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1.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 63-80, 2022. Grafs, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370955

ABSTRACT

Las reacciones a medicamentos han aumentado con el tiempo, estas implican ahora una carga importante de enfermedad, principalmente en los servicios de hospitalización. Los agentes quimioterapéuticos y biológicos son fármacos utilizados con frecuencia en enfermedades reumatológicas y neoplasias de diferente orden. Las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a quimioterapéuticos y monoclonales impactan en la calidad de vida, el pronóstico y la mortalidad de los pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes y cáncer, es por eso que deben ser reconocidas y manejadas por un equipo de trabajo multidisciplinar. La desensibilización es una herramienta terapéutica que ofrece grandes beneficios a los pacientes con reacciones de hipersensibilidad, permitiéndoles la utilización de medicamentos de primera línea de manera segura y costoefectiva, con un impacto importante en la morbilidad y mortalidad de estos pacientes. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar la información y evidencia más reciente sobre las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a quimioterapéuticos y biológicos, y los datos sobre las opciones de desensibilización con estos medicamentos y su desenlace


Drug reactions have increased over time, they now imply a significant burden of disease mainly in hospital services. Chemotherapeutic and biological agents are drugs frequently used in different rheumatological diseases and neoplasms. Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic and monoclonal drugs impact the quality of life, prognosis and mortality of patients with autoimmune diseases and cancer, that is why they must be recognized and managed by a multidisciplinary team. Desensitization is a therapeutic tool that offers great benefits to patients with hypersensitivity reactions, allowing them to use first-line drugs in a safe and cost-effective manner, with a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article was to review the most recent information and evidence on hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutics and biologics, and data on desensitization options with these drugs and their outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity , Biological Therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic , Hypersensitivity , Antineoplastic Agents
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e1510, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280345

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La desensibilización rápida a medicamentos induce una tolerancia temporal a los quimioterapéuticos que provocan reacciones de hipersensibilidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el protocolo de desensibilización rápida en escenario ambulatorio en pacientes que presentaron reacciones de hipersensibilidad a fármacos citotóxicos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, y retrospectivo, de 30 pacientes con cáncer que desarrollaron reacciones de hipersensibilidad entre los años 2016 y 2018, tratados en el Hospital de Día del Servicio de Oncología del Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras. Se clasificaron según su intensidad, y se analizaron variables demográficas, características clínicas, y síntomas presentados. Se utilizó un protocolo en doce etapas basado en tres diluciones del fármaco. Se administró premedicación en todos los casos. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, y para la asociación entre variables, se utilizó la prueba estadística Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue 54 años (23;77). Predominaron las mujeres; los menores de 60 años; tumor primario de colon; antecedentes de alergia; el oxaliplatino como fármaco más implicado; las RHS durante la infusión; e intensidad moderada. Fueron más frecuentes los síntomas cutáneos y gastrointestinales. Con la aplicación del protocolo se completó la quimioterapia planificada a los 30 pacientes (145 ciclos adicionales). Solo se presentaron ocho desensibilizaciones con reacciones leves de tipo cutáneas. El 94,5 por ciento de las desensibilizaciones no presentaron reacción alguna. Conclusiones: Constituye el primer reporte nacional de la utilización exitosa de un protocolo de desensibilización rápida a citostáticos que demostró ser eficaz y seguro en el escenario ambulatorio, con un manejo multidisciplinario(AU)


Introduction: Rapid desensitization to drugs induces a temporary tolerance to chemotherapeutics causing hypersensitivity reactions. Objective: To evaluate the rapid desensitization protocol in an outpatient setting in patients who had hypersensitivity reactions to cytotoxic drugs. Methods: An observational and retrospective study was carried out in 30 cancer patients, who developed hypersensitivity reactions, from 2016 to 2018. They were treated in the outpatient Oncology service at Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Clinical Hospital. These subjects were classified according to intensity; demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and symptoms were analyzed. A twelve-step protocol based on three dilutions of the drug was used. Premedication was administered in all cases. Descriptive statistics and for the association between variables were performed. Chi-square statistical test was used. Results: The median age was 54 years (23; 77). Predominance was observed in women, those under 60 years of age, primary colon tumor, history of allergy, oxaliplatin as the drug most implicated, HRH during infusion, and moderate intensity. Skin and gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent. The planned chemotherapy was completed with the application of the protocol, in all 30 patients (145 additional cycles). There were only eight desensitization with mild skin-type reactions. 94.5 percent of desensitizations did not show any reaction. Conclusions: It constitutes the first national report of successful use of a rapid desensitization protocol to cytostatics that proved to be effective and safe in the outpatient setting with multidisciplinary management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Desensitization, Immunologic , Oxaliplatin/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
3.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(1): 12-15, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247974

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A Listeria monocytogenes é um bacilo gram-positivo de baixa patogenicidade na população geral, mas importante causa de mortalidade por sepse e meningite em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Receptores de órgãos sólidos e candidatos em tratamento de dessensibilização são suscetíveis à infecção pela Listeria monocytogenes, embora sua apresentação clínica seja pouco reconhecida. Descrição dos casos: Paciente do sexo masculino, 43 anos, internado devido a rejeição aguda de enxerto pós-transplante renal, apresenta pico febril matutino e cefaleia. Paciente do sexo feminino, 59 anos, com doença renal crônica e em terapia de dessensibilização devido reatividade a painel antígeno leucocitário humano, busca pronto-socorro com febre, cefaleia e diarreia. A infecção por Listeria monocytogenes foi confirmada por hemocultura em ambos os casos. Discussão: A ocorrência de listeriose é esporádica e associada ao consumo de alimentos altamente contaminados, como laticínios, produtos frescos e carnes processadas. A redução da imunocompetência é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento da doença em não gestantes, bem como para o aumento da mortalidade. O diagnóstico é estabelecido majoritariamente por hemocultura e o exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano é imprescindível para acessar o acometimento do sistema nervoso central, uma vez que os sinais meníngeos podem estar ausentes. O tratamento é realizado com beta-lactâmicos ou aminoglicosídeos. A ampicilina foi utilizada nos casos relatados e promoveu boa resposta clínica. Conclusão: Os profissionais devem atentar para a gravidade da infecção por Listeria monocytogenes e considerar sua ocorrência em pacientes imunocomprometidos, fornecendo orientações profiláticas a todos os candidatos a transplante de órgãos sólidos e tratamento empírico nos casos suspeitos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Organ Transplantation , Desensitization, Immunologic , Kidney Transplantation , Listeriosis , Listeria monocytogenes
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e41-e44, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147256

ABSTRACT

La terapia de reemplazo enzimático disminuye la morbilidad y mejora la calidad de vida de los pacientes con mucopolisacaridosisii. Se han descrito reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata a este fármaco. La desensibilización es un tratamiento que induce la tolerancia temporaria a una droga y permite al paciente alérgico recibir la medicación.Se presenta el caso de un niño de 7 años con diagnóstico de síndrome de Hunter que, luego de 4 años de tratamiento con idursulfase, tuvo dos episodios de anafilaxia durante la infusión del fármaco. Se detectó inmunoglubulina E específica mediante pruebas cutáneas, y fue positiva la intradermorreacción con dilución 1/10 (0,2 mg/ml). Se realizó un protocolo de desensibilización de 12 pasos, sin presentar eventos adversos. La evaluación alergológica y la posibilidad de desensibilización constituyeron herramientas útiles en el manejo de nuestro paciente


Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase decreases morbidity and improves quality of life of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis ii. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to this drug have been described. Desensitization is a treatment that induces temporary tolerance to a culprit drug, allowing the allergic patient to receive the medication.We present the case of a 7-year-old patient diagnosed with Hunter syndrome who presented, after 4 years of treatment, two episodes of anaphylaxis during the infusion of idursulfase. Detection of specific immunoglobulin E was carried out using skin tests, with intradermal reaction at a 1/10 dilution (0.2 mg/ml) being positive. A 12-step desensitization protocol was performed without presenting adverse events.The allergological evaluation and the possibility of desensitization were useful tools in the management of our patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Mucopolysaccharidosis II/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) induces immunological tolerance, and there is increasing evidence of the clinical efficacy of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma. However, the optimal parameters for asthma control in clinical trials are still unclear. We investigated the efficacy of AIT with respect to changes in the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose in patients with allergic asthma. METHODS: A total of 117 adults with allergic asthma who had used ICS for more than 1 year in a single tertiary hospital in Korea were included in this retrospective study. We compared the clinical parameters and outcomes between the AIT group (ICS with AIT, n = 48) and the non-AIT group (ICS without AIT, n = 69) by applying an inverse probability of treatment weighting method. The patients in the AIT group had received subcutaneous AIT monthly as a maintenance treatment for more than 1 year. The changes in the ICS dose from baseline were evaluated in the 2 groups for 3 years. RESULTS: The proportion of responders who discontinued or decreased in the ICS dose with achieving control status of asthma was significantly higher in the AIT group than in the non-AIT group throughout the study period (at 6 months, 52.1% vs. 24.6%; at 1 year, 70.8% vs. 34.7%; at 2 years, 89.5% vs. 35.6%; at 3 years, 96.3% vs. 51.2%). Treatment responses did not differ significantly by type of allergen (single- or multi-allergens or 3 different products) used throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the type of allergen, long-term maintenance AIT helps to spare ICS dose and achieve better control in patients with allergic asthma in real-world clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunomodulation , Korea , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5002, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056030

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The fixed drug eruption is a non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction to drug, characterized by recurrent erythematous or violaceous, rounded, well-defined border plaques, which always appear in the same location every time the culprit drug is administered. The usual practice is to avoid the drug involved and to use a structurally different drug. However, there are situations in which there is no safe and effective therapy. In such situations, desensitization is the only option. We describe the case of a patient who presented fixed eruption due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, who underwent successful desensitization, but required a repeat procedure twice due to relapse after inadvertent full-dose reintroduction. In non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction to drug, the indication is controversial and there is no technical standardization. Furthermore, the time at which such tolerance is lost after discontinuing the drug involved is unknown. In severe non-immediate reactions of types II and III, desensitization is contraindicated. The patient underwent desensitisation to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim three times − the first with recurrence of lesions and the second and third without manifestations, all concluded successfully and with no premedication.


RESUMO A erupção fixa por drogas é uma reação de hipersensibilidade a medicamento não imediata, caracterizada por placas eritematosas ou violáceas, arredondadas, recorrentes, de bordas bem definidas e que aparecem sempre na mesma localização cada vez que o medicamento culpado é administrado. A prática habitual é evitar a droga envolvida e utilizar um medicamento estruturalmente diferente. Contudo, há situações em que não há terapêutica segura e eficaz. Em tais situações, a dessensibilização é a única opção. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente que apresentou erupção fixa por drogas por sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, tendo sido submetido à dessensibilização com sucesso, mas necessitou repetição do procedimento duas vezes, por recidiva da reação após reintrodução inadvertida em dose plena. Em reação de hipersensibilidade a medicamento não imediata, a indicação é controversa e não há padronização técnica. Além disso, não se conhece o tempo durante o qual essa tolerância é perdida após a suspensão da droga envolvida. Nas reações não imediatas graves e dos tipos II e III, a dessensibilização está contraindicada. O paciente foi submetido a dessensibilização ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim por três vezes − a primeira com recorrência de lesões, e a segunda e terceira sem manifestações, sendo todas concluídas com sucesso e sem uso de pré-medicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/drug therapy , Sulfamethoxazole/adverse effects , Trimethoprim/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the incidence of systemic reactions (SR) to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) for bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in children and their risk factors.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 198 children with bronchial and/or allergic rhinitis. According to the presence or absence of SR and local reactions (LR) during SCIT, the patients were divided into two groups: SR (with SR and LR, n=31) and control (without SR or LR, n=142). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors associated with SR.@*RESULTS@#Among the 198 patients who received 8 157 injections of SCIT, 25 (12.6%) experienced SR (31 times, 0.38%), including grade I SR (18 times, 58%), grade II SR (10 times, 32%), grade III SR (3 times, 10%), and no grade IV SR. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that multiple sensitization with both food and inhaled allergens, specific IgE to dust mites (grade 6), total IgE (grade 6), and a history of LR were independent risk factors for SR (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCIT is a safe treatment for bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in children, with a low incidence of SR. Children with multiple sensitization with both food and inhaled allergens, a hypersensitive state (specific IgE to dust mites, grade 6; total IgE, grade 6), and a history of LR have an increased risk of SR to SCIT.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , Risk Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultra-rush schedule of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (UR-SCIT) administering maximum maintenance dose of allergen extract within one day can save time and effort for allergen immunotherapy in patients with allergic disease. However, UR-SCIT is associated with an increased risk of systemic reaction (SR) and typically has been conducted in a hospital admission setting. To overcome disadvantages of UR-SCIT, we evaluated the safety of UR-SCIT conducted in an outpatient clinic in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: UR-SCIT was performed in 538 patients with AD and/or AR sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). A maximum maintenance dose of tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract (1 mL of maintenance concentration) was divided into 4 increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL) and administered to the patients by subcutaneous injection at 2-hour intervals for 8 hours in an outpatient clinic. SRs associated with UR-SCIT were classified according to the World Allergy Organization grading system. RESULTS: SR was observed in 12 of 538 patients (2.2%) with AD and/or AR during UR-SCIT. The severity grades of the observed SRs were mild-to-moderate (grade 1 in 7 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient). The scheduled 4 increasing doses of HDM extract could be administered in 535 of 538 patients (99.4%) except 3 patients who experienced SR before administration of the last scheduled dose. SR was observed within 2 hours in 11 patients after administration of the scheduled doses of HDM extract except one patient who experienced a grade 2 SR at 5.5 hours after administration of the last scheduled dose. CONCLUSIONS: UR-SCIT with tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract conducted in an outpatient clinic was tolerable in patients with AD and AR. UR-SCIT can be a useful method to start a SCIT in patients with AD and AR.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appointments and Schedules , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Subcutaneous , Methods , Outpatients , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762163

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy is the standard of treatment for long-life relief of symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Vitamin D may affect the outcomes of treatment. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy in adult patients with allergic rhinitis based on the serum level of vitamin D. Patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and positivity for skin prick test were evaluated by Sino-nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) before subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy and during the maintenance phase to assess the relation of the serum level of vitamin D and the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy. After immunotherapy, the greatest reduction in SNOT-22 scores were reported in patients with vitamin D sufficiency (39.0 ± 9.2), followed by vitamin D suboptimal provision (35.1 ± 12.1), insufficiency (25.0 ± 7.5), and deficiency (18.3 ± 6.0) (P < 0.001). The MiniRQLQ reduction in patients with vitamin D sufficiency, suboptimal provision, insufficiency, or deficiency was 30.7 ± 8.7, 27.1 ± 8.7, 20.0 ± 8.6, or 17.4 ± 7.1, respectively (P < 0.001). Both of SNOT-22 and MiniRQLQ scores decreased significantly following immunotherapy in patients with different levels of vitamin D. However, these effects were more pronounced when the level of vitamin D was sufficient.


Subject(s)
Adult , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D , Vitamins
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-453, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for allergic diseases, but a few allergic patients receive AIT. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore patient and physician perspectives on AIT through a questionnaire survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allergic patients who received subcutaneous immunotherapy for at least 1 year were asked to answer a questionnaire developed by an expert panel of allergen and immunotherapy workgroup in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 267 patients (adults, 60.3%) with allergic rhinitis (91.4%), asthma (42.7%), or atopic dermatitis (20.2%) from referred hospitals completed the survey. Among patients and physicians, respectively, the overall rates of satisfaction with AIT for allergic rhinitis were 86.4% and 83.3% (kappa agreement=0.234, p<0.001), and those for asthma were 85.3% and 72.9% (kappa agreement=0.373, p<0.001). Moreover, pediatric asthmatic patients reported a significantly higher satisfaction rate than adult asthmatic patients after AIT (p=0.040). Symptom severity (p<0.001, respectively) and drug use for allergic rhinitis and asthma decreased after AIT. However, there was no significant difference in satisfaction rates between children and adults in allergic rhinitis (p=0.736). Interestingly, 35.7% and 35% of allergic rhinitis and asthma patients, respectively, reported experiencing improvement in their symptoms within 6 months of starting AIT. CONCLUSION: In this study evaluating the perspectives of patients and physicians on AIT, the majority of patients were satisfied with the efficacy and safety of AIT, but not its cost. AIT should be recommended for AR and allergic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Korea , Patient Satisfaction , Rhinitis, Allergic , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739510

ABSTRACT

Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions to rituximab is well known, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to rituximab are also reported. Desensitization is commonly used to prevent immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but recently there have been cases of successful desensitization therapy for delayed hypersensitivity reactions. A 66-year-old patient who underwent rituximab treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma showed repeated rituximab-induced delayed hypersensitivity reactions with whole body rashes. Intravenous rapid desensitization was performed by using a 1-bottle, 11-step protocol for 6 cycles and thereafter hypersensitivity reaction did not recur. We herein reported a case of delayed hypersensitivity reaction caused by rituximab, which was successfully desensitized using our 11-step protocol.


Subject(s)
Aged , B-Lymphocytes , Desensitization, Immunologic , Exanthema , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Rituximab
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(3): 394-398, mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961406

ABSTRACT

We report a 39-year-old female who underwent a total thyroidectomy as treatment for a thyroid papillary cancer. She suffered several episodes of mild angioedema in lips and tongue, after using different commercial Levothyroxine formulations, with and without excipients. Given the need to use this drug, the patient was admitted in our hospital and we proceeded to desensitize her with oral Levothyroxine. The patient fasted throughout the whole procedure, was properly monitored and had an adequate peripheral venous access. On the first day of the procedure, a 15-step protocol was performed, first administering placebo and then, compounded formulations of Levothyroxine starting from 0.01 ug, followed by doubling doses every 15 minutes until the cumulative dose of 111.95 ug was completed, corresponding to the daily dose of Levothyroxine her endocrinologist prescribed (112 ug). The patient was monitored at baseline, between each dose and up to 3 hours after the procedure was completed. There were no incidents such as urticaria, angioedema, or others. On the second day, the patient received a single-full dose of 112 ug on an empty stomach. The medication was successfully tolerated and she was discharged. Thereafter, she tolerates daily Levothyroxine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroxine/adverse effects , Thyroxine/immunology , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Drug Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy , Skin Tests , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(1): 43-46, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042312

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gestational syphilis is a prevalent disease in Brazil and other low and medium income countries. Desensitization to penicillin is recommended for pregnant women with syphilis who are allergic to β-lactams. This is a descriptive study utilizing outpatient medical records from 2011 to 2015 from a mother and child hospital that is part of the national healthcare system in the South of Brazil, which performs an average of 3,600 birth assistances per year. All cases of pregnant women with syphilis and presumptive diagnosis of β-lactam allergy during the study period were included. The patients referred for desensitization originated from the hospital prenatal care service, as well as from municipal/state antenatal care services. Oral desensitization was performed in the obstetric emergency room, and adult and pediatric intensive care units were available at all times. Ten patients underwent desensitization during the period of study. Personal history of urticaria was the most common reaction that demanded desensitization. All patients tolerated the procedure well, and showed no adverse reactions.We report a successful program of oral desensitization. None of the patients presented adverse reactions or complications, a fact that corroborates the feasibility and safety of the desensitization protocol. Oral administration of penicillin comes at a low cost, and optimizes the use of time and resources.


Resumo A sífilis gestacional é uma doença prevalente no Brasil e em outros países de baixa e média renda. A dessensibilização à penicilina é recomendada para mulheres grávidas com sífilis que são alérgicas a β-lactâmicos. Este é um estudo descritivo que utiliza registros médicos de 2011 a 2015 de um hospital público materno-fetal do Sul do Brasil com média de 3.600 partos anuais. Foram incluídos todos os casos de gestantes com sífilis e diagnóstico presuntivo de alergia a β-lactâmicos durante o período de estudo. As pacientes encaminhadas para dessensibilização originaram-se do serviço pré-natal hospitalar internamente, bem como dos serviços municipais e estaduais de atendimento pré-natal. A dessensibilização oral foi realizada na sala de emergência obstétrica, e a unidade de terapia intensiva estava disponível em todos os momentos para o atendimento de possíveis intercorrências. Dez pacientes foram submetidas à dessensibilização durante o período estudado. História pessoal de urticária foi a reação mais comum que exigiu dessensibilização à penicilina. Todas as pacientes toleraram bem o procedimento, e não mostraram reações adversas. Relatamos no presente manuscrito um programa bem-sucedido de dessensibilização oral à penicilina. Nenhuma das pacientes apresentou reações adversas ou complicações, corroborando a viabilidade e segurança do protocolo de dessensibilização. A administração oral de penicilina tem baixo custo, e otimiza o uso de tempo e recursos para o tratamento adequado de sífilis gestacional no cenário apresentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Syphilis/drug therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Treatment Outcome
14.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e6-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The basophil activation test (BAT) is a promising tool for monitoring allergen-specific immunotherapy responses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the changes in basophil activation in response to the inhalant allergens of house dust mite (HDM) and mugwort pollen during immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We enrolled patients with allergic rhinitis who were to receive subcutaneous immunotherapy for the inhalant allergens HDM or mugwort. A BAT was performed to assess CD63 upregulation in response to allergen stimulation using peripheral blood collected from the patients prior to immunotherapy and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after beginning immunotherapy. Rhinitis symptoms were evaluated using the rhinitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) at 1-year intervals. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (10 with HDM sensitivity, 3 with mugwort sensitivity, and 4 with sensitivity to both HDM and mugwort) were enrolled in the study. Basophil reactivity to HDM did not change significantly during 24 months of immunotherapy. However, a significant reduction in basophil reactivity to mugwort was observed at 24-month follow-up. There was no significant association between the change in clinical symptoms by RQLQ and the change in basophil reactivity to either allergen. The change in allergen-specific basophil reactivity to HDM was well correlated with the change in nonspecific basophil activation induced by anti-FcεRI antibody, although basophil reactivity to anti-FcεRI antibody was not significantly reduced during immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: Suppression of CD63 upregulation in the BAT was only observed with mugwort at 2-year follow-up. However, the basophil response did not reflect the clinical response to immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Artemisia , Basophils , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunotherapy , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Quality of Life , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Up-Regulation
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739391

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: House dust mites (HDM) are major allergens that cause allergic rhinitis (AR). Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been shown to be clinically beneficial in many clinical trials. Such trials, however, are not reflective of all patient populations. The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy and safety of SCIT in routine clinical practice in Korean adults with AR sensitized to HDM. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 304 patients with AR treated at an allergy clinic of a tertiary hospital using SCIT with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed allergen extract targeting HDM alone or with pollens for at least 1 year from 2000 to 2012. Patients with asthma were excluded. Rates of remission, defined as no further requirement of maintenance medication, over time were determined by means of life tables and extension of survival analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to HDM were categorized into 6 classes. RESULTS: The mean time until achieving remission was 4.9±0.1 years, and the cumulative incidence of remission from AR was 76.6%. Severe AR (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.69; P=0.001), specific IgE levels to HDM ≥17.5 kU/L (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.01-3.37; P=0.045), and duration of immunotherapy ≥3 years (OR, 7.37; 95% CI, 3.50-15.51; P<0.001) were identified as significant predictors of clinical remission during SCIT for patients with AR sensitized to HDM. Overall, 73 patients (24.0%) experienced adverse reactions to SCIT, and only 1 case of anaphylaxis (0.3%) developed. CONCLUSIONS: SCIT with HDM was found to be effective and safe for patients with AR. Specific IgE levels to HDM and a duration of SCIT ≥3 years may be predictors of clinical responses to SCIT in AR patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Aluminum , Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Immunotherapy , Incidence , Life Tables , Medical Records , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716018

ABSTRACT

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and diagnostic tests are based on well qualified allergen extracts, which are derived from biologic organisms. The allergenicity of the extracts is markedly affected by the climate, soil, year of production, storage methods, and manufacturing processes. Thus, standardization is a crucial process to guarantee the clinical efficacy and safety of the treatment and diagnostic reagents in allergic diseases. There are 2 different standardization processes, one is In vivo and the other is in vitro standardization. In vivo standardization is done by skin prick or intradermal tests. For in vitro standardization, measurements of weight/volume and protein nitrogen units have been widely used since the early period of AIT. In the 1970s, immunological methods such as radial immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition test and basophil activation test were developed. Allergen potency measured by ELISA inhibition test reflects the potency measured by skin tests and has been widely used for quality control of batch-to-batch variation. Recently, standardizations focused on the major allergen content of extracts have developed. Standardization for major allergens requires reliable reference materials (RMs) made of recombinant allergens and 2-site ELISA kits. However, only a few reliable RM and 2-site ELISA kits are available. For the standardization process, allergen RMs are essential. The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration provides 19 allergen RMs, and our research team also proved 9 RMs which are important in Korea. In conclusion, allergen standardization is an essential process for the development of reliable treatment and diagnostic reagents, and allergy specialist should be familiar with the concept of allergen standardization.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Basophils , Biological Products , Climate , Desensitization, Immunologic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypersensitivity , Immunodiffusion , In Vitro Techniques , Indicators and Reagents , Intradermal Tests , Korea , Nitrogen , Quality Control , Skin , Skin Tests , Soil , Specialization , Treatment Outcome , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. However, the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) on ILCs remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of ILC subsets in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients in response to house dust mite (HDM)-specific immunotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 37 AR patients undergoing AIT (16 responders and 11 non-responders) for 2 years, 35 HDM AR patients and 28 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry to identify ILC subsets. Stimulation of ILC2s with recombinant allergen-specific protein was used to determine ILC2's activation (CD69 expression). RESULTS: Responder AIT patients and healthy subjects had a decreased frequency of circulating ILC2s compared to non-responder AIT and AR patients. Conversely, ILC1s from responder AIT patients and healthy subjects showed increased frequency compared to non-responder AIT and AR patients. The frequency of ILC3s natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR)+ and NCR− in responder AIT patients was significantly lower compared to AR patients and healthy subjects. The ILC1: ILC2 proportion in responder AIT patients was similar to that of healthy subjects. PBMCs from patients who were responders to AIT had a significantly lower expression of the activation marker CD69 on ILC2s in response to allergen re-stimulation compared to AR patients, but no difference compared to non-responder AIT patients and healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that AIT might affect ILC responses. The activation of ILC2s was reduced in AR patients treated with AIT. Our results indicate that a relative ILC1/ILC2 skewed response is a possible key to successful AIT.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic , Flow Cytometry , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775948

ABSTRACT

To analyze the efficacy and compliance of conventional immunotherapy(CIT)and rush immunotherapy(RIT)in patients with allergic rhinitis.This trial was a prospective study involved 404 patients with persistent AR who were allergic to house dust mite.328 patients were assigned to the conventional immunotherapy reaching the maintenance dose within 14 weeks,and 76 patients were assigned to the rush immunotherapy reaching the maintenance dose within 1 week.The visual analog scale(VAS)score and the patients' compliance were recorded during treatment and follow-up.After CIT and RIT,the VAS score were significantly reduced in each group,but the decrement of VAS score of RIT group was more evident than that of CIT in half ayear(<0.05).After 5 years follow-up,the VAS score of two groups was also significantly reduced.The rate of treatment continuation of CIT group in 1 year,2 years and 3 years were 18.5%,39.0% and 57.3%,higher than RIT group(11.8%,26.3%,42.1%),respectively.Both CIT and RIT were beneficial for allergic rhinitis patients,and the clinical efficacy lasts for at least 5 years.But RIT has the superiority of faster onset and better compliance.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Patient Compliance , Prospective Studies , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutics , Treatment Outcome
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 57-64, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750101

ABSTRACT

Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%–70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Asia , Asians , Asthma , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Child , Climate Change , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Drug Therapy , Dust , Epidemiology , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Japan , Korea , Models, Animal , Poaceae , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Quality of Life , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seasons , Smoke , Sublingual Immunotherapy , Tobacco , Translational Research, Biomedical , Trees
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 82-91, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) can significantly improve symptoms and reduce the need for symptomatic medication. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in skin reactivity to house dust mites (HDMs) as an immunologic response and associated factors after 1 year of immunotherapy. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with allergic airway diseases who received subcutaneous SIT with HDMs from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated. The investigated parameters were basic demographic characteristics, skin reactivity and specific IgE for HDM, serum total IgE level, blood eosinophil counts, and medication score. RESULTS: The mean levels of skin reactivity to HDMs, blood eosinophil counts, and medication scores after 1 year were significantly reduced from baseline. In univariate comparison of the changes in skin reactivity to HDMs, age ≤30 years, HDMs only as target of immunotherapy, and high initial skin reactivity (≥2) to HDMs were significantly associated with the reduction in skin test reactivity. In multivariate analysis, high initial skin reactivity and HDMs only as target allergens were significantly associated with changes in skin reactivity to HDMs. In the receiver operating characteristic curve of the initial mean skin reactivity to HDMs for more than 50% reduction, the optimal cutoff value was 2.14. CONCLUSION: This study showed significant reductions in allergen skin reactivity to HDMs after 1 year of immunotherapy in patients sensitized to HDMs. The extent of initial allergen skin reactivity and only HDMs as target allergen were important predictive factors for changes in skin reactivity.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Eosinophils , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunotherapy , Multivariate Analysis , Pyroglyphidae , ROC Curve , Skin Tests , Skin
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