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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878915

ABSTRACT

Caffeic acid and its oligomers are the main water-soluble active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Arnebiae Radix. These compounds possess multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, liver protective, anti-liver fibrosis, antiviral and anticancer activities. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. In view of the important role played by de-glycosylation in the regulation of phenylpropanoid homeostasis, the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers are supposed to be under the control of relative UDP-glycosyltransferases(UGTs). Through the data mining of Arnebia euchroma transcriptome, we cloned 15 full-length putative UGT genes. After recombinant expression using the prokaryotic system, the crude enzyme solution of the putative UGTs was examined for the glycosylation activities towards caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in vitro. AeUGT_01, AeUGT_02, AeUGT_03, AeUGT_04 and AeUGT_10 were able to glycosylate caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid resulting in different mono-and/or di-glycosylated products in the UPLC-MS analyses. The characterized UGTs were distantly related to each other and divided into different clades of the phylogenetic tree. Based on the observation that each characterized UGT exhibited substrate or catalytic similarity with the members in their own clade, we supposed the glycosylation abilities towards caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid were evolved independently in different clades. The identification of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid UGTs from A. euchroma could lead to deeper understanding of the caffeic acid oligomers biosynthesis and its regulation. Furthermore, these UGTs might be used for regiospecific glycosylation of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/genetics , Caffeic Acids , Chromatography, Liquid , Cinnamates , Cloning, Molecular , Depsides , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Phylogeny , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 305-311, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Collagen deposition and myofibroblast differentiation are critical factors related to excessive scarring in ocular surgeries. This study evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of rosmarinic acid on rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor- β2. Methods: Primary cultures of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of rosmarinic acid for 12 h, in the presence and absence of transforming growth factor-β2. After 48 h, the proliferation index of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts and the differentiation of myofibroblasts were investigated through immunofluorescence staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alpha smooth muscle actin. An automated cell counter and colorimetric metabolic activity assay were used to evaluate cell number and viability. Collagen expression and production were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and hydroxyproline assay, respectively. Results: Unstimulated rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts treated with any concentration of rosmarinic acid exhibited diminished collagen expression (p<0.01) but showed no differences in proliferation index. Transforming growth factor-β2 exposure induced myofibroblast differentiation and increased collagen production. Exposure to rosmarinic acid at 1.0 and 3.0 µM concentrations reduced the proliferation index (p<0.02), as well as the collagen expression and hydroxyproline content (p<0.05). Exposure to 3.0 µM rosmarinic acid reduced viability (p=0.035) in unstimulated rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts and cell numbers (p=0.001) in both stimulated and unstimulated rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblast cultures. Conclusions: Exposure to 1.0 µM rosmarinic acid was noncytotoxic and led to reduced collagen expression and proliferation of stimulated rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts. These findings suggest that rosmarinic acid is a relatively non-injurious anti-fibrotic compound to rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts, with potential application as an adjunctive agent in ocular procedures, particularly in glaucoma surgeries.


RESUMO Objetivo: A deposição de colágeno e a diferenciação de miofibroblastos são fatores chaves relacionados à cicatrização excessiva em cirurgias oculares. Este estudo avaliou a atividade anti-fibrótica do ácido rosmarínico nos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos estimulados com o fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Métodos: Culturas primárias de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos foram tratadas com várias concentrações de ácido rosmarínico por 12h, na presença e na ausência do fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Após 48h, o índice de proliferação dos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos e a diferenciação dos miofibroblastos foram investigados por coloração por imunofluorescência para proliferação de antígeno nuclear celular e α-actina de músculo liso, respectivamente. Um contador automático de células e um ensaio de atividade metabólica colorimétrica foram utilizados para avaliar o número e a viabilidade das células. A expressão e produção do colágeno foram determinadas por reação quantitativa em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real e ensaio de hidroxiprolina, respectivamente. Resultados: Fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos não estimulados tratados com qualquer concentração de ácido rosmarínico exibiram diminuição de colágeno (p<0,01), mas não mostraram diferenças no índice de proliferação. A exposição ao fator de crescimento transformador-β2 induziu a diferenciação de miofibroblastos e aumentou a produção de colágeno. A exposição ao ácido rosmarínico nas concentrações de 1,0 e 3,0 µM reduziu o índice de proliferação (p<0,02), bem como a expressão de colágeno e a quantificação de hidroxiprolina (p<0.05). A exposição a 3,0 µM de ácido rosmarínico reduziu a viabilidade (p=0,035) de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos não estimulados e o número de células (p=0,001) em culturas de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos estimuladas e não estimuladas. Conclusões: A exposição ao ácido rosmarínico 1,0 µM foi não citotóxica e levou à expressão reduzida de colágeno e menor proliferação de fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon estimulados pelo fator de crescimento transformador-β2. Esses achados sugerem que o ácido rosmarínico é um composto antifibrótico relativamente não lesivo aos fibroblastos da cápsula de Tenon de coelhos, com potencial aplicação como agente adjuvante em procedimentos oculares, particularmente em cirurgias de glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tenon Capsule , Rabbits , Cells, Cultured , Glaucoma , Cinnamates , Depsides , Fibroblasts
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on mitophagy and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose (HG).@*METHODS@#Rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2) exposed to HG (25 mmol/L) were treated with 50 μmol/L RA or with both RA treatment and Parkin siRNA transfection, with the cells cultured in normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L) and HG as the controls. The expressions of PINK1, Parkin and LC3II/LC3I in the cells were detected by Western blotting. The formation of mitochondrial autophagosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope. Flow cytometry was employed to detect the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic rate of the cells. The activities of respiratory chain complex enzymes were measured by spectrophotometry. Fluorescence enzyme labeling and @*RESULTS@#RA treatment significantly increased the expression levels of PINK1, Parkin and LC3-II/I (@*CONCLUSIONS@#RA can protect rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress injury and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HG by activating Parkin-mediated mitophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cinnamates , Depsides , Glucose , Hypertrophy , Mitophagy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Protein Kinases , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6145, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888968

ABSTRACT

Chronic systemic inflammation and repetitive damage of vascular endothelia by incompatible dialysis system are probable causes of cardiovascular disease in patients on dialysis. The present study aimed to assess in vitro biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory effect of hemodialysis fluid supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA) using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVECs (5×106 cells/mL) were pre-exposed to 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and incubated with RA-supplemented hemodialysis fluid (HDF). Cytotoxicity was assessed qualitatively by morphologic assessment and quantitatively by MTT assay. Expressions of proinflammatory mediators were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and production of NO was quantified. Phosphorylation of AKT and nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were examined using western blotting. Exposure of HUVECs to RA-supplemented HDF had no influence on morphology and viability. Inhibition of proinflammatory mediator production in HUVECs by RA supplementation to HDF was significant in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to RA-supplemented HDF resulted in a decrease in nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of NO production in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. RA supplementation of HDF suppressed Akt activation in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. In addition, the level of cellular IκB was increased in parallel to a reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in LPS-induced endothelial cells. Our results suggest that RA-supplemented HDF is biocompatible and significantly suppressed inflammation induced in endothelial cells. In this respect, the use of HDF supplemented with RA could alleviate inflammation and improve long-term treatment of patients with renal failure on dialysis. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Depsides/pharmacology , Hemodialysis Solutions/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Formazans , Hemodialysis Solutions/chemistry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Tetrazolium Salts
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812040

ABSTRACT

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hydrophilic phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic acid B (LAB), are its primary medicinal ingredients. However, the biosynthetic pathway of RA and LAB in S. miltiorrhiza is still poorly understood. In the present study, we accomplished the isolation and characterization of a novel S. miltiorrhiza Hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (HPPR) gene, SmHPPR, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of RA. SmHPPR contained a putative catalytic domain and a NAD(P)H-binding motif. The recombinant SmHPPR enzyme exhibited high HPPR activity, converting 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (pHPP) to 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (pHPL), and exhibited the highest affinity for substrate 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. SmHPPR expression could be induced by various treatments, including SA, GA, MeJA and Ag, and the changes in SmHPPR activity were correlated well with hydrophilic phenolic acid accumulation. SmHPPR was localized in cytoplasm, most likely close to the cytosolic NADPH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase active in photorespiration. In addition, the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots overexpressing SmHPPR exhibited up to 10-fold increases in the products of hydrophilic phenolic acid pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide a new insight into the synthesis of active pharmaceutical compounds at molecular level.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Benzofurans , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Cinnamates , Depsides , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetics , Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Phenylpropionates , Metabolism , Phenylpyruvic Acids , Metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Recombinant Proteins , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Sequence Alignment
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812599

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to analyze the major constituents in Prunellae Spica and establish a method for simultaneous determination of two constituents contained in Prunellae Spica. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) technique was used to identify the constituents in the extractive of Prunellae Spica. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was used to simultaneously quantify two kinds of constituents contained in Prunellae Spica. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare the similarity and difference among samples from different regions of China. In the present study, 22 compounds were identified and some new fragmental pathways of triterpenic acids were discovered. An accurate and reliable HPLC-ELSD method was developed and validated for the first time to simultaneously quantify multiple constituents, including rosmarinic acid, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, betulin, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid in the extract of Prunellae Spica. (PCA) revealed some similarities and differences among different samples from different regions of China. In conclusion, our results from this study would be helpful in establishing a scientific and rational quality control method for Prunellae Spica.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cinnamates , Chemistry , Depsides , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Prunella , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Triterpenes , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To exlpore the eff ect of depsides salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 xenograft tumors and the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#A total of 36 nude mice were divided into 6 groups: A model group, a negative control group, a positive control group, and 3 treatment groups at low, middle or high dose (n=6). The tumor model of nude mice was given depsides salts at a dose of 10, 20 or 50 mg/kg every 3 day for 16 days. Then samples of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice were collected. The morphological changes of tumor samples were observed by HE staining and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor antigen Ki67 was detected by immunohistochemical method.@*RESULTS@#The tumor growth was inhibited by all doses of depsides salts. The morphology of tumors was shrinkage, broken and irregularly arranged compared with the tumors in the model group and the negative control group. Morphological changes were more obvious in tumors with treatment at high dose. Expression of VEGF and Ki67 in treatment groups and the positive control group were lower than that in the model group and the negative control group, with a significant difference (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Depsides salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza can inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 tumor in nude mice, which is related to the inhibition of Ki67 and VEGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Depsides , Pharmacology , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen , Metabolism , Liver Neoplasms , Pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Salts , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330259

ABSTRACT

The difference between three representative components of total salvianolic acids in pharmacodynamic activity were compared by three different pharmacological experiments: HUVECs oxidative damage experiment, 4 items of blood coagulation in vitro experiment in rabbits and experimental myocardial ischemia in rats. And the effects of contribution rate of each component were calculated by multi index comprehensive evaluation method based on CRITIC weights. The contribution rates of salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and Danshensu were 28.85%, 30.11%, 41.04%. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of each representative components of total salvianolic acids in n-octyl alcohol-buffer was tested and the total salvianolic acid components were characterized based on a combination of the approach of self-defined weighting coefficient with effects of contribution rate. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of total salvianolic acids was 0.32, 1.06, 0.89, 0.98, 0.90, 0.13, 0.02, 0.20, 0.56 when in octanol-water/pH 1.2 dilute hydrochloric acid solution/ pH 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 5.8, 6.8, 7.4, 7.8 phosphate buffer solution. It provides a certain reference for the characterization of components.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cinnamates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Depsides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lactates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solubility
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299773

ABSTRACT

To establish a method for the determination of astilbin, peoniflorin, rasmarinci acid, isofraxidin and liquiritin contained in Shaolin Xiaoyin tablets, in order to lay a foundation for designing late-stage dosage forms and clinical medication schemes. In this paper, efforts were made to establish a method for the determination of the blood concentration of the five components and study the in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats. The blood concentration was determined by HPLC. Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted and eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid, the flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the wavelength was 275 nm. The samples were processed by the solid phase extraction method. After oral administration of Shaoling Xiaoyin tablets, the rat bloods were collected at different time points to determine the blood concentrations. The experimental results showed that the baseline separation could be adopted for the five components, and astilbin, peoniflorin, rasmarinci acid, isofraxidin and liquiritin showed good linear relations within ranges of 2.48-248, 0.213 6-21.36, 0.531-53.1, 0.704-70.4, 0.253-25.3 mg x L(-1). All the five components could be absorbed in blood and excreted quickly. The method established in this paper is rapid and accurate, and could be used for in vivo analysis on preparations containing similar components. The main components in Shaoling Xiaoyin tablets could be absorbed and excreted quickly, and thus suitable to be made into sustained release tablets. Common preparations are required to be taken for 4-6 times a day.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cinnamates , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Coumarins , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Depsides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Flavanones , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Flavonols , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Glucosides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Monoterpenes , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327900

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the protective effect of rosmarinic acid (Ros A) on the primary cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Primary cardiomyocytes of rats were cultured in vitro to establish the H/R injury of cardiomyocytes and observe the changes in the cell viability and LDH leakage. The changes in ATP content and ROS in cardiomyocytes were measured by using chemiluminescence and fluorescent probe technique. The effects of rosmarinic acid on the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, cleaved-caspase 3, Akt and p-Akt protein expression were further detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>According to the experimental results, Ros A at doses of 25, 50, 100 mg x L(-1) could inhibit the decrease in H/R-induced cell viability, LDH leakage and excessive ROS generation, and maintain the ATP level in cells. Ros A at doses of 50, 100 mg x L(-1) could remarkably inhibit the H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and down-regulate the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, Ros A at doses of 100 mg x L(-1) could significantly up-regulate the expression of p-Akt.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ros A has the significant effect in resisting the cardiomyocyte H/R injury, improve cardiomyocyte energy metabolism and reduce cell apoptosis, which is related to the activation of Akt pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Cinnamates , Pharmacology , Depsides , Pharmacology , Humans , Hypoxia , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Oxygen , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Rosmarinus , Chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327845

ABSTRACT

To establish induction and liquid culture system for hairy roots of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4, LBA9402, 15834 as test bacterium were used to infect aseptic leaves of Danshen. The hairy roots were induced and positive transgenic hairy roots were selected with PCR using rolB and rolC as the target gene. Then hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were harvested and salvianolic acids were extracted with 70% methanol containing 1% formic acid. The content of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and rosmarinic acid (RA) were determined by HPLC. According to the above research results, the Danshen hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 were inoculated into the following group of culture media: MSOH, MS, B5, and 6,7-V liquid media. Then the same methods of extraction and determination for the content of Danshen hairy roots were adopted. Last, the hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 were inoculated into the MSOH liquid media with different pH values. The content of salvianolic acid were extracted with 70% methanol containing 1% formic acid and determined by HPLC. As a result, three kinds of A. rhizogenes A4, LBA9402, 15834 could induce hairy roots and Ri plasmids were integrated into the genome of S. miltiorrhiza by PCR. Danshen hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 and A4 produced much more salvianolic acid, which were (3.27 ± 0.37)% [including (1.04 ±0.36)% of RA and (2.22 ± 0.29)% of SalB] and (3.17 ± 0.20)% [including (0.92 ± 0.31)% of RA and (2.25 ± 0.26)% of SalB], respectively. Hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 when they were cultured in MSOH liquid media produced much more salvianolic acid, which was (4.56 ± 0.36)%, including (1.12 ± 0.26)% of RA and (3.44 ± 0.23)% of SalB. Hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 produced the most salvianolic acid when they were cultured in MSOH liquid media with the pH value 4.81, which was 4.85%, including 1.16% of RA and 3.69% of SalB. So Danshen hairy roots induced by A. rhizogenes LBA9402 and A4 produced much more salvianolic acid when they were cultured in MSOH liquid media with the pH value 4.81. The research had established the foundation on genetic engineering to improve the quality of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium , Physiology , Benzofurans , Metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Cinnamates , Metabolism , Culture Media , Chemistry , Metabolism , Depsides , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microbiology , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microbiology
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(2): 201-208, mar. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722793

ABSTRACT

In this paper we investigated the antibacterial activity of a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and their main constituents, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, against 37 nosocomial strains of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Results obtained showed that both the rosemary extract and carnosic acid inhibited all clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant and Enterococcus faecalis gentamicin and streptomycin-resistant bacteria examined (MICs 60 ug/mL vs. 200 ug/mL, respectively). Rosemary extract showed MIC values between 400 and 1600 ug/ml against the Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii and Providencia stuartii, while carnosic acid showed MIC of 120 to 240 ug/mL. Bactericidal effect of carnosic acid against S. aureus and E. faecalis was observed at their MIC value, while 2 x MIC to 4 x MIC were needed to kill Gram-negative bacteria. Rosmarinic acid showed a narrow spectrum of action against a few Gram-negative clinical isolates. Our findings suggest that carnosic acid would be a good lead candidate useful in counteracting drug-resistant infections.


En este trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana de un extracto metanólico de Rosmarinus officinalis L. y sus principales componentes el ácido carnósico y ácido rosmarínico, contra 37 cepas de bacterias multirresistentes nosocomiales. Los resultados muestran que el extracto de romero y el ácido carnósico, inhibieron las bacterias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina y Enterococcus faecalis resistentes a gentamicina y estreptomicina (CIM 200 ug/mL y 60 ug/mL, respectivamente). El extracto de romero inhibió los Gram negativos multirresistentes: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii y Providencia stuartii (CIM 400 a 1600 ug/mL), mientras que el ácido carnósico mostró valores de CIM entre 120 a 240 ug/mL. El ácido carnósico mostró actividad bactericida contra S. aureus y E. faecalis a su CIM, mientras que 2 a 4 X CIM se requirieron para matar las bacterias Gram-negativas. El ácido rosmarínico mostró inhibió unos pocos aislados clínicos Gram-negativos. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el ácido carnósico puede ser de utilidad contra infecciones bacterianas multirresistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Abietanes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cinnamates/analysis , Depsides/analysis , Depsides/pharmacology , Abietanes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rosmarinus
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(supl.1): 83-87, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-663898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rationale of the present review is to analize the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis in the the cardiovascular system METHODS: A MEDLINE database search (from January 1970 to December 2011) using only rosmarinic acid as searched term. RESULTS: The references search revealed 509 references about rosmarinic acid in 40 years (the first reference is from 1970). There is a powerful prevalence of antioxidant and cancer studies. Other diseases are few cited, as inflammation, brain (Alzheimer and Parkinson disease) and, memory; allergy; diabetes; atherosclerosis, and; hypertension. It is necessary to consider the complete absence of studies on coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, heart failure or ischemia/reperfusion injury. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid is underestimated as an experimental cardiovascular drug and deserves more attention.


OBJETIVO: A justificativa da revisão é analisar a atividade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema cardiovascular MÉTODOS: Uma busca de banco de dados MEDLINE (de janeiro de 1970 a dezembro de 2011), utilizando apenas o ácido rosmarínico como termo pesquisado. RESULTADOS: A busca referências revelou 509 referências sobre o ácido rosmarínico em 40 anos (a primeira referência é de 1970). Há uma prevalência poderoso antioxidante e estudos do câncer. Outras doenças são citados alguns, como o cérebro, inflamação (de Alzheimer e doença de Parkinson) e, a memória, hipertensão, alergia, diabetes, aterosclerose, e. É necessário ter em conta a ausência completa de estudos sobre a doença de artéria coronária, isquemia do miocárdio, insuficiência cardíaca ou isquemia / lesão de reperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O ácido rosmarínico é subestimado como uma droga experimental cardiovascular e merece mais atenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Depsides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Depsides/pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291352

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ on the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) induced by salicylic acid in young seedlings of Salvia miltiorrhiza.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Young seedlings of S. miltiorrhiza were used to select an optimal concentration of salicylic acid (SA), and then use the optimal concentration of SA to investigate the effects of extracellular Ca2+ channel inhibitors Verapamil, LaCl3, intracelluar calmodulin antagonist TFP and intracelluar Ca2+ channel inhibitors LiCl on the biosynthesis of RA and related enzymes.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>SA increased the accumulation of RA and the activities of PAL and TAT, especially the SA of 2 mmol x L(-1) after 24 h. SA improved the accumulation of RA to (40.51 +/- 2.16) mg x g(-1), which was 1.97 times than that of control, and the activities of PAL, TAT were 1.42 times and 1.29 times than those of the control. However, Vp, LaCl3, TFP, LiCl inhibited the effects of SA evidently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ca2+ plays a key role in the regulation of the induction process.</p>


Subject(s)
Calcium , Metabolism , Cinnamates , Metabolism , Depsides , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Salicylic Acid , Metabolism , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Genetics , Metabolism , Seedlings , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294069

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents were investigated on the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia chinensis. Compounds were separated and purified by various chromatograhic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis. Eleven compounds were isolated and purified and their structures were identified as oresbiusin A(1), ethyl dihydrocaffeate (2), ethyl rosmarinate (3), rosmarinic acid (4), methyl rosmarinate (5), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (6), salvianol acid C (7), methyl salvianol acid C (8), methyl salvianolate A (9), dimethyl lithospermate B (10), and salvianolic acid A(11). Except for rosmarinic acid, the remaining compounds were isolated from S. chinensis for the first time.


Subject(s)
Caffeic Acids , Chemistry , Cinnamates , Chemistry , Depsides , Chemistry , Dextrans , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Lactates , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Salvia , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294049

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an HPLC method to determine the contents of danshensu, hydroxysafflor yellow A, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B in the water extract of mixed Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos simultaneously.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The separation were carried out at 30 degrees C on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (4.6 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 microm) with formic acid-500 mmol x L(-1) ammonium formate-water solution (0.5:10:90) as mobile phase A and acetonitrile-formic acid solution (100: 0.5) as mobile phase B in gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.5 mL x min(-1). Detection wavelengths were 280 nm for danshensu, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B, and 380 nm for hydroxysafflor yellow A.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The 5 components were separated well with a good linearity (R2 > 0.999 3) in the range of the test concentration. The average recoveries of danshensu, hydroxysafflor yellow A, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, and salvianolic acid B were 99.1%, 102%, 102%, 98.5% and 101%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This method is simple, accurate, and repeatable.</p>


Subject(s)
Benzofurans , Chalcone , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cinnamates , Depsides , Lactates , Quinones , Rhizome , Chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315028

ABSTRACT

An HPLC method was developed for simultaneous quantitation of rosmarinic acid, oridonin and chrysoplenetin in the aerial parts of Isodon rubescens. Samples were analyzed on an Ultimate C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phases in a linear gradient mode. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The PDA detector wavelengths were set at 338 nm for rosmarinic and chrysoplenetin and at 242 nm for oridonin. The linear ranges were 0.222-2.78, 0.227-2.84 and 0.005-0.071 microg for rosmarinic acid, oridonin and chrysoplenetin, respectively. The average recoveries of the three constituents were 102.9% (RSD 1.9%), 99.6% (RSD 1.1%) and 102.5% (RSD 0.94%), respectively. This method was proved to be accurate and repeatable, and can be used for quality control of the aerial parts of I. rubescens.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cinnamates , Depsides , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Isodon , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232710

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents of Euphorbia pekinensis roots. METHODS Column and liquid chromatography were used for the isolation of chemical constituents, and their chemical structures were determined using a spectroscopic method.</p><p><b>RESULTS AND CONCLUSION</b>Four compounds were isolated and identified as ziyu glycoside I (1), 3β-α-L-arabinopyranosyloxyurs-12,19(29)-dien-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), lithospermic acid B (3), and senarguine B (4), which were obtained for the first time from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis.</p>


Subject(s)
Benzofurans , Chemistry , Depsides , Chemistry , Euphorbia , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry
19.
Biol. Res ; 45(2): 171-175, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648576

ABSTRACT

Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae) contains a variety of structurally diverse natural products, primarily rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), which possess a wide array of biological properties. In the present study, P. vulgaris was harvested at three developmental stages (vegetative, full-flowering and mature-fruiting stages), dissected into stem and leaf tissues and assayed for chemical contents using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant changes in the concentrations of the major secondary metabolites (RA, UA and OA) were observed at the different development stages. The highest concentrations of RA, UA and OA were found at the full-flowering stage (15.83 mg/g dry weight (DW) RA, 1.77 mg/g DW UA and 0.65 mg/g DW OA). Among the different aerial parts of the plant, the concentrations of RA, UA and OA were higher in the leaves than in the stems at the different developmental stages. These results suggest that the full-flowering stage is characterized by the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds. Therefore, this stage may be the optimum point for harvesting P. vulgaris plants. In additional, the leaves of P. vulgaris demonstrated higher RA, UA and OA concentrations than the stems, suggesting higher utilization potential.


Subject(s)
Cinnamates/analysis , Depsides/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Prunella/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fruit/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 320-328, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304490

ABSTRACT

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic acid, is one of the important secondary metabolites produced in Salvia miltiorrhiza. To observe the influence of salicylic acid (SA), an elicitor, on the synthesis of RA and related enzymes, we treated the cell suspension cultures of S. miltiorrhiza with SA and L-a-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Under this condition, the activities of related enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and TAT were traced and assayed; the accumulative amount of RA was measured. The results showed that the PAL activity reached the peak at 4 h, 124% higher than that of the control, and the content of RA reached its maximum ((5.914 +/- 0.296) mg/g dry weight) at 8 h, after treated by 6.25 mg/L SA on day 6 of the suspension culture. The results of treatment with 0.1 micromol/L AOPP showed that AOPP affected little on the TAT activity, while the PAL activity was significantly influenced, with 44% lower than that of the control at 6 h. Meanwhile, the reduced accumulation of RA ((4.709 +/- 0.204) mg/g dry weight) paralleled with the decrease in PAL activity. The co-treatment by 0.1 micromol/L AOPP and 6.25 mg/L SA relieved the restriction imposed by AOPP on PAL, and made the cell cultures accumulate more RA than sole treatment with AOPP, indicated that SA induced the accumulation of RA in suspension cell culture of S. miltiorrhiza, and the rate-limiting effect of PAL was stronger than TAT.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Cinnamates , Metabolism , Depsides , Metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Metabolism , Plant Cells , Metabolism , Salicylic Acid , Pharmacology , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Suspensions , Tyrosine Transaminase , Metabolism
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