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2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1181-1190, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364685

ABSTRACT

Resumo A distribuição da cárie é desigual e fortemente associada aos diferentes perfis socioeconômicos dos países. Objetivou-se descrever as mudanças da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e em países de renda média-alta nos anos 1990 e 2017. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo realizado a partir de dados secundários extraídos do Global Burden of Disease. Foram incluídos os 53 países pertencentes ao grupo de renda média-alta. As estimativas de prevalência de cárie foram coletadas nos anos de 1990 e 2017. A variação percentual da prevalência foi calculada entre os dois anos. Também foram coletados os valores do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) para cada país. Os resultados evidenciam tendência de redução da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e na maioria dos países de renda média-alta. A prevalência de cárie não tratada no Brasil foi de 38,17%, em 1990, e de 37,46% em 2017. O Brasil ocupa a 41ª posição no ranking de redução na prevalência de cárie entre os 53 países avaliados. Os países que alcançaram as maiores reduções na prevalência de cárie foram os que melhoraram o seu IDH. Nesse sentido, considera-se a necessidade de rever as políticas públicas de saúde bucal, bem como uma reflexão acerca do enfrentamento das iniquidades presentes nos países pesquisados.


Abstract The distribution of caries is uneven and strongly associated with the different socioeconomic profiles of countries. The scope of this study was to describe the changes in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in upper-middle income countries for the years 1990 and 2017. It is a descriptive study based on secondary data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease. The 53 countries included in the upper-middle income group were included. Caries prevalence estimates were collected for the years 1990 and 2017. The percentage change in prevalence was calculated between the two years. The values of the Human Development Index (HDI) for each country were also collected. The results show the trend of a reduction in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in most upper-middle income countries. The prevalence of untreated caries in Brazil was 38.17% in 1990 and 37.46% in 2017. Brazil occupies the 41st position in the ranking of the reduction in the prevalence of caries among the 53 countries evaluated. The countries that achieved the greatest reductions in the prevalence of caries were those with an improvement in their HDI. In this respect, the need to review public oral health policies is revealed, as well as a reflection on addressing the inequities present in the countries surveyed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentition, Permanent , Developing Countries , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Income
3.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354557

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 remains a major public health threat globally, and has challenged healthcare systems and services including oral health Objective: This study examines the key public health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low resource settings. While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the patient's mouth as well as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. This presents a challenge for low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria where weak and poor governance structures characterize healthcare systems in addition to paucity of economic resources. Another challenge in the form of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has threatened to undermine public health efforts designed to control the pandemic. Conclusion: The implementation of optimal guidelines and safety protocols for effective COVID -19 infection prevention and control is a major challenge for restorative dental care practice in low resource settings owing to paucity of key material resources and inappropriate behaviour associated with lingering doubts about COVID-19 reality among the majority of the populace. The Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry concept offers a viable practical approach for restorative dental practice in LMICs during and in the post COVID-19 pandemic era. There is a need to deploy all resources, human and material, in the education and enlightenment of the populace regarding the reality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Dental Care , Developing Countries , COVID-19 , Public Health , Dentists , General Practice, Dental
4.
SA j. radiol ; 26(1): 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354430

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, adults presenting with seizures account for 1% ­ 2% of visits to emergency departments (EDs), of which 25% are new-onset seizures. Neuroimaging is essential as part of the initial workup. Multiple studies have demonstrated abnormal CT brain (CTB) findings in these patients. Objectives: To review the CTB findings in adults presenting with new-onset seizures in a resource restricted setting. Method: A retrospective review of 531 CTBs was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Gauteng on adults presenting to the ED with new-onset seizures. Results: The mean age of the patients was 45.6 ± 17.1 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Generalised and focal seizure types were almost equally represented. Of the total 531 patients, 168 (31.6%) were HIV positive. The CTB findings were abnormal in 257 (48.4%) patients, albeit vascular pathology accounted for 21.9%. Infective pathology accounted for 14.1% with a statistically significant association with HIV (p = 0.003). Trauma related pathology was 2.4%, whilst neoplastic pathology was seen in 3.0%. Other causes included congenital pathology, calcifications, atrophy and gliosis. Clinical factors associated with abnormal CTB findings were age ≥ 40 years, HIV infection, hypertension, focal seizures, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and presence of lymphocytes. Conclusion: A high yield of abnormal CTB findings was noted in adult patients who presented with new-onset seizures, supporting the use of urgent CTB in patients with certain clinical risk factors. Patients without these risk factors can be scanned within 24­48 h in a resource restricted setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Seizures , Brain , Medical Audit , Developing Countries
6.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 10 set. 2021. 21 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1358551

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão rápida foi comissionada e subsidiada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do projeto GEREB-010-FIO-20 e faz parte da Coleção "Rapid response for health promotion". Contexto: A alimentação adequada e saudável é um direito humano básico e para o seu cumprimento requer programas e políticas públicas que incidam sobre a produção, a disponibilidade, a distribuição e o acesso aos alimentos, visando à redução de iniquidades no consumo alimentar. O guia alimentar para a população brasileira orienta a preferência por alimentos in natura e minimamente processados, dentre eles as frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão. Assim, a identificação dos determinantes para o consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão pode contribuir para o fortalecimento das políticas públicas. Pergunta: Quais fatores determinam o consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão em países de baixa e média renda? Métodos: A primeira busca nas bases de dados foi realizada para identificar revisões sistemáticas (RS), tendo recuperado 930 registros e incluído 5 RS, após processo de seleção e elegibilidade. Na avaliação da qualidade metodológica com a ferramenta AMSTAR 2, todas as RS foram consideradas de confiança criticamente baixa. Como as RS abordaram apenas o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, realizou-se uma busca adicional para identificar estudos primários sobre determinantes do consumo de arroz e feijão. De 1.442 registros identificados, nenhum atendeu aos critérios desta revisão. Resultados: Cinco revisões sistemáticas apresentaram determinantes para o consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Atributos sensoriais e físicos dos alimentos, acessibilidade e preço dos alimentos, fatores sociodemográficos como renda, educação e local de moradia, influência de pais, pares e mídias sociais, conhecimento, expectativa e conveniência foram os determinantes descritos pelas revisões que impactam no consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Não foram encontrados resultados sobre fatores que influenciam no consumo de arroz e feijão. Considerações finais: Embora as RS tenham apresentado diversas categorias de determinantes sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, elas se referem a poucos estudos primários, com baixa representatividade de estudos brasileiros. Uma importante lacuna são estudos sobre o padrão alimentar no Brasil que abordem o consumo de arroz e feijão. Além disso, é importante considerar a baixa qualidade metodológica das RS.


This rapid review was commissioned and subsidized by the Ministry of Health, within the scope of the GEREB-010-FIO-20 project and is part of the "Rapid response for health promotion" Collection. Context: Adequate and healthy food is a basic human right and its fulfillment requires public programs and policies that affect the production, availability, distribution and access to food, with a view to reducing inequities in food consumption. The food guide for the Brazilian population guides the preference for fresh and minimally processed foods, including fruits, vegetables, rice and beans. Thus, the identification of the determinants for the consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans can contribute to the strengthening of public policies. Question: What factors determine the consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans in low- and middle-income countries? Methods: The first search in the databases was performed to identify systematic reviews (SR), having retrieved 930 records and included 5 RS, after the selection and eligibility process. In the assessment of methodological quality with the AMSTAR 2 tool, all SRs were considered critically low confidence. As the SRs only addressed the consumption of fruits and vegetables, an additional search was carried out to identify primary studies on determinants of rice and beans consumption. Of 1,442 records identified, none met the criteria for this review. Results: Five systematic reviews presented determinants for the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Sensory and physical attributes of food, accessibility and price of food, sociodemographic factors such as income, education and place of residence, influence of parents, peers and social media, knowledge, expectation and convenience were the determinants described by the reviews that impact fruit consumption and vegetables. No results were found on factors that influence the consumption of rice and beans. Final considerations: Although the SRs have presented several categories of determinants on the consumption of fruits and vegetables, they refer to few primary studies, with low representation of Brazilian studies. An important gap is studies on the dietary pattern in Brazil that address the consumption of rice and beans. In addition, it is important to consider the low methodological quality of the SRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Eating , Diet, Healthy/economics , Social Factors , Vegetables , Developing Countries , Fruit
7.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 249-255, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: To date, many studies have validated the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) scoring system in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but studies from developing countries remain scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and categorize Mexican patients using the HCT-CI at a referral center. Methods: One hundred and nineteen consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition in Mexico City were included. Patients were classified according to the HCT-CI scores. Results: The median age was 31 years and most were males (56%). Most patients had hematological malignancies (73%) and a low HCT-CI score (72%). The non-relapse mortality and survival were predicted according to the score. Conclusions: This is one of the few studies to evaluate the HCT-CI in adults with HLA-matched donors in a developing country and our findings suggest that the high percentage of patients with a low HCT-CI scores, contrary to international reports, could be explained by different comorbidities and demographics, but mainly due to stricter filters applied to HSCT candidates and consequently, a potential selection bias caused by limited resources.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Comorbidity , Developing Countries , Mexico
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4101-4114, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339596

ABSTRACT

Resumo Literacia para a Saúde (LS) relaciona-se às capacidades individuais de acesso, compreensão, avaliação e aplicação das informações de saúde, a fim de se tomar decisões na vida diária, para manter ou melhorar a saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar os estudos sobre LS conduzidos nos países de renda baixa ou média, com ênfase na definição utilizada para LS. Revisão sistemática nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Scopus, LILACS e SciELO. Foram incluídos estudos que apresentavam a definição de LS, estudos em países de economias de renda baixa ou média e estudos latino-americanos. Inicialmente foi feita leitura dos títulos e/ou resumos. Dois avaliadores independentes realizaram a leitura do texto completo. Discordâncias foram discutidas por consenso. Foram encontradas 6.025 referências e selecionadas 36 para a amostra final. A maioria dos estudos (58,3%) era de países do continente asiático, seguidos pelos estudos em países da América do Sul (27,8%), incluindo o Brasil. A maior parte (58,3%) avaliou a dimensão funcional da LS (LFS). As definições mais frequentes foram do Instituto de Medicina dos Estados Unidos e da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Aproximadamente 30% dos estudos que avaliaram a LFS utilizaram como referencial teórico definições mais abrangentes de LS.


Abstract Health literacy (HL) is linked to individual capacities of access, understanding, assessment and application of health information to make decisions in everyday life, in order to maintain or improve health. The scope of this article is to review studies on HL conducted in low- and middle-income countries, with an emphasis on the definition used for HL. It involved a systematic search in the Medline, Embase, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO databases. It included studies that showed the definition of HL, studies in countries with low- and middle-income economies and Latin American studies. Initially, a selection of studies was made by reading the titles and/or abstracts. Two independent evaluators conducted the reading of the full text. Disagreements were discussed by consensus. A total of 6,025 references were located and 36 were selected for the final sample. Most studies (58.3%) were from countries on the Asian continent, followed by studies from South American countries (27.8%), including Brazil. Most studies (58.3%) evaluated the functional dimension of the HL (FHL). The most frequent definitions were from the Institute of Medicine and from the World Health Organization. Approximately 30% of the studies that evaluated FHL used broader definitions of HL as theoretical frameworks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Literacy , Brazil , Developing Countries , Income
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153847

ABSTRACT

Resumo A resposta americana à pandemia envolve um proeminente volume de recursos federais, em especial destinados ao desenvolvimento e aquisição de produtos no uso interno, como diagnósticos ou vacinas. As justificativas para esse desembolso se baseiam em mecanismos de investimentos e aspectos históricos. Assim, a construção social do nacionalismo na formação na sociedade americana prejudica o acesso a tecnologias em saúde. A revisão desses aspectos demonstra como os Estados Unidos (EUA) garantiram compra de grande quantitativo de produtos em potencial, inclusive assegurando excessiva produção local. Essa política externa unilateral tem influenciado outros países ou blocos regionais e prejudicado a cooperação e a solidariedade global com impacto na saúde coletiva de diversas nações.


Abstract The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , International Cooperation , Political Systems , United States/epidemiology , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Costs and Cost Analysis , Resource Allocation/economics , Resource Allocation/methods , Developing Countries , Diffusion of Innovation , Economics , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility
15.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 42-47, ene.-feb- 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177761

ABSTRACT

La pandemia por COVID-19 no sólo ha generado un impacto negativo en la salud, sino que la economía global también se ha visto mermada, afectando más a los países subdesarrollados. Con relación a estos daños en las finanzas de los profesionales de la salud, existen algunos efectos que derivan de la pandemia COVID-19, los cuales tienen una fuerte repercusión en la economía de todos los trabajadores a nivel mundial y el ámbito odontológico no es la excepción. Esta revisión se obtuvo mediante la búsqueda de la información en una exploración electrónica en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SciELO y Latindex. El impacto económico derivado de esta pandemia, sin lugar a dudas, ha afectado la economía de los odontólogos de práctica pública y privada, por lo que la toma de decisiones en la odontología debe contemplar un uso equilibrado de los recursos financieros (AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic has not only generated a negative impact on health, but the global economy has also been reduced, being the underdeveloped countries the most affected ones. In relation to these damages in the finances of health professionals, there are some effects that derive from the COVID-19 pandemic, having a strong impact on the economy of all workers worldwide and the dental field is no exception. This review was obtained by searching the information through an electronic examination in databases like PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SciELO and Latindex databases. The economic impact derived from this pandemic has undoubtedly affected the economy of dentists in public and private practice, so that decision-making in dentistry must consider a balanced use of financial resources (AU)


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Economics, Dental , Pandemics , General Practice, Dental , Oral Health , Databases, Bibliographic , Decision Making , Developing Countries , Financial Resources in Health , Health Impact Assessment
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 14-23, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152989

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) com fração de ejeção na faixa média ou intermediária (ICFEI) (em inglês, "mid-range ejection fraction) foi recentemente descrita em diretrizes europeia e brasileira recentes sobre o manejo da insuficiência cardíaca (IC). A fração de ejeção (FE) é um parâmetro importante para direcionar terapia e prognóstico. Estudos têm mostrado resultados conflitantes sem dados representativos de países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo Analisar e comparar a taxa de sobrevida em pacientes com ICFEI com pacientes com IC e FE reduzida (ICFEr), e pacientes com IC e FE preservada, e avaliar as características clínicas desses pacientes. Métodos Estudo coorte que incluiu pacientes com IC aguda admitidos no departamento de emergência de um hospital terciário, referência em cardiologia, localizado no sul do Brasil, entre 2009 e 2011. A amostra foi dividida em três grupos de acordo com a FE: reduzida, intermediária e preservada. Curva de Kaplan-Meier foi analisada de acordo com a FE, e uma análise de regressão logística foi realizada. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p<0,05. Resultados Um total de 380 pacientes foram analisados. A maioria dos pacientes apresentaram ICFEp (515), seguido de ICFEr (32%) e ICFEI (17%). Os pacientes com ICFEI apresentaram características intermediárias em relação à idade, pressão arterial, e diâmetros ventriculares, e a maioria era de etiologia isquêmica. O período mediano de acompanhamento foi de 4 anos. Não se observou diferença na sobrevida geral ou na mortalidade cardiovascular (p=0,03) entre os grupos de FE (FE reduzida: mortalidade de 40,5%; FE intermediária: 39,7%, e FE preservada 26%). A mortalidade hospitalar foi 7,6%. Conclusão Não houve diferença na taxa de sobrevida entre os grupos de FE diferentes. Os pacientes com ICFEI apresentaram maior mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares em comparação a pacientes com ICFEp. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):14-23)


Abstract Background Heart Failure with mid-range Ejection Fraction (HFmEF) was recently described by European and Brazilian guidelines on Heart Failure (HF). The ejection fraction (EF) is an important parameter to guide therapy and prognosis. Studies have shown conflicting results without representative data from developing countries. Objective To analyze and compare survival rate in patients with HFmEF, HF patients with reduced EF (HFrEF), and HF patients with preserved EF (HFpEF), and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of these patients. Methods A cohort study that included adult patients with acute HF admitted through the emergency department to a tertiary hospital, reference in cardiology, in south Brazil from 2009 to 2011. The sample was divided into three groups according to EF: reduced, mid-range and preserved. A Kaplan-Meier curve was analyzed according to the EF, and a logistic regression analysis was done. Statistical significance was established as p < 0.05. Results A total of 380 patients were analyzed. Most patients had HFpEF (51%), followed by patients with HFrEF (32%) and HFmEF (17%). Patients with HFmEF showed intermediate characteristics related to age, blood pressure and ventricular diameters, and most patients were of ischemic etiology. Median follow-up time was 4.0 years. There was no statistical difference in overall survival or cardiovascular mortality (p=.0031) between the EF groups (reduced EF: 40.5% mortality; mid-range EF 39.7% and preserved EF 26%). Hospital mortality was 7.6%. Conclusion There was no difference in overall survival rate between the EF groups. Patients with HFmEF showed higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases in comparison with HFpEF patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):14-23)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Heart Failure , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Developing Countries
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 61-65, Jan. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156077

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a severe disorder that affects up to 8% of all pregnancies and represents an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The screening of the disease is a subject of studies, but the complexity and uncertainties regarding its etiology make this objective a difficult task. In addition, the costs related to screening protocols, the heterogeneity of the most affected populations and the lack of highly effective prevention methods reduce the potential of current available algorithms for screening. Thus, the National Specialized Commission of Hypertension in Pregnancy of the Brazilian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics Federation (Febrasgo, in the Portuguese acronym) (NSC Hypertension in Pregnancy of the Febrasgo) considers that there are no screening algorithms to be implemented in the country to date and advocates that Aspirin and calcium should be widely used.


Resumo A Pré-eclâmpsia (PE) é uma doença grave que acomete ~ 8% das gestações e representa importante causa de morbimortalidade, tanto materna quanto perinatal. O rastreamento da doença émotivo de estudos, porém a complexidade e as incertezas quanto a sua etiologia tornam esse objetivo bastante difícil. Além disso, os custos relacionados com o rastreamento, a heterogeneidade das populações mais afetadas e ainda a falta de métodos de prevenção de grande eficácia reduzem o potencial dos algoritmos de rastreamento. Assim, a Comissão Nacional Especializada sobre Hipertensão na Gravidez da Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (CNE Hipertensão na Gravidez da FEBRASGO) considera que não há algoritmos de rastreamento que possam ser aplicados no país nesse momento e defende a utilização dos métodos de prevenção como ácido acetilsalicílico e cálcio de maneira ampla.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Developing Countries
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922194

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly becoming a threat to global public health, not least in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is contributing to longer treatment for illnesses, use of higher generation drugs, more expenditure on antimicrobials, and increased deaths attributed to what should be treatable diseases. Some of the known causes of AMR include misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals, unnecessary use of antimicrobials in animals as growth promoters, and lack of awareness among the public on how to protect antimicrobials. As a result, resistant organisms are circulating in the wider environment, and there is a need to consider the One Health approach to minimise the continuing development of AMR. Environmental Health, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety, are key components of One Health needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms particularly in LMICs and reduce the AMR threat to global public health. The key Environmental Health practices in the prevention of AMR include: (1) adequate WASH through access and consumption of safe water; suitable containment, treatment and disposal of human excreta and other wastewater including from health facilities; good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap at critical times to prevent the spread of resistant microorganisms, and contraction of illnesses which may require antimicrobial treatment; (2) proper disposal of solid waste, including the disposal of unused and expired antimicrobials to prevent their unnecessary exposure to microorganisms in the environment; and (3) ensuring proper food hygiene and safety practices, such as sale and consumption of animal products in which adequate antimicrobial withdrawal periods have been observed, and growing vegetables on unpolluted soil. Environmental Health is therefore crucial in the prevention of infectious diseases that would require antimicrobials, reducing the spread of resistant organisms, and exposure to antimicrobial residues in LMICs. Working with other professionals in One Health, Environmental Health Practitioners have a key role in reducing the spread of AMR including health education and promotion, surveillance, enforcement of legislation, and research.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Environmental Health/standards , Food Safety , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Role , Sanitation/standards , Waste Management/standards
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00322320, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278625

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may accentuate existing problems, hindering access to legal abortion, with a consequent increase in unsafe abortions. This scenario may be even worse in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Latin America, where abortion laws are already restrictive and access to services is already hampered. Our objective was to understand how different countries, with an emphasis on Latin Americans, have dealt with legal abortion services in the context of the COVID-19. Thus, we conducted a narrative review on abortion and COVID-19. The 75 articles included, plus other relevant references, indicate that the pandemic affects sexual and reproductive health services by amplifying existing problems and restricting access to reproductive rights, such as legal abortion. This impact may be even stronger in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Latin America, where access to legal abortion is normally restricted. The revision of sources in this article underlines the urgent need to maintain legal abortion services, both from women's perspective, in support of their reproductive rights, but also from that of the international commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Thereby, Latin American countries must place reproductive rights as a priority on their agendas and adapt legislation to accommodate alternative models of abortion care. Furthermore, our results underscore the need for clear information on the functioning of sexual and reproductive health services as essential for understanding the impact of the pandemic on legal abortion and to identify the groups most affected by the changes.


A pandemia da COVID-19 pode agravar problemas existentes, dificultando o acesso ao aborto legal e resultando em um aumento dos abortos inseguros. O cenário pode ser ainda pior nos países de renda média e baixa, principalmente na América Latina, onde as leis sobre aborto já são restritivas e o acesso aos serviços é dificultado. Tivemos como objetivo, compreender como os diferentes países, com ênfase nos latino-americanos, têm lidado com os serviços de aborto legal no contexto da COVID-19. Para tal, foi realizada uma revisão narrativa sobre aborto e COVID-19. Os 75 artigos incluídos, além de outras referências relevantes, indicam que a pandemia impacta os serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva, ao agravar os problemas existentes e restringir o acesso aos direitos reprodutivos, incluindo o direito ao aborto legal. O impacto pode ser ainda mais sério nos países de renda baixa e média, principalmente na América Latina, onde o acesso ao aborto legal costuma ser restrito. A revisão das fontes no artigo destaca a necessidade urgente de manter em funcionamento os serviços de aborto legal, tanto da perspectiva das mulheres, em apoio aos seus direitos reprodutivos, quanto do compromisso internacional para atingir os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio. Assim, os países da América Latina devem priorizar os direitos reprodutivos nas agendas nacionais e adaptar suas legislações para acomodar modelos alternativos de assistência ao aborto. Nossos resultados também destacam a necessidade de informações precisas sobre o funcionamento dos serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva, essenciais para compreender o impacto da pandemia sobre o aborto legal e para identificar os grupos mais afetados pelas mudanças.


La pandemia de COVID-19 puede acentuar problemas existentes, impidiendo el acceso al aborto legal, con el consiguiente incremento de abortos inseguros. Este escenario es quizás incluso peor en los países de bajos y medios ingresos, especialmente en Latinoamérica, donde las leyes del aborto son de por sí restrictivas y el acceso a los servicios ya se encuentra obstaculizado. Nuestro objetivo fue comprender cómo han lidiado diferentes países, poniendo énfasis en los latinoamericanos, con servicios legales de aborto en el contexto de la COVID-19. Por lo tanto, realizamos una revisión narrativa sobre el aborto y el COVID-19. Se incluyeron 75 artículos, así como otras referencias relevantes, indicando que la pandemia impacta en los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva, lo que amplifica los problemas existentes y restringe el acceso a derechos reproductivos, tales como el aborto legal. Este impacto quizás fue incluso más fuerte en los países con ingresos bajos y medios, especialmente en Latinoamérica, donde el acceso al aborto legal se encuentra restringido normalmente. La revisión de fuentes en este artículo subraya la necesidad urgente de mantener los servicios de aborto legal, tanto desde la perspectiva de las mujeres, apoyando sus derechos reproductivos, así como también desde el compromiso internacional, con el fin de alcanzar las Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. De este modo, los países latinoamericanos deben situar los derechos reproductivos como prioridad en sus agendas y adaptar su legislación para incorporar modelos alternativos de atención al aborto. Nuestros resultados también destacam la necesidad de información precisa para el funcionamiento de los servicios de salud sexuales y reproductivos, como algo esencial para entender el impacto de la pandemia en el aborto legal, así como para identicar a los grupos más afectados por los cambios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Abortion, Induced , COVID-19 , Brazil , Abortion, Legal , Developing Countries , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Latin America/epidemiology
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