Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 520
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986866


OBJECTIVE@#The prevalence of depressive symptoms has become a significant public health issue in China. Research on the relationship between personality traits and changes in depressive symptoms, as well as further exploration of urban-rural differences, not only benefits for the understanding of the prevalence trend of depression in China, but also provides a useful reference for the government to develop personalized mental health prevention strategies.@*METHODS@#Based on the data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2018 and 2020, a univariate analysis was conducted on 16 198 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above. Five dimensions of personality traits were conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism and openness. In the study, 16 198 residents were divided into "keep good group", "better group", "worse group" and "keep bad group" according to the changes in depressive symptoms in 2018 and 2020. After controlling for factors, such as gender and education, multinomial Logistic regression analysis was used to examine whether personality traits were associated with changes in depressive symptoms. In addition, we evaluated whether urban-rural and personality traits interacted to influence depressive symptoms.@*RESULTS@#The five dimensions of personality traits were significantly correlated with changes in depressive symptoms. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and agreeableness were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, while neuroticism and openness were positively related. Urban and rural differences moderated the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms. Compared with urban residents, rural residents showed stronger correlations between neuroticism (OR=1.14; 95%CI: 1.00-1.30) and the group of depression-recovery, as well as conscientiousness (OR=0.79;95%CI: 0.68-0.93) and the group of persistent-depression.@*CONCLUSION@#The study finds that personality traits have a significant correlation with changes in depressive symptoms, with certain traits showing a negative or positive relationship. Specifically, higher levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness are associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, while higher levels of neuroticism and openness are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, the study finds that rural residents have a stronger association between their personality traits and persistent or improved depressive symptoms, which highlights the need for tailoring mental health intervention and prevention programs that should take into account personality traits and urban-rural differences in China. By developing targeted strategies that are sensitive to personality differences and geographic disparities, policymakers and mental health professionals can help prevent and reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms, ultimately improving the overall well-being of Chinese adults. Meanwhile, additional studies in independent populations are needed to corroborate the findings of this study.

Adult , Humans , Personality , Depression/etiology , China/epidemiology , Personality Inventory , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981078


OBJECTIVE@#We aimed to explore the association between obesity and depression and the role of systemic inflammation in older adults.@*METHODS@#Adults ≥ 65 years old ( n = 1,973) were interviewed at baseline in 2018 and 1,459 were followed up in 2021. General and abdominal obesity were assessed, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured at baseline. Depression status was assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between obesity and the incidence of depression and worsening of depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between obesity and CRP levels. The associations of CRP levels with the geriatric depression scale, as well as with its three dimensions, were investigated using multiple linear regressions.@*RESULTS@#General obesity was associated with worsening depression symptoms and incident depression, with an odds ratio ( OR) [95% confidence interval ( CI)] of 1.53 (1.13-2.12) and 1.80 (1.23-2.63), especially among old male subjects, with OR (95% CI) of 2.12 (1.25-3.58) and 2.24 (1.22-4.11), respectively; however, no significant relationship was observed between abdominal obesity and depression. In addition, general obesity was associated with high levels of CRP, with OR (95% CI) of 2.58 (1.75-3.81), especially in subjects free of depression at baseline, with OR (95% CI) of 3.15 (1.97-5.04), and CRP levels were positively correlated with a score of specific dimension (life satisfaction) of depression, P < 0.05.@*CONCLUSION@#General obesity, rather than abdominal obesity, was associated with worsening depressive symptoms and incident depression, which can be partly explained by the systemic inflammatory response, and the impact of obesity on depression should be taken more seriously in the older male population.

Humans , Male , Aged , Depression/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/complications
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 379-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981014


The present article was aimed to compare the effectiveness of different induction methods for depression models. Kunming mice were randomly divided into chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group, corticosterone (CORT) group, and CUMS+CORT (CC) group. The CUMS group received CUMS stimulation for 4 weeks, and the CORT group received subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg CORT into the groin every day for 3 weeks. The CC group received both CUMS stimulation and CORT administration. Each group was assigned a control group. After modeling, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to detect the behavioral changes of mice, and the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and CORT were detected with ELISA kits. Attenuated total refraction (ATR) spectra of mouse serum were collected and analyzed. HE staining was used to detect morphological changes in mouse brain tissue. The results showed that the weight of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups decreased significantly. There was no significant change in immobility time of model mice from the three groups in FST and TST, while the glucose preference of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The serum 5-HT levels of model mice from the CORT and CC groups were significantly reduced, while the serum BDNF and CORT levels of model mice from the CUMS, CORT, and CC groups showed no significant changes. Compared with their respective control groups, the three groups showed no significant difference in the one-dimensional spectrum of serum ATR. The difference spectrum analysis results of the first derivative of the spectrogram showed that the CORT group had the greatest difference from its respective control group, followed by the CUMS group. The structures of hippocampus in the model mice from the three groups were all destroyed. These results suggest that both CORT and CC treatments can successfully construct a depression model, and the CORT model is more effective than the CC model. Therefore, CORT induction can be used to establish a depression model in Kunming mice.

Mice , Animals , Depression/etiology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Serotonin
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971058


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the association between maternal job burnout and adolescent depression and the mediating effect of maternal depression and parenting style.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted. The cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 572 adolescents from 7 middle schools in Shanghai, China, from April to May, 2021. A survey was performed for these adolescents and their mothers. The research tools included a general information questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, short-form of Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, and Children's Depression Inventory. A structural equation model was established, and the Bootstrap method was used to investigate the mediating effect.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 12.71% (327/2 572) among the adolescents. The scores of maternal job burnout, maternal depression, and negative parenting style were positively correlated with the score of adolescent depression (P<0.05), and the score of positive parenting style was negatively correlated with the score of adolescent depression (P<0.05). Maternal depression and parenting style played a mediating role between maternal job burnout and adolescent depression, including the individual mediating effect of maternal depression, the individual mediating effect of positive parenting style, and the chain mediating effect of maternal depression-negative/positive parenting style.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Maternal job burnout may affect adolescent depression through the mediating effect of depression, parenting style, and depression-parenting style, suggesting that the symptoms of adolescent depression can be reduced by alleviating maternal job burnout, improving maternal depression, increasing positive parenting behaviors, and reducing negative parenting behaviors.

Child , Adolescent , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Parenting , China , Burnout, Psychological
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969941


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture (acupuncture for regulating mind and relieving depression) combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet and simple sertraline hydrochloride tablet for post-stroke depression (PSD).@*METHODS@#A total of 76 patients with PSD were randomized into an observation group (38 cases, 6 cases dropped off) and a control group (38 cases, 4 cases dropped off). Both groups were treated with conventional treatment i.e. controlling blood pressure and anti-inflammation. Sertraline hydrochloride tablet was given orally in the control group, 20 mg a time, once a day. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 24+), Neiguan (PC 6), Taichong (LR 3), etc. in the observation group, Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 24+) were connected to electroacupuncture, with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, 30 min a time, once a day, 6 times a week. Treatment of 8 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were observed respectively, the therapeutic efficacy and rate of adverse reactions were evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI were lower while BI scores were higher than those before treatment in both groups (P<0.05); the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI in the observation group were lower while BI score was higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.8% (30/32) in the observation group, which was higher than 70.6% (24/34) in the control group (P<0.05). The rate of adverse reactions was 9.4% (3/32) in the observation group, which was lower than 32.4% (11/34) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet can improve the depression degree, neurological function, activity of daily living and sleep quality in patients with post-stroke depression, the clinical efficacy is superior to simple sertraline hydrochloride, and can alleviate the adverse reactions caused by medication.

Humans , Sertraline/adverse effects , Depression/etiology , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture , Stroke/complications , Acupuncture Points , Treatment Outcome , Tablets
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969940


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the therapeutic efficacy of governor vessel moxibustion combined with fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule, simple fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule and placebo moxibustion combined with fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule for mild to moderate depression with kidney-yang deficiency.@*METHODS@#A total of 126 patients with mild to moderate depression with kidney-yang deficiency were randomized into a governor vessel moxibustion group (42 cases, 2 cases dropped off), a western medication group (42 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a placebo moxibustion group (42 cases, 1 case dropped off). The western medication group was given fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule orally, 20 mg a time, once a day. On the basis of the treatment in the western medication group, governor vessel moxibustion was applied from Dazhui (GV 14) to Yaoshu (GV 2) in the governor vessel moxibustion group, once a week; placebo moxibustion was applied in the placebo moxibustion group, once a week. Treatment of 8 weeks was required in the 3 groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17), Asberg's rating scale for side effects (SERS) and TCM clinical symptom were compared, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of HAMD-17, SERS and TCM clinical symptom were decreased compared before treatment in the 3 groups (P<0.05), the decrease ranges of above scores in the governor vessel moxibustion group were larger than those in the western medication group and the placebo moxibustion group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 92.5% (37/40) in the governor vessel moxibustion group, which was higher than 75.6% (31/41) in the western medication group and 80.5% (33/41) in the placebo moxibustion group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Governor vessel moxibustion combined with fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule can improve the degree of depression and relieve the clinical symptoms in mild to moderate depression patients with kidney-yang deficiency, the efficacy is superior to simple fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule, and can reduce the fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule-induced adverse effect to a certain extent.

Humans , Moxibustion , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy , Depression/etiology , Fluoxetine , Acupuncture Points , Kidney
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441575


Introducción: El internado odontológico tiene como principal objetivo permitir al alumno tomar contacto con un ambiente hospitalario. Sin embargo, se reportan algunos problemas que lo desmotivan y sobresaturan. Objetivo: Determinar la relación de la resiliencia y los síntomas depresivos en internos de Odontología. Métodos: Estudio transversal y observacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 51 estudiantes, que cursaban el internado hospitalario en Lima, Perú (noviembre de 2019). Se utilizó la escala de autoevaluación para la depresión (10 ítems, respuestas Likert con puntuación del 1 a 4) y la escala de resiliencia (14 ítems, respuestas Likert con puntuación del 1 a 7). Las puntuaciones fueron relacionadas a través de la correlación de Spearman; mientras que el Odds ratio se utilizó para estimar la asociación entre la presencia de depresión, la resiliencia alta y el sexo. Resultados: La puntuación promedio de los síntomas depresivos fue de 21,62 ± 2,55, siendo mayor en los varones (22,52 ± 2,27). No se encontró correlación entre las puntuaciones de los síntomas depresivos y la resiliencia (p = 0,082). Los varones presentaron mayor riesgo de síntomas depresivos (OR = 2,143 IC95 por ciento:1,065 - 4,313). No se encontró asociación significativa en la presencia de resiliencia alta y el sexo (p = 0,087). Conclusiones: El 40 por ciento de los internos presentó síntomas depresivos, siendo más frecuente en varones, mientras que un 80 por ciento presentó resiliencia alta, más frecuentes en mujeres. No se encontró correlación entre las puntuaciones de los síntomas depresivos y la resiliencia(AU)

Introduction: The main objective of the dental internship is to allow the student to make contact with a hospital environment. However, some problems are reported that demotivate and oversaturate students. Objective: Determine the relationship between resilience and depressive symptoms in dental interns. Methods: Cross-sectional and observational study. The sample was made up of 51 students, who were in the hospital insternishp in Lima, Peru (November 2019). The self-assessment scale for depression (10 items, Likert responses with a score from 1 to 4) and the resilience scale (14 items, Likert responses with a score from 1 to 7). The scores were related through the Spearman correlation; while the Odds ratio was used to estimate the association between the presence of depression, high resilience and sex. Results: The mean score for depressive symptoms was 21.62 ± 2.55, higher in men (22.52 ± 2.27). No correlation was found between depressive symptom scores and resilience (p = 0.082). Males were at increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR=2.14395 percent CI: 1.065-4.313). No significant association was found in the presence of high resilience and sex (p = 0.087). Conclusions: 40 percent of the interns presented depressive symptoms, being more frequent in men, while 80 percent presented high resilience, more frequent in women. No correlation was found between depressive symptom scores and resilience(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Depression/etiology , Internship and Residency , Peru , Students, Dental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
São Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 406-411, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377398


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Frailty is consensually understood to be a clinical syndrome in which minimal stressors can lead to negative outcomes such as hospitalization, early institutionalization, falls, functional loss and death. Frailty is more prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and those on dialysis are the frailest. Depression contributes towards putting patients with CKD into the frailty cycle. OBJECTIVE: To assess frailty and its relationship with depression among patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational and quantitative cross-sectional study conducted in a renal therapy unit, located in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This investigation took place in 2019, among 80 patients. The following instruments were applied: a sociodemographic, economic and health condition characterization and the Subjective Frailty Assessment (SFA) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among the patients, there was higher prevalence of females, individuals with a steady partner and retirees, and their mean age was 59.63 (± 15.14) years. There was high prevalence of physical frailty (73.8%) and depression (93.7%). Depression was associated with frailty, such that patients with depression were 9.8 times more likely to be frail than were patients without depression (odds ratio, OR = 9.80; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.93-49.79). CONCLUSION: Based on the proposed objective and the results achieved, it can be concluded that depression was associated with the presence of frailty among patients with CKD on hemodialysis.

Humans , Female , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Frailty/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frail Elderly , Renal Dialysis , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 177-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927593


This paper was aimed to investigate the effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior induced by chronic water immersion restraint stress (CWIRS) and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received CWIRS to induce depression-like behavior and 4-week voluntary wheel running exercise. Meanwhile, the rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or STAT3 over-expression vector (pcDNA-STAT3) by intracerebroventricular injection. Behavioral tests were used to detect depression-like behavior. ELISA assay was used to detect levels of various inflammatory factors in the rat hippocampus. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) and total STAT3 (t-STAT3). The results showed that, compared with stress group, stress + exercise group exhibited improved depression-like behavior, decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels, increased IL-4 and IL-10 levels, down-regulated Iba-1 and iNOS protein expression levels, up-regulated Arg1 protein expression level, and decreased p-STAT3/t-STAT3 ratio in hippocampal tissue. LPS reversed the improving effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, and the over-expression of STAT3 reversed the promoting effects of voluntary wheel running on M2 polarization of microglial cells in rat hippocampus and depression-like behavior. These results suggest that voluntary wheel running ameliorates the depression-like behavior induced by CWIRS in rats, and the mechanism may be related to regulating hippocampal microglia polarization via STAT3 signaling pathway.

Animals , Rats , Depression/etiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Motor Activity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927374


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period.@*METHODS@#Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.

Humans , Acupuncture Points , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
Psicol. USP ; 33: e210159, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1406393


Resumo Esta revisão integrativa objetivou reunir estudos sobre a depressão em pessoas sob aprisionamento no sistema carcerário. As bases de dados pesquisadas foram PePSIC, PsycINFO, SciELO e Web of Science. As ferramentas de suporte para a extração dos artigos selecionados foram o programa computacional StArt e as recomendações Prisma. Os termos usados na busca eletrônica foram "inmate", "prison", "prisoner", "penitentiary" e "depression". A amostra final foi composta por 10 estudos primários, os quais atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e à questão norteadora da revisão. Dentre os achados, a ocorrência de depressão foi evidente em todos os artigos selecionados, e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck foi o instrumento mais utilizado. Por fim, percebeu-se que a identificação precoce de sintomatologia depressiva pode minimizar prejuízos físicos e mentais na população em encarceramento.

Abstract This integrative review analyzed studies about depression among people imprisoned in the prison system. Bibliographic search was conducted on the PePSIC, PsycINFO, SciELO and Web of Science databases. Papers were selected following the PRISMA recommendations, and then extracted using the StArt software. The search strategy used the terms "inmate," "prison," "prisoner," "penitentiary" and "depression," The final sample included 10 primary studies that met the inclusion criteria and answered the research question. All selected articles indicated the occurrence of depression, assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Finally, early identification of depressive symptoms can minimize physical and mental harm in the incarcerated population.

Résumé Cette revue intégrative a analysé les études sur la dépression chez les personnes incarcérées dans le système pénitentiaire. Une recherche bibliographique a été menée sur les bases de données PePSIC, PsycINFO, SciELO et Web of Science. Les articles ont été sélectionnés en suivant les recommendations PRISMA, puis extraits à l'aide du logiciel StArt. La stratégie de recherche utilisait les termes "détenu", "prison", "prisonnier", "pénitencier" et "dépression". L'échantillon final comprenait 10 études primaires répondant aux critères d'inclusion et à la question de recherche. Tous les articles sélectionnés indiquaient la survenue d'une dépression, évaluée par l'inventaire de dépression de Beck. Enfin, l'identification précoce des symptômes dépressifs peut minimiser les dommages physiques et mentaux au sein de la population carcérale.

Resumen Esta revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo reunir estudios sobre la depresión en personas encarceladas en el sistema penitenciario. Las bases de datos buscadas fueron PePSIC, PsycINFO, SciELO y Web of Science. Se utilizaron el programa informático StArt como herramienta de apoyo para la extracción de los artículos seleccionados y las recomendaciones PRISMA. Los términos utilizados en la búsqueda electrónica fueron: "inmate", "prison", "prisoner", "penitentiary" y "depression". La muestra final estaba compuesta por 10 estudios primarios, que cumplían los criterios de inclusión y la pregunta guía de la revisión. Entre los hallazgos, la depresión fue evidente en todos los artículos seleccionados y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck fue el instrumento más utilizado. Finalmente, se percibió que la identificación temprana de la sintomatología depresiva puede minimizar los daños físicos y mentales en la población encarcelada.

Prisoners , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Prisons , Systematic Review
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220020, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406929


ABSTRACT Objective This study was conducted to determine the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and to define the relationship between vitamin D levels and obesity, depression, and pain intensity. Methods This study was conducted with 69 patients (Male = 32, Female = 37) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis. The participants' 25(OH)D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. In addition, bone metabolic status, including bone mineral density and bone turnover markers, was also evaluated. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to determine the depression statuses of the patients, while the McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire was administered to measure pain intensity. The results were evaluated at a significance level of p<0.05. Results Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was found in 76.8% of the patients. Binary logistic regression analysis showed a significantly higher frequency of vitamin D deficiency in patients who: 1) had higher body mass indexes (OR 3.197, 95% CI 1.549-6.599); 2) fared higher in Beck's depression score (OR 1.817, 95% CI 1.027-3.217); and 3) were female rather than male (OR 1.700, 95% CI 0.931-3.224) (p<0.05). Conclusion In this study, vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in lumbar spinal stenosis patients. In addition, obese, depressed, and female individuals have higher risks of vitamin D deficiency.

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a frequência de deficiência de vitamina D em pacientes com estenose espinhal lombar e para definir a relação entre os níveis de vitamina D e obesidade, depressão e intensidade da dor. Métodos Este estudo foi realizado com 69 pacientes (homens = 32, mulheres = 37) diagnosticados com estenose espinhal lombar. Os níveis de 25(OH)D dos participantes foram medidos por radioimunoensaio. Além disso, o estado metabólico ósseo, incluindo densidade mineral óssea e marcadores de remodelação óssea, também foi avaliado. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck foi usado para determinar os estados de depressão dos pacientes, enquanto o Questionário de Dor McGill Melzack foi aplicado para medir a intensidade da dor. Os resultados foram avaliados a um nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados A deficiência de vitamina D (<20 ng/mL) foi encontrada em 76,8% dos pacientes. A análise de regressão logística binária mostrou uma frequência significativamente maior de deficiência de vitamina D nos seguintes pacientes: 1) com maior índice de massa corporal (OR 3,197, 95% IC 1,549-6,599); 2) com maior pontuação na escala de depressão de Beck (OR 1,817, 95% IC 1,027-3,217) e 3) do sexo feminino em vez de masculino (OR 1,700, 95% IC 0,931-3,224) (p<0,05). Conclusão Neste estudo, a deficiência de vitamina D foi prevalente em pacientes com estenose espinhal lombar. Além disso, pessoas obesas, deprimidas e mulheres correm maior risco de deficiência de vitamina D.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Spinal Stenosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Pain Measurement , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Obesity/etiology
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392226


Objectives: To evaluate an explanatory model of direct and indirect associations regarding the psychological health of older caregivers of functionally dependent older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed with older caregivers recruited in contexts of outpatient and home care. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, duration of caregiving, physical and cognitive function indicators of the older care recipients, perceived burden, family functioning, and psychological health measures (psychological need satisfaction and depressive symptoms). Results: We evaluated 133 caregivers (76% female, 69.5 ± 6.98 years). Variables that were significantly correlated with psychological health were selected to form an association model to be tested by structural equation modeling via path analysis. Depressive symptom variability was best explained by this model. Caregiver burden remained in the model as a mediator of indirect associations between physical function for instrumental activities of daily living and indicators of family functioning and psychological health. Three associative paths between caregiver burden and depressive symptoms were found ­ one of them was direct and the other two were mediated whether by family functioning or by the level of psychological need satisfaction. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were the psychological health indicator best explained by the model involving instrumental functional demands that generate burden. Clinical consequences suggested by the model indicate interventions aimed at family functioning and opportunities of psychological need satisfaction as strategies for promoting caregivers' psychological health.

Objetivos: Avaliar um modelo de associações diretas e indiretas explicativo de saúde psicológica de idosos cuidadores de outros idosos funcionalmente dependentes. Metodologia: Estudo transversal realizado com idosos cuidadores recrutados em contexto ambulatorial e de atenção domiciliar. Foram levantadas informações sociodemográficas, tempo de exercício do cuidado, indicadores funcionais físicos e cognitivos dos idosos que recebem os cuidados, percepção de sobrecarga, funcionalidade familiar e medidas de saúde psicológica (satisfação de necessidades psicológicas e sintomatologia depressiva). Resultados: Foram avaliados 133 cuidadores (76% feminino, 69,5 ± 6,98 anos). As variáveis correlacionadas significativamente à saúde psicológica foram escolhidas para a composição do modelo de associações testado por análise de equações estruturais via path analysis. A variabilidade em sintomatologia depressiva foi melhor explicada pelo modelo. Sobrecarga permaneceu no modelo como mediadora das associações indiretas entre funcionalidade física para atividades instrumentais da vida diária e os indicadores de funcionalidade familiar e de saúde psicológica. Três caminhos associativos entre sobrecarga e sintomatologia depressiva foram encontrados ­ um direto e dois mediados, ora pela funcionalidade familiar, ora pelo nível de satisfação de necessidades psicológicas. Conclusão: Sintomatologia depressiva foi o indicador de saúde psicológica mais bem explicado pelo modelo que envolve a presença de demandas funcionais instrumentais geradoras de sobrecarga. Desdobramentos clínicos sugeridos pelo modelo apontam para intervenções com alvo em funcionalidade familiar e de oportunidades de satisfação de necessidades psicológicas como estratégias para promover a saúde psicológica do cuidador.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/etiology , Caregiver Burden/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 684-694, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350000


ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to compare patients with and without psychiatric disorder. Materials and methods: We made a cross-sectional study including patients with T1D assisted in the outpatient clinics of the Brazilian National Health System. To assess depression and anxiety, we used the PHQ-9 questionnaire and the DSM-5th edition criteria, respectively. B-PAID evaluated the level of emotional distress associated with diabetes; EAT-26, eating disorders; SCI-R, adherence to the proposed clinical treatment. Results: We analyzed 166 patients aged 33 (22-45.2) years, 53.6% female. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 20.5% and 40.4%, respectively. HbA1c was worse in the depressed (9.0% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.008), in the anxious ones (9.0% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.012) and in the patients with high levels of B-PAID (8.8 % vs. 8.3 %, p = 0.009). There was no difference in the prevalence of complications related to diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and emotional distress related to diabetes was high in our population of T1D patients, and depression and high levels of B-PAID were associated with the worse glycemic control.

Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Mental Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Glycemic Control
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(9): 676-681, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351775


Abstract Objective To assess the most common psychological disturbances in women with deep endometriosis and bowel involvement who are waiting surgical treatment and to evaluate what forms of coping are used to solve the problem. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study of 40 women diagnosed with deep endometriosis and intestinal symptoms. They completed two questionnaires: one for anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [ HADS]) and the Scale of Mode of Confronting Problems (EMEP, in the Portuguese acronym). Results We found that 77.1% of the patients had anxiety and depression, with anxiety being the most prevalent (87.5% of the patients); 90% of the patients used problem focused and religious introspection as their main modes of confronting problems. Conclusion In the use of the HADS questionary, two psychological aspects were the most present in women with deep endometriosis awaiting surgical treatment: anxiety and depression. The most used forms of coping to solve the problem were problem coping and religious practices.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os distúrbios psicológicos mais comuns em mulheres com endometriose profunda e acometimento intestinal que aguardam tratamento cirúrgico e avaliar as formas de enfrentamento que são usadas para resolver o problema. Métodos Estudo observacional transversal com 40 mulheres com diagnóstico de endometriose profunda e acometimento intestinal. As pacientes responderam dois questionários: para ansiedade e depressão (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS, na sigla em inglês) e outro para enfrentamento dos problemas (EMEP). Resultados Constatamos que 77% das pacientess apresentaram ansiedade e depressão, sendo a ansiedade a mais prevalente (87,5%); 90% das pacientes usaram a forma religiosa e focada no problema como sua principal estratégia de enfrentamento. Conclusão Os aspectos psicológicos mais encontrados em mulheres com endometriose profunda e intestinal que aguardam tratamento cirúrgico são ansiedade e depressão. As formas mais usadas de enfrentamento para resolver o problema foram práticas religiosas e focada no problema.

Humans , Female , Endometriosis/surgery , Endometriosis/complications , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 199-207, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353212


Las enfermedades mentales representan uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública. El consumo de alimentos ricos en antioxidantes como, frutas y verduras puede disminuir los factores de riesgo. Objetivo. Analizar la ingesta dietética y el riesgo de enfermedades mentales en adultos peruanos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 393 adultos peruanos, provenientes de las tres regiones del país (costa, sierra y selva). Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos se obtuvieron por auto reporte mediante una ficha de registro y el riesgo de enfermedades mentales se determinó con el Cuestionario de Salud General-12 (GHQ-12). Se analizaron los datos mediante el software estadístico IBM SPSS, versión 26. Se utilizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado, considerando un nivel de significancia del 5 %. Resultados. Los participantes que informaron riesgo y presencia de enfermedades mentales reportaron un consumo inadecuado de frutas, verduras y grasas saludables. El consumo adecuado de cereales integrales, frutas y verduras fue significativamente mayor en las mujeres (p<0,05). Sin embargo, más de la mitad de las mujeres demostró estar en riesgo de enfermedades mentales respecto a los hombres (p<0,001). Conclusiones. La ingesta adecuada de alimentos saludables podría resultar beneficiosa en la reducción de los riesgos de las enfermedades mentales en este grupo de población(AU)

Mental illnesses represent one of the biggest public health problems. Consuming foods rich in antioxidants such as fruits and vegetables can lower risk factors. Objective. To analyze the dietary intake and the risk of mental illnesses in Peruvian adults. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 393 Peruvian adults, who came from the three regions of the country (coast, mountains and jungle). Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were obtained through a registration form and the risk of mental illnesses was determined using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The data were analyzed using the statistical software IBM SPSS, version 26. The Chi-square test was used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results. Participants who reported risk and presence of mental illness reported inadequate consumption of fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats. Adequate consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables was significantly higher in women (p <0.05). However, more than half of the women proved to be at risk for mental illnesses compared to men (p <0.001). Conclusions. The adequate intake of healthy foods could be beneficial in reducing the risks of mental illness in this population group(AU)q

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vegetables , Depression/etiology , Diet, Healthy , Fruit , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/genetics , Antioxidants , Stress, Psychological , Risk Factors , Adult , Life Style
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 269-276, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249196


Objective: Sepsis survivors present a wide range of sequelae; few studies have evaluated psychiatric disorders after sepsis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in sepsis survivors. Method: Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in severe sepsis and septic shock survivors 24 h and 1 year after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge were assessed using the Beck Anxiety/Depression Inventories and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Differences in psychiatric symptoms over time and the influence of variables on these symptoms were calculated with marginal models. Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the study. The frequencies of anxiety, depression and PTSD 24 h after ICU discharge were 67%, 49%, and 46%, respectively and, among patients re-evaluated 1 year after ICU discharge, the frequencies were 38%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Factors associated with PTSD included serum S100B level, age, and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) score. Factors associated with depression included patient age and cumulative dose of dobutamine. IQCODE score and cumulative dose of haloperidol in the ICU were associated with anxiety after ICU discharge. Conclusion: Patients who survive sepsis have high levels of psychiatric symptoms. Sepsis and associated treatment-related exposures may have a role in increasing the risk of subsequent depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Sepsis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Survivors , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 31-36, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153098


ABSTRACT Purpose: Our goal was to analyze the prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with glaucoma and to identify risk factors related to these disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2016 and August 2017 at the Hospital das Clínicas of Universidade Estadual de Campinas and at the Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among patients diagnosed with glaucoma. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination with standard automated perimetry to confirm the diagnosis of glaucoma. All participants were asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Seventy-four were men (57.36%) and 55 (42.64%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 70.14 ± 15.8 years. Ninety participants were white (69.77%) and 38 (29.46%) were black. The study demonstrated a prevalence of depression and/or anxiety at 10.08%. Logistic regression revealed that women were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depression (OR: 5.25, p=0.015) and patients with a larger number of comorbidities also were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depressive disorders (OR: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with glaucoma present with depression and/or anxiety. Females and patients with comorbidities are at greater risk for these disorders.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de transtornos de depressão e ansiedade em pacientes com glaucoma e identificar fatores de riscos associados. Métodos: Estudo transversal em pacientes com glaucoma, avaliados durante Agosto de 2016 e Agosto de 2017 no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Campinas e no Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília. Todos pacientes foram submetidos à exame oftalmológico completo para confirmar o diagnóstico de glaucoma. Todos pacientes preencheram o questionário "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale". Resultados: Foram incluídos 129 pacientes no estudo, sendo 74 homens (57.36%) e 55 (42.64%) mulheres, 90 pacientes eram brancos (69.77%) e 38 (29.46%) eram negros. A idade média foi de 70.14 ± 15.8 anos. O estudo demonstrou uma prevalência de 10.08% de transtornos depressivo e/ou ansiedade. A regressão logística demonstrou que mulheres apresentam maior risco de desenvolver transtornos depressivos e/ou ansiedade (Risco relativo: 5.25, p=0.015), assim como pacientes com maior número de comorbidades clínicas (Risco relativo: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusão: Uma proporção significativa dos pacientes com glaucoma podem apresentar transtornos de depressão e/ou ansiedade. Pacientes com glaucoma do sexo feminino e que apresentem maiores comorbidades clínicas apresentam maior risco de apresentar esses transtornos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Glaucoma/complications , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(1): 44-50, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153141


ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that affects the central nervous system. The impact of MS transcends physical functions and extends to psychological impairment. Approximately 50% of people with MS develop depressive symptoms during their lifetime and depressive symptoms may predict impairment of physical functions. However, prediction of depressive symptoms based on objective measures of physical functions is still necessary. Objective: To compare physical functions between people with MS presenting depressive symptoms or not and to identify predictors of depressive symptoms using objective measures of physical functions. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 26 people with MS. Anxiety and/or depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Outcomes of physical functions included: the Nnnine-hole Ppeg Ttest (NHPT), knee muscle strength, balance control, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale. Results: The frequency of depressive symptoms was 42% in people with MS. Balance control during a more challenging task was impaired in people with MS who presented depressive symptoms. Balance could explain 21-24% of the variance in depressive symptoms. 6MWT and TUG presented a trend of significance explaining 16% of the variance in the BDI-II score. Conclusions: Impairment in physical functions consists in a potential predictor of depressive symptoms in people with MS. Exercise interventions aiming at the improvement of physical functions, together with the treatment of depressive symptoms and conventional medical treatment, are suggested.

RESUMO Introdução: A esclerose múltipla (EM) é uma doença imunomediada que afeta o sistema nervoso central. O impacto da doença transcende as funções físicas e se estende a comprometimento psicológico. Aproximadamente 50% das pessoas com EM desenvolvem sintomas depressivos e estes podem predizer o comprometimento das funções físicas. No entanto, a previsão de sintomas depressivos com base em medidas objetivas das funções físicas ainda é necessária. Objetivos: Comparar funções físicas entre pessoas com EM que apresentam ou não sintomas depressivos e identificar preditores de sintomas depressivos usando medidas objetivas de funções físicas. Métodos: Estudo transversal incluindo 26 pessoas com EM. A ansiedade e/ou sintomas depressivos foram avaliadas pelo Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II) e pela Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Os resultados das funções físicas incluíram: teste de PEG de nove buracos, força muscular do joelho, controle de equilíbrio, teste Timed Up and Go (TUG) e teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M). A fadiga percebida foi medida usando a escala de Borg. Resultados: A frequência de sintomas depressivos na amostra foi de 42%. O controle do equilíbrio durante tarefa desafiadora foi prejudicado em pessoas com EM e sintomas depressivos. O equilíbrio pode explicar 21-24% da variação nos sintomas depressivos. O TC6M e o TUG apresentaram tendência de significância que explica 16% da variância no escore do BDI-II. Conclusões: O comprometimento das funções físicas é potencial preditor de sintomas depressivos em pessoas com EM. São sugeridas intervenções de exercícios físicos visando melhora das funções físicas, juntamente com o tratamento médico convencional e dos sintomas depressivos.

Humans , Depression/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Time and Motion Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postural Balance
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(2): 121-128, 2021. ILUS, TAB, GRAF
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253866


Introducción: la pandemia puede generar compromiso en la salud mental y los otorrinolaringólogos son los especialistas con mayor riesgo de exposición y contagio por SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en otorrinolaringólogos de Hispanoamérica, donde se evaluaron variables socioeconómico/demográficas y su asociación con las escalas PHQ-9 y GAD-7. Resultados: se estudiaron 256 otorrinolaringólogos de dieciséis países de Hispanoamérica. La escala PHQ-9 presentó una media de 5,45 (DE 4,22). La escala GAD-7 presentó una media de 4,55 (DE 3,457). La prevalencia de depresión mayor y ansiedad fue del 14,8 % y 7 %, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los otorrinolaringólogos a los que se les ha realizado prueba con hisopado nasofaríngeo tienen una predicción significativa para presentar una puntuación alta en la escala PHQ-9 (coeficiente ß = 2,350; p=0.027). En la puntuación de la escala GAD-7, los individuos con mayor edad tienen una predicción significativa de menor puntuación en la escala (coeficiente ß = -0,144; p=0,002). Los otorrinolaringólogos con más años de experiencia (coeficiente ß = 0,909; p=0,037) y aquellos a los que les han realizado prueba de RT-PCR con hisopado nasofaríngeo para SARS-CoV-2 tienen una predicción significativa para presentar una puntuación alta en la escala GAD-7 (coeficiente ß = 2,370; p=0,027). Conclusión: en el transcurso de la pandemia, los otorrinolaringólogos de Hispanoamérica han presentado cambios drásticos de sus condiciones sociales y económicas y experimentado sus potenciales efectos en la salud mental. La exposición a al hisopado nasofaríngeo para el diagnóstico de COVID-19 fue la única variable independiente que se asoció con aumento de las puntuaciones en las escalas GAD-7 y PHQ-9.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic could affect the mental health, especially to the health workforce directly exposed to the virus. ENT surgeons have one of the highest risks of exposure and infection by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Cross-sectional study in otolaryngologists from Hispanoamerica. Socioeconomic and demographic variables were evaluated with the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 score. Results: 256 ENT surgeons from sixteen Hispanoamerican countries were studied. The PHQ-9 scale presented an average of 5.45 (SD 4.22). The GAD-7 score presented an average of 4.55 (SD 3.457). The prevalence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorders were 14.8 % and 7 %, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the otolaryngologists who have been tested by nasopharyngeal swab have a significant prediction to present a higher score on the PHQ-9 score (coefficient ß = 2.350, p=0.027), while on the GAD-7 score, older individuals have a significant prediction of lower score (coefficient ß = -0.144, p=0.002). Otolaryngologists with more years of experience (coefficient ß = 0.909, p=0.037) and those who have undergone RT-PCR testing with nasopharyngeal swab have a significant prediction to present a higher GAD-7 (coefficient ß = 2.370, p = 0.027). Conclusion: During the pandemic, otolaryngologists in Hispanoamerica have presented drastic changes in their social and economic conditions, and their potential effects on mental health. Exposure to the nasopharyngeal swab test for the diagnosis of COVID-19 was the only independent variable that was associated with higher scores on GAD-7 and PHQ-9.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mental Health , Otolaryngologists/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Patient Health Questionnaire , COVID-19/epidemiology