Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.
Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.
Subject(s)Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.
Resumo A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Herbicides , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid , Weed Control , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
The present study explored the drying effect of new spiral vibration drying technology on Chinese medicinal pills with Liuwei Dihuang Pills, Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills, and Muxiang Shunqi Pills as model drugs. With the drying uniformity, drying time, energy consumption, pill split, dissolution time, and change of index components as evaluation indicators, the drying effect of spiral vibration drying technology on model drugs was evaluated and compared with traditional drying methods, such as hot air drying and vacuum drying in the oven. The dynamic changes of moisture in Liuwei Dihuang Pills with different drying time were investigated. Compared with the traditional drying methods in the oven(hot air drying and vacuum drying) at 80 ℃, the spiral vibration drying only took 80 min, shortened by 80%, with 10%-13% energy consumed. The results showed that the moisture of Liuwei Dihuang Pills was negatively related to the drying time. By virtue of multi-layer countercurrent drying and super resonant fluidization techniques, the new spiral vibration drying technology can significantly improve the drying quality of Chinese medicinal pills, improve the drying efficiency, and enhance the manufacturing capacity of Chinese medicinal pills. This study is expected to provide references for the innovation and development of new drying technology of Chinese medicinal pills.
Subject(s)China , Desiccation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Technology , Vibration
The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.
Subject(s)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
Ao longo da transição semente-plântula, vários critérios de germinação são usados em estudos de germinação de sementes de palmeiras. Em Oenocarpus bataua, esses critérios apresentam tolerância diferencial ao estresse térmico. Neste estudo, avaliamos a tolerância dos critérios de germinação ao dessecamento de sementes da congênere Oenocarpus bacaba. Dessecamos sementes a diferentes teores de água (TA) antes de avaliar primeiro catafilo, segundo catafilo, eofilo fechado e eofilo expandido. O TA de sementes sem dessecamento foi de 41,7%. O sucesso da germinação atingiu cerca de 70% após 75 e 105 dias, dependendo do critério de germinação. O TA de segurança foi próximo ao TA inicial e todas as sementes estavam mortas com TA < 26,7%. Como os órgãos primordiais dos catafilos e do eofilo são detectáveis no embrião da semente destas palmeiras, todos foram afetados pelo dessecamento. O TA crítico, definido aqui como 50% de perda da capacidade de germinação, aumentou de 35,4% (primeiro catafilo) para 37,1% (eofilo expandido) e confirmou que, ao longo da transição semente-plântula, estádios de germinação mais avançados tiveram maior sensibilidade ao dessecamento. Durante a germinação e o desenvolvimento, o aparecimento dos critérios ocorre em sequência ao longo de várias semanas. Consequentemente, o dano pelo dessecamento só foi detectado quando o último critério foi avaliado. Para evitar subestimação dos danos, sugerimos que estudos de estresse com sementes de palmeiras levem em consideração um período adequado para o desenvolvimento que, para O. bacaba, foi de 105 dias até a expansão do eofilo.(AU)
Subject(s)Seeds , Arecaceae , Seedlings , Desiccation
The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Melanoxylon brauna Schott. tree legume seeds to desiccation and storage. In the drying experiment, the Melanoxylon brauna seeds were submitted to two drying conditions: a forced air circulation chamber (40.18 °C ± 0.13 and 28.48% ± 3.95 RH) and a silica gel desiccator (27.19 °C ± 1.28 and 26.19% ± 0.94 RH) for different times (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, and 144 hours). A completely randomized design in a 2 (drying methods) × 5 (drying times) factorial scheme plus control and 4 replications of 25 seeds was used. The following variables were evaluated before and after drying: seed moisture content, percentage of germinated seeds, germination speed index, percentage of mortality, normal and abnormal seedlings. In the storage experiment the seeds were divided into two batches: pre-dried (at 5.0% humidity) and without drying (control at 8.9% humidity). The seeds were then stored in plastic bags in three environments: refrigerator at 5 °C, freezer at 20 °C and room temperature (29 °C). The seeds were removed every four months and submitted to the humidity and germination test for 24 months. Data from this storage experiment were analyzed considering a randomized block design in a 2 (drying levels: presence and absence) × 3 (storage environments: refrigerator, freezer or room temperature) factorial scheme + 2 controls (with and without drying at baseline) and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. Drying reduced initial seed water content from 8.9% to 5.0%, without loss of viability. Drying in the chamber at 40 °C was faster and more efficient than in silica gel. The results enable classifying the seeds of this species as orthodox, i.e. tolerant to desiccation. The fridge and freezer were efficient for storing the Melanoxylon brauna seeds up to 24 months, independent of previous drying, while storing the seeds at room temperature with previous drying makes them last longer than without drying, as the seeds can last up to 16 months with drying, or 12 months without drying.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade das sementes da leguminosa arbórea Melanoxylon brauna Schott à dessecação e ao armazenamento. No experimento de secagem as sementes de braúna foram submetidas a duas condições de secagem: câmara com circulação forçada de ar (40,18 °C ± 0,13 e 28,48% ± 3,95 UR) e dessecador com sílica gel (27,19 °C ± 1,28 e 26,19% ± 0,94 UR), por diferentes tempos (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, 144 horas). Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (método de secagem) × 5 (tempo de secagem), mais a testemunha, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis antes e depois da secagem: teor de umidade da semente, porcentagem de sementes germinadas, índice de velocidade de germinação, porcentagem de mortalidade, de plântulas normais e de anormais. No experimento de armazenamento as sementes foram divididas em dois lotes: com secagem prévia (a 5,0% de umidade) e sem secagem (testemunha, a 8,9% de umidade), e foram armazenadas em embalagens sacos de plástico em três ambientes: geladeira a 5 °C, freezer a 20 °C e temperatura ambiente (29 °C). A cada quatro meses as sementes foram retiradas e submetidas ao teste de umidade e de germinação durante 24 meses. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio do delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes, em esquema fatorial 2 (secagem) × 3 (ambiente de armazenamento) + 2 testemunhas. A secagem proporcionou a redução do teor de água inicial das sementes de 8,9% até 5,0%, sem perda da sua viabilidade. A secagem na câmara a 40 °C foi mais rápida e eficiente do que na sílica gel. Os resultados permitem classificar as sementes desta espécie como ortodoxas, ou seja, tolerantes à dessecação. A geladeira e o freezer foram eficientes para o armazenamento das sementes de braúna, até 24 meses, independente da secagem prévia das sementes, enquanto o armazenamento das sementes a temperatura ambiente é mais duradouro quando as sementes são submetidas previamente à secagem, podendo durar até 16 meses com secagem ou 12 meses sem secagem.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Food Storage/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Fabaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Germination
There is no consensus on the content, accumulation, transformation and content determination methods of phenolic acids in fresh Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to find out the true content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, a variety of treatment me-thods were used in this study to prepare sample solution. The content changes of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza samples with different dehydration rates were investigated during drying and shade drying processes. Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) of S. miltiorrhiza was extracted and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis to investigate the enzymatic properties. The content of rosmarinic acid, lithosperic acid and S. nolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza was determined by UPLC. The results showed that the content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza was highest when it was homogenized with 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl solution or 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl methanol solution. There was no significant difference in the content of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza with different dehydration rates, indicating that there was no correlation between phenolic acid content and dehydration rate. The optimum pH of S. miltiorrhiza PPO was 7.6 and the optimum temperature was 40 ℃. With catechol as substrate, S. miltiorrhiza PPO had the enzymatic browning reaction which was in compliance with Michaelis equation, with Michaelis constant K_m of 0.12 mol·L~(-1) and V_(max) of 588.23 U·min~(-1). The inhibitory effect of citric acid, disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate, ascorbic acid and sodium sulfite on S. miltiorrhiza PPO increased with the increase of inhibitor concentration, and sodium sulfite showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The present study proved that there were a large number of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, which were the secondary metabolite of primitive accumulation during the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, rather than the induced product of postharvest drying and dehydration stress. This study has reference value and significance for the cultivation, harvest and processing of S. miltiorrhiza.
Subject(s)Catechol Oxidase , Desiccation , Hydroxybenzoates , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza
In order to explore the effect of different drying methods(drying-in-the-shade, sun-drying, and hot air drying) on appearance characteristics, internal structure and composition of Belamcandae Rhizoma, so as to provide a theoretical basis for screening out suitable drying methods for primary processing. In this study, the Belamcandae Rhizoma's dynamic changes of the moisture content ratio and drying rate with different drying time under different drying methods, as well as the effects of different drying methods on the appearance, drying rate, density, ash, extractives and the contents of six flavonoids(mangiferin, tectoridin, iridin, tectorigenin, irigenin, irisflorentin) were compared. The results showed that fresh Belamcandae Rhizoma consumed the longest time to reach the water balance point by traditional dry drying in the shade, whiche was about 311 h; that by sun drying was 19.3%, which was shorter than drying in the shade; both drying curves were smoother. The section color of the sun drying samples was the closest to that of fresh samples, but the interior is full of holes, with a low density and loose structure. Hot air drying(40, 60, 80 ℃) could save about 27% to 88% of the drying time, which was greatly shorter, with less pores, a larger density and compact structure. Compared with the traditional drying method, the drying rate of hot air drying was reduced by 13.7%. Ash was affected by temperature, the drying conditions under 40 ℃ and below were not significantly different from those of conventional drying. The ash content decreased by 7.73% to 18.5% compared with conventional drying at 60,80 ℃. After conventional drying and 40 ℃ hot air drying, the contents of tectoridin and iridin(glycosides) in the samples were significantly higher than those in 60,80 ℃ hot air drying, while the contents of tectorigenin, irigenin and irisflorentin(aglycones) dried at 60 ℃ were the best. Therefore, considering comprehensive appearance characteristics and content of medicinal ingredients, traditional Chinese medicinal materials after 60 ℃ hot air drying show a solid texture, tight internal structure, good appearance, appropriate reduction of toxic parasides and higher aglycone content.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rhizome
Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal morphology of seeds of Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC.) O. Berg with varying water content through X-ray image analysis, and correlate the images with the germination of these seeds. Fruits were collected in Jataí, Goiás, Brazil, and taken to the Seed Laboratory of the Federal Institute Goiano, Rio Verde Campus, where they were processed and the seeds were extracted. To establish the predetermined water content (43%, 37%, 34%, 31%, and 28% wet basis), seeds with an initial water content of 43% were kept in an oven with forced air circulation at a temperature of 40 °C until they reached the predetermined water content levels. Next, the seeds were placed in acrylic holders with double-sided tape and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), where they were exposed to different intensities of radiation. The X-ray test was conducted with 200 seeds per treatment, and images of the internal structures of the seeds were evaluated. The seeds were returned to the Seed Laboratory of the Federal Institute Goiano, Rio Verde Campus, where the germination test was initiated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial design (5 × 4), in which there were five water content levels and four seed classes, with four replications. The X-ray test was efficient in the identification of filled, malformed, damaged and empty seeds, which germination rate above 50% in the filled seeds. This visualization of the internal morphology of the seed can be useful to select seeds of better quality, improving the percentage of germination of C. pubescens seeds.
Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a morfologia interna de sementes de Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC.) O.Berg com diferentes teores de água por meio de análise de imagens de raios-X, e correlacionar as imagens com a germinação dessas sementes. Os frutos foram coletados no município de Jataí, Goiás, Brasil, e levados ao Laboratório de Sementes do Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, onde foram processados e as sementes foram extraídas. Para estabelecer o teor de água predeterminado (43%, 37%, 34%, 31% e 28% base úmida), as sementes com um teor inicial de água de 43% foram mantidas em estufa com circulação de ar induzida, a uma temperatura de 40 °C até atingirem os níveis de conteúdo de água predeterminados. Em seguida, as sementes foram colocadas em suportes acrílicos com fita dupla face e transportadas para a Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), onde foram expostas a diferentes intensidades de radiação. O teste de raios-X foi realizado com 200 sementes por tratamento, e imagens das estruturas internas das sementes foram avaliadas. As sementes foram devolvidas ao Laboratório de Sementes do Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, onde foi iniciado o teste de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (5 × 4), no qual foram encontrados cinco níveis de umidade e quatro classes de sementes, com quatro repetições. O teste de raios-X foi eficiente na identificação de sementes preenchidas, malformadas, danificadas e vazias, com taxas de germinação acima dos 50% nas sementes cheias. Essa visualização das morfologia interna da semente pode ser útil para selecionar sementes de melhor qualidade, melhorando a porcentagem de germinação das sementes de C. pubescens.
Subject(s)Germination , Myrtaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Brazil , Desiccation
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the influence of the mode and time of solvent evaporation on the tensile strength (TS), flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM) of two adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP) and Clearfil SE (CSEB). For this purpose, rectangular samples (2x1x7 mm) were prepared with 10 μL of primer and the solvents were evaporated with air spray at (23±1) ºC, (40±1) ºC and negative control (without spray). For each temperature, the times of 5, 20, 30, and 60 seconds were investigated. The statistical results showed that evaporation at 40±1ºC resulted in better EM for the two adhesives tested and all the evaporation times evaluated. However, there were no significant differences between the times and modes of evaporation for TS. The results of this study indicate that evaporation at a temperature of (40±1) °C could improve the elastic modulus of both adhesives tested, regardless of the evaporating time.
RESUMO Este estudo avaliou a influência do modo e do tempo de evaporação do solvente na resistência à tração (RT), resistência à flexão (RF) e módulo de elasticidade (MR) de dois sistemas adesivos: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP) e Clearfil SE (CSEB). Para isso, amostras retangulares (2x1x7 mm) foram preparadas com 10 μL de primer e os solventes foram evaporados com aerossol a (23±1) ºC, (40±1) ºC e controle negativo (sem aerossol). Para cada temperatura, foram avaliados os tempos de 5, 20, 30 e 60 segundos. Os resultados estatísticos mostraram que a evaporação a (40±1) ºC resultou em melhor MR para os dois adesivos testados e todos os tempos de evaporação avaliados. No entanto, não houve diferenças significativas entre os tempos e modos de evaporação na RT. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a evaporação a uma temperatura de (40±1) °C poderia melhorar o módulo de elasticidade de ambos os adesivos testados, independentemente do tempo de evaporação.
Subject(s)Humans , Solvents/pharmacology , Tensile Strength , Adhesives/chemistry , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Volatilization , Materials Testing , Desiccation
BACKGROUND: One of the most extreme environments on our planet is the Maritime Antarctic territory, due to its low-water availability, which restricts the development of plants. Sanionia uncinata Hedw. (Amblystegiaceae), the main colonizer of the Maritime Antarctic, has effective mechanisms to tolerate this environment. It has been described that the tolerance to desiccation is mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), antioxidants systems, accumulation of compatible solutes and proteins of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA). However, to date, these mechanisms have not been described in S. uncinata. Therefore, in this work, we postulate that the tolerance to desiccation in the Antarctic moss S. uncinata is mediated by the accumulation of ABA, the osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, and dehydrins (an LEA class 11 proteins). To demonstrate our hypothesis, S. uncinata was subjected to desiccation for 24 h (loss in 95% of water content), and the effects on its physiological, photosynthetic, antioxidant and biochemical parameters were determined. RESULTS: Our results showed an accumulation of ABA in response to water loss, and the activation of protective responses that involves an increment in levels of proline and glycine betaine, an increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX and POD, and the accumulation of dehydrins proteins. CONCLUSION: The results showed, suggest that S. uncinata is a desiccation-tolerant moss, property mediated by high cellular plasticity regulated by ABA.
Subject(s)Photosynthesis/physiology , Bryopsida/physiology , Desiccation , Antioxidants/analysis , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Bryopsida/classification , Bryopsida/chemistry , Antarctic Regions
Dry granulation technology is a great innovation in granulation technology,which saves many intermediate links and reduces many intermediate costs. It is closely related to the characteristics of materials,dry granulation equipment and process. Dry granulation technology is a systematic engineering science covering many technical fields. The process of dry granulation involves complex mathematical model mechanisms of temperature field,pressure field and velocity field,closely related to the characteristics of materials and drying equipment. However,due to the late start of research on dry granulation technology of traditional Chinese medicine,basic research is still weak. The research on dry granulation technology has achieved great results in the fields of food,chemical industry,agriculture and forestry,showing great reference significance. The advantage of dry granulation of traditional Chinese medicine is that it can be directly granulated by adding an appropriate amount of auxiliary materials in the extract powder of traditional Chinese medicine,without the need of wetting,mixing,drying and other processes. The process is simple and can effectively guarantee the quality of traditional Chinese medicine. The granules obtained by the dry granulation technique are important intermediates for preparing the solid preparations of traditional Chinese medicines,which would directly affect the subsequent molding process and the quality of the preparation products. Therefore,based on the characteristics of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine and by referring to the advanced research results of dry granulation technology in other fields,we would discuss the research ideas of dry granulation in traditional Chinese medicine in terms of the mechanism of dry granulation equipment,technology,on-line detection technology and mathematical model of dry granulation process,hoping to provide reference for the research of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
Decoction pieces are important raw materials in the production of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM),and their quality could directly affect the clinical efficacy and medication safety. Research on the production and processing technology of TCM is the basis for the normalization and standardization of Chinese medicine decoction pieces. At present,the production and processing standards for Scutellaria baicalensis pieces are non-regulated,lacking data foundation. In this study,with baicalin,baicalein,wogonoside and wogonin contents as evaluation indicators,single factor experiment was designed to optimize the softening,drying and cutting processes of S. baicalensis,providing a basis for the standardization of their production and processing. The effects of different softening,drying and cutting processes on the contents of the main components in S. baicalensis were comprehensively analyzed by the summation of relative differences. RESULTS:: showed that the contents of the four components and comprehensive indexes were affected by different softening methods and drying temperatures. The content of wogonin in boiling method was higher than that in boiling with cold water,and the content of glycosides in 70 ℃ drying condition was higher than that in other groups. The content of baicalin was significantly affected by different cutting thicknesses,but not by comprehensive index. Eventually,the optimal preparation process for S. baicalensis was determined as follows: boiled in boiling water for 20 min,cut into thin slices( 1-2 mm),and then dried at 70 ℃ in blast drier. This process was close to the actual production,practical and feasible and meanwhile,it was of great significance to improve the quality of S. baicalensis pieces.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Flavonoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
The aim of this paper was to compare the influence of freeze-drying and sun-drying on six main nucleosides and nucleobases of Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC. Hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were reference substances. HPLC analysis was performed on a GL Inertsustain AQ-C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),with mobile phase consisting of water( A)-acetonitrile( B) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min~(-1)( 0-10 min,0-1% B; 10-65 min,1%-3% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm,the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 5 μL. The linear ranges of hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were 1. 025-20. 50( r = 0. 999 8),0. 545-10. 90( r = 0. 999 9),4. 051-81. 02( r = 0. 999 8),4. 044-80. 88( r= 0. 999 9),2. 075-41. 50( r= 0. 999 9),4. 032-80. 64( r = 0. 999 9) mg·L~(-1),respectively. The average recoveries of them( n = 6)were as follows: 102. 3%( RSD 2. 1%),101. 1%( RSD 2. 4%),97. 80%( RSD 1. 7%),101. 8%( RSD 1. 8%),98. 90%( RSD2. 0%) and 98. 10%( RSD 1. 4%),respectively. Each sample was processed by freeze-drying and sun-drying so as to compare the difference between the two drying methods. The contents of six index ingredients were significantly different between freeze-drying and sun-drying sample of C. sinensis. The total contents of six index ingredients in sun-drying sample were higher than that in the corresponding freeze-drying sample. This research results provide the scientific basis for the drying methods and quality evaluation of C. sinensis.
Subject(s)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Freeze Drying , Nucleosides
In this study,the protein in different Cordyceps samples,which include fresh sample( S1),22 ℃ drying sample( S2),37 ℃ drying sample( S3) and 60 ℃ drying sample( S4),were analyzed by sodium dodecylsupinate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis( 2-DE). The total protein contents in Cordyceps samples were from 1. 655-4. 493 mg·g~(-1) and the protein contents in fresh sample was the highest. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the mainly ranges of protein molecular weight of Cordyces samples were 10-100 kDa and the numbers of protein bands were 28 to 41,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein bands. The 2-DE profiles were analyzed by PDQuest software. The resulted indicated that 488-876 protein spots were detected in different Cordyceps samples and the isoelectric point( pI) was distributed between 4. 5 and 6. 5,the protein molecular weight was distributed in 10-20 kDa and 25-100 kDa,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein spots. Therefore,the drying process could decrease contents and species of protein in Cordyceps,and the different drying conditions had different effects on protein. These results provide a reference for improving the drying process of Cordyceps.
Subject(s)Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Methods , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fungal Proteins , Molecular Weight
Angelicae sinensis Radix( ASR) is a commonly used medicinal material in Chinese medicine,widely used in clinical practice of Chinese medicine,Gansu province is the genuine production area of ASR. This paper studies the evolution law of drying method of ASR,the results showed that drying process was the key affection of the medicinal properties and quality of ASR,and it was an important reflection of the authentic properties of ASR. The drying history of ASR has gradually changed from the earliest shade drying to various drying methods. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates that the drying method of ASR is"fumigation drying",and the traditional drying method can not meet the processing needs of the origin. In recent years,the new drying methods and drying effects on the quality of ASR are more.
Subject(s)Angelica sinensis , Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
To study the effects of fresh-cut drying methods on the appearance and internal components of Panax notoginseng, and explore the feasibility of fresh-cut drying methods of P. notoginseng, so as to provide more effective processing methods for the production of P. notoginseng slices and Chinese patent medicines. In this study, we have compared the effects of 6 different drying methods on drying time, drying rate, density, appearance and internal components of P. notoginseng roots. It takes about 453 h to dry by whole-root drying in the sun, with a long constant speed period and a slow drying rate, the time of whole-root drying at 50 ℃ was shortened by 61.6% compared with whole-root drying in the sun, which resulted in the decrease of density and poor appearance of the medicinal material with hollow and crack appeared in the xylem, while the drying time of fresh-cut drying method was reduced by 61.82% to 91.58% and the drying rate increased greatly, due to the relatively slow drying process in the sun or in the shade after fresh-cut, salting-out and whitening appeared on the surface, and the internal components were all decreased to some extent. The drying time of fresh-cut drying at 50 ℃ was 91.58% and 68.83% shorter than that of whole-root drying in the sun and at 50 ℃, respectively. When drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut, the appearance and content of internal components of the medicinal materials were better, the appearance was yellowish green, the cut sections were clear with uniform pore distribution, and the content of saponin components was increased by 7.24% compared with that of the whole-root drying at 50 ℃, When drying at 40 ℃, the surface of slices has salting-out and whitening spots, and the loss of dencichine and total sugar was large, but at 60 ℃, this high temperature made the rate of dehydration of slices was extremely fast, which led to severe cracking and fragmentation, and the loss of total sugar and alcohol extract was large. By vacuum freeze drying after fresh-cut, the structure of medicinal materials slices was loose, the density was greatly reduced, and the appearance was different from those recorded in traditional books. The contents of total saponin components and dencichine were increased by 16.51% and 22.54%, respectively, compared with traditional whole-root drying. The fresh-cut process method is feasible in the production of P. notoginseng slices. In production, it is recommended that drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut can make the medicinal materials better in appearance and content of internal components, which is convenient for the subsequent processing and industrial feeding extraction. For the purpose of internal contents, it is better to adopt freeze-drying after fresh-cut processing method.
Subject(s)Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Freeze Drying , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Quality Control , Saponins
OBJECTIVE@#To set up near-field microwave detection system, to evaluate the accuracy of measuring water and to compare the effects of different methods on drying root canal.@*METHODS@#Known and quantitative distilled water in Eppendorf tube and root canal was detected by near-field microwave detection system which was set up first. The microwave reflection coefficient was recorded so as to evaluate the accuracy of the measuring water. 12 single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth with apical matureness and a curvature less than 10° were decoronated, leaving roots 14 mm in length. After instrumentation to F3, the root canals were air-dried and injected with 10 μL distilled water each. Then all the root canals were assigned to 4 groups (n=12) according to different methods on root canal drying. Near-field microwave detection system was used to detect the change of water after air-drying and root canal drying so as to evaluate the effects of different root canal drying methods: (1) negative control group, the canals were injected with 10 μL distilled water and no root canal drying method was performed; (2) paper points drying experimental group, four #60 paper points were used to blot-dry the middle and upper part of the canal, followed by #40 paper points blot-drying the apical area. The above step was repeated with the tip of paper point that appeared with no water under microscope as finished; (3) 95% (volume fraction) ethanol drying experimental group, after the distilled water was removed with paper points (similar to paper points experimental group), 10 μL 95% ethanol was injected into the canal and was left in place for 10 s, then paper points were used to dry the canal; (4) 70% (volume fraction) isopropyl alcohol drying experimental group, after the distilled water was removed with paper points (similar to paper points experimental group), 10 μL 70% isopropyl alcohol was injected into the canal and was left in place for 10 s, then paper points were used to dry the canal. The linear correlation analysis was used to test the accuracy of the measuring water by near-field microwave detection method and physical measurement. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated based on the data. The effects of different methods on drying root canal were analyzed by Chi square test.@*RESULTS@#The R2 for the microwave reflection coefficient and the physical measurement of the water in Eppendorf tube and root canal were 0.991 and 0.970. The microwave reflection coefficient in all the experimental groups showed significant difference (P<0.05). After drying with paper points, the residual water was the most, and the microwave reflection coefficient was the highest: 0.023. While after 70% isopropyl alcohol drying root canal, the residual water was the least with the microwave reflection coefficient 0.006, showing that the effect of drying was the best.@*CONCLUSION@#Near-field microwave detection system could detect the change of water in root canal. The effect of root canal drying by 70% isopropyl alcohol was superior to 95% ethanol and paper points.