinal indicativo de histoplasmose disseminada.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Histoplasmosis/microbiology , Oropharynx/microbiology , Pharyngeal Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Ketoconazole/therapeutic use , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Pharyngeal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(6): 555-557, Dec. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507465


Meningitis is a common evolution in progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children, and is asymptomatic in many cases. In leukemia, the impaired of the T cells function can predispose to the disseminated form. The attributed mortality rate in this case is 20 percent-40 percent and the relapse rate is as high as 50 percent; therefore, prolonged treatment may be emphasized. We have described a child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), that developed skin lesions and asymptomatic chronic meningitis, with a good evolution after prolonged treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole.

Adolescent , Humans , Male , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Myeloid/microbiology , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8826


A nationwide questionnaire-based survey was performed to evaluate the current clinical practices for the management of neutropenic fever in hematology units and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) centers throughout Korea. A 86.9% response rate was obtained from a total of 46 doctors and practical policies of the 33 sites were analysed. Approximately 42.4% and 84.8% of the sites responded that they used oral fluoroquinolone as prophylaxis for neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy and HSCT, respectively. Additionally, 42.4% of the sites responded that they used antifungal prophylaxis in the chemotherapy groups whereas 90.9% of the sites responded that they used antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Approximately half of the responding sites prescribed combination regimen with 3rd or 4th cephalosporin plus aminoglycoside as a first-line therapy. Most of the sites considered persistent fever for 2-4 days or aggravated clinical symptoms for 1-2 days as failure of the first-line regimen, and they changed antibiotics to second- line regimens that varied widely among the sites. Twenty-seven sites (84.4%) responded that they considered adding an antifungal agent when fever persisted for 5-7 days despite antibacterial therapy. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was preferred as a first-line antifungal, which was probably due to the limitations of the national health insurance system. The role of oral antibiotics in the management of neutropenic fever still accounted for a small portion. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first report to examine the practical policies currently in place for the management of neutropenic fever in Korea and the results of this survey may help to establish a Korean guideline in the future.

Administration, Oral , Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Data Collection , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fever/drug therapy , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Korea , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Failure