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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 28-39, May. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343460

ABSTRACT

Science has greatly contributed to the advancement of technology and to the innovation of production processes and their applications. Cleaning products have become indispensable in today's world, as personal and environmental hygiene is important to all societies worldwide. Such products are used in the home, in most work environments and in the industrial sectors. Most of the detergents on the market are synthesised from petrochemical products. However, the interest in reducing the use of products harmful to human health and the environment has led to the search for detergents formulated with natural, biodegradable surfactant components of biological (plant or microbiological) origin or chemically synthesised from natural raw materials usually referred to as green surfactants. This review addresses the different types, properties, and uses of surfactants, with a focus on green surfactants, and describes the current scenario as well as the projections for the future market economy related to the production of the different types of green surfactants marketed in the world.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Industry , Biological Products , Detergents
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1620-1631, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor found in products such as cleaners, plastics, and detergents. It exerts actions similar to endogenous 17β-estradiol (E2) and is reported to influence various cancers. However, its role in colon cancer remains elusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colon cancer cell lines COLO 205 and SW480 were employed in our study. The cells were treated with NP or E2 followed by measurement of apoptosis and proliferation using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. G protein–coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression was visualized using immunofluorescence and Western blot. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the expression levels of GPR30, p-protein kinase A (PKA), c-myc, cyclin D1, and ERK1/2 were analyzed using Western blot. Meanwhile, the GPR30 antagonist G15 was utilized to validate the role of GPR30 in colon cancer progression. Finally, the effect of a GPR30 inhibitor on tumor growth was determined in vivo using tumor xenograft mouse models. RESULTS: NP facilitated the proliferation of colon cancer cells and induced apoptosis failure in vitro. Western blot revealed increased GPR30 expression levels in response to NP treatment. Cyclin D1, p-PKA, c-myc, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, proteins that regulate the cell cycle, were all upregulated by NP, and NP-mediated ERK1/2 activation and subsequent cell proliferation were abrogated by the GPR30 inhibitor G15. Moreover, colon cancer mice that received G15 administration demonstrated impaired tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSION: Low dose NP promotes the growth of colon tumors through GPR30-mediated activation of ERK1/2 signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclin D1 , Detergents , Estrogens , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Heterografts , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Phosphotransferases , Plastics , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the antifungal effects of neutral electrolysis hydrogen water, an agent known for its oral anti-bacterial effects on the growth of C. albicans in vitro.METHODS: Hydrogen water, denture cleansing agent, and Listerine® were compared to a tap water control. We serially cultured C. albicans KCTC 27239 in SD media to analyze the inhibitory effect of each treatment on growth. We evaluated the data using repeated-measures ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA test, and a significant difference was defined as P < 0.05.RESULTS: Hydrogen water significantly inhibited the growth, but not the biofilm formation, of C. albicans compared to tap water control at 1-, 5-, and 10-minute time points (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The growth of C. albicans was slower in hydrogen water than in tap water, thereby suggesting an inhibitory effect of hydrogen water. Hydrogen water may, therefore, be utilized as an antibacterial and preventive agent without any harmful effect on denture and oral tissues.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Candida albicans , Candida , Dentures , Detergents , Electrolysis , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Water
7.
Gut and Liver ; : 176-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The use of a low-volume bowel cleansing agent is associated with a greater willingness to undergo repeat colonoscopy. Oral sulfate solution (OSS) is a recently approved low-volume agent; however, its efficacy and safety in the elderly population remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of the OSS preparation, in comparison to those of a standard polyethylene glycol (PEG; 4 L) preparation, in elderly patients. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study was conducted. Participants were randomized to receive OSS or 4-L PEG with a split-dose regimen. Bowel cleansing efficacy was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). Acceptance, satisfaction, and preparation-related symptoms were recorded. Additionally, blood parameters were analyzed for electrolyte abnormalities and nephrotoxicity. RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were analyzed. No group differences in overall bowel cleansing efficacy were observed, with “adequate” preparations achieved in 95.9% (93/97) and 94.8% (91/96) of patients in the OSS and 4L PEG groups, respectively (p=0.747). However, mean BBPS scores for the entire (p=0.010) and right colon (p=0.001) were significantly higher in the OSS group than in the 4-L PEG group. The severity of clinical adverse events and frequency of acute kidney injury were similarly low, and no clinically meaningful electrolyte changes were identified. Self-reported scores regarding amount (p<0.001) and feeling (p=0.007), as well as overall satisfaction (p=0.001) and willingness to repeat the preparation (92.8% vs 67.7%, p<0.001), were significantly better in the OSS group than in the 4-L PEG group. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals, OSS with a split-dose regimen has greater acceptability and comparable efficacy in bowel cleansing compared to 4-L PEG. (Clinical trials registration number: NCT03112967)


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Aged , Cathartics , Colon , Colonoscopy , Detergents , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols , Treatment Outcome
8.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2018. 92 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-963973

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, é recomendado que durante a limpeza dos Produtos para Saúde (PPS) o detergente utilizado possua ação enzimática. Embora a Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada nº 55 de 14 de novembro de 2012 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária desaconselhe a reutilização desta solução de limpeza, sabe-se que na prática clínica elas são reaproveitadas por diversas vezes para imersão de PPS, como os aparelhos endoscópicos, o que pode comprometer a efetividade da ação do detergente enzimático e com isso a segurança no processamento do PPS. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a carga microbiana presente na solução de detergente enzimático durante sua reutilização na limpeza manual de aparelhos endoscópicos gastrointestinais. Tratou-se de um estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de endoscopia digestiva de um hospital universitário de Belo Horizonte e no Laboratório de Microbiologia Oral e Anaeróbios do ICB/UFMG. A amostra foi composta por 57 aparelhos endoscópicos e 76 alíquotas de solução de detergente enzimáticos coletadas de diversos reusos de 19 diferentes soluções. O material coletado foi agitado em vórtex, acrescido a Caldo Letheem Modificado e submetido a filtração em membrana Millipore® 0,45µm. A membrana foi depositada em Tryptic Soy Ágar para crescimento microbiano. A identificação presuntiva dos micro-organismos foi realizada manualmente considerando-se aspectos morfotintoriais e reações bioquímico/fisiológicas. As variáveis foram descritas utilizando frequências, porcentagens e medidas de tendência central. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CAAE ­ 67493417.1.0000.5149). As médias das cargas microbianas na solução de detergente enzimático variaram de 19,9 UFC/mL após primeiro uso, 51,1 UFC/mL após terceiro uso e 67,1UFC/mL após o quinto reuso. Nos canais de ar/água e biópsia houve aumento de micro-organismos Gram negativos ao longo das reutilizações do detergente. Foram recuperados, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus coagulase negativa. Pseudomonas spp. foi o micro-organismo mais identificado em todas as alíquotas coletadas. Verificou-se a importância da escovação do canal de biópsia para correta remoção de micro-organismos. Conclui-se que a reutilização das soluções de detergente enzimático contribuiu para contaminação dos aparelhos endoscópicos com micro-organismos potencialmente patogênicos. Faz-se necessário a reavaliação de protocolos institucionais, no sentido de que seja cumprida a orientação da Anvisa por meio da RDC nº 55 de 14 de novembro de 2012 de que os detergentes enzimáticos não devem ser reutilizados sob perda da eficiência do produto. As características físico químicas dos detergentes enzimáticos devem ser respeitadas pelos serviços de saúde conforme parâmetros estabelecidos pelos fabricantes.(AU)


In Brazil, it is recommended that during the cleaning of Health Products the detergent used has enzymatic action. Although Collegiate Board Resolution No. 55 of November 14, 2012 of the National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance advises against the reuse of this cleaning solution, it is known that in clinical practice they are reused several times for immersion of health products, such a gastrointestinal endoscope, which may compromise the effectiveness of the enzymatic detergent action and thus the safety in the processing. This research aimed to evaluate the microbial load present in the enzymatic detergent solution during its reuse in the manual cleaning of endoscopic gastrointestinal devices. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a gastrointestinal endoscopy service at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte and at the Oral Microbiology and Anaerobic Laboratory of ICB/UFMG. The sample consisted of 57 endoscopes and 76 aliquots of enzymatic detergent solution collected from several replicates of 19 different solutions. The collected material was vortexed, added to Modified Letheem Broth and subjected to Millipore® 0.45 µm membrane filtration. The membrane was deposited in Tryptic Soy Ágar for microbial growth. The identification of the microorganisms was performed manually considering morphotintorial aspects and biochemical/physiological reactions. The variables were described using frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency. The project was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CAAE - 67493417.1.0000.5149). The mean values of the microbial loads in the enzymatic detergent solution varied from 19.9 UFC/mL after first use, 51.1 UFC/mL after third use and 67.1 UFC/mL after the fifth reuse. In the air/water and biopsy channels there was an increase of Gram negative microorganisms along the reuse of the detergent. Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus were recovered. Pseudomonas spp. was the most identified microorganism in all aliquots collected. It was verified the importance of brushing the biopsy channel for correct removal of microorganisms. It was concluded that the reuse of enzyme detergent solutions contributed to the contamination of the endoscopes with potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It is necessary to re-evaluate institutional protocols, in order to comply with Anvisa's guidance through RDC nº. 55 of November 14, 2012 that enzymatic detergents should not be reused under loss of product efficiency. The physical characteristics of the enzymatic detergents must be observed by the health services according to the parameters established by the manufacturers.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infection Control/methods , Endoscopes/microbiology , Detergents/isolation & purification , Detergents/standards , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Containment of Biohazards , Academic Dissertation , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enzymes , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/isolation & purification
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3891-3902, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974747

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo aborda a interface social e ambiental da presença de fósforo nas águas de abastecimento, dimensionando os impactos ocasionados pelo uso de detergentes fosfatados em pó sobre a qualidade e a disponibilidade dos recursos hídricos, no tocante à ocorrência da eutrofização. Com base em dados a respeito da formulação e consumo dos produtos comercializados no Brasil, relata a evolução do assunto e apresenta o retrato da situação atual. Indica que os detergentes brasileiros possuem, hoje, baixa concentração de fósforo, de forma que representam um reduzido risco de impacto sobre o nível trófico das águas. Pontua, entretanto, a necessidade de ajustar o conteúdo da legislação à prática do mercado e de aprimorar as políticas públicas relacionadas com a educação ambiental. Mediante um processo efetivo de comunicação e educação, será possível conscientizar a população acerca do assunto, contribuindo para a manutenção do controle dessa importante fonte de fósforo no meio ambiente e para o aumento da disponibilidade hídrica, por meio da prevenção dos processos de eutrofização.


Abstract This article addresses the social and environmental aspects related to the presence of phosphorus in surface water bodies, assessing the impacts caused by the utilization of powder detergents on the quality and availability of water resources, with particular respect to the occurrence of eutrophication. Based on data concerning the composition and consumption of the products currently sold in Brazil, the evolution of this phenomenon leading to the current situation is reported. Indications are that Brazilian detergents have a low phosphorus content, thus it is possible to infer that these products offer a small risk of impacting the trophic levels of surface waters. There is, however, a need to adjust the content of legislation to market practices, as well as improve public policies related to environmental education. By means of an intensive process of communication and education, awareness about the issue can be raised, keeping this major source of phosphorus in the environment under control and contributing to the increase in the availability of water, through the prevention of eutrophication processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphorus/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Public Health , Detergents/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Brazil , Eutrophication
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 33-38, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021336

ABSTRACT

Background: Lipases are used in detergent industries to minimise the use of phosphate-based chemicals in detergent formulations. The use of lipase in household laundry reduces environmental pollution and enhances the ability of detergent to remove tough oil or grease stains. Results: A lipase-producing indigenous Bacillus subtilis strain [accession no. KT985358] was isolated from the foothills of Trikuta mountain in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lipase (BSK-L) produced by this strain expressed alkali and thermotolerance. Lipase has an optimal activity at pH 8.0 and temperature 37°C, whereas it is stable at pH 6.0­9.0 and showed active lipolytic activity at temperatures 30 to 60°C. Furthermore, lipase activity was found to be stimulated in the presence of the metal ions Mn2+, K+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Ca2+. This lipase was resistant to surfactants, oxidising agents and commercial detergents, suggesting it as a potential candidate for detergent formulation. BSK-L displayed noticeable capability to remove oil stains when used in different washing solutions containing buffer, lipase and commercial detergent. The maximum olive oil removal percentage obtained was 68% when the optimum detergent concentration (Fena) was 0.3%. The oil removal percentage from olive oil-soiled cotton fabric increased with 40 U/mL of lipase. Conclusions: This BSK-L enzyme has the potential for removing oil stains by developing a pre-soaked solution for detergent formulation and was compatible with surfactants, oxidising agents and commercial detergents.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Lipase/metabolism , Temperature , Bacillus subtilis/isolation & purification , Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Detergents , Alkalinization , Thermotolerance , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/biosynthesis
12.
Rev. SOBECC ; 22(2): 106-114, abr.-jun 2017.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-848197

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar estudos que abordem indicações e limitações dos diferentes detergentes utilizados no processamento de produtos para a saúde. Método: Revisão integrativa que incluiu publicações presentes nas bases de dados Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science e PubMed, no período de 2000 a 2016, nos idiomas inglês e português. Resultados: Foram identificados nove estudos. Os detergentes alcalinos apresentam boa remoção de sujidades, são indicados para uso em equipamento automatizado, adequados em processos que utilizem água dura e compatíveis com instrumentais cirúrgicos de aço inoxidável. Podem danificar o produto para a saúde e reagir com alumínio, zinco, metais não ferrosos, borracha e látex. Detergentes enzimáticos são compatíveis com diversos materiais e, devido à presença de enzimas, removem diferentes sujidades do instrumental. Conclusão: Embora os detergentes alcalino e enzimático possuam similaridades, a escolha do produto exige o conhecimento da sua ação, observando as características de uso, compatibilidade com o produto para a saúde e qualidade da água.


Objective: To identify studies that address indications and limitations of different detergents used in the processing of medical devices. Method: Integrative review that included publications in Scientific Electronic Library Online, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed, from 2000 to 2016, in English and in Portuguese. Results: Nine studies were identified. Alkaline detergents remove dirt well, its use is indicated for automated equipment, and they are suitable in processes that use hard water, compatible with surgical stainless steel instruments. They may damage the medical device and react with aluminum, zinc, non-ferrous metals, rubber and latex. Enzymatic detergents are compatible with various materials and, due to the presence of enzymes, remove different types of dirt from the instrument. Conclusion: Although alkaline and enzymatic detergents present similarities, the choice of the product requires knowledge of its action, observing the characteristics of use, compatibility with the medical device and water quality.


Objetivo: Identificar los estudios que abordan indicaciones y limitaciones de diferentes detergentes utilizados en el procesamiento de productos de salud. Método: Revisión integrada que incluye publicaciones presentes en las bases de datos Scientific Electronic Library Online, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science y PubMed, de 2000 a 2016, en los idiomas Inglés y Portugués. Resultados: Se identificaron nueve estudios. Los detergentes alcalinos tienen buena eliminación de impurezas, están indicados para su uso en equipos automatizados, los procedimientos adecuados utilizando agua dura compatibles e instrumental acero inoxidable quirúrgico. Pueden dañar la salud del producto, y reaccionar con aluminio, zinc, metales no ferrosos, caucho y látex. Detergentes enzimáticos son compatible con diversos materiales y, debido a la presencia de enzimas, eliminan diferentes suciedades de los instrumentales. Conclusión: Aunque detergentes alcalinos y enzimáticos presenten similitudes, la elección del producto requiere el conocimiento de su acción, observando las características de uso, compatibilidad con el producto para la salud y la calidad del agua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Detergents , Equipment and Supplies , Sanitizing Products , Sterilization , Disinfection , Efficacy
13.
Mycobiology ; : 178-183, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729297

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder which affects millions of population worldwide. Global estimates published in 2010 reported the world diabetic prevalence as 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults. Foot ulceration and wound infection are major forms of disabilities arising from diabetic diseases. This study was aimed to develop a natural antimicrobial finishing on medical grade textile that meets American Association of Textiles Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) standard. The textile samples were finished with the ethanolic extract of Penicillium amestolkiae elv609, an endophytic fungus isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (common name: cat's whiskers). Endophyte is defined as microorganism that reside in the living plant tissue, without causing apparent disease symptom to the host. The antimicrobial efficacy of the ethanolic extract of P. minioluteum was tested on clinical pathogens isolated from diabetic wound. The extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against 4 bacteria and 1 yeast with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/mL. The results indicate different susceptibility levels of the test microorganism to the ethanolic extract. However, the killing activity of the extract was concentration-dependent. The finished medical textile showed excellent antimicrobial efficacy on AATCC test assays. All the microbial cultures treated with the textile sample displayed a growth reduction of 99.9% on Hoheinstein Challenge Test. The wash durability of the finished textile was found good even after 50 washes with commercial detergent. Besides, the gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that 6-octadecenoic acid and diethyl phthalate were the main bioactive constituents of the extract. In conclusion, the developed medical textile showed good antimicrobial efficacy on laboratory tests. This work can be extended to in vivo trials for developing healthcare textile products for antimicrobial applications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteria , Delivery of Health Care , Detergents , Diabetes Mellitus , Ethanol , Foot Ulcer , Fungi , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Homicide , Humans , Orthosiphon , Penicillium , Plants , Prevalence , Textiles , Wound Infection , Wounds and Injuries , Yeasts
14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017023-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Rates of attempted deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) are subject to undercounting, underreporting, and denial of the suicide attempt. In this study, we estimated the rate of underreported DSP, which is the most common method of attempted suicide in Iran. METHODS: We estimated the rate and number of unaccounted individuals who attempted DSP in western Iran in 2015 using a truncated count model. In this method, the number of people who attempted DSP but were not referred to any health care centers, n0, was calculated through integrating hospital and forensic data. The crude and age-adjusted rates of attempted DSP were estimated directly using the average population size of the city of Kermanshah and the World Health Organization (WHO) world standard population with and without accounting for underreporting. The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the confidence level. RESULTS: The recorded number of people who attempted DSP was estimated by different methods to be in the range of 46.6 to 53.2% of the actual number of individuals who attempted DSP. The rate of underreported cases was higher among women than men and decreased as age increased. The rate of underreported cases decreased as the potency and intensity of toxic factors increased. The highest underreporting rates of 69.9, 51.2, and 21.5% were observed when oil and detergents (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10] code: X66), medications (ICD-10 code: X60-X64), and agricultural toxins (ICD-10 codes: X68, X69) were used for poisoning, respectively. Crude rates, with and without accounting for underreporting, were estimated by the mixture method as 167.5 per 100,000 persons and 331.7 per 100,000 persons, respectively, which decreased to 129.8 per 100,000 persons and 253.1 per 100,000 persons after adjusting for age on the basis of the WHO world standard population. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of individuals who attempted DSP were not referred to a hospital for treatment or denied the suicide attempt for political or sociocultural reasons. Individuals with no access to counseling services are at a higher risk for repeated suicide attempts and fatal suicides.


Subject(s)
Classification , Counseling , Delivery of Health Care , Denial, Psychological , Detergents , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Methods , Monte Carlo Method , Poisoning , Population Density , Suicide , Suicide, Attempted , World Health Organization
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017023-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Rates of attempted deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) are subject to undercounting, underreporting, and denial of the suicide attempt. In this study, we estimated the rate of underreported DSP, which is the most common method of attempted suicide in Iran.METHODS: We estimated the rate and number of unaccounted individuals who attempted DSP in western Iran in 2015 using a truncated count model. In this method, the number of people who attempted DSP but were not referred to any health care centers, n0, was calculated through integrating hospital and forensic data. The crude and age-adjusted rates of attempted DSP were estimated directly using the average population size of the city of Kermanshah and the World Health Organization (WHO) world standard population with and without accounting for underreporting. The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the confidence level.RESULTS: The recorded number of people who attempted DSP was estimated by different methods to be in the range of 46.6 to 53.2% of the actual number of individuals who attempted DSP. The rate of underreported cases was higher among women than men and decreased as age increased. The rate of underreported cases decreased as the potency and intensity of toxic factors increased. The highest underreporting rates of 69.9, 51.2, and 21.5% were observed when oil and detergents (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10] code: X66), medications (ICD-10 code: X60-X64), and agricultural toxins (ICD-10 codes: X68, X69) were used for poisoning, respectively. Crude rates, with and without accounting for underreporting, were estimated by the mixture method as 167.5 per 100,000 persons and 331.7 per 100,000 persons, respectively, which decreased to 129.8 per 100,000 persons and 253.1 per 100,000 persons after adjusting for age on the basis of the WHO world standard population.CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of individuals who attempted DSP were not referred to a hospital for treatment or denied the suicide attempt for political or sociocultural reasons. Individuals with no access to counseling services are at a higher risk for repeated suicide attempts and fatal suicides.


Subject(s)
Classification , Counseling , Delivery of Health Care , Denial, Psychological , Detergents , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Methods , Monte Carlo Method , Poisoning , Population Density , Suicide , Suicide, Attempted , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648011

ABSTRACT

To develop decellularized heart valve scaffold from porcine for heart valve regeneration. Porcine heart valves were decellularized with unique optimized approach by using 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide for the first time. Effect of decellularization process on scaffold were characterized by hematoxylin-eosin, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, Masson's trichrome, alcian blue staining and scanning electron microscopy for extracellular matrix (ECM) analysis in scaffold. The results showed that developed protocol for decellularization of heart valve scaffold shown complete removal of all cellular components, without changing the properties of ECM. The developed protocol was successfully used for heart valve ECM scaffolds development from porcine. The developed protocol seems to be promising solution for the heart valve tissue engineering application.


Subject(s)
Alcian Blue , Detergents , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Extracellular Matrix , Heart Valves , Heart , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Regeneration , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate , Tissue Engineering
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 87-90, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67661

ABSTRACT

Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (SPMC) is a widely used oral bowel cleansing agent considered to be relatively safe. However, partially dissolved or undissolved SPMC powder may cause severe injuries of the esophagus and stomach. We report a very rare case of acute gastric injury without esophageal damage caused by the ingestion of undissolved SPMC powder. A 69-year-old man experienced epigastric pain after swallowing SPMC powder without dissolving it in water in preparation for a screening colonoscopy. He realized his mistake immediately and subsequently drank 2 L of water. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted after 12 hours indicated an acute gastric ulceration without injury of the esophagus or duodenum. The endoscopy conducted after 6 weeks of oral proton pump inhibitor treatment showed healing of the gastric injury. This suggested that drinking large amounts of water after ingesting partially dissolved or undissolved SPMC powder can prevent serious esophageal injury, but offers no preventive benefit for acute gastric injury.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cathartics , Citric Acid , Colonoscopy , Deglutition , Detergents , Drinking , Duodenum , Eating , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagus , Humans , Mass Screening , Proton Pumps , Sodium , Stomach , Stomach Ulcer , Water
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54238

ABSTRACT

BMP-2 is a well-known TGF-beta related growth factor, having a significant role in bone and cartilage formation. It has been employed to promote bone formation in some clinical trials, and to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. However, it is difficult to obtain this protein in its soluble and active form. hBMP-2 is expressed as an inclusion body in the bacterial system. To continuously supply hBMP-2 for research, we optimized the refolding of recombinant hBMP-2 expressed in E. coli, and established an efficient method by using detergent and alkali. Using a heparin column, the recombinant hBMP-2 was purified with the correct refolding. Although combinatorial refolding remarkably enhanced the solubility of the inclusion body, a higher yield of active dimer form of hBMP-2 was obtained from one-step refolding with detergent. The refolded recombinant hBMP-2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity in mouse myoblasts, at ED₅₀ of 300-480ng/ml. Furthermore, the expressions of osteogenic markers were upregulated in hPDLSCs and hDPSCs. Therefore, using the process described in this study, the refolded hBMP-2 might be cost-effectively useful for various differentiation experiments in a laboratory.


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Cartilage , Detergents , Heparin , Humans , Inclusion Bodies , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Myoblasts , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Solubility , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167673

ABSTRACT

We present an interesting case of arbitrary chemical burn resulting from exposure to an undiluted detergent solution as a folk remedy. A 59-year-old woman came to the emergency department presenting chemical burn on her hand. She was affected by housewife's eczema on her left hand and wanted to cure the lesion. So three days before she came to hospital, she had put her hand into an undiluted detergent solution for an hour as a folk remedy for eczema. The patient was treated with foam dressing while the wound was demarcated. After three weeks, she underwent full-thickness skin graft on her 4(th) finger only. On postoperative day 14, the grafted skin was well-taken and on postoperative day 32, the wound was healed completely with a nail growth. Dish detergent solution has been widely used in kitchen but there is no documented report of chemical burn resulting from a detergent solution. When this patient came to our hospital at first time, the wound was so inflammatory and partial necrosis was combined. So we waited for demarcation preparing even for amputation. But with application of appropriate foam dressing, the patient was healed well and required only partial skin graft. We may encounter the patients suffer from the chemical burns due to usual detergent sometimes. But we do not need to perform surgical treatment immediately. Instead, appropriate dressing will be helpful to minimize operation range.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Bandages , Burns , Burns, Chemical , Detergents , Eczema , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fingers , Hand , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Skin , Transplants , Wounds and Injuries
20.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(1): 19-27, jun. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868808

ABSTRACT

Las amilasas (alfa-amilasa, EC 3.2.1.1 y glucoamilasa, EC 3.2.1.3) son enzimas extracelulares que hidrolizan el almidón en dextrinas hasta glucosa y tienen gran aplicación industrial, especialmente alimentaria; detergentes y en la producción de alcohol a partir de granos. El objetivo del trabajo es seleccionar un hongo filamentoso que presente alta producción de amilasas con características particulares para ser empleadas en biodetergentes. Se estudiaron los siguientes hongos: Penicillium expansum; P. digitatum; P. islandicum; Aspergillus clavatus; A. niger; A. ochraceus; A. fumigatus; A. flavus; A. oryzae; A. nidulans y Geotrichum candidum; Los ensayos se realizaron en un medio de hidrolizado de papa de descarte (variedad Spunta) suplementado con las siguientes sales: KH2 PO4 1,0; NaNO3 3,0; MgSO4 .7H2 O 0,5, a pH 4,0; se inoculó con 2 x106 conidios/mL y se incubaron a 25ºC en un agitador rotatorio a una velocidad de agitación de 250 rpm. Con los extractos enzimáticos parcialmente purificados con (NH4 )2 SO4 al 60 por ciento de saturación, se estudió el efecto del pH (2,5; 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0, 7,0 y 8,0) y la temperatura (20; 25; 30; 35 y 40ºC). Los resultados mostraron que la máxima producción de enzima (128 U/L) se obtuvo con Aspergillus niger, en las condiciones ensayadas, a las 48 h de incubación, con alto rendimiento de producto respecto a la biomasa (Yp/x= 18,3 U/g) y productividad volumétrica (Pdv=2,7 U/L). El análisis cualitativo de las enzimas del complejo amilolítico de A. niger mostró que las amilasas implicadas son alfa-amilasa y glucoamilasa y se caracterizaron por hidrolizar en un tiempo de 3 min. manchas mixtas de almidón y grasas de muestras textiles en un rango de pH 4,0 a 8,0 y de 20 a 40 ºC.


The amylases (alpha-amylase, EC 3.2.1.1 and glucoamylase, EC 3.2.1.3) are extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze starch into dextrins to glucose and have great application industrial, especially food, detergents and in the production of alcohol from grains. The objective of the study is to select a filamentous fungus that present high production of amylases showing attractive features to be used in biodetergentes. Were studied following fungus: Penicillium expansum; P. digitatum; P. islandicum; Aspergillus clavatus; A niger; A. ochraceus; A. fumigatus; A. flavus; A. oryzae; A. nidulans and Geotrichum candidum. The tests were conducted in the medium of hydrolyzed potato discard (variety Spunta) supplemented with the following sales: KH2 PO4 , 1.0; NaNO3 , 3.0 and MgSO4 .7H2 O, 0.5, to pH 4.0. Were inoculated with 2 x 106 conidia/ mL and incubated at 25 °C on a rotary Shaker at a speed of 250 rpm. With partially purified enzyme extracts with (NH4 )2 SO4 at 60 percent of saturation, we studied the effect of pH (2.5; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5; 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) and temperature (20; 25; 30; 35, and 40 ° C). The results showed that the maximum production of enzyme (128 U/L) was obtained with Aspergillus niger, under the conditions tested, at 48 h of incubation, with high product formation rate with respect to biomass (Yp/x = 18.3 U/g) and volumetric productivity (Pdv = 2,7 U/ hL). The qualitative analysis of the enzymes of the complex amylolític of A. niger showed that involved amylases are α-amylase and glucoamylase and characterized by hydrolyze in 3 min spots mixed starch and fats of textile samples over a range of pH 4.0 to 8.0 and 20 to 40 ° C.


Subject(s)
Amylases/analysis , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Fungi/enzymology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Detergents , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Starch , Temperature
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