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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 744-750, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520387


Abstract Background and aims: Dexamethasone as adjunct to local anesthetic solution improves the quality of brachial plexus block (BPB). However, evidence for its efficacy at low doses (< 4 mg) is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the duration of analgesia attained with low dose dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetic for creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) under BPB. Methods: Sixty-six patients scheduled for AVF creation were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or 2 mg dexamethasone, together with 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.2% lignocaine. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia, defined as time from performing the block to the first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were time from injection to complete sensory block, time from injection to complete motor block, duration of motor block, postoperative analgesic consumption, and fistula patency at three months. Results: All the blocks were effective. In the group that received dexamethasone, the time to first analgesic request was significantly delayed (432 ± 43.8 minutes vs. 386.4 ± 40.2 minutes; p < 0.01). The onset of sensory and motor blockade occurred faster in dexamethasone group and overall analgesic consumption was also reduced. However, dexamethasone addition did not prolong the duration of motor block. There was no statistically significant difference in the patency of fistulas between the two groups at three months. (p = 0.34). Conclusion: Addition of low-dose perineural dexamethasone to local anesthetic solution significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia. Further trials are warranted to compare the adverse effects between dexamethasone doses of 4 mg and lower.

Humans , Arteriovenous Fistula , Brachial Plexus Block , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pain, Postoperative , Dexamethasone , Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(3): 281-289, July-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514162


ABSTRACT Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the degree of 3-day chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children with cancer who received highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) to ascertain the efficacy of aprepitant single-dose on dayL 1 plus granisetron and dexamethasone (DEX). Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 120 patients in the age range of 5 to 18 years old who received chemotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups; Group A received aprepitant at 125 mg/kg on day 1 orally, followed by 80 mg/kg daily on days 2 and 3 and Group B received a single dose of aprepitant 125 mg/kg on day 1 orally and placebo on days 2 and 3. All groups received granisetron 3 mg/m2 on day 1 and DEX on days 1 to 3. The primary and secondary endpoints were to evaluate the proportion of patients with acute, delayed and overall CINV within each group. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups for vomiting, nausea or the use of rescue therapy. The number of patients without vomiting on day 1 was similar in both groups (96.5% vs. 98.3%, respectively; p = 0.848). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a single dose of aprepitant 125 mg/kg was as effective as administering three doses of aprepitant on 3 days. Therefore, the use of a single dose of aprepitant in combination with other standard treatment regimens to prevent CINV in children who received HEC was safe and efficacious and can be beneficial.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vomiting , Dexamethasone , Granisetron , Aprepitant , Nausea
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 139-151, Apr.-June 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514434


Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) refers to a growth disorder characterized by glycoprotein neoplasm in the peritoneum, where mucin oversecretion occurs. The tumors of the appendix region are well associated with PMP; however, ovarian, colon, stomach, pancreas, and urachus tumors have also been linked to PMP. Other mucinous tumors in the pelvis, paracolic gutters, greater omentum, retrohepatic space, and Treitz ligament can be the reason for PMP. Despite being rare and having a slow growth rate, PMP can be lethal without treatment. It is treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with the option of cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In the current study, we hypothesize that there may be novel gentle ways to inhibit or eliminate the mucin. Dr. David Morris has used mucolytics - such as bromelain and N-acetyl cysteine to solubilize mucin. In the present review, we aimed to study the regulation of mucin expression by promoter methylation, and drugs that can inhibit mucin, such as boldine, amiloride, naltrexone, dexamethasone, and retinoid acid receptors antagonist. This review also explored some possible pathways, such as inhibition of Na + , Ca2+ channels and induction of DNA methyltransferase along with inhibition of ten-eleven translocation enzymes, which can be good targets to control mucin. Mucins are strong adhesive molecules that play great roles in clinging to cells or cell to cell. Besides, they have been greatly involved in metastasis and also act as disease markers for cancers. Diagnostic markers may have exclusive roles in disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the present review explores various drugs to control and target mucin in various diseases, specifically cancers. (AU)

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei/drug therapy , Aporphines/therapeutic use , Retinoids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Calcium , Amiloride/therapeutic use , Methylation/drug effects , Mucins/drug effects , Naltrexone/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403485


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of epiretinal membrane formation on the clinical outcomes of intravitreal dexamethasone implantation for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: This retrospective interventional case series includes the treatment of naive patients with macular edema secondary to non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion who underwent intravitreal dexamethasone implantation. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 (n=25), comprised of patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion without epiretinal membrane, and Group 2 (n=16), comprised of patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion with an epiretinal membrane. Corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, and central macular volume values were measured before and after treatment. The clinical outcomes of the groups were compared. Results: Mean age and male-to-female ratio were similar between the two groups (p>0.05, for both). The baseline and final corrected visual acuity values, central macular thickness, and central macular volumes of the groups were similar (p>0.05, for all). All the parameters were significantly improved after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation treatment (p<0.001, for all). The changes in central macular thickness and volume were also similar (p>0.05, for both). The mean number of intravitreal dexamethasone implantations was 2.1 ± 1.0 (range, 1-4) in Group 1 and 3.0 ± 1.2 (range, 1-5) in Group 2 (p=0.043). Conclusion: Epiretinal membrane formation had no effects on the baseline and final clinical parameters, including corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness and volume. The only parameter affected by the presence of epiretinal membrane formation is the number of intravitreal dexamethasone implantations, a greater number of which is needed for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion with an epiretinal membrane.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da formação de uma membrana epirretiniana nos resultados clínicos da implantação intravítrea de dexametasona para edema macular secundário à oclusão de um ramo da veia retiniana. Métodos: Esta série retrospectiva de casos intervencionais inclui o tratamento de indivíduos com edema macular secundário à oclusão não isquêmica de um ramo da veia retiniana, sem tratamento prévio e que foram submetidos a implantação intravítrea de dexametasona. Os indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (n=25), composto por indivíduos com edema macular secundário à oclusão de um ramo da veia retiniana sem a presença de uma membrana epirretiniana, e Grupo 2 (n=16), composto por indivíduos com edema macular secundário à oclusão de um ramo da veia retiniana com a presença de uma membrana epirretiniana. Os valores da acuidade visual corrigida, espessura macular central e volume macular central foram obtidos antes e após o tratamento. Os resultados clínicos dos grupos foram comparados. Resultados: A média de idade e a proporção entre homens e mulheres foram semelhantes nos dois grupos (p>0,05 para ambos os valores). Os valores iniciais e finais da acuidade visual corrigida, espessura macular central e volume macular central foram semelhantes nos dois grupos (p>0,05 para todos os valores). Todos os parâmetros melhoraram significativamente após o tratamento com implante de dexametasona intravítrea (p<0,001 para todos os parâmetros) e as alterações na espessura macular central e no volume macular central também foram semelhantes (p>0,05 para ambos os valores). O número médio de implantações intravítreas de dexametasona foi 2,1 ± 1,0 (faixa de 1-4) no Grupo 1 e 3,0 ± 1,2 (faixa de 1-5) no Grupo 2 (p=0,043). Conclusão: A formação de uma membrana epirretiniana não tem efeitos sobre os parâmetros clínicos iniciais e finais, incluindo a acuidade visual corrigida, a espessura macular central e o volume macular central. O único parâmetro afetado pela formação de uma membrana epirretiniana é o número de implantações intravítreas de dexametasona, sendo necessário um número maior de implantações em casos de edema macular secundário à oclusão de um ramo da veia retiniana com a presença de uma membrana epirretiniana.

Humans , Female , Male , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Macular Edema , Epiretinal Membrane , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Macular Edema/etiology , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Epiretinal Membrane/complications
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0062, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529925


RESUMO A coriorretinopatia de Birdshot é uma uveíte posterior bilateral crônica rara que acomete, preferencialmente, mulheres de meia-idade. O quadro clínico é composto de pouco ou nenhum processo inflamatório de segmento anterior, associado a vitreíte e lesões coriorretinianas ovoides branco-amareladas de característica hiperfluorescente na angiofluoresceinografia e hipofluorescente na angiografia com indocianina verde. O tratamento se dá por meio de corticoides e outras drogas imunossupressoras. Todavia, em alguns casos, a doença é refratária a tal terapêutica, sendo necessário lançar mão de outras drogas, como os agentes biológicos. O presente artigo busca relatar um caso de coriorretinopatia de Birdshot em ajuste de terapia imunossupressora que evoluiu com má resposta às drogas iniciais e bom controle após uso de imunobiológico e discutir as opções terapêuticas disponíveis atualmente.

ABSTRACT Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a rare chronic bilateral posterior uveitis that preferentially affects middle-aged women. The clinical picture is composed of little or no anterior segment inflammatory process, associated with vitritis and yellowish-white ovoid chorioretinal lesions with hyperfluorescent characteristics on fluorescein angiography and hypofluorescent characteristics on green indocyanine green angiography. Treatment is with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs. However, in some cases, the disease is refractory to such therapy, making it necessary to resort to other drugs such as biological agents. The present article seeks to report a case of Birdshot chorioretinopathy in an adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy that evolved with poor response to the initial drugs and good control after the use of immunobiologicals and discuss the currently available therapeutic options.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Birdshot Chorioretinopathy/diagnosis , Birdshot Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Fluorescein Angiography , HLA-A Antigens/analysis , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Adalimumab/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1513566


La osteonecrosis múltiple es una entidad poco frecuente que se define por el compromiso de al menos tres regiones diferentes. Es indispensable el abordaje multidisciplinario de los pacientes que la padecen tanto para el diagnóstico como el tratamiento oportuno. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente joven que presenta una osteonecrosis múltiple con compromiso de ambas caderas, hombros, rodillas, codo derecho y cuello de pie izquierdo. El principal factor de riesgo presente en nuestro caso es el consumo de glucocorticoides.

Multiple osteonecrosis is a rare entity that is defined by the involvement of at least three different regions. A multidisciplinary approach to patients who suffer from it is essential for both diagnosis and timely treatment. We present the clinical case of a young patient who presented multiple osteonecrosis with involvement of both hips, shoulders, knees, right elbow, and neck of the left foot. The main risk factor present in our case is the consumption of glucocorticoids.

A osteonecrose múltipla é uma entidade rara que se define pelo envolvimento de pelo menos três regiões diferentes. Uma abordagem multidisciplinar aos pacientes que sofrem com isso é essencial para o diagnóstico e tratamento oportuno. Apresentamos o caso clínico de um paciente jovem que apresenta osteonecrose múltipla envolvendo quadris, ombros, joelhos, cotovelo direito e pescoço do pé esquerdo. O principal fator de risco presente no nosso caso é o consumo de glicocorticóides.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteonecrosis/chemically induced , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Anti-Allergic Agents/adverse effects , Fluticasone/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Osteonecrosis/surgery , Osteonecrosis/diagnostic imaging , Prednisone/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Joint Prosthesis
The Philippine Children&rsquo ; s Medical Center Journal;(2): 32-55, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003754


Background@#Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, has an assumed analgesic effect when given epidurally, with less side effects5,7. Although numerous studies have evaluated dexamethasone, there is a paucity of studies assessing its intrapartum use.@*Objectives@#To determine the effectiveness of epidural dexamethasone when used as an adjuvant for labor analgesia.@*Materials and Methods@#A meta-analysis guided by the Cochrane handbook was performed. Articles were searched through PubMed, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Google Scholar and using search strategies such as keywords and MeSH terms. Cochrane version 2 risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) was used to assess for quality. Quantitative data were pooled and analyzed using Review Manager 5.4.1.@*Results@#A total of five trials involving 309 women in labor were analyzed. The pooled mean difference showed prolonged duration of epidural analgesia on patients who received epidural dexamethasone; pooled risk ratio between the experimental and control group demonstrated no significant maternal adverse events such as nausea and vomiting, shivering, hypotension, and fever. Pooled risk ratio and mean difference also showed that epidural dexamethasone had no significant effect on the neonatal APGAR and neonatal umbilical pH.@*Conclusion@#Present data demonstrated the potential role of dexamethasone as an adjuvant to epidural solution during labor analgesia on providing local anesthetic dose sparing effect through prolongation of the duration of epidural analgesia, with limited maternal and neonatal adverse events. These results should be interpreted with caution before adopting this technique in routine clinical practice.

Dexamethasone , Meta-Analysis
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 552-557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986926


Objective: To analyze and compare the efficacy and safety of pingyangmycin fibrin glue composite (PFG) and pingyangmycin dexamethasone composite (PD) in the treatment of pharyngolaryngeal venous malformation (VM). Methods: The clinical data of 98 patients with pharyngolaryngeal VM who underwent sclerotherapy with pingyangmycin composite in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from June 2013 to November 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. According to their treatment, patients were divided into PFG group (n=34) and PD group (n=64), among those patients there were 54 males and 44 females, aged 1-77(37.06±18.86)years. The lesion size, total treatment times and adverse events were recorded before and after treatment. And the efficacy was divided into three grades: recovery, effective and invalid. According to the length of VM, all patients were divided into three subgroups, to compare the differences in efficacy and treatment times between each two groups.And finally the adverse events and their treatments were analyzed. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The efficacy of PFG group was 94.11%(32/34), the recovery rate was 85.29%(29/34).And the efficacy of PD group was 93.75%(60/64), the recovery rate was 64.06%(41/64). No serious adverse eventst occurred in subgroup comparison, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in efficacy and the times of treatments when the length was≤3 cm (Zefficacy=1.04, ttreatment times=2.18, P>0.05); when the length was 3-5 cm, there was no significant efficacy difference between the two groups(Zefficacy=1.17, P>0.05), but the treatment times of PFG were less (ttreatment times=4.87, P<0.01); when the length≥5 cm, efficacy of PFG was significantly better than PD (Zefficacy=2.94, P<0.01), and had fewer treatments times (ttreatment times=2.16, P<0.01). There were no serious adverse events in either group during treatment and follow-up. Conclusion: Both PFG and PD are safe and effective composite sclerotherapy agent for the treatment of laryngeal VM, but PFG has a higher cure rate and fewer treatment times for massive lesions.

Male , Female , Humans , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Vascular Malformations/therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 819-825, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985992


Objective: To explore the stem cell collection rate and efficacy and safety of patients aged 70 and below with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) treated with the VRD (bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone) regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Methods: Retrospective case series study. The clinical data of 123 patients with newly diagnosed MM from August 1, 2018, to June 30, 2020, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and Suzhou Hopes Hematology Hospital, who were eligible for VRD regimen sequential ASCT, were collected. The clinical characteristics, efficacy after induction therapy, mobilization regimen of autologous stem cells, autologous stem cell collection rate, and side effects and efficacy of ASCT were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 123 patients, 67 were males. The median patient age was 56 (range: 31-70) years. Patients with IgG, IgA, IgD, and light-chain types accounted for 47.2% (58/123), 23.6% (29/123), 3.2% (4/123), and 26.0% (32/123) of patients, respectively. In addition, 25.2% (31/123) of patients had renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance rate<40 ml/min). Patients with Revised-International Staging System (R-ISS) Ⅲ accounted for 18.2% (22/121) of patients. After induction therapy, the rates of partial response and above, very-good partial response (VGPR) and above, and complete response (CR)+stringent CR were 82.1% (101/123), 75.6% (93/123), and 45.5% (56/123), respectively. Overall, 90.3% (84/93) of patients were mobilized with cyclophosphamide+granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and 8 patients with G-CSF or G-CSF+plerixafor due to creatinine clearance rate<30 ml/min and one of them was mobilized with DECP (cisplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone)+G-CSF for progressive disease. The rate of autologous stem cell collection (CD34+cells≥2×106/kg) after four courses of VRD regimen was 89.1% (82/92), and the rate of collection (CD34+cells≥5×106/kg) was 56.5% (52/92). Seventy-seven patients treated with the VRD regimen sequential ASCT. All patients had grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Among the nonhematologic adverse events during ASCT, the highest incidence was observed for gastrointestinal reactions (76.6%, 59/77), followed by oral mucositis (46.8%, 36/77), elevated aminotransferases (44.2%, 34/77), fever (37.7%, 29/77), infection (16.9%, 13/77) and heart-related adverse events (11.7%, 9/77). Among the adverse events, grade 3 adverse events included nausea (6.5%, 5/77), oral mucositis (5.2%, 4/77), vomiting (3.9%, 3/77), infection (2.6%, 2/77), elevated blood pressure after infusion (2.6%, 2/77), elevated alanine transaminase (1.3%, 1/77), and perianal mucositis (1.3%, 1/77); there were no grade 4 or above nonhematologic adverse events. The proportion of patients who achieved VGPR and above after VRD sequential ASCT was 100% (75/75), and the proportion of patients who were minimal residual disease-negative (<10-4 level) was 82.7% (62/75). Conclusion: In patients aged 70 and below with newly diagnosed MM treated with VRD induction therapy, the collection rate of autologous stem cells was good, and good efficacy and tolerability were noted after follow-up ASCT.

Male , Humans , Female , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Creatinine , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization , Transplantation, Autologous , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Heterocyclic Compounds/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Stomatitis/etiology
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971116


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of daratumumab in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal impairment (RI).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 15 MM patients with RI who received daratumumab-based regimen from January 2021 to March 2022 in three centers were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with daratumumab or daratumumab combined with dexamethasone or daratumumab combined with bortezomib and dexamethasone and the curative effect and survival were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median age of 15 patients was 64 (ranged 54-82) years old. Six patients were IgG-MM, 2 were IgA-MM,1 was IgD-MM and 6 were light chain MM. Median estinated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 22.48 ml/(min·1.73 M2). Overall response rate of 11 patients with MM was 91% (≥MR), including 1 case of stringent complete response (sCR), 2 cases of very good partial response (VGPR), 3 cases of partial response (PR) and 4 cases of minor response (MR). The rate of renal response was 60%(9/15), including 4 cases of complete response (CR), 1 case of PR and 4 cases of MR. A median time of optimal renal response was 21 (ranged 7-56) days. With a median follow-up of 3 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival of all patients were not reached. After treatment with daratumumab-based regimen, grade 1-2 neutropenia was the most common hematological adverse reaction. Non-hematological adverse reactions were mainly infusion-related adverse reactions and infections.@*CONCLUSION@#Daratumumab-based regimens have good short-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 526-537, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982319


OBJECTIVES@#Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neuron transdifferentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs) and consequently downregulates the secretion of epinephrine (EPI), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Mammalian achaete scute-homologous 1 (MASH1), a key regulator of neurogenesis in the nervous system, has been proved to be elevated in AMCCs with neuron transdifferentiation in vivo. This study aims to explore the role of MASH1 in the process of neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs and the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Rat AMCCs were isolated and cultured. AMCCs were transfected with siMASH1 or MASH1 overexpression plasmid, then were stimulated with NGF and/or dexamethasone, PD98059 (a MAPK kinase-1 inhibitor) for 48 hours. Morphological changes were observed using light and electron microscope. Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the key enzyme for epinephrine synthesis) and tyrosine hydroxylase were detected by immunofluorescence. Western blotting was used to test the protein levels of PNMT, MASH1, peripherin (neuronal markers), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (pERK), and JMJD3. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to analyze the mRNA levels of MASH1 and JMJD3. EPI levels in the cellular supernatant were measured using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Cells with both tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT positive by immunofluorescence were proved to be AMCCs. Exposure to NGF, AMCCs exhibited neurite-like processes concomitant with increases in pERK/ERK, peripherin, and MASH1 levels (all P<0.05). Additionally, impairment of endocrine phenotype was proved by a signifcant decrease in the PNMT level and the secretion of EPI from AMCCs (all P<0.01). MASH1 interference reversed the effect of NGF, causing increases in the levels of PNMT and EPI, conversely reduced the peripherin level and cell processes (all P<0.01). MASH1 overexpression significantly increased the number of cell processes and peripherin level, while decreased the levels of PNMT and EPI (all P<0.01). Compared with the NGF group, the levels of MASH1, JMJD3 protein and mRNA in AMCCs in the NGF+PD98059 group were decreased (all P<0.05). After treatment with PD98059 and dexamethasone, the effect of NGF on promoting the transdifferentiation of AMCCs was inhibited, and the number of cell processes and EPI levels were decreased (both P<0.05). In addition, the activity of the pERK/MASH1 pathway activated by NGF was also inhibited.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MASH1 is the key factor in neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs. NGF-induced neuron transdifferentiation is probably mediated via pERK/MASH1 signaling.

Animals , Rats , Adrenal Medulla , Cell Transdifferentiation , Chromaffin Cells , Dexamethasone , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Mammals , Nerve Growth Factor , Neurons , Peripherins , Protein Kinases , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 714-720, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982313


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Yinlai Decoction (YD) on the microstructure of colon, and activity of D-lactic acid (DLA) and diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum of pneumonia mice model fed with high-calorie and high-protein diet (HCD).@*METHODS@#Sixty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups by the random number table method: normal control, pneumonia, HCD, HCD with pneumonia (HCD-P), YD (229.2 mg/mL), and dexamethasone (15.63 mg/mL) groups, with 10 in each group. HCD mice were fed with 52% milk solution by gavage. Pneumonia mice was modeled with lipopolysaccharide inhalation and was fed by gavage with either the corresponding therapeutic drugs or saline water, twice daily, for 3 days. After hematoxylin-eosin staining, the changes in the colon structure were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the protein levels of DLA and DAO in the serum of mice.@*RESULTS@#The colonic mucosal structure and ultrastructure of mice in the normal control group were clear and intact. The colonic mucosal goblet cells in the pneumonia group tended to increase, and the size of the microvilli varied. In the HCD-P group, the mucosal goblet cells showed a marked increase in size with increased secretory activity. Loose mucosal epithelial connections were also observed, as shown by widened intercellular gaps with short sparse microvilli. These pathological changes of intestinal mucosa were significantly reduced in mouse models with YD treatment, while there was no significant improvement after dexamethasone treatment. The serum DLA level was significantly higher in the pneumonia, HCD, and HCD-P groups as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). Serum DLA was significantly lower in the YD group than HCD-P group (P<0.05). Moreover, serum DLA level significantly increased in the dexamethasone group as compared with the YD group (P<0.01). There was no statistical significance in the serum level of DAO among groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YD can protect function of intestinal mucosa by improving the tissue morphology of intestinal mucosa and maintaining integrity of cell connections and microvilli structure, thereby reducing permeability of intestinal mucosa to regulate the serum levels of DLA in mice.

Mice , Male , Animals , Lactic Acid/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa , Colon/pathology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Diet, High-Protein , Pneumonia/pathology
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881


Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.

Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22718, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505853


Abstract Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cisplatin and dexamethasone alone and combined on gastric contractility and histomorphometry of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 male mice (8-week-old) were randomly separated into: Control; Cisplatin (7.5 mg/Kg); Dexamethasone (2.0 mg/Kg); and Dexamethasone plus Cisplatin (2.0 mg/Kg of dexamethasone 1-hour prior to 7.5 mg/Kg of cisplatin). Drugs were administered intraperitoneally for three days. Body weight and food intake were evaluated on 2nd day. Alternating Current Biosusceptometry technique was employed to measure gastric contractions on 3rd day. Afterward, mice were killed for gastric histomorphometric analysis. Cisplatin decreased food intake and caused bradygastria in BALB/c mice; however, the amplitude of gastric contractions decreased in both BALB/c and C57BL/6. Dexamethasone and cisplatin combined restored the gastric frequency and food intake only in BALB/c, but drug combination reduced the gastric amplitude of contractions in both strains. Dexamethasone alone increased gastric mucosa thickness in C57BL/6 and decreased muscular thickness in BALB/c. In conclusion, the mouse strains presented differences in acute effects of cisplatin and dexamethasone alone and combined on gastric function. This reinforces the importance of choosing the appropriate mouse strain for studying the acute effects of drugs on the gastrointestinal tract.

Animals , Male , Mice , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Stomach/abnormalities , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Cisplatin/agonists , Mice, Inbred BALB C/classification
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 762-767, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420631


Abstract Backgrounds Procedures for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) prevention are mostly based on identification of the risk factors before administering antiemetic drugs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the extended use of antiemetic on the PONV in the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU). Methods Two separate 4-year periods (2007-2010, P1, and (2015-2018, P2) were evaluated. During P1, the protocol consisted of dexamethasone and droperidol for patients with a locally adapted high PONV score, followed by ondansetron for rescue in the PACU. For Period 2, dexamethasone (8 mg) and ondansetron (4 mg) were administered in patients under general or regional anesthesia, or sedation longer than 30 minutes, while droperidol (1.25 mg) in rescue was injected in cases of PONV in the PACU. An Anesthesia Information Management System was used to evaluate the intensity score of PONV (1 to 5), putative compliance, sedation, and perioperative opioid consumption upon arrival in the PACU. Results A total of 27,602 patients were assessed in P1 and 36,100 in P2. The administration of dexamethasone and ondansetron increased several fold (p < 0.0001). The high PONV scores were more improved in P2 than in P1, with scores (3+4+5) for P1 vs. P2, p < 0.0001. Overall, 99.7% of the patients in P2 were asymptomatic at discharge. Morphine consumption decreased from 6.9±1.5 mg in P1 to 3.5 ± 1.5 mg in P2 (p < 0.0001). Discussion The extension of pharmacological prevention of PONV was associated with a decrease in the intensity of severe PONV. However, uncertainty regarding confounding factors should not be ignored. IRB nº 92012/33465

Humans , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Neoplasms , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Retrospective Studies , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Droperidol/adverse effects , Droperidol/therapeutic use
Cambios rev. méd ; 21(1): 766, 30 Junio 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400392


INTRODUCCIÓN. La crisis suprarrenal se refiere a la insuficiencia suprarrenal aguda; la cual es un trastorno en el que la corteza adrenal no produce suficientes hormonas esteroides (en especial cortisol) para satisfacer las demandas del cuerpo, de acuerdo al mecanismo fisiopatológico se la puede clasificar como primaria, secundaria y terciaria, siendo más común en pacientes con insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. Es una emergencia potencialmente mortal que requiere tratamiento inmediato. OBJETIVO. Establecer una estrategia de prevención y tratamiento de la crisis suprarrenal, así como la farmacoterapia ideal y sus alternativas válidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en varias revistas virtuales de alto carácter científico como Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE a través de PubMed y Se seleccionaron revisiones sistemáticas con o sin metaanálisis, ensayos clínicos y recomendaciones de expertos relacionados con prevención y tratamiento de crisis suprarrenal en general. RESULTADOS. Se obtuvieron 1819 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 20 artículos con mayor validez y replicabilidad en el medio para establecer un protocolo unificado de actuación. CONCLUSIÓN. El objetivo de la terapia es el tratamiento de la hipotensión y reversión de las anomalías electrolíticas y de la deficiencia de cortisol. Se deben infundir por vía intravenosa grandes volúmenes (1 a 3 litros) de solución salina al 0,9% o dextrosa al 5% en solución salina al 0,9% y la administración de hidrocortisona (bolo de 100 mg), seguido de 50 mg cada 6 horas (o 200 mg / 24 horas como infusión continua durante las primeras 24 horas). Si no se dispone de hidrocortisona, las alternativas incluyen prednisolona, prednisona y dexametasona.

INTRODUCTION. Adrenal crisis refers to acute adrenal insufficiency; which is a disorder in which the adrenal cortex does not produce enough steroid hormones (especially cortisol) to meet the body's demands, according to the pathophysiological mechanism it can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary, being more common in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. It is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. OBJECTIVE. To establish a strategy for the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis, as well as the ideal pharmacotherapy and its valid alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A literature review was performed in several highly scientific virtual journals such as Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE through PubMed and Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis, clinical trials and expert recommendations related to prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis in general were selected. RESULTS. A total of 1819 results were obtained, from which 20 articles with greater validity and replicability in the setting were selected to establish a unified protocol for action. CONCLUSIONS. The aim of therapy is the treatment of hypotension and reversal of electrolyte abnormalities and cortisol deficiency. Large volumes (1 to 3 liters) of 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline and administration of hydrocortisone (100 mg bolus), followed by 50 mg every 6 hours (or 200 mg / 24 hours as a continuous infusion for the first 24 hours) should be infused intravenously. If hydrocortisone is not available, alternatives include prednisolone, prednisone, and dexamethasone.

Humans , Male , Female , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy , Hypotension , Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase , Dexamethasone , Prednisolone , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Ecuador , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Medisan ; 26(1)feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405776


Introducción: Las náuseas y los vómitos posoperatorios muestran una alta incidencia con los procedimientos laparoscópicos y, además, se han posicionado como un marcador de calidad en anestesiología. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de la dexametasona en la prevención de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en pacientes operados de la vesícula biliar. Métodos: Se realizó una intervención terapéutica en 100 pacientes operados de la vesícula biliar mediante laparoscopia con anestesia general balanceada, en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, de enero a diciembre de 2018. Para ello, se conformaron dos grupos: uno de estudio, tratado con dexametasona, y otro de control, que recibió un placebo; cuyos integrantes fueron seleccionados en igual número (50 para cada grupo) por el método aleatorio simple. Resultados: En ambos grupos se obtuvo una mayor frecuencia de las edades de 33 a 46 años y del sexo femenino. Las náuseas posoperatorias se identificaron en 24,0 % del grupo de estudio, mientras que, en el de control, figuraron en un porcentaje superior (52,0). También disminuyó el número de pacientes con vómitos al aplicar la dexametasona, pues 90,0 % de aquellos que la recibieron no presentaron esta reacción adversa en el período posoperatorio, en comparación con 72,0 % de controles. Conclusiones: La dexametasona redujo la aparición de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios, de modo que puede resultar efectiva en la prevención de estos efectos secundarios en pacientes intervenidos por colecistectomía laparoscópica.

Introduction: The postoperative nausea and vomiting show a high incidence with the laparoscopic procedures and, also, they have been positioned as a marker of quality in anesthesiology. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients operated on for gall bladder. Methods: A therapeutic intervention was carried out in patients operated on for gall bladder by means of laparoscopy with balanced general anesthesia, at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teachig General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2018. Two groups were conformed: a study group, treated with dexamethasone, and a control group that received a placebo; whose members were selected in same number (50 for each group) by the simple random method. Results: In both groups a higher frequency of the 33 to 46 ages and the female sex was obtained. The postoperative nausea were identified in 24.0 % of the study group, while, in the control group, it was higher percentage (52.0). Also the number of patients vomiting diminished when applying dexamethasone, because 90.0 % of those that received it didn't present this adverse reaction in the postoperative period, in comparison with 72.0 % of controls. Conclusions: Dexamethasone reduced the appearance of postoperative nausea and vomiting, so that can be effective in the prevention of these secondary effects in patients intervened by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Dexamethasone , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20277, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420497


Abstract The chemical hydroxymethylation of the antimicrobial nitrofurazone leads to the prodrug NFOH, also increases the anti-T. cruzi activities (in vitro and in vivo), as well as showed non-genotoxic (Ames and micronucleus assays). In the present study, we assessed the anti-T. cruzi effect of the NFOH In vivo - in acute Swiss and C57Bl/6 experimental Chagas models. The treatment started at 5 days post-infection during 20 consecutive days (orally, once day, 150mg/kg), and the parasitaemia as well as histopathology analysis were performed. In both experimental murine models, NFOH was able to reduce parasitemia blood avoiding parasitic reactivation, during immunosuppression period (dexamethasone 5mg/kg, 14 days), in 100% of the mice, and decrease tissue parasite nests, demonstrating absence of amastigote forms in all organs (100%) analyzed, data similar to benznidazole (BZN). Therefore, the results shown here pointing to the NFOH as promising compound for further preclinical studies, being a high potential drug to effective and safe chemotherapy to Chagas disease.

Animals , Male , Rats , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Infections/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/classification
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 154-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928527


Corticosteroid switching can reverse abiraterone resistance in some patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we investigated the potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of corticosteroid switching during treatment with abiraterone acetate (AA). We retrospectively analyzed 101 mCRPC patients receiving corticosteroid switching from West China Hospital and Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2016 and December 2018. All cases received AA plus prednisone as first-line therapy during mCRPC. Primary end points were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival (OS). The risk groups were defined based on multivariate analysis. A total of 42 (41.6%) and 25 (24.8%) patients achieved 30% and 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), respectively, after corticosteroid switching. The median bPFS and median OS on AA plus dexamethasone were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-6.0) months and 18.8 (95% CI: 16.2-30.2) months, respectively. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) expression (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.15, 95% Cl: 1.22-3.80, P = 0.008) and baseline serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP; HR: 4.95, 95% Cl: 2.40-10.19, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of efficacy before corticosteroid switching in the multivariate analysis of bPFS. Only baseline serum ALP >160 IU l-1 (HR: 3.41, 95% Cl: 1.57-7.38, P = 0.002) together with PSA level at switch ≥50 ng ml-1 (HR: 2.59, 95% Cl: 1.22-5.47, P = 0.013) independently predicted poorer OS. Based on the predictive factors in multivariate analysis, we developed two risk stratification tools to select candidates for corticosteroid switching. Detection of serum ALP level, PSA level, and tissue AKR1C3 expression in mCRPC patients could help make clinical decisions for corticosteroid switching.

Humans , Male , Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Androstenes , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 541-548, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927420


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of fire needling on psoriasis-like lesion and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in mice and compare the therapeutic effect between different interventions of fire needling therapy (surrounding technique of fire needling, fire needling at "Dazhui" [GV 14] and "Zusanli" [ST 36]).@*METHODS@#Thirty male BALB/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a dexamthasone group, a surrounding technique group and an acupoint group, 6 mice in each one. Except the blank group, the mice in the rest groups were established as psoriasis-like lesion model by topical application with imiquimod cream, once daily, consecutively for 8 days. From day 4 to day 8, in the dexamthasone group, gastric infusion with 0.2 mL dexamthasone was administered, once daily. On day 4, 6 and 8, in the surrounding technique group, fire needling was exerted around the skin lesion; and fire needling was applied to "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the acupoint group, once a day. The changes in skin lesion on the dorsal parts of mice were observed in each group to score the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Using HE staining, the dermal morphological changes and epidermal thickness were observed in the mice of each group. The positive expression of proliferating cell-associated antigen Ki-67 was determined by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry method was used to determine the expressions of , and T cells of skin tissue in each group. Using real-time PCR, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) mRNA were determined. Western blot method was adopted to determine the protein expressions of STAT3 and p-STAT3 in skin tissue in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Except for the erythema scores of the dexamethasone group and the surrounding technique group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01). The infiltration scores and the total scores in the dexamethasone group and the acupoint group were lower than those in the surrounding technique group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the blank group, Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells in skin tissue were increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells were reduced in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01), and the numbers of and T cells in the acupoint group were less than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all increased in the model group (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in the acupoint group, as well as mRNA expression of IL-17 in the surrounding technique group were all lower than the dexamethasone group (P<0.01), while, the mRNA expression of IL-22 in the acupoint group was lower than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Fire needling therapy improves skin lesion severity in imiquimod induced psoriasis-like lesion of the mice, which is probably related to the inhibition of STAT3 pathway activation and the decrease of Th17 inflammatory factors expression. The systemic regulation of fire needling at "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) is superior to the local treatment.

Animals , Male , Mice , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Imiquimod/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Psoriasis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , Skin/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism