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An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 372-375, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130880


Abstract Pseudomycetoma is an extremely rare deep mycosis, caused by dermatophytic fungi that penetrate the tissue from infected follicles of tinea capitis. Both clinically and histopathology are similar to eumycetoma, being distinguished through the isolation of the fungus, which in the case of pseudomycetoma can be Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. genre. We present a 24-year-old man with an exuberant tumor in the occipital region with fistula, whose histopathological examination evidenced grains composed of hyaline hyphae and the culture for fungi isolated the agent Microsporum canis. Combined treatment of surgical excision followed by oral griseofulvin for two years was performed, with resolution of the condition.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Scalp Dermatoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Mycetoma/microbiology , Microsporum/isolation & purification , Scalp Dermatoses/surgery , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/surgery , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Mycetoma/surgery , Mycetoma/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 744-746, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054899


Abstract This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.

Humans , Female , Adult , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983752


Abstract: Background: Diseases caused by melanized fungi include mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. This broad clinical spectrum depends on the dynamic interactions between etiologic agent and host. The immune status of the host influences on the development of the disease, as, an exemple. phaeohyphomicosis is more frequently observed in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Examine the histological inflammatory response induced by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in several different strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, Nude and SCID, and reconstituted Nude). Methods: Fonsecaea pedrosoi was cultivated on agar gel and a fragment of this gel was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of female adult mice. After infection has been obtained, tissue fragment was studied histopathologically. Results: There were significant changes across the strains, with the nodular lesion more persistent in Nude and SCID mice, whereas in immunocompetent mice the lesion progressed to ulceration and healing. The histopathological analysis showed a significant acute inflammatory reaction which consisted mainly of neutrophils in the initial phase that was subsequently followed by a tuberculoid type granuloma in immunocompetent mice. Study limitations: There is no a suitable animal model for chromoblastomycosis. Conclusions: The neutrophilic infiltration had an important role in the containment of infection to prevent fungal spreading, including in immunodeficient mice. The fungal elimination was dependent on T lymphocytes. The re-exposure of C57BL/6 mice to Fonsecaea pedrosoi caused a delay in resolving the infection, and appearance of muriform cells, which may indicate that re-exposure to fungi, might lead to chronicity of infection.

Animals , Female , Ascomycota , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Immunocompetence , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Blood Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Chromoblastomycosis/immunology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Mice, SCID , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Neutrophils
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 613-614, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042642


The dermatological manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis present in about 17% of the cases, is a challenge for its diagnosis. We report the case of a patient from the northern coast of Peru, who presented diffuse dermal lesions, erythema-violaceous nodules, and ulcers histopathologically compatible with the infection of the genus Histoplasma var. capsulatum

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Peru , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 69-72, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887091


Abstract Cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, caused by genus Cryptococcus, presenting with meningitis, pneumonia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous presentation can be varied, but specifically in solid organ transplant recipients (iatrogenically immunocompromised), cryptococcosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cellulitis-like lesions, since the delay in diagnosis leads to worse prognosis and fatal outcome. We report four cases of cryptococcosis with cutaneous manifestation not only for its rarity, but also to emphasize the important role of the dermatologist in the diagnosis of this disease.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunocompetence , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 832-834, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837990


Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided.

Humans , Male , Adult , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Lymphocytosis/complications , Lung/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 29-31, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837926


Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. The fungi are mostly acquired by inhalation, which leads to an initial pulmonary infection. Later, other organs - such as the central nervous system and the skin - can be affected by hematogenous spread. In addition, cutaneous contamination can occur by primary inoculation after injuries (primary cutaneous cryptococcosis), whose diagnosis is defined based on the absence of systemic involvement. The clinical presentation of cutaneous forms typically vary according to the infection mode. We report an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with cutaneous lesions similar to those caused by primary inoculation. This clinical picture leads us to question the definition of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis established in the literature.

Humans , Male , Aged , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 381-383, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787301


Abstract: We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients.

Humans , Male , Child , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Anemia, Aplastic/immunology , Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillosis/pathology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Hyphae/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/complications , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Electrodes/adverse effects , Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Necrosis , Neutropenia/complications
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 243-244, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781368


Abstract Distinct cases of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Cryptococcosis with atypical and localized skin manifestation on the upper limbs of two elderly patients are reported. In the 2nd one, he presented asymptomatic pulmonary cancer; the blood tests for fungal infection were negative, and the etiologic agents were seen in skin biopsy samples. This report emphasizes the importance of the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases in elderly patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(5): 610-619, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764414


AbstractCoccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Western hemisphere. It is considered one of the most virulent primary fungal infections. Coccidioides species live in arid and semi-arid regions, causing mainly pulmonary infection through inhalation of arthroconidia although many other organs can be affected. Primary inoculation is rare. Since the first case of coccidioidomycosis was reported in 1892, the skin has been identified as an important target of this disease. Knowledge of cutaneous clinical forms of this infection is important and very useful for establishing prompt diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of this infection, emphasizing its cutaneous manifestations, diagnostic methods and current treatment.

Female , Humans , Male , Coccidioidomycosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Coccidioidomycosis/classification , Coccidioidomycosis/therapy , Dermatomycoses/therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/pathology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/therapy , Risk Factors , Skin/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 104-107, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755781



Anti-TNF agents are effective in the treatment of psoriasis. However, they render individuals more susceptible to infections. We report an atypical case of histoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed patient due to anti- TNF therapy. A patient who used anti-TNF for the treatment of psoriasis had had a lesion on the right eyebrow since discontinuation of the medication. The diagnostic hypothesis was basal cell carcinoma, but the histopathological examination was compatible with histoplasmosis.


Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Biopsy , Dermoscopy , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Eyebrows , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Psoriasis/drug therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(2): 255-257, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741072


A 70-year-old male presenting a 3-month history of genital painless erythematous nodules in the balanopreputial sulcus was referred to our service. Histopathological exam presented a chronic dermatitis with epithelioid granulomas and Grocott staining revealed numerous fungal structures with a suggestive morphology of Histoplasma sp. Cultures evidenced Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. Treatment with oral itraconazole led to complete remission of lesions.

Aged , Humans , Male , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Immunocompetence , Penile Diseases/pathology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immunocompetence/immunology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Penile Diseases/drug therapy , Penile Diseases/immunology , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(1): 73-79, feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742541


Cryptococcal infections are classically associated to HIV/AIDS patients without therapy, but its presence among other immunosuppressed patients is less recognized. We report 3 lethal cases in non HIV-patients. Two of them presented with meningitis associated to renal transplant or corticosteroid use and, the third, with a necrotic skin infection in the context of progressive liver cirrhosis. In the former two patients, meningeal infection was suspected late, and in the latter, the diagnosis was established postmortem. Cryptococcal infections in non-HIV immunosupressed patients can affect different sites, are suspected late and have a high case-fatality ratio.

La mayoría de los casos de infecciones criptocócicas se presenta en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA con inmunosupresión avanzada. En otro tipo de pacientes inmunosuprimidos es menos conocida, pero ha ido aumentando en frecuencia. Presentamos tres casos de infecciones criptocócicas en pacientes inmunosuprimidos no infectados por VIH, que se manifestaron como meningitis en un receptor de trasplante renal y en un paciente con terapia corticosteroidal y una infección cutánea progresiva necrótica con diseminación secundaria en un paciente con cirrosis hepática avanzada. En todos los casos, la infección fue identificada tardíamente. La infección en el paciente con cirrosis se estableció postmortem. Las infecciones criptocócicas en pacientes sin infección por VIH pueden ocurrir en diferentes sitios, se sospechan tardíamente y tienen alta letalidad.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Immunocompromised Host , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/immunology , Chile , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Vasculitis/complications
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(3): 347-350, Jul-Sep/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-723927


A zigomicose é uma doença invasiva, que acomete tanto imunocompetentes como imunocomprometidos, dependendo do tipo da cepa. O diagnóstico é clínico e histopatológico, e o tratamento é baseado em antifúngico e em limpeza cirúrgica. O presente relato de caso é sobre um menino com zigomicose rinofacial invasiva com tratamento final bem-sucedido, após terapias antifúngicas e limpezas cirúrgicas.

Zygomycosis is an invasive disease that affects both immunocompetent and immunocompromised, depending on the type of strain. This disease diagnosis is clinical and histopathological, and its treatment is based on antifungal therapy and surgical cleaning. This paper reports a case of a boy with invasive zygomycosis rinofacial who final treatment was successful after underwent antifungal and surgical therapies.

Humans , Male , Child , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Zygomycosis/pathology , Zygomycosis/therapy , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Facial Dermatoses/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Dermatomycoses/therapy , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Facial Dermatoses/therapy , Immunocompetence , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 854-858, Nov. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656039


The goal of this study was to review 18 cases of phaeohyphomycosis in Rio Grande do Sul. The records of all of the patients with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis between 1995-2010 were reviewed. Twelve of the 18 patients (66.6%) were male. The average age of the patients was 50 years old (range: 16-74 years). Eleven patients (61%) presented with subcutaneous lesions. Seven patients (38.8%) had received a solid organ transplant. In all of the cases, the presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining of tissue sections and documented. Among the 18 patients, a total of 11 different fungal species were isolated. The causative organisms included Exophiala jeanselmei, Alternaria, Curvularia, Cladophialophora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To our knowledge, this review reports the first case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. gloeosporioides in a lung transplant patient. The number of reported cases of phaeohyphomycosis has increased in the last decade. In a number of cases, this increased incidence may be primarily attributed to iatrogenic immunodeficiency.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phaeohyphomycosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Transplantation , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/microbiology , Phaeohyphomycosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(3): 459-462, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638537


Malassezia folliculitis is an inflammatory disorder observed in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. The authors describe an unusual and exuberant presumed case affecting the face, trunk and upper limbs of a 12-year-old nonimmunosuppressed patient. Although the agent was not identified by culture, the clinical and histopathological aspects plus the response to specific treatment support the diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis. The only possible predisponent cause observed on the patient was greasy skin. Repetitive cultures were negative. Treatment with itraconazol promoted apparent cure, however, the patient relapsed twelve months later.

Foliculite por Malassezia é processo inflamatório observado em pacientes imunocompetentes e imunossuprimidos. Os autores relatam um provável caso exuberante e incomum comprometendo a face, tronco e membros superiores de paciente de 12 anos de idade, não imunossuprimido. Embora o agente não tenha sido cultivado, os achados clínicos e histopatológicos aliados à resposta terapêutica sugerem o diagnóstico de foliculite por Malassezia. A única possivel causa predisponente demonstrada no paciente foi a pele oleosa. Tentativas de cultivo do agente foram negativas. O tratamento com itraconazol promoveu cura aparente, entretanto, houve recaída após 12 meses.

Child , Humans , Male , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Folliculitis/microbiology , Malassezia/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Folliculitis/pathology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(6): 1061-1074, nov.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610410


A dermatite seborreica é uma doença eritêmato-escamativa de caráter crônico-recidivante que acomete entre 1 e 3 por cento da população geral dos Estados Unidos. Possui dois picos de incidência - o primeiro, durante os três primeiros meses de vida, e o segundo, a partir da puberdade, atingindo seu ápice entre os 40 e 60 anos de idade. Os indivíduos HIV positivos têm maior prevalência da doença, que apresenta maior intensidade e tendência à refratariedade ao tratamento. Doenças neurológicas e outras doenças crônicas também estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da dermatite seborreica. Como mecanismo fisiopatogênico, reconhece-se que o fungo Malassezia sp., presente na pele de indivíduos suscetíveis, leve a uma irritação não-imunogênica a partir da produção de metabólitos à base de ácidos graxos insaturados deixados na superfície cutânea. Este artigo faz uma revisão da literatura sobre dermatite seborreica, com ênfase nos aspectos imunogenéticos, formas clínicas e tratamento.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly skin disease, the prevalence of which is around 1 to 3 percent of the general population in the United States. It has two incidence peaks, the first in the first three months of life and the second beginning at puberty and reaching its apex at 40 to 60 years of age. The prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis is higher in HIV-positive individuals and the condition tends to be more intense and refractory to treatment in these patients. Neurological disorders and other chronic diseases are also associated with the onset of seborrheic dermatitis. The currently accepted theory on the pathogenesis of this disease advocates that yeast of Malassezia spp., present on the skin surface of susceptible individuals, leads to a non-immunogenic irritation due to the production of unsaturated fatty acids deposited on the skin surface. This article provides a review of the literature on seborrheic dermatitis, focusing on immunogenetics, the clinical forms of the disease and its treatment.

Humans , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , HIV Infections , Malassezia , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/etiology , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/therapy , Malassezia/classification , Malassezia/pathogenicity