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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246579, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.


Resumo A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados ​​por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Herbicides , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid , Weed Control , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
3.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 85-90, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353301

ABSTRACT

Ao longo da transição semente-plântula, vários critérios de germinação são usados em estudos de germinação de sementes de palmeiras. Em Oenocarpus bataua, esses critérios apresentam tolerância diferencial ao estresse térmico. Neste estudo, avaliamos a tolerância dos critérios de germinação ao dessecamento de sementes da congênere Oenocarpus bacaba. Dessecamos sementes a diferentes teores de água (TA) antes de avaliar primeiro catafilo, segundo catafilo, eofilo fechado e eofilo expandido. O TA de sementes sem dessecamento foi de 41,7%. O sucesso da germinação atingiu cerca de 70% após 75 e 105 dias, dependendo do critério de germinação. O TA de segurança foi próximo ao TA inicial e todas as sementes estavam mortas com TA < 26,7%. Como os órgãos primordiais dos catafilos e do eofilo são detectáveis no embrião da semente destas palmeiras, todos foram afetados pelo dessecamento. O TA crítico, definido aqui como 50% de perda da capacidade de germinação, aumentou de 35,4% (primeiro catafilo) para 37,1% (eofilo expandido) e confirmou que, ao longo da transição semente-plântula, estádios de germinação mais avançados tiveram maior sensibilidade ao dessecamento. Durante a germinação e o desenvolvimento, o aparecimento dos critérios ocorre em sequência ao longo de várias semanas. Consequentemente, o dano pelo dessecamento só foi detectado quando o último critério foi avaliado. Para evitar subestimação dos danos, sugerimos que estudos de estresse com sementes de palmeiras levem em consideração um período adequado para o desenvolvimento que, para O. bacaba, foi de 105 dias até a expansão do eofilo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Arecaceae , Seedlings , Desiccation
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879016

ABSTRACT

There is no consensus on the content, accumulation, transformation and content determination methods of phenolic acids in fresh Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to find out the true content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, a variety of treatment me-thods were used in this study to prepare sample solution. The content changes of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza samples with different dehydration rates were investigated during drying and shade drying processes. Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) of S. miltiorrhiza was extracted and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis to investigate the enzymatic properties. The content of rosmarinic acid, lithosperic acid and S. nolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza was determined by UPLC. The results showed that the content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza was highest when it was homogenized with 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl solution or 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl methanol solution. There was no significant difference in the content of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza with different dehydration rates, indicating that there was no correlation between phenolic acid content and dehydration rate. The optimum pH of S. miltiorrhiza PPO was 7.6 and the optimum temperature was 40 ℃. With catechol as substrate, S. miltiorrhiza PPO had the enzymatic browning reaction which was in compliance with Michaelis equation, with Michaelis constant K_m of 0.12 mol·L~(-1) and V_(max) of 588.23 U·min~(-1). The inhibitory effect of citric acid, disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate, ascorbic acid and sodium sulfite on S. miltiorrhiza PPO increased with the increase of inhibitor concentration, and sodium sulfite showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The present study proved that there were a large number of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, which were the secondary metabolite of primitive accumulation during the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, rather than the induced product of postharvest drying and dehydration stress. This study has reference value and significance for the cultivation, harvest and processing of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Catechol Oxidase , Desiccation , Hydroxybenzoates , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878982

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the effect of different drying methods(drying-in-the-shade, sun-drying, and hot air drying) on appearance characteristics, internal structure and composition of Belamcandae Rhizoma, so as to provide a theoretical basis for screening out suitable drying methods for primary processing. In this study, the Belamcandae Rhizoma's dynamic changes of the moisture content ratio and drying rate with different drying time under different drying methods, as well as the effects of different drying methods on the appearance, drying rate, density, ash, extractives and the contents of six flavonoids(mangiferin, tectoridin, iridin, tectorigenin, irigenin, irisflorentin) were compared. The results showed that fresh Belamcandae Rhizoma consumed the longest time to reach the water balance point by traditional dry drying in the shade, whiche was about 311 h; that by sun drying was 19.3%, which was shorter than drying in the shade; both drying curves were smoother. The section color of the sun drying samples was the closest to that of fresh samples, but the interior is full of holes, with a low density and loose structure. Hot air drying(40, 60, 80 ℃) could save about 27% to 88% of the drying time, which was greatly shorter, with less pores, a larger density and compact structure. Compared with the traditional drying method, the drying rate of hot air drying was reduced by 13.7%. Ash was affected by temperature, the drying conditions under 40 ℃ and below were not significantly different from those of conventional drying. The ash content decreased by 7.73% to 18.5% compared with conventional drying at 60,80 ℃. After conventional drying and 40 ℃ hot air drying, the contents of tectoridin and iridin(glycosides) in the samples were significantly higher than those in 60,80 ℃ hot air drying, while the contents of tectorigenin, irigenin and irisflorentin(aglycones) dried at 60 ℃ were the best. Therefore, considering comprehensive appearance characteristics and content of medicinal ingredients, traditional Chinese medicinal materials after 60 ℃ hot air drying show a solid texture, tight internal structure, good appearance, appropriate reduction of toxic parasides and higher aglycone content.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rhizome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878908

ABSTRACT

Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 464-473, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153351

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Melanoxylon brauna Schott. tree legume seeds to desiccation and storage. In the drying experiment, the Melanoxylon brauna seeds were submitted to two drying conditions: a forced air circulation chamber (40.18 °C ± 0.13 and 28.48% ± 3.95 RH) and a silica gel desiccator (27.19 °C ± 1.28 and 26.19% ± 0.94 RH) for different times (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, and 144 hours). A completely randomized design in a 2 (drying methods) × 5 (drying times) factorial scheme plus control and 4 replications of 25 seeds was used. The following variables were evaluated before and after drying: seed moisture content, percentage of germinated seeds, germination speed index, percentage of mortality, normal and abnormal seedlings. In the storage experiment the seeds were divided into two batches: pre-dried (at 5.0% humidity) and without drying (control at 8.9% humidity). The seeds were then stored in plastic bags in three environments: refrigerator at 5 °C, freezer at ­20 °C and room temperature (29 °C). The seeds were removed every four months and submitted to the humidity and germination test for 24 months. Data from this storage experiment were analyzed considering a randomized block design in a 2 (drying levels: presence and absence) × 3 (storage environments: refrigerator, freezer or room temperature) factorial scheme + 2 controls (with and without drying at baseline) and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. Drying reduced initial seed water content from 8.9% to 5.0%, without loss of viability. Drying in the chamber at 40 °C was faster and more efficient than in silica gel. The results enable classifying the seeds of this species as orthodox, i.e. tolerant to desiccation. The fridge and freezer were efficient for storing the Melanoxylon brauna seeds up to 24 months, independent of previous drying, while storing the seeds at room temperature with previous drying makes them last longer than without drying, as the seeds can last up to 16 months with drying, or 12 months without drying.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade das sementes da leguminosa arbórea Melanoxylon brauna Schott à dessecação e ao armazenamento. No experimento de secagem as sementes de braúna foram submetidas a duas condições de secagem: câmara com circulação forçada de ar (40,18 °C ± 0,13 e 28,48% ± 3,95 UR) e dessecador com sílica gel (27,19 °C ± 1,28 e 26,19% ± 0,94 UR), por diferentes tempos (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, 144 horas). Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (método de secagem) × 5 (tempo de secagem), mais a testemunha, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis antes e depois da secagem: teor de umidade da semente, porcentagem de sementes germinadas, índice de velocidade de germinação, porcentagem de mortalidade, de plântulas normais e de anormais. No experimento de armazenamento as sementes foram divididas em dois lotes: com secagem prévia (a 5,0% de umidade) e sem secagem (testemunha, a 8,9% de umidade), e foram armazenadas em embalagens sacos de plástico em três ambientes: geladeira a 5 °C, freezer a ­20 °C e temperatura ambiente (29 °C). A cada quatro meses as sementes foram retiradas e submetidas ao teste de umidade e de germinação durante 24 meses. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio do delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes, em esquema fatorial 2 (secagem) × 3 (ambiente de armazenamento) + 2 testemunhas. A secagem proporcionou a redução do teor de água inicial das sementes de 8,9% até 5,0%, sem perda da sua viabilidade. A secagem na câmara a 40 °C foi mais rápida e eficiente do que na sílica gel. Os resultados permitem classificar as sementes desta espécie como ortodoxas, ou seja, tolerantes à dessecação. A geladeira e o freezer foram eficientes para o armazenamento das sementes de braúna, até 24 meses, independente da secagem prévia das sementes, enquanto o armazenamento das sementes a temperatura ambiente é mais duradouro quando as sementes são submetidas previamente à secagem, podendo durar até 16 meses com secagem ou 12 meses sem secagem.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Food Storage/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Fabaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Germination
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 777-782, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal morphology of seeds of Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC.) O. Berg with varying water content through X-ray image analysis, and correlate the images with the germination of these seeds. Fruits were collected in Jataí, Goiás, Brazil, and taken to the Seed Laboratory of the Federal Institute Goiano, Rio Verde Campus, where they were processed and the seeds were extracted. To establish the predetermined water content (43%, 37%, 34%, 31%, and 28% wet basis), seeds with an initial water content of 43% were kept in an oven with forced air circulation at a temperature of 40 °C until they reached the predetermined water content levels. Next, the seeds were placed in acrylic holders with double-sided tape and transported to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), where they were exposed to different intensities of radiation. The X-ray test was conducted with 200 seeds per treatment, and images of the internal structures of the seeds were evaluated. The seeds were returned to the Seed Laboratory of the Federal Institute Goiano, Rio Verde Campus, where the germination test was initiated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial design (5 × 4), in which there were five water content levels and four seed classes, with four replications. The X-ray test was efficient in the identification of filled, malformed, damaged and empty seeds, which germination rate above 50% in the filled seeds. This visualization of the internal morphology of the seed can be useful to select seeds of better quality, improving the percentage of germination of C. pubescens seeds.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a morfologia interna de sementes de Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC.) O.Berg com diferentes teores de água por meio de análise de imagens de raios-X, e correlacionar as imagens com a germinação dessas sementes. Os frutos foram coletados no município de Jataí, Goiás, Brasil, e levados ao Laboratório de Sementes do Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, onde foram processados ​​e as sementes foram extraídas. Para estabelecer o teor de água predeterminado (43%, 37%, 34%, 31% e 28% base úmida), as sementes com um teor inicial de água de 43% foram mantidas em estufa com circulação de ar induzida, a uma temperatura de 40 °C até atingirem os níveis de conteúdo de água predeterminados. Em seguida, as sementes foram colocadas em suportes acrílicos com fita dupla face e transportadas para a Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), onde foram expostas a diferentes intensidades de radiação. O teste de raios-X foi realizado com 200 sementes por tratamento, e imagens das estruturas internas das sementes foram avaliadas. As sementes foram devolvidas ao Laboratório de Sementes do Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, onde foi iniciado o teste de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (5 × 4), no qual foram encontrados cinco níveis de umidade e quatro classes de sementes, com quatro repetições. O teste de raios-X foi eficiente na identificação de sementes preenchidas, malformadas, danificadas e vazias, com taxas de germinação acima dos 50% nas sementes cheias. Essa visualização das morfologia interna da semente pode ser útil para selecionar sementes de melhor qualidade, melhorando a porcentagem de germinação das sementes de C. pubescens.


Subject(s)
Germination , Myrtaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Brazil , Desiccation
9.
Biol. Res ; 52: 46, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most extreme environments on our planet is the Maritime Antarctic territory, due to its low-water availability, which restricts the development of plants. Sanionia uncinata Hedw. (Amblystegiaceae), the main colonizer of the Maritime Antarctic, has effective mechanisms to tolerate this environment. It has been described that the tolerance to desiccation is mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), antioxidants systems, accumulation of compatible solutes and proteins of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA). However, to date, these mechanisms have not been described in S. uncinata. Therefore, in this work, we postulate that the tolerance to desiccation in the Antarctic moss S. uncinata is mediated by the accumulation of ABA, the osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, and dehydrins (an LEA class 11 proteins). To demonstrate our hypothesis, S. uncinata was subjected to desiccation for 24 h (loss in 95% of water content), and the effects on its physiological, photosynthetic, antioxidant and biochemical parameters were determined. RESULTS: Our results showed an accumulation of ABA in response to water loss, and the activation of protective responses that involves an increment in levels of proline and glycine betaine, an increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX and POD, and the accumulation of dehydrins proteins. CONCLUSION: The results showed, suggest that S. uncinata is a desiccation-tolerant moss, property mediated by high cellular plasticity regulated by ABA.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis/physiology , Bryopsida/physiology , Desiccation , Antioxidants/analysis , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Bryopsida/classification , Bryopsida/chemistry , Antarctic Regions
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774559

ABSTRACT

Angelicae sinensis Radix( ASR) is a commonly used medicinal material in Chinese medicine,widely used in clinical practice of Chinese medicine,Gansu province is the genuine production area of ASR. This paper studies the evolution law of drying method of ASR,the results showed that drying process was the key affection of the medicinal properties and quality of ASR,and it was an important reflection of the authentic properties of ASR. The drying history of ASR has gradually changed from the earliest shade drying to various drying methods. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates that the drying method of ASR is"fumigation drying",and the traditional drying method can not meet the processing needs of the origin. In recent years,the new drying methods and drying effects on the quality of ASR are more.


Subject(s)
Angelica sinensis , Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774545

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of fresh-cut drying methods on the appearance and internal components of Panax notoginseng, and explore the feasibility of fresh-cut drying methods of P. notoginseng, so as to provide more effective processing methods for the production of P. notoginseng slices and Chinese patent medicines. In this study, we have compared the effects of 6 different drying methods on drying time, drying rate, density, appearance and internal components of P. notoginseng roots. It takes about 453 h to dry by whole-root drying in the sun, with a long constant speed period and a slow drying rate, the time of whole-root drying at 50 ℃ was shortened by 61.6% compared with whole-root drying in the sun, which resulted in the decrease of density and poor appearance of the medicinal material with hollow and crack appeared in the xylem, while the drying time of fresh-cut drying method was reduced by 61.82% to 91.58% and the drying rate increased greatly, due to the relatively slow drying process in the sun or in the shade after fresh-cut, salting-out and whitening appeared on the surface, and the internal components were all decreased to some extent. The drying time of fresh-cut drying at 50 ℃ was 91.58% and 68.83% shorter than that of whole-root drying in the sun and at 50 ℃, respectively. When drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut, the appearance and content of internal components of the medicinal materials were better, the appearance was yellowish green, the cut sections were clear with uniform pore distribution, and the content of saponin components was increased by 7.24% compared with that of the whole-root drying at 50 ℃, When drying at 40 ℃, the surface of slices has salting-out and whitening spots, and the loss of dencichine and total sugar was large, but at 60 ℃, this high temperature made the rate of dehydration of slices was extremely fast, which led to severe cracking and fragmentation, and the loss of total sugar and alcohol extract was large. By vacuum freeze drying after fresh-cut, the structure of medicinal materials slices was loose, the density was greatly reduced, and the appearance was different from those recorded in traditional books. The contents of total saponin components and dencichine were increased by 16.51% and 22.54%, respectively, compared with traditional whole-root drying. The fresh-cut process method is feasible in the production of P. notoginseng slices. In production, it is recommended that drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut can make the medicinal materials better in appearance and content of internal components, which is convenient for the subsequent processing and industrial feeding extraction. For the purpose of internal contents, it is better to adopt freeze-drying after fresh-cut processing method.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Freeze Drying , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Quality Control , Saponins
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773733

ABSTRACT

Dry granulation technology is a great innovation in granulation technology,which saves many intermediate links and reduces many intermediate costs. It is closely related to the characteristics of materials,dry granulation equipment and process. Dry granulation technology is a systematic engineering science covering many technical fields. The process of dry granulation involves complex mathematical model mechanisms of temperature field,pressure field and velocity field,closely related to the characteristics of materials and drying equipment. However,due to the late start of research on dry granulation technology of traditional Chinese medicine,basic research is still weak. The research on dry granulation technology has achieved great results in the fields of food,chemical industry,agriculture and forestry,showing great reference significance. The advantage of dry granulation of traditional Chinese medicine is that it can be directly granulated by adding an appropriate amount of auxiliary materials in the extract powder of traditional Chinese medicine,without the need of wetting,mixing,drying and other processes. The process is simple and can effectively guarantee the quality of traditional Chinese medicine. The granules obtained by the dry granulation technique are important intermediates for preparing the solid preparations of traditional Chinese medicines,which would directly affect the subsequent molding process and the quality of the preparation products. Therefore,based on the characteristics of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine and by referring to the advanced research results of dry granulation technology in other fields,we would discuss the research ideas of dry granulation in traditional Chinese medicine in terms of the mechanism of dry granulation equipment,technology,on-line detection technology and mathematical model of dry granulation process,hoping to provide reference for the research of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773721

ABSTRACT

Decoction pieces are important raw materials in the production of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM),and their quality could directly affect the clinical efficacy and medication safety. Research on the production and processing technology of TCM is the basis for the normalization and standardization of Chinese medicine decoction pieces. At present,the production and processing standards for Scutellaria baicalensis pieces are non-regulated,lacking data foundation. In this study,with baicalin,baicalein,wogonoside and wogonin contents as evaluation indicators,single factor experiment was designed to optimize the softening,drying and cutting processes of S. baicalensis,providing a basis for the standardization of their production and processing. The effects of different softening,drying and cutting processes on the contents of the main components in S. baicalensis were comprehensively analyzed by the summation of relative differences. RESULTS:: showed that the contents of the four components and comprehensive indexes were affected by different softening methods and drying temperatures. The content of wogonin in boiling method was higher than that in boiling with cold water,and the content of glycosides in 70 ℃ drying condition was higher than that in other groups. The content of baicalin was significantly affected by different cutting thicknesses,but not by comprehensive index. Eventually,the optimal preparation process for S. baicalensis was determined as follows: boiled in boiling water for 20 min,cut into thin slices( 1-2 mm),and then dried at 70 ℃ in blast drier. This process was close to the actual production,practical and feasible and meanwhile,it was of great significance to improve the quality of S. baicalensis pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Flavonoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773140

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to compare the influence of freeze-drying and sun-drying on six main nucleosides and nucleobases of Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC. Hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were reference substances. HPLC analysis was performed on a GL Inertsustain AQ-C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),with mobile phase consisting of water( A)-acetonitrile( B) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min~(-1)( 0-10 min,0-1% B; 10-65 min,1%-3% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm,the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 5 μL. The linear ranges of hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were 1. 025-20. 50( r = 0. 999 8),0. 545-10. 90( r = 0. 999 9),4. 051-81. 02( r = 0. 999 8),4. 044-80. 88( r= 0. 999 9),2. 075-41. 50( r= 0. 999 9),4. 032-80. 64( r = 0. 999 9) mg·L~(-1),respectively. The average recoveries of them( n = 6)were as follows: 102. 3%( RSD 2. 1%),101. 1%( RSD 2. 4%),97. 80%( RSD 1. 7%),101. 8%( RSD 1. 8%),98. 90%( RSD2. 0%) and 98. 10%( RSD 1. 4%),respectively. Each sample was processed by freeze-drying and sun-drying so as to compare the difference between the two drying methods. The contents of six index ingredients were significantly different between freeze-drying and sun-drying sample of C. sinensis. The total contents of six index ingredients in sun-drying sample were higher than that in the corresponding freeze-drying sample. This research results provide the scientific basis for the drying methods and quality evaluation of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Freeze Drying , Nucleosides
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773138

ABSTRACT

In this study,the protein in different Cordyceps samples,which include fresh sample( S1),22 ℃ drying sample( S2),37 ℃ drying sample( S3) and 60 ℃ drying sample( S4),were analyzed by sodium dodecylsupinate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis( 2-DE). The total protein contents in Cordyceps samples were from 1. 655-4. 493 mg·g~(-1) and the protein contents in fresh sample was the highest. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the mainly ranges of protein molecular weight of Cordyces samples were 10-100 kDa and the numbers of protein bands were 28 to 41,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein bands. The 2-DE profiles were analyzed by PDQuest software. The resulted indicated that 488-876 protein spots were detected in different Cordyceps samples and the isoelectric point( pI) was distributed between 4. 5 and 6. 5,the protein molecular weight was distributed in 10-20 kDa and 25-100 kDa,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein spots. Therefore,the drying process could decrease contents and species of protein in Cordyceps,and the different drying conditions had different effects on protein. These results provide a reference for improving the drying process of Cordyceps.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Methods , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fungal Proteins , Molecular Weight
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 595-602, mai/jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966907

ABSTRACT

The official methods adopted by different worldwide agencies for determination of water content of Brazil nut is the dissication in drying oven at 105 ºC during 3 or 24 hours and dissication until constant height of samples. However, applying these methods for Brazil nut, may result in inconsistent values, possibly due to lipid oxidation. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the oven-drying methods, recommended by the official agencies, and to determine the oven-drying correct parameters, such as temperature and exposure time. For this purpose, samples were placed in drying ovens set at 85, 90, 95 and 105 °C and weighed hourly, between 3 and 12 hours and after 24 hours of exposure, and the results were compared to Karl Fisher titration, considered as a reference method in this study. The temperature of 105 °C, for any exposure time, resulted in overestimated water content compared to reference method. However, there was no difference between the water content values obtained by oven-drying assay at 90 °C for 6 hours and by the reference method, allowing to conclude that the determination of water content in Brazil nut samples, in drying oven under these conditions, can be performed with the same accuracy and precision of the Karl Fischer method.


Os métodos oficiais adotados por diferentes órgãos ao redor do mundo para a determinação do teor de água da castanha-do-brasil são a dessecação em estufa a 105 °C por 3 ou 24 horas e a dessecação até peso constante. Contudo, a aplicação destes métodos para a castanha-do-brasil pode resultar em valores inconsistentes, possivelmente pela oxidação dos lipídeos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a acurácia dos métodos de estufa, recomendados pelas agências oficiais, bem como determinar os parâmetros adequados do método, como temperatura e tempo de exposição. Para isto, amostras foram colocadas em estufas ajustadas em 85, 90, 95 e 105 °C e pesadas a cada hora, entre 3 e 12 horas e ao final de 24 horas de exposição, e os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos por titulação de Karl Fisher, considerado como método de referência neste estudo. A temperatura de 105 °C, para quaisquer tempos de exposição, resultou na superestimação do teor de água comparado ao método de referência. Não houve diferença entre os valores para o teor de água obtidos em estufa a 90 °C por 6 horas e o método de referência, permitindo concluir que a determinação do teor de água em amostras de castanha-do-brasil, em estufas nestas condições, pode ser executada com a mesma acurácia e precisão do método de Karl Fisher.


Subject(s)
Bertholletia , Greenhouses , Desiccation , Oxidation
17.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 25(3): 120-127, 2018. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995054

ABSTRACT

Background: The production quality of rice is highly depended on the drying process as drying weakens the rice kernel. A look at the production process of rice in the industry was taken. The drying of rice influences the storage capacity of the grain, the energy consumption, the final mass of the grain and the percentage of whole grains at the end of the process. Objective: The main objective was to analyse the drying of rice by making an artificial neural network to model and simulate it. Methods: The modeling of a rice drying process using neural networks was presented. These models are suitable to be used in combination with model-based control strategies in order to improve the drying process. The implementation, preprocessing and data retrieval for the design of an artificial neural system was analyzed. Controlling the drying factors is of major importance. Feedforward and dynamic neural networks were compared based on their performance. Results: It was concluded that when some part of the dataset is given as training, even with one dataset, a back-propagation network simulates very well the other parts of the drying curve. It can be said that the approximations done by the networks to obtain a nonlinear model of the rice drying process are quiet good. Conclusions: Firstly, because of the too little data available for training, the networks were not as good as expected. More data is needed to realy have a powerfull network capable of approximated very well the drying curve. Secondly, a backpropagation network can be a good solution for modelling and for use in a controller if more data is available, in contrast a linear network gave bad results. thirdly, a network with little number of layers is the best option. A perfect mapping from the input to the output is impossible due the differences in each test and the imperfect sensors.


Antecedentes: la calidad de producción del arroz depende en gran medida del proceso de secado, ya que el secado debilita el grano de arroz. Se estudió el proceso de producción de arroz en la industria. El secado del arroz influye en la capacidad de almacenamiento del grano, el consumo de energía, la masa final del grano y el porcentaje de granos totales al final del proceso. Objetivo: El objetivo principal fue analizar el secado del arroz diseñando una red neuronal artificial para modelarlo y simularlo. Métodos: Se presentó el modelado de un proceso de secado de arroz utilizando redes neuronales. Estos modelos son adecuados para ser utilizados en combinación con estrategias de control basadas en modelos para mejorar el proceso de secado. Se analizó la implementación, el pre-procesamiento y la recuperación de datos para el diseño de un sistema neuronal artificial. Controlar los factores de secado es de gran importancia. Las redes neuronales avanzadas y dinámicas se compararon en función de su rendimiento. Resultados: se llegó a la conclusión de que cuando una parte del conjunto de datos se proporciona como entrenamiento, incluso con un conjunto de datos, una red de propagación inversa simula muy bien las otras partes de la curva de secado. Las aproximaciones hechas por las redes para obtener un modelo no lineal del proceso de secado del arroz son bastante buenas. Conclusión: En primer lugar, debido a la poca información disponible para el entrenamiento, las redes no fueron tan buenas como se esperaba. Se necesitan más datos para tener realmente una red potente capaz de aproximar muy bien la curva de secado. En segundo lugar, una red de propagación hacia atrás puede ser una buena solución para modelar y usar en un controlador si hay más datos disponibles, en contraste, una red lineal arrojó malos resultados. En tercer lugar, una red con poca cantidad de capas es la mejor opción. Un mapeo perfecto de la entrada a la salida es imposible debido a las diferencias en cada prueba y los sensores imperfectos


Subject(s)
Humans , Oryza , Desiccation , Neural Networks, Computer , Nonlinear Dynamics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775404

ABSTRACT

To explore the correlation between chemical compositions (organic acids, small molecule sugars, protein and others) of traditional Chinese medicine extracts and the wall stickiness in spray drying. In this study, 55 types of most common used Chinese herbs were selected to determine the content of 7 chemical components such as citric acid and fructose from plant extraction. The status of wall stickiness was observed during the drying process. The principle component analysis (PCA-X), hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were then used to evaluate the correlation between each chemical compositions and wall stickiness, so as to look for the essential chemical compositions associated with the wall stickiness. All of the above 3 statistical analysis methods showed significant results in distinguishing the two groups (sticky or non-sticky). PCA-X score chart and HCA clustering scatter plot suggested that the small molecular substance was the main factor causing wall stickiness, which was then proved by the reality where some of the traditional herb extracts were in non-sticky state after drying but in sticky state after alcohol precipitation. OPLS-DA results revealed that L-malic acid, citric acid, fructose and glucose were the difference factors for the wall stickiness of the extracts. Under small molecular components, L-malic acid, citric acid, fructose and glucose were the crucial factors that directly led to the hot melt sticky wall of the herbal extracts, and macromolecular substances might ameliorate the function of wall stickiness.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Desiccation , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fructose , Glucose , Least-Squares Analysis , Malates , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Principal Component Analysis
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771540

ABSTRACT

A new device was designed to measure adhesive force and predict whether traditional Chinese medicine extracts would appear hot-melt sticking in spray drying process.Based on the physical property tester as fundamental test platform, the device was fixed with a camera, a temperature and humidity sensor probe and a set of equipment for hot air. This device could simulate the dry environment of spray dryer and analyze the variables of testing solutions' adhesiveness against drying time. To establish and validate a model of predicting hot-melt sticking in spray drying, data was collected by using data mining. The results of this study proved that the device could be used to predict the hot-melt sticking in spray drying based on the adhesive force of materials (testing solutions). In addition, the study also found that the adhesiveness of the hot-melt sticking materials gradually increased with the evaporation of water, while that of non-sticking materials first increased and then rapidly decreased.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Desiccation , Freezing , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 774-780, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888804

ABSTRACT

Abstract During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control), 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds), and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle); then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship. Along the imbibition, cytometric and ultrastructural analysis were performed, besides the extraction of the heat-stable proteins. Posteriorly to imbibition and drying, the evaluation of ultrastructural damages was performed. Desiccation tolerance was fully lost after root protrusion. There was no increase in 4C DNA content after the loss of desiccation tolerance. Ultrastructural characteristics of cells from 1mm roots resembled those found in the recalcitrant seeds, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. The loss of desiccation tolerance coincided with the reduction of heat-stable proteins.


Resumo Durante a germinação, sementes ortodoxas tornam-se gradualmente intolerantes à dessecação, e por isso podem ser utilizadas como modelo para o estudo da recalcitrância. No presente trabalho realizou-se uma caracterização dos aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos e ultraestruturais da perda da tolerância à dessecação de sementes de Anadenanthera colubrina em processo germinativo. Para isso as sementes foram embebidas durante 0 (controle), 2,8,12 e aproximadamente 18 horas (sementes germinadas com 1 mm de radícula), secas por 72 horas, reidratadas e a sobrevivência avaliada. Ao longo da embebição foram realizadas análises citométricas, ultraestruturais e extração de proteínas resistentes ao calor e após embebição e secagem foram avaliados danos ultraestruturais. A tolerância à dessecação foi totalmente perdida após a protrusão radicular. Não houve aumento do conteúdo de DNA 4C quando a tolerância à dessecação foi perdida. Características ultraestruturais de células de radículas de 1 mm assemelharam-se às encontradas em sementes recalcitrantes tanto no estado hidratado quanto desidratado. A perda da tolerância à dessecação coincidiu com a redução do conteúdo de proteínas resistentes ao calor.


Subject(s)
Germination , Desiccation , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/ultrastructure , Trees/growth & development , Trees/physiology , Trees/genetics , Trees/ultrastructure , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/ultrastructure
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