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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5045-5056, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345744

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estresse de minoria aborda a relação entre preconceito (percebido, antecipado e internalizado) e saúde mental em pessoas pertencentes a grupos minoritários, assim como fatores de proteção aos estressores. Este trabalho avaliou a prevalência de sintomas depressivos, ideação suicida e tentativa de suicídio em pessoas trans brasileiras, e sua relação com estresse de minoria, passabilidade, apoio social e apoio à identidade trans. Participaram 378 pessoas, por meio de questionário respondidos on-line e nos serviços hospitalares a que frequentavam. Desses, 67,20% apresentaram sintomas depressivos, 67,72% ideação suicida e 43,12% tentativa de suicídio. Foram realizadas três análises de regressão de Poisson, em dois passos, conforme os desfechos. Nos três desfechos houve associação positiva com o preconceito internalizado e negativa com o apoio social, sendo essas as únicas associações na tentativa de suicídio. Nos sintomas depressivos e na ideação suicida, também se associou positivamente o preconceito antecipado e negativamente a passabilidade e o apoio à identidade trans. Percebe-se a vulnerabilidade das pessoas trans para os desfechos negativos de saúde mental e a importância de enfrentar o preconceito em nível individual e social, assim como promover o apoio social e à identidade trans.


Abstract Minority stress comprehends the relationship between prejudice (perceived, anticipated and internalized) and mental health in people belonging to minority groups, as well as protective factors for stressors. This study evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in Brazilian trans people, and it`s relationship with minority stress, passability, social support and trans identity support. 378 people participated through a questionnaire answered online and in the hospital services they attended. Of these, 67.20% had depressive symptoms, 67.72% suicidal ideation and 43.12% attempted suicide. Three Poisson regression analyzes were performed in two steps, according to the outcomes. In the three outcomes there was a positive association with internalized prejudice and a negative association with social support, which were the only associations in the suicide attempt. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were also positively associated with anticipated prejudice and negatively passability and support for trans identity. The vulnerability of transgender people to negative mental health outcomes and the importance of addressing prejudice on an individual and social level, as well as promoting social support and transgender identity support are perceived.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transsexualism , Minority Groups , Suicide, Attempted , Depression/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 489-495, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290259

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: 2020 was a challenging year for all healthcare professionals worldwide. In São Paulo, Brazil, the virus SARS-CoV-2 took 47,222 lives up to December 29, 2020. The front line of medical professionals in São Paulo was composed of many residents, who were transferred from their rotations to cover the needs of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify medical residents' mental health and clinical issues, regarding symptoms of burnout, depression and anxiety during the pandemic, and to compare them among specialties. DESIGN AND SETTING: Quantitative study using a convenience sample of medical resident volunteers who responded to an anonymous online survey that was available during April 2020. METHODS: This investigation collected sociodemographic information and used the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) to measure burnout, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to measure depression and the General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale to measure anxiety symptoms. This study also developed a COVID-19 Impact Questionnaire (CIQ-19) to assess the residents' beliefs and clinical practices relating to COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The sample comprised 1,392 medical residents in São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical specialty physicians showed the highest rates of anxiety symptoms (52.6%) and burnout (51.2%), among the specialties. CONCLUSION: Clinical specialty residents are at higher risk of anxiety, depression and burnout. The symptoms of anxiety and depression have worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a general need for mental health support interventions for medical resident physicians, which requires reinforcement during this worldwide crisis.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 317-324, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292029

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trabajadores de la salud se encuentran sometidos a una gran tensión en el desarrollo de sus actividades, lo que genera alta frecuencia de estrés, desgaste laboral e impacto psicopatológico. La pandemia de COVID-19 podría provocar un incremento de estas entidades en los médicos. El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia de estrés, síndrome de desgaste profesional (burnout), ansiedad y depresión durante la pandemia, y analizar las asociaciones con distintas variables independientes. Métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, realizado dos meses después del inicio de la cuarentena en Argentina. Se encuestó a médicos de especialidades clínicas, quirúrgicas, solo de emergencias, y a aquellos sin contacto directo con pacientes, mediante un cuestionario sociodemográfico y tres inventarios autoadministrados: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory y la Escala de ansiedad y depresión hospitalaria. Resultados. La prevalencia de estrés fue del 93,7 % (IC95 %: 90,33-96,2), burnout 73,5 % (IC95 %: 68,2-78,4), ansiedad 44 % (IC95 %: 38,4-49,8) y depresión 21,9 % (IC95 %: 17,3-26,9). No se observó asociación entre la frecuencia y el tipo de especialidad realizada. La frecuencia de burnout, ansiedad y depresión fue significativamente mayor en los médicos residentes y en aquellos que trabajan en emergencias. Conclusiones. Los médicos residentes y quienes trabajan en emergencias en turnos de 24 horas mostraron porcentajes significativamente más altos de burnout, ansiedad y depresión, en comparación con médicos de planta y con aquellos en posiciones de liderazgo. Estos hallazgos pueden estar asociados con una mayor carga de trabajo y una menor experiencia. Es mandatorio tomar medidas preventivas y terapéuticas para preservar a quienes hacen frente a esta pandemia.


Introduction. Health care workers experience a tremendous strain while performing their activities, very frequently leading to stress, burnout syndrome, and psychopathological impact. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause physicians to suffer these effects even to a greater extent. Our objective was to describe the frequency of stress, burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression during the pandemic, and analyze the associations with different independent outcome measures. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional study conducted 2 months after the lockdown was established in Argentina. Clinical specialists, surgeons, emergency physicians, and those with no direct contact with patients were surveyed using a sociodemographic questionnaire and 3 self-administered inventories: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. The prevalence of stress was 93.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 90.33-96.2), burnout syndrome 73.5 % (95 % CI: 68.2-78.4), anxiety 44 % (95 % CI: 38.4-49.8), and depression 21.9 % (95 % CI: 17.3-26.9). No association was observed between the frequency and medical specialty. The frequency of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression was significantly higher among residents and physicians working in the emergency department. Conclusions. Residents and emergency physicians working 24-hour shifts showed significantly higher percentages of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression compared to staff and head physicians. These findings may be associated with a higher workload and less experience. It is compulsory to take preventive and therapeutic measures to protect those in the pandemic front line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching
4.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 92-100, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280645

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: identificar a prevalência, a severidade e os fatores associados à depressão entre estudantes universitários no Distrito Federal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal realizado com 521 estudantes universitários, com idade entre 18 e 60 anos. Os sintomas depressivos foram avaliados através da escala Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e o teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: dentre os 521 indivíduos estudados, houve predomínio do sexo feminino. A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 521 (96,6%) estudantes universitários, sendo 31,3% com depressão suave, 23,4%, depressão mínima, 13,1% depressão moderadamente grave, 9,6% depressão grave e 9,2% depressão moderada. A renda familiar e o semestre cursado são fatores associados para a severidade da depressão. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência da depressão no ambiente universitário é comum, sendo uma proporção alta e preocupante. É crucial o rastreamento da depressão, sua severidade e seus fatores associados, a fim de estimular reflexão sobre a temática e pensar em estratégias de intervenção para a prevenção e promoção da saúde mental.


OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence, severity and factors associated with depression among university students in the Federal District. METHOD: a cross-sectional study carried out with 521 university students, aged between 18 and 60 years old. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were used. RESULTS: among the 521 individuals studied, there was predominance of females. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 521 (96.6%) university students; 31.3% with mild depression; 23.4%, minimal depression, 13.1%, moderately severe depression; 9.6%, severe depression; and 9.2%, moderate depression. Family income and the semester attended are associated factors for the severity of depression. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of depression in the university environment is common, being at a high and worrying proportion. It is crucial to track depression, its severity and its associated factors, in order to stimulate reflection on the theme and to think of intervention strategies for the prevention and promotion of mental health.


OBJETIVO: identificar la prevalencia, la gravedad y los factores asociados a la depresión entre los estudiantes universitarios del Distrito Federal. MÉTODO: estudio transversal realizado con 521 estudiantes universitarios, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 60 años. Los síntomas depresivos se evaluaron mediante la escala del Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la prueba de chi-cuadrado. RESULTADOS: Entre los 521 individuos estudiados, predominó el sexo femenino. La prevalencia de síntomas depresivos fue de 521 (96.6%) estudiantes universitarios, 31.3% con depresión leve, 23.4%, depresión mínima, 13.1% depresión moderadamente severa, 9.6% depresión severa y 9, 2% de depresión moderada. Los ingresos familiares y el semestre asistido son factores asociados para la gravedad de la depresión. CONCLUSIÓN: la prevalencia de depresión en el entorno universitario es común, siendo una proporción alta y preocupante. Es crucial rastrear la depresión, su gravedad y sus factores asociados, para estimular la reflexión sobre el tema y pensar en estrategias de intervención para la prevención y promoción de la salud mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Preventive Health Services , Students/psychology , Universities , Student Health , Prevalence , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Prevention , Mental Health Assistance , Patient Health Questionnaire
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 31-36, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153098

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Our goal was to analyze the prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with glaucoma and to identify risk factors related to these disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2016 and August 2017 at the Hospital das Clínicas of Universidade Estadual de Campinas and at the Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among patients diagnosed with glaucoma. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination with standard automated perimetry to confirm the diagnosis of glaucoma. All participants were asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Seventy-four were men (57.36%) and 55 (42.64%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 70.14 ± 15.8 years. Ninety participants were white (69.77%) and 38 (29.46%) were black. The study demonstrated a prevalence of depression and/or anxiety at 10.08%. Logistic regression revealed that women were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depression (OR: 5.25, p=0.015) and patients with a larger number of comorbidities also were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depressive disorders (OR: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with glaucoma present with depression and/or anxiety. Females and patients with comorbidities are at greater risk for these disorders.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de transtornos de depressão e ansiedade em pacientes com glaucoma e identificar fatores de riscos associados. Métodos: Estudo transversal em pacientes com glaucoma, avaliados durante Agosto de 2016 e Agosto de 2017 no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Campinas e no Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília. Todos pacientes foram submetidos à exame oftalmológico completo para confirmar o diagnóstico de glaucoma. Todos pacientes preencheram o questionário "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale". Resultados: Foram incluídos 129 pacientes no estudo, sendo 74 homens (57.36%) e 55 (42.64%) mulheres, 90 pacientes eram brancos (69.77%) e 38 (29.46%) eram negros. A idade média foi de 70.14 ± 15.8 anos. O estudo demonstrou uma prevalência de 10.08% de transtornos depressivo e/ou ansiedade. A regressão logística demonstrou que mulheres apresentam maior risco de desenvolver transtornos depressivos e/ou ansiedade (Risco relativo: 5.25, p=0.015), assim como pacientes com maior número de comorbidades clínicas (Risco relativo: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusão: Uma proporção significativa dos pacientes com glaucoma podem apresentar transtornos de depressão e/ou ansiedade. Pacientes com glaucoma do sexo feminino e que apresentem maiores comorbidades clínicas apresentam maior risco de apresentar esses transtornos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Glaucoma/complications , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10397, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142568

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body image dissatisfaction on symptoms of depressive disorder in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study that included 2,162 adolescents ages 18-19 born in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, which was part of the joint RPS cohort (Brazilian birth cohorts of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Pelotas-RS, and São Luís-MA). Socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, mental health, and body image characteristics were evaluated. Body image was assessed by Stunkard's silhouettes scale. The presence of symptoms indicative of depressive disorder was investigated through a diagnostic interview MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). A theoretical model was built in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) in order to investigate the relationship between the variables of the study. The relationship was estimated weighting the inverse probability of selection for the variables of adjustment: sex and nutritional status. Among the dissatisfied adolescents due to overweight, 66.54% were girls, 32.85% were overweight, and 11.99% were obese (P<0.01). There was a significant association between dissatisfaction due to overweight and symptoms of depressive disorder (P=0.01), and there was no evidence of the same association with dissatisfaction due to thinness. Therefore, only dissatisfaction due to overweight was associated with the symptoms of depressive disorder in the evaluated adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Body Dissatisfaction , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00202920, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339534

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study sought to examine the association between lifestyle-related behaviors and depressive symptoms among college students. This cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data of a dynamic-cohort study from a public university in Central-Western Brazil, in all 21 undergraduate full-time courses. Students up to 25 years old who were enrolled for the first time in a university were included in the study, except pregnant and/or nursing women. All students who met the eligibility criteria were invited to participate in the study. From a total of 1,212 eligible students, 1,038 were included (85.6%). All participants answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking, alcohol consumption, screen time, sleep duration, and meal patterns. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Multivariate Poisson regression models stratified by sex were used to estimate the associations. Depressive symptoms was observed in 31.6% (males 23.6%; females 39.9%; p-value chi-square test = 0.01) of the students. Smoking, drinking spirits, and having irregular meal habits were directly associated with depressive symptoms in both males and females. The co-occurrence of two risk behaviors (men: aPR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.25; 3.99; women: aPR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.03; 2.30) and three or more risk behaviors (men: aPR = 3.42, 95%CI: 1.90; 6.16; women: aPR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.39; 3.15) increased the occurrence of depressive symptoms among the students. Lifestyle-related unhealthy behaviors were associated with an increased occurrence of depressive symptoms among college students. These findings suggest the need of interventions encouraging changes in lifestyle to promote mental health and to improve the quality of life in this group.


Resumo: O estudo buscou examinar a associação entre comportamentos relacionados ao estilo de vida e sintomas depressivos em estudantes universitários. O estudo transversal analisou os dados da linha de base de um estudo em estilo coorte dinâmica de uma universidade pública da Região Centro-oeste do Brasil, recrutados em 21 cursos de graduação de tempo integral. Foram incluídos no estudo, universitários de até 25 anos de idade matriculados pela primeira vez na universidade, exceto mulheres gestantes e lactantes. Todos os universitários que atenderam os critérios de elegibilidade foram convidados a participar do estudo. Entre o total de 1.212 elegíveis, 1.038 foram estudados (85,6%). Todos os participantes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicado sobre tabagismo, consumo de álcool, tempo de uso de computador, Internet e TV, duração do sono e padrões alimentares. Os sintomas depressivos foram avaliados com o Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Modelos de regressão Poisson multivariada, estratificados por sexo, foram usados para estimar as associações. Sintomas depressivos foram observados em 31,6% da amostra (homens, 23,6%; mulheres, 39,9%; valor de p do teste de qui-quadrado = 0,01). Tabagismo, consumo de bebidas destiladas e hábitos alimentares irregulares mostraram associação direta com sintomas depressivos em homens e mulheres. A ocorrência simultânea de dois comportamentos de risco (homens: RPa = 2,23, IC95%: 1,25; 3,99; mulheres: RPa = 1,54, IC95%: 1,03; 2,30) e três ou mais comportamentos de risco (homens: RPa = 3,42, IC95%: 1,90; 6,16; mulheres: RPa = 2,09, IC95%: 1,39; 3,15) aumentaram a ocorrência de sintomas depressivos entre os universitários. Comportamentos não saudáveis relacionados ao estilo de vida mostraram uma associação com o aumento de sintomas depressivos entre os universitários. Os achados sugerem a necessidade de intervenções para incentivar mudanças de estilo de vida, no sentido de promover a saúde mental e melhorar a qualidade de vida desse grupo.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar la asociación entre los comportamientos relacionados con el estilo de vida y síntomas depresivos entre estudiantes universitarios. Este estudio transversal analizó datos de referencia de un estudio de cohorte dinámica, procedentes de una universidad pública en la Región Centro Oeste de Brasil, en los 21 cursos universitarios a tiempo completo. Se incluyeron en el estudio a estudiantes de hasta los 25 años de edad, que estaban inscritos por primera vez en la universidad, excepto mujeres embarazadas y/o mujeres lactantes. Todos los estudiantes que cumplieron con los criterios de eligilidad fueron invitados a participar en el estudio. De un total de 1.212 estudiantes elegibles, fueron estudiados 1.038 (85,6%). Todos los participantes respondieron a un cuestionario autoadministrado sobre tabaco, consumo de bebidas destiladas, tiempo ante la pantalla, duración del sueño, así como patrones de comidas. Los síntomas depresivos se evaluaron usando el Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). También se utilizaron modelos de regresión de Poisson multivariados estratificados por sexo para estimar las asociaciones. Se observaron síntomas depresivos en un 31,6% (hombres 23,6%; mujeres 39,9%; valor de p test de chi-cuadrado = 0,01) de los estudiantes. Fumar, beber bebidas alcohólicas, y tener hábitos irregulares de comidas estuvieron directamente asociados con síntomas depresivos, tanto en hombres, como en mujeres. La co-ocurrencia de dos comportamientos de riesgo (hombres: aPR = 2,23, IC95%: 1,25; 3,99; mujeres: aPR = 1,54, IC95%: 1,03; 2,30) y tres o más comportamientos de riesgo (hombres: aPR = 3,42, IC95%: 1,90; 6,16; mujeres: aPR = 2,09, IC95%: 1,39; 3,15) incrementaron la ocurrencia de síntomas depresivos entre los estudiantes. El estilo de vida, relacionado con comportamientos poco saludables, estuvo asociado con un incremento en la ocurrencia de síntomas depresivos entre estudiantes universitarios. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de intervenciones animando cambios en el estilo de vida para promover la salud mental y para mejorar la calidad de vida de este grupo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Depression/epidemiology , Students , Universities , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies , Life Style
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00207420, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339541

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate factors associated with sleep quality (overall and by domains) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted with 1,296 first-year high school students from public schools in the Northern Region of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were obtained with a questionnaire. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on the ratio of weight and height squared. Multilevel linear and logistic regressions evaluated factors associated with sleep quality. We observed 53% of adolescents reported poor sleep quality. Adolescents at higher risk of clinical depression were 3.45 times more likely to have poor sleep quality (95%CI: 2.04; 5.81), and each additional unit in the social anxiety score presented 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01; 1.05) higher odds of adolescents having poor sleep quality. Adolescents with depressive symptoms had higher sleep latency, greater sleep disturbance, and greater daytime sleep dysfunction. Social anxiety was associated with sleep latency, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleep dysfunction. Higher risk of clinical depression was associated with all domains related to sleep quality. Negative health perception was associated with sleep disturbance, and physical inactivity was associated with daytime sleep dysfunction. Social anxiety and especially higher risk of clinical depression were determinants of poor sleep quality. Changes in sleep latency, sleep disturbance and daytime sleep dysfunction seems to be relevant to poor sleep quality.


O estudo buscou avaliar os fatores associados à qualidade do sono (global e por domínios) entre adolescentes. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1.296 estudantes de primeiro ano do ensino médio em escolas públicas na Região Norte do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados demográficos, socioeconômicos e comportamentais através de um questionário. A qualidade do sono foi medida com o Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). O índice de massa corporal (IMC) foi calculado como peso dividido por altura ao quadrado. Os fatores associados à qualidade do sono foram avaliados através da regressão linear multinível e logística. Observamos que 53% dos adolescentes relatavam baixa qualidade de sono. Os adolescentes com risco maior de depressão clínica apresentaram 3,45 vezes maior probabilidade de apresentar baixa qualidade de sono (IC95%: 2,04; 5,81), e cada unidade adicional na escala de ansiedade social apresentou 1,03 vezes maiores chances (IC95%: 1,01; 1,05) de baixa qualidade de sono. Os adolescentes com sintomas depressivos mostraram maior latência do sono, maior transtorno do sono e maior disfunção diurna do sono. A ansiedade social mostrou associação com latência do sono, transtorno do sono e disfunção diurna do sono. O risco maior de depressão esteve associado a todos os domínios relacionados à qualidade. Autoavaliação de saúde negativa esteve associada ao transtorno do sono, e inatividade física esteve associada à disfunção diurna do sono. Ansiedade social, e principalmente risco maior de depressão clínica, foram determinantes na baixa qualidade do sono. Mudanças na latência do sono, transtorno do sono e disfunção diurna do sono parecem ser relevantes para a baixa qualidade do sono.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar factores asociados con la calidad del sueño (general y por ámbitos) en adolescentes. Se realizó un estudio transversal con 1.296 estudiantes del primer año de escuela secundaria, procedentes de escuelas públicas en la Región Norte del Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y comportamentales, a través de un cuestionario. La calidad del sueño se midió usando el Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). El índice de masa corporal (IMC) se calculó de la ratio de peso y altura al cuadrado. Las regresiones logísticas y lineales multinivel evaluaron factores asociados con calidad del sueño deficiente. Observamos que un 53% de los adolescentes informaron de una calidad de sueño deficiente. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de depresión clínica fueron 3,45 veces más propensos a tener una calidad de sueño deficiente (95%CI: 2,04; 5,81), y cada unidad adicional en la puntuación de ansiedad social presentaba 1,03 (95%CI: 1,01; 1,05) mayores posibilidades de adolescentes sufriendo por calidad de sueño deficiente. Los adolescentes con síntomas depresivos presentaban mayor latencia de sueño, mayores perturbaciones en el sueño, y mayor disfunción durante el día de sueño. La ansiedad social estuvo asociada con la latencia de sueño, perturbaciones de sueño y disfunción del sueño durante el día. Un mayor riesgo de depresión clínica estuvo asociado con todos los ámbitos relacionados con calidad del sueño. Una percepción negativa de salud respecto a la perturbación de sueño e inactividad física estuvo asociada con un sueño deficiente durante el día. La ansiedad social y, especialmente, un mayor riesgo de depresión clínica fueron determinantes en una escasa calidad de sueño. Los cambios en la latencia del sueño, trastornos del sueño y disfunción del sueño durante el día parecieron relevantes para la deficiente calidad del sueño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e084, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285728

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) in dentists. Factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated using a questionnaire and scores of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 were measured. The differences between the DAS scores based on the factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic were tested through the successive application of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, α = 0.05). After a sample size calculation, 998 participants with a mean age of 39.39 (± 11.69) years were included. The effect size indicated that changes in sleep quality (η2 = 0.161), eating habits (η2 = 0.057), and physical health (η2 = 0.051) were the ones that most negatively affected DAS scores. The highest DAS scores were observed in professionals who lived with someone at high-risk for COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and in those who did not engage in leisure activities during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Dentists who worked on the frontline against COVID-19 had higher scores of anxiety and stress (p = 0.029). The highest scores for anxiety, depression, and/or stress were seen in dentists living with someone at high-risk for COVID-19, who acts on the frontline, who does not practice in leisure activities during the pandemic, who completely changed eating habits, quality of sleep and physical health during the pandemic. In general, DAS levels of dentists were associated with factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Dentists , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e091, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285726

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate if individuals with dentofacial deformities (DFD) who require orthognathic surgery are affected more by depression and pain. A case-control study was performed with 195 individuals. In the DFD group, 145 individuals with Class II and III malocclusion requiring orthognathic surgery were selected. The control group was composed of 50 individuals with no DFD. All patients were diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Data were analyzed with a significance level of 0.05. The DFD group more often presented severe depression (p = 0.020) and chronic pain (p = 0.017). They also presented higher prevalence of Nonspecific Physical Symptoms Including Pain (P = 0.002) and Nonspecific Physical Symptoms Excluding Pain (p = 0.002). Concerning TMD symptoms, the DFD group had more myofascial (p = 0.002) and articular pain (p = 0.041). Therefore, the results of this study suggest that depression and pain are more common in individuals with DFD requiring orthognathic surgery compared with individuals without DFD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/surgery , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology , Orthognathic Surgery , Case-Control Studies , Arthralgia , Depression/epidemiology
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as their associated factors, among Brazilians during social distancing. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in April/May 2020 with 3,200 Brazilians over 18 years old. Respondents' sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire, which also included the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess emotional symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS Our results show the prevalence of severe/extreme stress was 21.5%, anxiety 19.4%, and depression 21.5%. In the final model, sociodemographic, clinical, and Covid-19-related factors were associated with severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression in Brazilians during social distancing due to the Covid-19 pandemic. We found the main factors associated with severe/extreme depression to be young women, brown, single, not religious, sedentary, presenting reduced leisure activities, history of anxiety and depression, increased medication use, and Covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION This study may help develop and systematically plan measures aimed to prevent, early identify, and properly manage clinical signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200167, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1133837

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à violência em idosos hospitalizados. Método Estudo transversal realizado com 100 idosos internados. Aplicaram-se os instrumentos: H-S/EAST, Escala de Estresse Percebido e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. Utilizou-se análise descritiva para a caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica. Para associar a idade ao H-S/EAST foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney; estresse percebido com o H-S/EAST foi utilizado o teste T, e sintomas depressivos com o H-S/EAST foi utilizado o teste da Razão Verossimilhança. Resultados A média de idade dos idosos foi 70,39 e 56,0%, houve risco aumentado para violação de direitos pessoais, características de vulnerabilidade e situações potencialmente abusivas. Os fatores associados ao risco aumentado para violação de direitos pessoais ou abuso direto nos idosos foram maior idade, apresentar estresse percebido e ter sintomas de depressão leve a severa. Conclusão e implicação para a prática Esses resultados mostram, portanto, a importância da observação atenta do idoso por parte do enfermeiro para permitir a identificação do risco para violência ou violação de direitos. O que possibilita estabelecer ações preventivas, coordenadas com a participação dos demais profissionais bem como o encaminhamento correto de cada situação, cumprimento do dever legal da profissão e do papel cidadão.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la violencia en los ancianos hospitalizados. Método estudio transversal con 100 ancianos hospitalizados. Se aplicaron los instrumentos: H-S / EAST, Escala de estrés percibido y Escala de depresión geriátrica. Se utilizó el análisis descriptivo para la caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica. Para asociar la edad con el H-S / EAST, se utilizó la prueba de Mann-Whitney; estrés percibido con el H-S / EAST se utilizó la prueba T; y los síntomas depresivos con el H-S / EAST se utilizó la prueba de relación de probabilidad. Resultados La edad promedio de los ancianos era de 70,39 y el 56,0%, había un mayor riesgo de violación de los derechos personales, características de vulnerabilidad y situaciones potencialmente abusivas. Los factores asociados con un mayor riesgo de violación de los derechos personales en los ancianos fueron la edad más avanzada, el estrés percibido y los síntomas de depresión de leve a severa. Conclusión e implicación para la práctica Estos resultados muestran, por lo tanto, la importancia de la observación cuidadosa de los ancianos por parte de la enfermera para permitir la identificación del riesgo de violencia o violación de los derechos. Esto permite establecer acciones preventivas, coordinadas con la participación de los demás profesionales, así como la derivación correcta de cada situación, el cumplimiento del deber legal de la profesión y el rol ciudadano.


Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence and factors associated with violence in hospitalized elderly. Method Cross-sectional study conducted with 100 hospitalized elderly. The following instruments were applied: H-S / EAST, Perceived Stress Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Descriptive analysis was used for the sociodemographic and clinic characteristics. To associate age with H-S / EAST, the Mann-Whitney test was used; perceived stress with H-S / EAST the T test was used; and depressive symptoms with H-S / EAST the Likelihood Ratio test was used. Results The average age of the elderly was 70.39 and 56.0%, there was an increased risk for violation of personal rights, characteristics of vulnerability and potentially abusive situations. The factors associated with increased risk for violation of personal rights or direct abuse in the elderly were older age, perceived stress and symptoms of mild to severe depression. Conclusion and implication for practice These results show, the importance of careful observation of the elderly by the nurse to allow the identification of risk for violence or violation of rights. This allows establishing preventive actions, coordinated with the participation of other professionals as well as the correct referral of each situation, compliance with the legal duty of the profession and the citizen role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Stress, Psychological , Depression/epidemiology , Elder Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Social Vulnerability
13.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e062, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251133

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Mental health was included as one of the top ten health indicators and studies have shown it is related to religiosity and spirituality (R/S). Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the degree of R/S of medical students influences anxiety and depression disorders during undergraduate school. Method: This study was carried out with a convenience non-probabilistic sample, consisting of 298 students. The Duke Religiosity Index in Brazilian Portuguese (P-DUREL) was used in questionnaire form, whereas, to map depression, anxiety and stress, DASS-21 was applied. Results: It was demonstrated that the different dimensions of religiosity have no association with the students' emotional disorders, anxiety and stress. Conclusions: It is possible to propose recommendations for future research, so that the results can be used in meta-analysis studies. Studies that did not show a significant association between the variables cannot be neglected, so that the positive and negative dimensions of the association between R/S and mental health can be investigated.


Resumo: Introdução: A saúde mental foi incluída como um dos dez principais indicadores de saúde, e estudos demonstraram sua relação com religiosidade e espiritualidade (R/E). Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o grau de R/E dos acadêmicos de Medicina influencia em transtornos de ansiedade e depressão no decorrer da graduação. Método: Este trabalho foi realizado com uma amostra não probabilística, por conveniência, constituída de 298 acadêmicos. Utilizou-se, na forma de questionários, o Índice de Religiosidade de Duke em português brasileiro (P-DUREL), e, para mapeamento de depressão, ansiedade e estresse, aplicou-se a DASS-21. Resultado: Foi demonstrado que as diferentes dimensões da religiosidade não possuem associação com os transtornos emocionais depressão, ansiedade e estresse dos estudantes. Conclusões: É possível propor recomendações para pesquisas futuras, de modo que os resultados possam ser utilizados em estudos de metanálise. Estudos que não apresentaram relação significativa entre as variáveis não podem ser negligenciados para que sejam investigadas as dimensões positivas e negativas da associação entre R/E e saúde mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Religion and Medicine , Students, Medical/psychology , Spirituality , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Psychological Distress
14.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 34: 17, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: One of the most serious socio-educational measures for children and adolescents in conflict with the law in Brazil is their internment. This measure may represent an additional source of stress to this population and present significant impacts in the mental health context. This study aims to describe anxiety levels, depression, and addictive consumption, as well as to estimate the causalities and interactions of these variables. Methods: Herein, we report a study in which 175 male juveniles from youth detention institutions of the Federal District voluntarily completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a short self-rating questionnaire asking whether and how often they had experienced cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard" psychotropic drugs (e.g., crack, cocaine, amphetamine) 1 year prior to institutionalization. Results: Of the total participants, 28.00% showed moderate to severe depression scores and 34.28% showed moderate to severe anxiety scores. In addition, the vast majority of participants also reported some antecedent drug abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard drugs." The BDI scores moderately correlated with BAI, but none of these parameters considerably correlated with the antecedent drug abuse. Conclusions: The data indicate potentially concerning levels of emotional distress in these institutionalized juveniles which seem to be independent of addictive behaviors. These data deserve attention and further investigation. Thus, a need for preventative mental health for the general population and socio-educational intervention aimed at interned youth which can decrease levels of emotional stress is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Adolescent, Institutionalized/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Brazil , Mental Health , Adolescent, Institutionalized/statistics & numerical data
15.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 15(1): 63-71, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281434

ABSTRACT

La literatura ha estudiado los efectos de anteriores epidemias en la salud mental de la población. En el contexto de la actual pandemia COVID-19, resulta de interés estudiar lo publicado referente a esta temática, considerando que, a diferencia de epidemias recientes, la actual se ha presentado a nivel mundial, con mayores cifras de contagio y mortalidad, con períodos de restricciones sociales más prolongados, alterando diversas dimensiones en la vida de la población. Las distintas implicaciones de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental y las enfermedades psiquiátricas se recopilaron, de forma general, mediante la literatura publicada en PubMed durante los primeros meses de pandemia. La literatura evidencia que la actual pandemia ha influido negativamente en diversas dimensiones de la salud mental de la población general y específicas. Otras implicaciones revisadas son: abuso de alcohol y drogas, reacciones de duelo, agravamiento de trastornos mentales previos, y el rol e importancia de las redes sociales, servicios de salud mental y telepsiquiatría, entre otros.


The literature has studied the effects of previous epidemics on the mental health of the population. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is of interest to study what has been published regarding this issue, considering that unlike recent epidemics, the current one has occurred worldwide, with higher numbers of contagion and mortality, with periods of longer social restrictions, altering various dimensions in the life of the population. The different implications of the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health and psychiatric diseases were collected in a general form, using the literature published in PubMed during the first months of the pandemic. The literature shows that the current pandemic has negatively influenced various dimensions of mental health in the general and specific population. Other implications reviewed are: alcohol and drugs, grief, patients with previous mental disorders, social networks, mental health services, telepsychiatry, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Depression/epidemiology , Social Networking , Mental Health Services
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3480, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341516

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate associations between depressive symptoms during pregnancy, low birth weight, and prematurity among women with low-risk pregnancies assisted in public Primary Health Care services. Method: prospective cohort with 193 pregnant women, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, telephone interviews, and medical records available in the health services. Associations of interest were obtained using the Cox regression model. Results: the participants were aged 24.9 years old (median) and had 11 years of schooling (median); 82.4% lived with their partners, and gestational age at the birth was 39 weeks (median). Twenty-five percent of the participants scored ≥13 on the Edinburgh scale. Depressive symptoms did not appear associated with low birth weight (RR=2.06; CI95%=0.56-7.61) or prematurity (RR=0.86; CI95%=0.24-3.09) in the adjusted analysis. However, premature labor increased the risk of low birth weight (RR=4.81; CI95%=1.01-23.0) and prematurity (RR=7.70; CI95%=2.50-23.7). Additionally, each week added to gestational age decreased the risk of low birth weight (RR=0.76; CI95%=0.61-0.95). Conclusion: the presence of depressive symptoms among women with low-risk pregnancies was not associated with low birth weight or prematurity.


Objetivo: investigar a associação entre sintomas depressivos na gestação, baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade entre gestantes de baixo risco obstétrico, atendidas em serviços públicos de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: coorte prospectiva com 193 gestantes, mediante aplicação da Escala de Depressão Pós-natal de Edimburgo, entrevista telefônica e consulta aos prontuários dos serviços de saúde. As associações de interesse foram obtidas por regressão múltipla de Cox. Resultados: as participantes tinham idade mediana de 24,9 anos e escolaridade mediana de 11 anos; 82,4% viviam com companheiro e a idade gestacional mediana no parto foi 39 semanas. Auferiram escore ≥13 na Escala de Edimburgo 25,4% delas. Na análise ajustada, sintomas depressivos não se associaram ao baixo peso ao nascer (RR=2,06; IC95%=0,56-7,61) e à prematuridade (RR=0,86; IC95%=0,24-3,09). Secundariamente, identificouse que trabalho de parto prematuro aumentou o risco de baixo peso ao nascer (RR=4,81; IC95%=1,01-23,0) e de prematuridade (RR=7,70; IC95%=2,50-23,7). Além disso, cada semana a mais na idade gestacional diminuiu o risco de baixo peso ao nascer (RR=0,76; IC95%=0,61-0,95). Conclusão: a presença de sintomas depressivos entre gestantes de baixo risco obstétrico não se associou ao risco de baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade.


Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre síntomas depresivos en la gestación con bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad entre embarazadas, de bajo riesgo obstétrico, atendidas en servicios públicos de Atención Primaria a la Salud. Método: cohorte prospectiva en 193 embarazadas, utilizando la Escala de Depresión Posparto de Edimburgo, por medio de entrevista telefónica y consulta en las fichas médicas de los servicios de salud. Las asociaciones de interés fueron obtenidas con la regresión múltiple de Cox. Resultados: las participantes tuvieron edad mediana de 24,9 años y escolaridad mediana de 11 años; 82,4% vivían con compañero y la edad gestacional mediana en el parto fue 39 semanas. 25,4% de las mujeres obtuvieron un puntaje ≥13, en la Escala de Edimburgo. En el análisis ajustado, los síntomas depresivos no se asociaron al bajo peso al nacer (RR=2,06; IC95%=0,56-7,61) y a la prematuridad (RR=0,86; IC95%=0,24-3,09). Secundariamente, se identificó que el trabajo de parto prematuro aumentó el riesgo de bajo peso al nacer (RR=4,81; IC95%=1,01-23,0) y de prematuridad (RR=7,70; IC95%=2,50-23,7). Además de eso, se encontró que cada semana a más en la edad gestacional disminuye el riesgo de bajo peso al nacer (RR=0,76; IC95%=0,61-0,95). Conclusión: la presencia de síntomas depresivos entre embarazadas de bajo riesgo obstétrico no se asoció al riesgo de bajo peso al nacer y a la prematuridad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Primary Health Care , Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Gestational Age , Depression, Postpartum , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20200370, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1147020

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência de sintomas depressão, ansiedade e fatores associados em profissionais da equipe de enfermagem durante a pandemia da Covid-19. Métodos: Estudo seccional do tipo web survey, com 490 com profissionais de enfermagem dos serviços de média e alta complexidade em um estado do nordeste do Brasil. A associação entre os desfechos e as variáveis independentes foi através do teste de qui-quadrado de Rao-Scott e do modelo de regressão de Poisson. Resultados: A ocorrência de sintomas sugestivos de transtornos mentais (ansiedade e depressão) estava relacionada a profissionais de enfermagem do sexo feminino, cor ou raça parda, com renda mensal inferior a 5 salários mínimos que trabalhavam no setor privado, ter sintomas de Síndrome de Burnout e morar com os pais. As ocorrências foram mais acentuadas quando os serviços não apresentavam condições adequadas de trabalho, em especial para o enfrentamento da pandemia de Covid-19. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: Ações que visem à melhoria das condições de trabalho e que estimulem a prática de atividades físicas podem ser benéficas para o a manutenção e fortalecimento das condições de saúde mental dessa população


Objective: To analyze the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and associated factors in Nursing staff during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional web survey study, with 490 Nursing professionals from medium and high complexity services in a state in northeastern Brazil. The association between the outcomes and the independent variables was through the Rao-Scott chi-square test and the Poisson regression model. Results: The occurrence of symptoms suggestive of mental disorders (anxiety and depression) was related to female Nursing professionals, brown skin color or race, with a monthly income below 5 minimum wages and working in the private sector, having symptoms of the Burnout Syndrome and live with their parents. The occurrences were more accentuated when the services did not have adequate working conditions, especially for coping with the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion and implications for practice: Actions that aim to improve the working conditions and that encourage the practice of physical activities can be beneficial for the maintenance and strengthening of the mental health conditions of this population


Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y factores asociados en el personal de enfermería durante la pandemia de Covid-19. Métodos: Estudio de encuesta web seccional, con 490 profesionales de enfermería de servicios de mediana y alta complejidad en un estado del noreste de Brasil. La asociación entre los resultados y las variables independientes se realizó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Rao-Scott y el modelo de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La ocurrencia de síntomas sugestivos de trastornos mentales (ansiedad y depresión) se relacionó con mujeres profesionales de enfermería, de color o raza morena, con ingresos mensuales inferiores a 5 salarios mínimos que trabajaban en el sector privado, presentaban síntomas de Síndrome de Burnout y vivían con los padres. Los episodios eran más acentuados cuando los servicios no contaban con las condiciones laborales adecuadas, especialmente para hacer frente a la pandemia Covid-19. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: Las acciones que tengan como objetivo mejorar las condiciones laborales y que incentiven la práctica de actividades físicas pueden ser beneficiosas para el mantenimiento y fortalecimiento de las condiciones de salud mental de esta población


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Clinics ; 76: e2892, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies have identified correlations between the psychological characteristics of individuals with primary hyperhidrosis (HH), the degree of sweating, and the quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with HH before and after oxybutynin treatment. METHODS: Data were collected from 81 patients. Palmar or axillary HH was the most frequent complaint (84.0%). All patients were evaluated before the medication was prescribed and after five weeks of treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Improvement in HH occurred in 58 patients (71.6%), but there was no improvement in 23 patients (28.4%). The QoL before treatment in all patients was either "poor" or "very poor." Patients who experienced improvement in sweating rates also experienced a greater improvement in QoL than patients who did not experience improvement in sweating at the main site (87.9% vs. 34.7%) (p<0.001). A total of 19.7% of patients showed an improvement in their level of depression, and a total of 46.9% of patients exhibited improvements in their level of anxiety. A significant correlation was observed between sweating and anxiety (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Patients with HH who experienced improvements in sweating immediately after treatment with oxybutynin exhibited small improvements in their levels of depression and significant improvements in their levels of anxiety and QoL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Hyperhidrosis/drug therapy , Anxiety , Sweating , Treatment Outcome , Muscarinic Antagonists , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Mandelic Acids
19.
Clinics ; 76: e3007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic brought abrupt changes when quarantine measures were implemented. Most medical students had distance learning as their main content delivery mode, but in clerkship (fifth and sixth years), in-person activities were maintained under new protocols. These different modes may have affected student mental health. This study examines mental burden and empathy in medical students during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic according to the year of attendance. METHODS: All students attending first to the sixth year in the same medical school were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were provided. RESULTS: HADS scores for Anxiety and Depression (n=347) were 9.8±4.3 and 7.1±3.6, respectively; the SRQ-20 (n=373) score was 8.1±4.5; all scores were negatively correlated with the year of attendance. IRI (n=373) scores were: 2.6±0.5 (Empathic Concern), 2.7±0.7 (Perspective Taking), 2.5±0.9 (Fantasy), and 1.7±0.7 (Personal Distress). Fantasy was negatively correlated with the year of attendance. MAAS scores were positively correlated with the year of attendance. Worse mental health scores were found for first-year students across all scales. CONCLUSIONS: We found high levels of mental burden in medical students in the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in first-year students, who may have fewer resources to deal with stress. Moreover, as they entered college a short time before the pandemic, they were unable to experience academic life fully or create important new social support networks to deal with adversities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Quarantine , Mental Health , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(1): e021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155920

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) imply psychological distress, interfering with daily activities, interpersonal relationships and quality of life. It is estimated that CMDs affect 9% to 12% of the world's population and 12% to 15% of the Brazilian population in all age groups. Among different social groups, university students are more vulnerable to the development of anxiety and depression disorders. Objective: Therefore, this study proposed to estimate the prevalence rates and factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in medical students in a capital city of northeast Brazil. Methods: This is a prevalence study, with a probabilistic sample of 1,339 students who regularly attended the 12 semesters of medical school in January 2018. Data were collected by applying a socioeconomic, behavioral and demographic survey and Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories. The chi-square test was used to check for differences between anxiety and depression symptoms and socioeconomic and behavioral variables. The prevalence rates (total and by level of severity) and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) were used as an association measure. Linear trend analysis was used to verify the existence of an association between anxiety and depression symptoms and semesters of the medical school. The variables that showed a crude PR with p <0.20 were incorporated into the multivariate analysis, using the robust Poisson regression model, to determine the adjusted PR. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety was 30.8%, whereas depression was 36.0%. The crude and adjusted PR for anxiety symptoms showed a statistically significant association with gender, age and sexual orientation. The crude and adjusted PR for symptoms of depression showed a statistically significant association with gender, ethnicity/skin color and sexual orientation. The correlation analyses between the semesters of the course and the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms indicated a weak coefficient of determination, with a descending characteristic and without statistical significance. Conclusions: As this is a prevalence study, this investigation does not allow conclusions on causality. Additional follow-up studies are needed to elucidate the course of anxiety and depression throughout the school semesters.


Resumo: Introdução: Os transtornos mentais comuns (TMC) implicam sofrimento psíquico e interferem nas atividades diárias, nos relacionamentos interpessoais e na qualidade de vida. Estima-se que os TMC atinjam de 9% a 12% da população mundial e de 12% a 15% da brasileira em todas as faixas etárias. Dentre os diferentes grupos sociais, os estudantes universitários possuem maior vulnerabilidade para desenvolver transtornos de ansiedade e depressão. Objetivo: Diante disso, este estudo se propôs a estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados a sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em estudantes de Medicina de uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de prevalência, com uma amostra probabilística dos 1.339 alunos que frequentavam regularmente os 12 semestres do curso de Medicina em janeiro de 2018. Os dados foram coletados por meio da aplicação de questionário socioeconômico, comportamental e demográfico e dos Inventários de Ansiedade e de Depressão de Beck. Utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado para verificação de diferenças entre sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e variáveis socioeconômicas e comportamentais e as prevalências (total e por nível de gravidade) e a razão de prevalência (RP) bruta e ajustada como medida de associação. A análise de tendência linear foi empregada para verificar a existência de relação entre sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e semestres do curso. As variáveis que apresentaram RP bruta com p < 0,20 foram incorporadas na análise multivaridada, no modelo de regressão de Poisson robusto, para determinação da RP ajustada. Resultados: Quanto à prevalência de sintomas, constatou-se o seguinte: 30,8% para ansiedade e 36,0% para depressão. A RP bruta e ajustada para sintomas de ansiedade teve associação estatisticamente significante para sexo, idade e orientação sexual. A RP bruta e ajustada para sintomas de depressão teve associação estatisticamente significante para sexo, raça/cor da pele e orientação sexual. As análises de correlação entre os semestres do curso e a presença de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão indicaram fraco coeficiente de determinação, caráter descendente e sem significância estatística. Conclusões: Por se tratar de um estudo de prevalência, esta investigação não possibilita conclusões sobre causalidade. Estudos de acompanhamento adicionais são necessários para elucidar o curso da ansiedade e depressão ao longo dos semestres letivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Depression/diagnosis
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