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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e128-e132, junio 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368469

ABSTRACT

El Microsporum gypseum es un hongo geofílico que puede producir lesiones cutáneas inflamatorias en personas sanas. Se han descripto lesiones más extensas en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con dermatofitosis, con exámenes micológicos positivos para Candida sp, Epidermophytom floccosum y Trichophyton tonsurans, al que, ante la mala respuesta al tratamiento con griseofulvina e itraconazol a dosis habituales, se le realizó biopsia cutánea para cultivo que evidenció la presencia de M. gypseum. Debido a la extensión y a la mala respuesta al tratamiento, se realizó evaluación inmunológica y se diagnosticó un defecto en STAT1 con ganancia de función (STAT1-GOF). Los pacientes que tienen esta inmunodeficiencia primaria son susceptibles a las infecciones micóticas, especialmente por Candida, pero también, aunque en menor medida, a virus y bacterias. El paciente aquí presentado recibió tratamiento prolongado con antimicóticos imidazólicos sistémicos, con resolución de las lesiones.


Microsporum gypseum is a geophilic fungus that can cause inflammatory skin lesions in heathy people. More extensive lesions have been described in immunocompromised patients. We present a patient with extensive dermatophytosis, which mycological examination led the identification of Candida sp, Epidermophyton Floccosum and Trichophyton tonsurans and showed poor response to treatment with griseofulvina and itraconazol at usual doses. When skin biopsy was performed, it had positive culture for M. gypseum. Due to the extension and poor response to treatment, immunological assessment was performed and it showed a defect of STAT1 with gain of function (STAT 1-GOF). Patients with primary immunodeficiency are susceptible to fungal infections, especially Candida but also virus and bacteria, although to a lesser extent. The patient received long-term treatment with systemic imidazole antifungal recovering for the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Tinea/diagnosis , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Trichophyton , Arthrodermataceae , Microsporum
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 482-484, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285084

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex show different epidemiological patterns in the infection of immunosuppressed or immunocompetent individuals, and a common tropism peculiarity for the central nervous system. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity, with manifestations that are initially restricted to the skin through fungal inoculation, and the absence of systemic disease. The authors report in the present study the case of a 61-year-old immunocompetent man, with a rapidly evolving mucoid tumor on abrasions in contact with bird droppings on the forearm. The early identification of the polymorphic skin manifestations and treatment are crucial for the favorable prognosis of the infection, which can be life-threatening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Skin , Immunocompromised Host , Early Diagnosis , Middle Aged
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 349-351, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that affects humans and animals, with a typically subacute or chronic evolution, caused by Sporothrix spp., a dimorphic fungus. Although the cutaneous form is the most frequent presentation, the ocular involvement has been more frequently diagnosed in endemic areas, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Approximately 80% of affected patients have the lymphocutaneous form, while only 2.3% have conjunctival lesions, with 0.7% showing primary ocular involvement. We describe two cases of sporotrichosis with ocular involvement in children through inoculation by felines, with a good response to antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Aged , Cats , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Eye , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 240-246, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339263

ABSTRACT

Resumen | El síndrome verrugoso tropical comprende condiciones cutáneas infecciosas, crónicas y granulomatosas que cursan con placas, nódulos o úlceras verrugosas, de ahí su nombre. Este síndrome incluye la cromoblastomicosis, la esporotricosis, la paracoccidioidomicosis, la lobomicosis, la leishmaniasis y la tuberculosis cutánea verrugosa, todas ellas enfermedades de amplia distribución en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. Sus diagnósticos pueden ser difíciles y confundirse entre sí, lo cual es más frecuente entre la esporotricosis y la leishmaniasis. Para distinguirlas se recurre a criterios clínicos y epidemiológicos, y a métodos diagnósticos como intradermorreacción, examen directo, biopsia, cultivo, inmunofluorescencia y PCR, algunos de los cuales no son de uso común. El diagnóstico preciso conduce al tratamiento adecuado. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 18 años con extensas placas verrugosas en una rodilla, inicialmente interpretadas como leishmaniasis verrugosa por la clínica, la epidemiología y la biopsia. Se le trató con Glucantime® durante 20 días, pero no presentó mejoría, por lo que se tomó una nueva biopsia que también se interpretó como leishmaniasis cutánea. La revisión de ambas biopsias evidenció inflamación con granulomas abscedados y presencia de cuerpos asteroides esporotricósicos, que condujeron al diagnóstico de esporotricosis, el cual se confirmó luego con el cultivo del hongo. Las lesiones remitieron con la administración de itraconazol. La clínica y la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis y las de la esporotricosis pueden ser semejantes, por lo que la biopsia y los estudios de laboratorio son esenciales para establecer el diagnóstico. El cuerpo asteroide esporotricósico es patognomónico de esta entidad. Se revisaron los conceptos esenciales de estas condiciones y los criterios para diferenciarlas.


Abstract | The tropical verrucous syndrome includes infectious, chronic, and granulomatous skin conditions appearing with plaques, nodules, or ulcers with a warty surface which gives name to the syndrome. It includes forms of chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, leishmaniasis, and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical areas. The diagnoses may be difficult and confused among them, especially between sporotrichosis and leishmaniasis. Clinical, epidemiologic, intradermal reactions, direct smears, skin biopsies, cultures, immunofluorescence, and PCR are used to differentiate them, although several of these methods are not commonly used. We present an 18-year-old man with extensive verrucous plaques in one knee interpreted by clinic, epidemiology, and biopsy as verrucous cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was treated with Glucantime® for 20 days without improvement. A new biopsy was made that was also interpreted as cutaneous leishmaniasis. The revision of both biopsies showed inflammation with abscessed granulomas and asteroid sporotrichotic bodies at the center of the granulomas that led to the diagnosis of sporotrichosis later confirmed by the fungus culture. The patient responded to the treatment with itraconazole. As clinical and epidemiological findings of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis can be similar, skin biopsy and other paraclinical studies are necessary to establish a proper diagnosis. The asteroid sporotrichotic body is pathognomonic of this mycosis. We review here the essential concepts of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis and the criteria to differentiate them.


Subject(s)
Sporotrichosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Dermatomycoses , Mycoses
5.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(1): 17-22, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252507

ABSTRACT

Superficial dermatomycosis are prevalent pathologies in the medical field and their diagnosis is fundamentally clinical. Histopathology is not considered part of his study, however, the diagnosis is exceptionally obtained by biopsy, when dermatomycosis was not suspected. Unpublished retrospective work is carried out on patients who had the histopathological diagnosis of superficial dermatomycosis between the years 2000-2019 at the HCUCH, based on selection criteria, obtaining 19 patients, in which the following were analyzed: age, gender, clinical characteristics, location, presumptive diagnosis and mycological and histological examinations. He stressed, as was our hypothesis, that dermatomycosis was not clinically suspected, since the presumptive diagnoses were various dermatoses. The most suspected dermatosis was psoriasis, as a result that 57.8% of the dermatoses studied had erythematous scaly plaques on examination. Another relevant fact is that only 21% of the cases underwent a direct mycological prior to the biopsy, which was negative ('' false negative''). It is concluded, then, that superficial dermatomycosis should be considered clinical simulators of other dermatoses, so clinical suspicion and support of mycological examination and fungal culture is essential. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Tinea/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/classification , Dermatomycoses/etiology , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1172-1184, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131494

ABSTRACT

Diante da carência de estudos sobre a frequência de dermatopatias que acometem cães por região geográfica no Brasil, o presente estudo objetivou conhecer a frequência das principais doenças cutâneas que afetam cães na região metropolitana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de cães que passaram por atendimento dermatológico no período de setembro de 2014 a dezembro de 2016. Além dos exames clínicos e dermatológicos os cães foram submetidos a exames complementares (citológico, raspado de pele, parasitológico, tricograma, bacteriológico, micológico, histopatológico e molecular). No período do estudo, foram atendidos 1.083 cães, em que 18,65% (202/1.083) apresentavam algum tipo de dermatopatia não tumoral. Dos 202 cães acometidos, 51,49% (104/202) eram machos e 48,51% (98/202), fêmeas. Desses 202 cães, 13 tinham dois diagnósticos, totalizando 215 dermatopatias. Dos cães afetados, 62,87% (127/202) eram de raça definida e 37,13% (75/202), sem raça definida (SRD). As lesões observadas com mais frequência caracterizaram-se por áreas alopécicas, hipotricoicas, maculosas, erosivas e ulcerativas, placoides, eritematosas, assim como comedões, colaretes, seborreia. As dermatopatias parasitárias foram as mais frequentes (35,35%; 76/215), seguidas pelas dermatopatias bacterianas (24,19%; 52/215), dermatopatias alérgicas (20,00%; 43/215), dermatopatias fúngicas (17,21%; 37/215), dermatopatias por outras causas (2,32%; 5/215) e pelas dermatopatias autoimunes (0,93%; 2/215). Os exames físicos e dermatológicos, incluindo anamnese detalhada, histórico clínico apurado, associado a exames complementares, são ferramentas importantes para o diagnóstico das dermatopatias em cães. Presume-se que a frequência de dermatopatias em cães na região de estudo possa ser maior do que a observada.(AU)


Faced with the lack of studies on the frequency of dermatopathies that affect dogs by geographical region in Brazil, the present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of dermatopathies that affect the canine species in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Data was collected from dogs that underwent dermatological care from September 2014 to December 2016. In addition to the clinical and dermatological examinations, dogs underwent complementary exams, such as cytological, skin scraping, parasitological skin examination, trichogram, bacteriological, mycological, histopathological and/or polymerase chain reaction. During the study period, 1,083 dogs were examined, in which 18.65% (202 /1,083) had some form of non-tumoral dermatopathy. Of the 202 dogs affected, 51.49% (104/202) were males and 48.51% (98/202) females. Of these 202 dogs, thirteen had two diagnoses, totaling 215 dermatopathies. 62.87% (127/202) of the affected dogs were purebred and 37.13% (75/202) were without a defined breed (WDB). The most frequently observed lesions were alopecia, hypotric, macular, erosive and ulcerative, placoid, erythematous areas, as well as comedones, collaretes and seborrhoea. The parasitic dermatopathies were the most frequent (35.35%; 76/215), followed by bacterial dermatopathies (24,19%; 52/215), allergic dermatopathies (20,00%; 43/215), dermatomycosis (17,21%; 37/215), dermatopathies for other causes (2,32%; 5/215) and autoimmune dermatopathies (0.93%; 2/215). Clinical and dermatological examination, including a detailed anamnesis, accurate clinical history and associated complementary exams are important tools for the diagnosis of dermatopathies in dogs. Available literature present some studies with canine dermatopathies frequencies superior to that obtained in the present study; however, the number of animals examined was smaller. In this survey, it was possible to establish the primary and secondary diagnoses in 100.0% of the non-tumoral dermatopathies in dogs, results higher than in previous studies. Probably, the frequency of canine dermatopathies in this region is higher than that observed, thus requiring additional studies with greater sampling.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skin Diseases, Parasitic , Skin Diseases, Bacterial , Dermatitis, Seborrheic , Dermatomycoses , Alopecia , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 372-375, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudomycetoma is an extremely rare deep mycosis, caused by dermatophytic fungi that penetrate the tissue from infected follicles of tinea capitis. Both clinically and histopathology are similar to eumycetoma, being distinguished through the isolation of the fungus, which in the case of pseudomycetoma can be Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. genre. We present a 24-year-old man with an exuberant tumor in the occipital region with fistula, whose histopathological examination evidenced grains composed of hyaline hyphae and the culture for fungi isolated the agent Microsporum canis. Combined treatment of surgical excision followed by oral griseofulvin for two years was performed, with resolution of the condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Scalp Dermatoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Mycetoma/microbiology , Microsporum/isolation & purification , Scalp Dermatoses/surgery , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/surgery , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Mycetoma/surgery , Mycetoma/pathology
9.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(4): 328-334, 2019/12/30. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104016

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Tendo em vista a possibilidade de variação na incidência e prevalência das dermatofitoses de uma região geográfica para outra, e seu potencial zoonótico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer dados a respeito da frequência de dermatofitoses em cães na cidade de Chapecó-SC. Métodos: Avaliaram-se resultados de exames micológico direto e cultura fúngica de caninos, emitidos por um laboratório particular de análises clínicas veterinárias na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Os dados foram coletados do sistema Multvet e analisados por meio do software IBM SPSS 22.0 através do cálculo de frequência. Resultados: No período compreendido foram solicitados 108 exames para micológico direto e 223 para cultura fúngica. Destes, 81 laudos de micológico direto (75%) e 159 laudos de cultura fúngica (71%) atendiam aos critérios de inclusão, sendo a maioria dos resultados pertencentes a fêmeas com idade entre 1 e 8 anos, sem raça definida (SRD); além disso verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre as solicitações dos exames por estação do ano. A respeito da espécie de dermatófito isolado na cultura fúngica, corroborando com demais estudos, o Microsporum canis foi o mais frequente. Conclusão: Visto que as dermatofitoses são consideradas doenças com potencial zoonótico, e sua epidemiologia é conhecida por mudar ao longo do tempo, os resultados desta pesquisa mostraram que tanto o papel do médico veterinário quanto o do patologista clínico são de suma importância para o prognóstico favorável do paciente.


Objective: Given the possibility of occurrence of variance and prevalence of dermatophytosis from one geographical region to another, and its zoonotic potential, the present study had an impact on the frequency of dermatophytosis in dogs in the city of Chapecó SC. Methods: Evaluation of results obtained through direct mycological examination and canine culture issued by a private veterinary clinical anamnesis laboratory in the city of Chapecó, Santa Catarina, with data collected by the IBM SPSS 22.0 system through frequency calculation. Results: No complete year, 108 direct microbial and 223 religious culture tests were requested, at the same time, 81 direct micrological compliments (75%) and 159 fungal culture reports (71%) within inclusion lips, a large majority of the results belonged to female dog aged 1 to 8 years, with no defined race (SRD), and it was found that there was no major difference between examinations by season. Treating the resistance of sexual dermatitis in fungal culture, corroborating other Dermatophytosis is a closed disease with zoonotic potential, and its epidemiology is known to change over time. The results of the research are as important as the role of the veterinarian in clinical pathology are important for the favorable prognosis of the disease patient.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Epidemiology , Dermatomycoses , Animals, Domestic
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 744-746, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054899

ABSTRACT

Abstract This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(3): 202-207, 20190930. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047635

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: As infecções fúngicas, atualmente, constituem um problema de saúde pública, devido à elevada prevalência e frequência com que acometem a população. Fatores predisponentes como condições climáticas, região geográfica e características culturais e socioeconômicas favorecem a ocorrência destas infecções. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência das infecções fúngicas em pacientes atendidos em um laboratório de análises clínicas na cidade de Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, por meio da consulta ao banco de dados, de 403 laudos de exames micológicos, direto e cultural, realizados no laboratório durante o período de abril de 2014 a abril de 2017. Resultados: Dentre os laudos analisados no estudo, houve positividade em 251 (62,28%) exames micológicos diretos (EMD) e em 226 (56,08%) exames culturais. As micoses superficiais e cutâneas constituíram as principais infecções diagnosticadas, sendo os fungos dermatófitos os agentes etiológicos mais isolados (69,47%), representados majoritariamente pela espécie Trichophyton mentagrophytes, seguidos por leveduras (20,35%), especialmente as pertencentes ao gênero Candida. Houve predomínio de infecções em pacientes do sexo feminino (64,54% EMD e 61,5% cultura) e adultos de 31 a 60 anos foram os mais acometidos pelas micoses diagnosticadas (58,96% EMD e 60,62% cultura). Conclusão: O conhecimento do perfil epidemiológico pode servir como guia na correta identificação do patógeno no diagnóstico laboratorial, influenciando diretamente no prognóstico e na escolha da conduta terapêutica adequada.


Objective: The fungal infections are a public health issue, because ofthe high prevalence and frequency that they victimize the population. Predisposal factors as bioclimatic conditions, geographic region and cultural and socioeconomic characteristics favor the occurrence of this infections, generating, this way, variation in the prevalence of species in each region. The goal of the present study was to determinate the prevalence of fungal infections in patients in a clinical analysis laboratory in the city of Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Methods: A retrospective study was made, using the consult of data basis, of 403 direct and culture mycological examination reports made in the laboratory during the period of April 2014 to April 2017. Results: In the analyzed examination reports in the study, there was positivity in 251 (62,28%) mycological direct exams (EMD) and, in 226 (56,08%) cultural exams. The superficial and cutaneous mycosis constituted the mainly diagnosed infections, being the dermatophytic fungi the most isolated etiological factors (69,47%), represented mainly, by the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species, followed by yeasts (20,35%), especially those who belong to the Candida genre. There was prevalence of infections in women patients (64,54% EMD and 61,5% culture). Adults among 31 and 60 years old were the most victimized by the diagnosed mycosis (58,96% EMD e 60,62% cultural). Conclusion: Knowledge of the epidemiological profile can serve as guide in the correct identification of the pathogen in the laboratory diagnosis, influencing directly in the prognosis and in the choice of the right therapeutic conduct


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Candida , Epidemiology , Dermatomycoses , Arthrodermataceae , Fungi
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1093-1099, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038630

ABSTRACT

Boids are large, constrictor snakes that feed mostly on mammals, reptiles, and birds. These animals are commonly raised as pets, and their improper handling can favor the emergence of fungal infections, which can lead to dermatological diseases that are undiagnosed in nature. Here, we isolate and identify the filamentous fungi that compose the mycobiota of the scales of boid snakes kept in captivity at the Biological Museum of the Butantan Institute. Thirty individuals of four species were evaluated: four Eunectes murinus, twelve Boa constrictor constrictor, seven Corallus hortulanus, and seven Epicrates crassus. Microbiological samples were collected by rubbing small square carpets on the snake scales. We isolated five genera of fungi: Penicillium sp. (30%), Aspergillus sp. (25%), Mucor sp. (25%), Acremonium sp. (10%), and Scopulariopsis sp. (10%). Approximately half of the snakes evaluated had filamentous fungi on the scales, but only 12% of the individuals were colonized by more than one fungal genus. We found no dermatophytes in the evaluated species. Our results provide an overview of the fungal mycobiota of the population of boids kept in the Biological Museum, allowing the identification of possible pathogens.(AU)


Boidae são serpentes grandes e constritoras, que comem normalmente mamíferos, répteis e aves. São comumente criadas como animais de estimação, e seu manuseio inadequado pode favorecer infecções fúngicas emergentes, as quais podem causar doenças dermatológicas que não são diagnosticadas na natureza. Foram isolados e identificados os fungos filamentosos da microbiota das escamas das serpentes Boidae mantidas em cativeiro no Museu Biológico do Instituto Butantan. Trinta indivíduos de quatro espécies foram avaliados: quatro Eunectes murinus, 12 Boa constrictor constrictor, sete Corallus hortulanus e sete Epicrates crassus. As amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas por fricção, em pequenos quadrados de carpete das escamas das serpentes. Isolaram-se cinco gêneros de fungos: Penicillium sp. (30%), Aspergillus sp. (25%), Mucor sp. (25%), Acremonium sp. (10%) e Scopulariopsis sp. (10%). Aproximadamente metade das serpentes avaliadas tinham fungos filamentosos nas escamas e apenas 12% dos indivíduos foram colonizados por mais de um gênero. Não foram encontrados dermatófitos nas espécies avaliadas. Os resultados mostraram uma visão geral da microbiota fúngica da população de boídeos mantidos no Museu Biológico, o que permitiu a identificação de possíveis patógenos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Boidae/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/veterinary , Animal Scales/microbiology , Mycobiome
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1143-1148, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038631

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se neste estudo padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detecção de Microsporum canis em amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos. Foram selecionadas 48 amostras previamente identificadas por meio de cultura. Destas, 23 foram positivas para dermatófitos no cultivo. Padronizou-se a PCR a partir de primers desenhados para o alvo M. canis. Sessenta e um por cento (14/23) das amostras positivas para dermatófitos foram identificadas como M. canis em cultura. Desse total, 71,4% (10/14) apresentaram um fragmento de 218pb compatível com o esperado para a espécie fúngica alvo dessa reação. Observou-se uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e especificidade de 100% na PCR, além de uma boa concordância entre essas técnicas de diagnóstico (Kappa: 0,78; P<0,0001). O protocolo utilizado neste estudo apresentou alta especificidade na detecção de M. canis diretamente de amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos, viabilizando um diagnóstico mais rápido e específico, podendo esse protocolo ser empregado como um método confirmatório para agilizar a detecção de M. canis.(AU)


The aim of this study was to standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction protocol (PCR) for the detection of Microsporum canis in fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats. 48 samples previously identified by culture were selected. Of these, 23 were positive for dermatophytes in culture. PCR was standardized from drawn primers whose target is M. canis. A total of 61% (14/23) of the dermatophyte positive samples were identified as M. canis in culture. Of this total, 71.4% (10/14) presented a fragment of 218bp compatible with that expected for the fungal species target of the reaction. A sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 100% in the PCR were observed, in addition to a good agreement between the techniques (Kappa: 0.78; P<0.0001). The protocol used in this study showed high specificity in the detection of M. canis directly from fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats, making possible a faster and more specific diagnosis. This protocol could be used as a confirmatory method, speeding the detection of M. canis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/veterinary , Animal Fur/microbiology , Microsporum , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/veterinary
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983752

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Diseases caused by melanized fungi include mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. This broad clinical spectrum depends on the dynamic interactions between etiologic agent and host. The immune status of the host influences on the development of the disease, as, an exemple. phaeohyphomicosis is more frequently observed in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Examine the histological inflammatory response induced by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in several different strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, Nude and SCID, and reconstituted Nude). Methods: Fonsecaea pedrosoi was cultivated on agar gel and a fragment of this gel was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of female adult mice. After infection has been obtained, tissue fragment was studied histopathologically. Results: There were significant changes across the strains, with the nodular lesion more persistent in Nude and SCID mice, whereas in immunocompetent mice the lesion progressed to ulceration and healing. The histopathological analysis showed a significant acute inflammatory reaction which consisted mainly of neutrophils in the initial phase that was subsequently followed by a tuberculoid type granuloma in immunocompetent mice. Study limitations: There is no a suitable animal model for chromoblastomycosis. Conclusions: The neutrophilic infiltration had an important role in the containment of infection to prevent fungal spreading, including in immunodeficient mice. The fungal elimination was dependent on T lymphocytes. The re-exposure of C57BL/6 mice to Fonsecaea pedrosoi caused a delay in resolving the infection, and appearance of muriform cells, which may indicate that re-exposure to fungi, might lead to chronicity of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Ascomycota , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Immunocompetence , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Blood Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Chromoblastomycosis/immunology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Mice, SCID , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Neutrophils
15.
Infectio ; 23(1): 39-44, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975561

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de una población con diagnóstico de infección cutánea micótica en los pies confirmada por examen directo con KOH y cultivo en un centro de referencia de Bogotá, Colombia. Material y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes con lesiones en los pies que fueron atendidos en el servicio de micología entre el año 2011 y el 2016. Se analizaron las características sociodemográficas, clínicas, etiologías y el perfil de tratamiento por medio de un análisis bivariado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 305 pacientes, de los cuales el 82% residía en zona urbana de la ciudad de Bogotá. El hábito más frecuente fue bañarse descalzo, la forma clínica que predominó fue la interdigital y el 35% de los casos presentó de forma simultánea tiña del pie y onicomicosis. Los agentes etiológicos más comunes fueron los dermatofitos con el 95,2% de los casos. Discusión: La presentación clínica sugestiva de micosis, además del resultado positivo del examen directo y del cultivo, permiten hacer el diagnóstico de estas in fecciones. Las características sociodemográficas de quienes sufren este tipo de micosis en Colombia se relacionan con su contagiosidad y tendencia a la cronicidad. La intervención de tales aspectos debe hacer parte de las estrategias para su prevención.


Summary Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the population with cutaneous mycosis in the feet confirmed by positive mycological studies diagnosed in a reference center in Bogota, Colombia. Methods: Descriptive observational study in which all patients with lesions in the feet that were treated in the mycology service between 2011 and 2016 were included. In all cases KOH examination and fungal culture were performed. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, etiologies and the treatment profile were assessed using a bivariate analysis. Results: A total of 305 patients were included, of which 61% were men and 82% lived in an urban area of the city of Bogota. The most common behavior was to take a barefoot bath, the most important comorbidities were venous insufficiency and psoriasis, the main clinical form was interdigital and 35% of the cases presented simultaneously tinea pedis and onychomycosis. The group of dermatophytes was the most frequently isolated (95.2%). Discussion: Clinical examination corresponding with mycosis in the feet, direct examination, and positive culture, allow the physician accurate diagnosis and guide the most appropriate treatment of these infections according to their etiology. The sociodemographic characteristics of those who suffer from this mycosis in Co lombia are related to their contagiousness and tendency to chronicity, therefore, the intervention of such aspects must be part of the strategies for their prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tinea Pedis , Onychomycosis , Dermatomycoses , Foot , Mycoses , Psoriasis , Venous Insufficiency , Baths , Health Strategies , Colombia , Arthrodermataceae , Infections , Mycology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180480, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013305

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Amazonas, Brazil. This dematiaceous fungus has been mainly associated with life-threatening infections affecting the central nervous systems of immunosuppressed patients. We present the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects, and in vitro susceptibility test results for different antifungal drugs. A brief review of the cases reported in the literature over the past 20 years has also been discussed. According to the literature review, the present case is the first report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to C. bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Phaeohyphomycosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Immunocompromised Host , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Phaeohyphomycosis/immunology , Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/classification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(2): 1-9, dic. 2018. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987868

ABSTRACT

Los hongos son organismos eucariontes que tienen nutrición absortiva, con presencia en los más variados ambientes y sustratos. Han sido parte de la historia del hombre y su desarrollo, siendo útiles tanto en la alimentación como en la medicina, producción de enzimas, actividad industrial y silvicultura. Sin embargo, también tienen la capacidad de producir infecciones superficiales y profundas en humanos y animales, contaminar e infectar granos, frutas, plantas y generar verdaderos desastres ecológicos.


Fungi are eukaryotic organisms, its nutrition is absorptive and they are widespread present in environment and substrates. They have been part of the history of human being and his development: they are useful as food, in medicine, enzyme production, in the industrial activity and forestry. However they have the capacity of infect superficial and deep human and animal tissues, contaminate and infect grains, fruits, plants and even produce environmental disasters.


Subject(s)
Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Environment , Fungi/pathogenicity , Yeasts , Fungi/physiology
18.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 21-25, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-904996

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso de dermatitis facial por Malassezia pachydermatis en un paciente de 34 años de edad, diagnosticado mediante clínica y estudio micológico. M. pachydermatis es una levadura que forma parte de la microbiota de mamíferos domésticos y animales salvajes, donde frecuentemente puede provocar dermatitis y otitis externa. En humanos, son escasas las infecciones por este agente, describiéndose desde infecciones superficiales hasta fungemias. En Chile se la ha encontrado como agente causal de pitiriasis versicolor y dermatitis seborreica principalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


We present a clinical case of facial dermatitis due to Malassezia pachydermatis in a patient of 34 years old, diagnosed by clinical and micology study. M. pachydermatis is a zoofilic yeast that is part of the microbiota of domestic mammals and wild animals, frequently causing dermatitis and external otitis. In humans, infections by this agent are very scarce, describing from superficial infections to fungemias. In Chile it has been found as causal agent of pitiriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis mainly in inmunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Face/microbiology , Malassezia/isolation & purification , Malassezia/pathogenicity , Chile , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Mitosporic Fungi
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 141-142, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887158

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Dermatophytes are fungi capable of invading keratinized tissues. Isolation of the fungus with the culture is essential to guide the treatment, because there are more resistant species like Microsporum canis. The chronic use of corticosteroids leads to the deregulation of immunity, promoting atypical manifestations of infections. Topical antifungal therapy is often insufficient, requiring systemic medications. We describe the case of a patient undergoing systemic corticosteroid therapy with a large figurate lesion who presented complete response to exclusively topical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Immunocompromised Host , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Erythema/drug therapy , Miconazole/analogs & derivatives , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Cutaneous , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Erythema/microbiology , Miconazole/therapeutic use , Microsporum/isolation & purification
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 560-565, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978070

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: La histoplasmosis es una micosis de gran relevancia en pacientes con SIDA. El cuadro clínico puede ser muy variado y, en enfermos que no desarrollan lesiones cutáneas, el diagnóstico suele demorar varias semanas. Objetivo: Establecer pautas que permitan emplear un tratamiento empírico y precoz en pacientes con histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA sin manifestaciones tegumentarias y determinar las características clínicas, microbiológicas y algunos parámetros bioquímicos en los casos de difícil diagnóstico. Métodos: Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 86 pacientes con histoplasmosis. Fueron seleccionados 31 enfermos con histoplasmosis asociada con SIDA sin lesiones cutáneas. Resultados: La fiebre fue el síntoma más frecuente (96,7%), el compromiso pulmonar se comprobó en 22 enfermos (70,9%). El patrón radiológico más frecuentemente hallado en las radiografías de tórax fue el miliar o micronodulillar bilateral [(12/22), 54,5%]. Diecinueve enfermos presentaron esplenomegalia. Los hemocultivos demostraron una sensibilidad de 93,3% (28/30) y la serología fue positiva en 23,5% de los casos. Fallecieron ocho pacientes (25,8%). Los pacientes con recuentos de linfocitos T CD4+ menores a 50 céls/μl, albúmina menor a 2,5 g/dl y pancitopenia evidenciaron un pronóstico desfavorable. Conclusiones: En los pacientes con infección por VIH, fiebre asociada a esplenomegalia y lesiones micronodulillares bilaterales en la radiografía de tórax debe considerarse el tratamiento empírico con anfotericina B cuando existan signos o síntomas de mal pronóstico, debido al tiempo de demora hasta el diagnóstico definitivo. Previo a iniciar el tratamiento deben tomarse todas las muestras para los estudios microbiológicos que permitan confirmar luego la presunción diagnóstica.


Background: Histoplasmosis is a mycosis with a high prevalence in HIV/AIDS patients. Clinical presentation includes a wide spectrum of manifestations and diagnosis usually takes up to several weeks in patients who do not present cutaneous lesions. Aim: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as some biochemical parameters in patients with AIDS-associated histoplasmosis without tegumentary lesions, in order to develop a guideline which enables an early empiric treatment in cases of difficult diagnosis. Methods: Medical records of 86 patients with histoplasmosis were reviewed; 31 patients with diagnosis of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis without cutaneous lesions were analyzed. Results: Fever was the most frequent symptom (96.7%), lung involvement was observed in 22 patients (70.9%), the most commonly radiological pattern was miliary pattern [(12/22), 54.5%]. Nineteen patients presented with splenomegaly. Blood culture sensitivity was 93.3% (28/30) and serology was positive only in 23.5% of the cases. Eight patients died (25.8%). Patients in which CD4+ T cell lymphocytes count was < 50 cells/μl, albumin levels < 2.5 g/dl and who presented with pancytopenia had an unfavorable outcome. Conclusions: In HIV seropositive patients with fever associated to splenomegaly and bilateral miliar pattern in chest radiography, the empiric treatment with amphotericin B must be considered if signs and symptoms of unfavorable outcome are present and due to the time that it takes to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. In order to confirm the diagnosis, all microbiological samples should be collected prior to initiating therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
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