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3.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 130-138, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223504

ABSTRACT

La depresión y la obesidad son patologías altamente prevalentes y corresponden a los principales problemas de salud pública. Estas patologías tienen un gran impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes y afectan la salud y el bienestar de quienes las padecen, así como también afectan en el aspecto socioeconómico consecuencia del deterioro funcional y el gasto de recursos en salud ocasionados. Resultados de estudios epidemiológicos, ensayos clínicos y meta-análisis apoyan la asociación entre los estados depresivos y la obesidad, ya que ambos ocurren conjuntamente en todas las razas de poblaciones evaluadas. El objetivo es abordar la evidencia con respecto a 4 aspectos: (1) obesidad y respuesta a los antidepresivos, (2) trastornos depresivos y su impacto sobre la progresión de la obesidad, (3) tratamiento de la obesidad y el impacto sobre los resultados entre pacientes con trastornos depresivos, (4) el tratamiento de los trastornos depresivos y su impacto sobre los resultados de la obesidad. La evidencia existente apoya la asociación entre obesidad y los resultados adversos para la salud en individuos con trastornos depresivos. Además, destaca el concepto que el tratamiento de una de las dos enfermedades (obesidad o trastornos depresivos) es relevante para mejorar el curso de la otra patología. Puede ser beneficioso explorar dirigidamente la presencia de un trastorno depresivo en sujetos con sobrepeso u obesidad, así como el aumento de peso en personas con depresión. Conocer el efecto de los fármacos antidepresivos sobre el peso corporal es también relevante para facilitar la adherencia al tratamiento en el largo plazo.


Depression and obesity are highly prevalent illness and a mayor public health concern. These diseases have a great impact on morbidity and mortality of patients and affect the health and well-being of those who suffer them, as well as being affected in the socioeconomic aspect as a result of the functional deterioration and the spending of resources. Results of epidemiological studies, clinical trials and meta-analysis support the association between mood disorders and obesity, since both occur together in all the populations evaluated. The objective is to address the evidence regarding four aspects: (1) obesity and response to antidepressants, (2) depressive disorders and their effect on the progression of obesity, (3) treatment of obesity and the effect on outcomes among patients with depressive disorders, (4) the treatment of depressive disorders and their effect on obesity outcomes. Existing evidence supports the association between obesity and adverse health outcomes in individuals with depressive disorders. In addition, it highlights the concept that the treatment of one of the two diseases (obesity or depressive disorders) is relevant to improve the course of the other disease. It may be beneficial to explore the presence of a depressive disorders in overweight or obese subjects, as well as weight gain in subjects with depression. Knowing the effect of antidepressant drugs on body weight is relevant to facilitate adherence to long-term treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Depressive Disorder/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Overweight , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy
4.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200059, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101583

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide, but national data on psychotropic drug use by depressed patients in Brazil is lacking. Methodology: Between 2013 and 2014, a representative sample of urban adult individuals were asked if they had a diagnosis of chronic disease, had a medical indication for drug treatment, and were taking chronic medications at the time for each reported diagnosis. We analyzed the frequencies of reported depression and the medications related to this disease. Results: Overall, 6.1% of respondents reported depression. The prevalence increased with age - 9.5% among the elders - was higher among women (8.9%) and in the south of the country (8.9%). As a single disease, the prevalence of depression was higher among young people (17.6%). Among those with multimorbidity, the prevalence of depression rose to 25.7%. Of those who reported depression, 81.3% had medical indication for treatment and 90.3% were under treatment - this proportion was lower among young people (84.5%) and those living in the poorest region (78.6%). Antidepressants accounted for 47.2% of psychotropic drugs taken by respondents with depression, with regional differences - only 30% used antidepressants in the North. Polypharmacy was reported by 22% of those with depression and other chronic diseases. Conclusion: Depression in Brazil, is common among young adults as a single chronic disease and highly prevalent among people with chronic multimorbidity, especially the young. The treatment gap was larger among young people and in the less developed regions of the country.


RESUMO: Objetivo: O uso de antidepressivos está aumentando em todo o mundo, mas faltam dados nacionais sobre o uso de drogas psicotrópicas por pacientes deprimidos no Brasil. Metodologia: Entre 2013 e 2014, uma amostra representativa de indivíduos adultos urbanos foi questionada sobre a presença diagnóstica de doença crônica, a indicação médica para tratamento medicamentoso e o uso de medicamentos crônicos à época de cada diagnóstico relatado. Foram analisadas as frequências de depressão relatada e os medicamentos relacionados a essa doença. Resultados: No geral, 6,1% dos entrevistados relataram depressão. A prevalência aumentou com a idade (9,5% entre os idosos) foi maior entre as mulheres (8,9%) e no sul do país (8,9%). Como doença única, a prevalência de depressão foi maior entre os jovens (17,6%). Entre aqueles com multimorbidade, a prevalência de depressão subiu para 25,7%. Dos que relataram depressão, 81,3% tinham indicação médica para tratamento e 90,3% estavam em tratamento - essa proporção foi menor entre os jovens (84,5%) e os que moram na região mais pobre (78,6%). Os antidepressivos representaram 47,2% dos medicamentos psicotrópicos tomados pelos entrevistados com depressão, com diferenças regionais - apenas 30% usavam antidepressivos no Norte. Polifarmácia foi relatada por 22% das pessoas com depressão e outras doenças crônicas. Conclusão: A depressão no Brasil é comum entre adultos jovens como doença crônica única e altamente prevalente entre as pessoas com multimorbidade crônica, principalmente os jovens. A lacuna de tratamento foi maior entre os jovens e nas regiões menos desenvolvidas do país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Self Report , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Polypharmacy , Middle Aged
5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 245-253, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011490

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bipolar depression is characterized by neurobiological features including perturbed oxidative biology, reduction in antioxidant levels, and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress markers. Bipolar depression manifests systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and changes in brain growth factors. The depressive phase of the disorder is the most common and responds the least to conventional treatments. Garcinia mangostana Linn, commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit. The pericarp's properties may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation and improve neurogenesis, making mangosteen pericarp a promising add-on therapy for bipolar depression. Methods: Participants will receive 24 weeks of either 1,000 mg mangosteen pericarp or placebo per day, in addition to their usual treatment. The primary outcome is change in severity of mood symptoms, measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), over the treatment phase. Secondary outcomes include global psychopathology, quality of life, functioning, substance use, cognition, safety, biological data, and cost-effectiveness. A follow-up interview will be conducted 4 weeks post-treatment. Conclusion: The findings of this study may have implications for improving treatment outcomes for those with bipolar disorder and may contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar depression. Clinical trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12616000028404.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Placebos/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Australia
6.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(1): 44-50, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985358

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in Brazil and to investigate the direct and indirect effects of alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle (SL), depressive symptoms (DS), and sleep dissatisfaction (SD) on BZD use. Methods: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) used stratified cluster probabilistic sampling to select 4,607 individuals aged 14 years and older from the Brazilian household population. Results: The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of BZD use was 9.8 and 6.1%, respectively. Older participants (age 40 and older) and women had higher rates. Alcohol use disorder, DS, and SD were significantly more prevalent in BZD users. The parallel multiple mediator model showed a positive direct effect of alcohol consumption on BZD use, with significant positive indirect effects of SL, SD, and DS as simultaneous mediators leading to higher BZD intake. Other statistically significant indirect pathways were DS alone, SD alone, and all of the above except SL. Conclusion: The prevalence of BZD use in Brazil is high compared to that of other countries. Knowledge of the main risk factors and pathways to consumption can guide prevention initiatives and underlie the development of better tailored and effective treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Alcohol Drinking/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Sedentary Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8434, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011593

ABSTRACT

The natural flavonoid glycoside baicalin (BA) produces a variety of pharmaceutical effects, particularly for psychiatric/neurological disorders. This study evaluated the behavioral and neuroprotective effects of BA in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress, a model of depression. BA (25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly increased sucrose consumption and reduced immobility times in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, demonstrating that BA alleviated depression-like behaviors. Moreover, BA reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α, in serum and in the hippocampus. BA also abrogated increases in NMDAR/NR2B and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and the decrease in phosphorylated ERK and reactive oxygen species production in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. These findings suggested that the antidepressive effects of BA are due to the regulation of an NMDAR/NR2B-ERK1/2-related pathway and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Thus, BA represents a potential candidate drug for patients suffering from depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hindlimb Suspension/psychology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Depressive Disorder/metabolism , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 449-458, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959255

ABSTRACT

Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: "amantadine AND depress*"; "amantadine AND mood"; "amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*"; and "amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference)." Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Biogenic Monoamines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
9.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 233-237, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959242

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate how well symptom rating scales differentiate bipolar disorder (BD) episode types. Methods: One hundred and six patients with BD were followed for 13 years. At each visit, the following clinical scales were administered: Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP). To perform a comparison between the affective states of BP, three time points in each patient's follow-up period were chosen for evaluation: the most severe manic episode, the most severe depressive episode, and the euthymic period with least symptoms. Canonical discriminant analyses (CDA) were performed to identify which symptoms best discriminated episodes. Results: CDA revealed HAM-D was worse than YMRS and CGI-BP to discriminate mood states. The items evaluating increased motor activity in YMRS (2, increased motor activity/energy) and HAM-D (9, agitation) were the best to distinguish mania, depression, and euthymia. In contrast, HAM-D item 8 (retardation) and the HAM-D and YMRS items related to mood symptoms were less important and precise. Conclusion: Higher levels of energy or activity should be considered a core symptom of mania. However, our results do not confirm the association between a decrease in energy or activity and depression. HAM-D probably does not assess motor activity adequately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Motor Activity/physiology , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Discriminant Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities
10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 325-334, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959245

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a very common complication that leads to increased physical disability, poor functional outcome, and higher mortality. Therefore, early detection and treatment are very important. Since there are currently no specific guidelines for this disorder in China, the purpose of this study was to develop PSD guidelines and provide suggestions for clinicians and related workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/psychology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Psychotherapy , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Survivors/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Self Report , Stroke Rehabilitation/standards , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(3): 241-243, July-Sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043517

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Psychopharmaceutical medications are noted for being one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide, which makes the issue of overprescribing them such a heated topic in medicine and psychiatry today. Method A literature review was made to investigate the topic of psychotropic medication prescriptions. The scope intended here is specific to antidepressant use, or rather overuse, in Australia, but it can be compared to the use of other psychotropic drugs in most western countries. The focus is directed towards the most vulnerable group of patients: the elderly. Results The past few decades have witnessed a surge in the use of psychotropic drugs, most notably antidepressants, in Australia and worldwide. This has numerous reasons as well as consequences, especially on vulnerable members of society. Conclusion It has been suggested that overprescription of antidepressants is fueled by the increase in the incidence of depression, stress and anxiety, or due to the way psychotropic medications are marketed. However, regardless of the validity of the said reasons, another explanation could be suggested: psychiatric disorders, namely depression, are being overdiagnosed on a considerable scale, probably leading to a list of significant adverse consequences that mostly affect the most vulnerable groups of patients. At the end, further rigorous research should certainly be undertaken to examine the extent and cost of overprescription of psychotropic drugs in society.


Resumo Introdução Os psicofármacos estão entre as medicações mais frequentemente prescritas no mundo todo, tornando o assunto da prescrição excessiva um assunto polêmico na medicina e na psiquiatria nos dias atuais. Método Foi feita uma revisão da literatura para investigar o tópico das prescrições dos medicamentos psicotrópicos. O escopo pretendido aqui é especificamente o uso de antidepressivos, ou melhor, seu uso excessivo, na Austrália, mas ele pode ser comparado ao uso de outros medicamentos psicotrópicos na maioria dos países ocidentais. O foco é direcionado ao grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes: os idosos. Resultados As últimas décadas testemunharam um aumento no uso de drogas psicotrópicas, principalmente antidepressivos, na Austrália e no mundo todo. Isso tem várias razões e também consequências, especialmente nos membros vulneráveis da sociedade. Conclusão Tem sido sugerido que a prescrição excessiva de antidepressivos é motivada pelo aumento na incidência de depressão, stress e ansiedade, ou devido à forma como as medicações psicotrópicas são comercializadas. No entanto, independentemente da validade das razões apontadas, outra explicações poderia ser sugerida: transtornos psiquiátricos, especialmente depressão, têm sido sobrediagnosticados em uma escala considerável, provavelmente levando a uma lista de consequências adversas significativas que afetam principalmente os grupos mais vulneráveis de pacientes. Afinal, pesquisas rigorosas deveriam ser conduzidas para examinar a extensão e o custo da prescrição excessiva de medicamentos psicotrópicos na sociedade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Australia
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(3): 963-971, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890556

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate whether religiousness and social support were associated with the use of antidepressants among community-dwelling elders. The research involved 1,606 older adults who make up the cohort of Bambuí Project, a study on ageing and health. The dependent variable was the use of antidepressants in the last 90 days, and the exposures of interest were social support and religiousness. Logistic regression was used to test the associations and to estimate crude and adjusted Odds Ratio and their 95% confidence intervals. The chances of use of antidepressants were significantly lower among older people with higher level of religiosity (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.70), but none of the descriptors social support was associated with the event. In this population, it is possible that religion occupies a prominent role in the arsenal of health problems coping strategies, especially mental. Health professionals attending this particular segment of the population (elderly people with depressive disorders) should consider religiousness of patients when the proposed guidelines and treatment in coping with their mental suffering.


Resumo O propósito do estudo foi investigar se a religiosidade e o suporte social estariam associados ao uso de antidepressivos entre idosos residentes em comunidade. A investigação envolveu 1.606 integrantes da coorte idosa do Projeto Bambuí, um estudo longitudinal sobre envelhecimento e saúde. A variável dependente foi o uso de antidepressivos nos últimos 90 dias, e as exposições de interesse foram suporte social e religiosidade. As hipóteses de associação foram testadas por meio de regressão logística multivariada, que incluiu características sociodemográficas, condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde como potenciais fatores de confusão. As chances de utilização de antidepressivos foram significativamente menores entre os idosos com nível mais elevado de religiosidade (OR = 0,45; IC95%: 0,29-0,7), mas nenhum dos descritores de suporte social mostrou-se associado ao evento. É possível que, nessa população, a religiosidade ocupe um lugar de destaque no arsenal de estratégias de enfrentamento de problemas de saúde, especialmente os mentais. Profissionais de saúde que atendem este segmento específico da população (idosos com transtornos depressivos) devem considerar a religiosidade dos pacientes quando das orientações e tratamento propostos no enfrentamento do seu sofrimento mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Religion , Social Support , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Aging , Adaptation, Psychological , Logistic Models , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7218, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889121

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antidepressants in treating post-stroke depression (PSD) by performing a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the current literature. Eligible studies were retrieved from online databases, and relevant data were extracted. The primary outcome was efficacy as measured by the mean change in overall depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes included discontinued treatment for any reason and specifically due to adverse events. Fourteen trials were eligible, which included 949 participants and 9 antidepressant treatments. Few significant differences were found for all outcomes. For the primary outcome, doxepin, paroxetine, and nortriptyline were significantly more effective than a placebo [standardized mean differences: −1.93 (95%CI=−3.56 to −0.29), −1.39 (95%CI=−2.59 to −0.21), and −1.25 (95%CI=−2.46 to −0.04), respectively]. Insufficient evidence exists to select a preferred antidepressant for treating patients with post-stroke depression, and our study provides little evidence that paroxetine may be the potential choice when starting treatment for PSD. Future studies with paroxetine and larger sample sizes, multiple medical centers, and sufficient intervention durations is needed for improving the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Stroke/complications , Network Meta-Analysis , Placebo Effect , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(4): 345-351, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899614

ABSTRACT

El uso de antidepresivos en el perioperatorio es muy frecuente, y la práctica clínica indica que los pacientes usuarios de antidepresivos que son sometidos a cirugía tienen un riesgo perioperatorio aumentado. No existen en la actualidad guías clínicas basadas en la evidencia que orienten el manejo de este tipo de pacientes, por lo que las recomendaciones se basan en las escasas revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis disponibles, reportes de casos y opinión de expertos, que en muchos casos resultan controversiales. La decisión de mantener o suspender la medicación antidepresiva implica considerar los riesgos tanto desde el punto de vista fisiológico (características generales del paciente, riesgos asociados al antidepresivo utilizado, la cirugía propiamente como tal, la interacción con fármacos frecuentemente utilizados en el perioperatorio, entre otros) como desde el punto de vista psiquiátrico (riesgo de síndrome de retirada, recaída de la enfermedad psiquiátrica, intentos suicidas), por lo que la decisión debe ser tomada idealmente de forma multidisciplinaria entre cirujanos, anestesiólogos y psiquiatras, con la idea de confeccionar un plan quirúrgico, anestésico y de manejo perioperatorio seguro para el paciente.


Antidepressant use in the perioperative is a common practice, and clinical evidence shows that surgical patients using antidepressants have an increased perioperative risk. There are not evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of these patients, and recommendations are based on few systematic reviews and meta-analysis, case reports and expert opinion, which in many cases are controversial. The decision to continue or discontinue the medication involves considering general patient characteristics, risks associated with the antidepressant used, type of surgery, interaction with drugs commonly used in the perioperative, risk of withdrawal symptoms, relapse of psychiatric disease and suicide risk, so decision should be made between surgeons, anesthesiologists and psychiatrists, in order to design a safe management plan for the patient who undergo surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Perioperative Period , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/adverse effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8638

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenetic testing for clinical applications is steadily increasing. Correct and adequate use of pharmacogenetic tests is important to reduce unnecessary medical costs and adverse patient outcomes. This document contains recommended pharmacogenetic testing guidelines for clinical application, interpretation, and result reporting through a literature review and evidence-based expert opinions for the clinical pharmacogenetic testing covered by public medical insurance in Korea. This document aims to improve the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/genetics , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Genotype , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Methyltransferases/genetics , Pharmacogenomic Testing/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics , Warfarin/therapeutic use
17.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2017; 26 (3): 245-250
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188530

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate whether chronic Rosa canina [RC] extract administration could improve recognition memory and depressive-like behavior in diabetic mice


Materials and Methods: Seventy-five male albino mice [25-30 g] were randomly divided into 5 groups [15 in each group]


A single intraperitoneal injection of 200 nng/ kg streptozotocin [STZ] was administered to the mice to induce diabetes


The control group received normal saline, and the diabetic groups received normal saline or 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg of RC extract for 28 days


The mice were weighed each week


Recognition memory and depressive-like behavior were assessed using forced swimming and novel object recognition [NOR] tests, respectively. Malondi-aldehyde [MDA] levels and total antioxidant capacity [TAG]were measured in the mouse brain homogenate to evaluate oxidative stress. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS, version 22


Results: The groups receiving 250 or 500 mg/kg RC had significantly lower immobility time [159.4 +/- 4.7 and 150.1 +/- 3.1 s] compared to the sham control group [192.1 +/- 7.8 s] in the forced swimming test, and a higher discrimination index [0.39 +/- 0.02 and 0.48 +/- 0.03] was seen in diabetic animals in the NOR task compared to the sham control group [0.2 +/- 0.01]


Also, the groups receiving treatment with RC [250 and 500 mg/kg] had significantly higher TAG [0.92 +/- 0.04 and 0.96 +/- 0.05 mmol/L] and lower MDA [0.76 +/- 0.02 and 0.67 +/- 0.03 nmol/mg protein] levels in the brains in comparison to the model group. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of study, the RC-treated mice [250 and 500 mg/kg] gained more weight [31.2 +/- 0.3 and 32.4 +/- 0.3 g, and 31.3 +/- 0.2 and 33.7 +/- 0.3 g, respectively] than the diabetic group [30 +/- 0.2 and 29.6 +/- 0.3 g]


Conc/us/on:This study showed that RG attenuated impairment of recognition memory and depressive-like behavior probably through modulation of oxidative stress in an STZ model of diabetes in mouse brains


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Oxidative Stress , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Recognition, Psychology , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Mice
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 65-72, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776489

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). Methods: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Results: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Conclusion: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Banisteriopsis , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/pharmacology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Harmaline/pharmacology , Harmine/pharmacology , Mice , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
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