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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 315-323, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343489

ABSTRACT

To investigate effectsof Yangyinyiqi Mixture on pulmonary fibrosis caused by bleomycin. SD ratswere divided randomly into: model group(distilled water,1 mL·0.1 kg-1), dexamethasone acetate group (dexamethasone acetate, the dosage was reduced gradually), low-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 11 g·kg-1), moderate-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 22 g·kg-1), high-dose group (Yangyinyiqi Mixture, 44 g·kg-1) and control group (distilled water, 1 mL·0.1 kg-1). Yangyinyiqi Mixture and dexamethasone acetate were intragastrically administrated. Lung tissue was collected for histopathological examination. Compared with control group, collagen markedly increased and HYP content significantly increased on 7th day in model group (p<0.01). On 28th day, collagen was diffusely deposited, alveolar was destroyed, and HYP content significantly increased (p<0.01). Compared with model group, bleomycin-induced suffering injury caused MMP-9 expression levels to rapidly increase (7and 14 days, p<0.01). TIMP-1 markedly increased (7and 14 days, p<0.01) and stayed at a high level to28th day. Yangyinyiqi Mixture exerted an effect against pulmonary fibrosis, which could involved prevention of collagen deposition through inhibitingMMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression.


El trabajo investiga los efectos de la mezcla Yangyinyiqi sobre la fibrosis pulmonary causada por bleomicina. Ratas SD se dividieron aleatoriamente en: grupo modelo (agua destilada, 1 mL·0.1 kg-1), grupo acetate de dexametasona (acetate de dexametasona, la dosis se redujo gradualmente), grupo de dosis baja (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 11 g·kg-1), grupo de dosis moderada (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 22 g·kg-1), grupo de dosis alta (mezcla Yangyinyiqi, 44 g·kg-1) y grupo control (agua destilada, 1 Ml·0.1 kg-1). La mezcla de Yangyinyiqi y el acetate de dexametasona se administraron por vía intragástrica. Se recolectó tejido pulmonary para examen histopatológico. En comparación con el grupo control, el colágeno aumentó notablemente y el contenido de HYP aumentó significativamente el séptimo día en el grupo modelo (p<0.01). El día 28, el colágeno se depositó difusamente, se produjo destrucción alveolar y el contenido de HYP aumento significativamente (p<0.01). En comparación con el grupo modelo, la lesión inducida por bleomicina causó que los niveles de expression de MMP-9 aumentaron rápidamente (7 y 14 días, p<0.01). TIMP-1 aumentó notablemente (7 y 14 días, p<0.01) y se mantuvo en un nivel alto hasta el día 28. La mezcla Yangyinyiqi ejerció un efecto contra la fibrosis pulmonary, lo que podría implicar la prevención del deposito de colágenio mediante la inhibición de la expression de MMP-9 y TIMP-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Bleomycin , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroxyproline/analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1398-1404, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study were bone defect complications that occur due to traumas or infections. Bone grafts are required to provide support, fill gaps and improve biological repair in skeletal damage. Dexamethasone plays role in calcium signaling modulation and used in diseases. Aim of this study was to evaluate osteonectin and osteopontin expressions in new bone development after dexamethasone application on tibial bone defects. Rats were divided into defect, defect+graft and defect+graft+dexamethasone treated groups. Tibial bone defect created, and rats were kept immobile for 28 days. Alloplastic material was placed in defect area in second and group third groups. 2.5 mg/kg Dex and normal saline were injected to dexamethasone and defect groups twice a week for 56 days. Inflammation and congestion were increased in defect and defect+graft groups. Defect+graft+dexamethasone group; increased number of osteoblast and osteocyte cells, dense bone matrix, formation of new bone trabeculae was observed. Defect+graft group; osteonectin expression in graft regions, osteoblast cells, some connective tissue cells and fibers were seen whereas in defect+graft+dexamethasone group; osteopontin expression in osteoblast and osteocyte cells of new bone trabeculae were observed. Dexamethasone may lead to formation of new bone trabeculae into the graft material resulting in increased osteoconduction and osteoinductive effect for differentiation of osteon.


RESUMEN: Los defectos óseos son complicaciones que ocurren debido a traumas o infecciones. Se requieren injertos óseos para proporcionar apoyo, llenar los espacios y mejorar la reparación biológica en el hueso dañado. La dexametasona desempeña un papel importante en la modulación de la señalización del calcio y se usa en enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las expresiones de osteonectina y osteopontina en el desarrollo óseo después de la aplicación de dexametasona en defectos óseos tibiales. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos: defecto, defecto + injerto y defecto + injerto + grupos tratados con dexametasona. Se creó un defecto óseo tibial, y las ratas se mantuvieron inmóviles durante 28 días. El material aloplástico se colocó en el área del defecto en el segundo y tercer grupo. Se inyectaron 2,5 mg / kg de dexametasona y solución salina normal a grupos de defectos dos veces por semana durante 56 días. La inflamación y la congestión aumentaron en los grupos de defectos y defectos + injerto; En el grupo defecto + injerto + grupo tratado con dexametasona se observó un aumento en el número de osteoblastos y osteocitos, de matriz ósea densa y en la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas. En el grupo defecto + grupo de injerto se observó la expresión de osteonectina en las áreas de injerto, osteoblastos, algunas células y fibras de tejido conectivo, mientras que en el grupo defecto + injerto + dexametasona se observó la expresión de osteopontina en osteoblastos y osteocitos y formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas . En conclusión la dexametasona puede conducir a la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas en el material de injerto, lo que resulta en un aumento de la osteoconducción y un efecto osteoinductivo para la diferenciación del osteón.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/drug effects , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Transplantation , Tibia/pathology , Bone Regeneration , Immunohistochemistry , Osteonectin/physiology , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Osteopontin/physiology
4.
s.l; RedARETS; ago. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1116529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección con cuatro de las cepas de coronavirus más comunes (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 y HCoV-HKU1) generalmente conduce a cuadros leves y autolimitadas del tracto respiratorio superior1. Sin embargo, otros coronavirus están asociados con el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV) y el síndrome respiratorio del Medio Oriente (MERS-CoV). En marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró el brote de COVID-19 como una pandemia mundial, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, una variante del coronavirus. Los síntomas de infección generalmente son inespecíficos e incluyen fiebre, tos y mialgia, diarrea, con o sin el desarrollo posterior de disnea2. Durante la epidemia de SARS-CoV de 2003, se administraron corticosteroides sistémicos como parte del tratamiento en pacientes infectados que desarrollarán una enfermedad respiratoria grave. Existen experiencias con respecto a la utilización de los corticoides como parte del tratamiento de otras infecciones virales, por ejemplo influenza3 y virus respiratorio sincicial4, no habiéndose demostrado resultados beneficiosos y registrándose en algunos casos eventos adersos importantes e incluso incremento en la mortalidad. Teniendo en cuenta esta evidencia indirecta, múltiples organizaciones y autoridades sanitarias sostuvieron que que los corticosteroides no deberían usarse para el tratamiento de COVID-19. Por lo tanto, los efectos terapéuticos y secundarios de la terapia con glucocorticoides sistémicos en pacientes con COVID-19 actualmente no están claros. La reciente publicación de los resultados preliminares de un ensayo aleatorizado multicéntrico (RECOVERY) reportando efectividad del tratamiento con bajas dosis de dexametasona en pacientes con infección grave por SARS-CoV-2; plantea la necesidad de realizar una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura actualmente disponible con el objetivo de identificar y valorar críticamente la evidencia sobre la efectividad y seguridad de la terapia con dexametasona en pacientes adultos con COVID-19, considerando su impacto sobre desenlaces clínicamente relevantes. METODOLOGÍA: Se utilizó la metodología GRADE para la evaluación de la certeza en la evidencia incluída. Para este fin se conformó un equipo multidisciplinario e independiente de conflictos de interés para realizar un informe de ETS. Se realizó una búsqueda amplia, no sistemática, en numerosas bases de datos, organismos sanitarios nacionales e internacionales, repositorios y bases de datos de ETS de distintas agencias, Guías de Práctica Clínica o Protocolos basados en Evidencia. RESULTADOS: La evidencia incluida indicó que el uso de glucocorticoides (dexametasona 6 mg/día por 10 días) en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19 mostró reducir la mortalidad global a los 28 días, (22.9% vs. 25.7; RR 0.83, IC 95% 0.75 a 0.93), es decir que sería necesario tratar a 33 pacientes para evitar una muerte (NNT 33), (ALTA CONFIANZA). Se observó una disminución global significativa de progresión del cuadro respiratorio con requerimiento de AVM de los pacientes tratados (5,7% vs. 7.8%; RR 0.77; IC 95% 0.62 a 0.95). (CONFIANZA MODERADA). CONCLUSIONES: Se recomienda la administración de dexametasona 6 mg/día durante 10 días en los pacientes con neumonía severa por COVID y requerimientos de oxigenoterapia o AVM, teniendo las precauciones habituales para el uso de dosis bajas de corticoides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 73-75, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088954

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe three patients who had previous heart diseases and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with clinically significant diabetic macular edema. They underwent unilateral dexamethasone intravitreal implantation. Without ophthalmological treatment in the fellow eye, patients showed marked bilateral improvement in best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence images, and macular thickness values. These findings provide evidence of the bilateral effect of dexamethasone intravitreal implantation, which may be clinically useful in patients for whom the systemic effects of the drug may affect their general health.


RESUMO Descrevemos três pacientes que tiveram doenças cardíacas prévias e retinopatia diabética não proliferativa com edema macular diabético clinicamente significativo. Eles foram submetidos a implante intravítreo de dexametasona unilateral. Sem tratamento oftalmológico no olho contralateral, os pacien tes apresentaram uma melhora bilateral significativa na melhor acuidade visual corrigida, nas imagens de coerência óptica e nos valores da espessura macular. Esses achados fornecem evidências sobre o efeito bilateral do implante intravítreo de dexametasona, que pode ser clinicamente útil em pacientes para os quais os efeitos sistêmicos da droga possam afetar a saúde geral do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Drug Implants , Intravitreal Injections
7.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(6): 463-470, dic. 28, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224317

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of dexa-methasone as pre-surgical and post-surgical therapy in mandibular third molar surgery. Materials and methods: Randomized clinical trial conducted in 60 patients in need of mandibular third molar extraction, ages ranging from 16 to 35 years old, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital during the period of January-March, 2016. Patients were distributed in two randomized groups: Group A received 4mg dexamethasone intramuscular before the surgery, and Group B received the same medication post-surgery. Facial edema was assessed using the distance between facial points, trismus was evaluated using the interincisal distance, and pain intensity was determined using a Numerical Scale (NS). Results: Facial edema values were lower in Group A at 60 minutes (p=0.002) and after the first (p=0.001) and third days (p=0.009), compared to Group B. Regarding trismus, no significant differences between the groups were found. Regarding pain intensity, the highest point was recorded at 6 hours in both groups; however, no significant differences between the groups were found. Conclusion: Pre-surgical dexamethasone administration produced a significantly greater reduction in facial edema after mandibular third molar surgery.


Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad antiinflamatoria de dexametasona como terapia prequirúrgica y postquirúrgica en la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular. Materiales y métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado que incluyó a 60 pacientes de 16 a 35 años del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Maxilofacial del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza con necesidad de exodoncia de tercer molar mandibular durante el periodo de enero a marzo del 2016. Se distribuyeron en dos grupos aleatoriamente: El grupo A recibió prequirúrgicamente 4 mg de dexametasona vía intramuscular y el grupo B recibió la misma medicación postquirúrgicamente. Se evaluó el edema facial, mediante la distancia entre puntos faciales, el trismus mediante la distancia interincisal y la intensidad de dolor mediante la Escala Numérica (EN). Resultados: Los valores del edema facial fueron menores en el grupo A a los 60 minutos (p=0,002), primer (p=0,001) y tercer día (p=0,009) en comparación al grupo B. Respecto al trismus, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante las evaluaciones realizadas. Respecto al dolor, la mayor intensidad se percibió a las 6 horas en ambos grupos; sin embargo, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante todas las evaluaciones realizadas. Conclusión: La administración prequirúrgica de dexametasona produjo una significativa mayor reducción del edema facial posterior a la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Molar, Third/surgery , Molar, Third/drug effects , Peru , Postoperative Care , Surgery, Oral , Trismus , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1561-1568, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094190

ABSTRACT

Background The treatment of choice of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) is an induction with proteasome inhibitors followed autologous stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Since 2013, the treatment of these patients in the public system is based on CTD (cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone). Aim To evaluate the response rates achieved with CTD, and the results of HSCT in patients with NDMM in the public setting. Material and Methods Data from patients considered as candidates for HSCT from different centers of the National Adult Antineoplastic Drug Program (PANDA, for its acronym in Spanish), diagnosed between 2013 and 2017, was analyzed. The response to treatment of first and second lines of treatment was evaluated, in addition to the results of HSCT. An optimal Response was defined as the sum of strict complete remission, complete remission and very good partial response (sCR, CR and VGPR). Results One hundred and seventy-seven patients were analyzed, 54% women, and 53% with IgG multiple myeloma. Information about the international staging system was retrieved in 127 patients (71%). Seventeen percent were ISS I, 22% in ISS II and 32% ISS III. CTD was used as first treatment in 106 patients (60%), and cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CyBorD) in 13 (7%). As first line, CTD had an overall response of 50.9%, and CyBorD of 76.9%. Thirty patients were treated with bortezomib as second line treatment. Forty patients (22%) underwent HSCT. The 5-year Overall Survival (OS) in transplanted patients and non-transplanted patients was 100 and 62% respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions The response rate achieved by CTD in these patients is suboptimal. The response to CyBorD was better.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Retrospective Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Bortezomib/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/mortality
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 195-199, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate changes in axial length after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation in patients with macular edema. Methods: We performed a prospective comparative study of 46 patients with unilateral macular edema, due to diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and non-infectious uveitis, who underwent dexamethasone implantation. The fellow eyes of the patients were considered the control group. The central macular thickness was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and axial length was measured by IOLMaster 700 optical coherence biometry. We compared axial length and central macular thickness values within the groups. Results: In the study group, the baseline central macular thickness was 460.19 ± 128.64 mm, significantly decreasing to 324.00 ± 79.84 mm after dexamethasone implantation (p=0.000). No significant change in central macular thickness measurements was seen in the control group (p=0.244). In the study group, the baseline axial length was 23.16 ± 0.68 mm, significantly increasing to 23.22 ± 0.65 mm after dexamethasone implantation (p=0.039). However, the control group exhibited no significant change in axial length (p=0.123). Conclusions: In addition to significantly reducing central macular thickness measurements, intravitreal dexamethasone implantation also significantly changes optical biometry-based axial length measurements.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar alterações no comprimento axial após implante de dexametasona intravítrea em pacientes com edema macular. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e comparativo de 46 pacientes com edema macular unilateral, devido à retinopatia diabética, oclusão da veia retiniana e uveíte não infecciosa, que foram submetidos ao implante de dexametasona. Os olhos contralateral de cada paciente foram considerados o grupo controle. A espessura macular central foi medida por tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral, e o comprimento axial foi medido por meio de biometria de coerência óptica de domínio espectral e o comprimento axial foi medido pela biometria de coerência óptica com IOLMaster 700. Comparamos o comprimento axial e os valores da espessura macular central dentro dos grupos. Resultados: No grupo de estudo, a espessura macular basal foi de 460,19 ± 128,64 mm, diminuindo significativamente para 324,00 ± 79,84 mm após o implante de dexametasona (p=0,000). Nenhuma mudança significativa nas medidas da espessura macular central foi observada no grupo controle (p=0,244). No grupo de estudo, o comprimento axial basal foi de 23,16 ± 0,68 mm, aumentando significativamente para 23,22 ± 0,65 mm após o implante de dexametasona (p=0,039). No entanto, o grupo controle não apresentou alteração significativa no comprimento axial (p=0,123). Conclusões: Além de reduzir significativamente as medidas da espessura macular central, o implante de dexametasona intravítrea também altera significativamente as medidas de comprimento axial baseadas na biometria óptica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Axial Length, Eye/drug effects , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Macula Lutea/drug effects , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/pathology , Prospective Studies , Biometry/methods , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Axial Length, Eye/pathology , Macula Lutea/pathology
11.
Medwave ; 19(11): e7739, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN El edema macular es una complicación frecuente de la oclusión de la vena central de la retina que clínicamente provoca deterioro de la agudeza visual. Los tratamientos más utilizados son el implante de dexametasona y los fármacos anti factor del crecimiento endotelial vascular, destacando aflibercept dentro de estos. Sin embargo, no existe consenso acerca de qué tratamiento constituye la mejor alternativa. MÉTODOS Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta análisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron cuatro estudios primarios, todos ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que no es posible establecer si aflibercept es superior a dexametasona en términos de mejora de agudeza visual y seguridad, debido a que la certeza de la evidencia existente ha sido evaluada como muy baja.


INTRODUCTION Macular edema is a frequent complication of central retinal vein occlusion that might lead to deterioration of visual acuity. The most commonly used treatments are dexamethasone implant and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, being aflibercept one of the most commonly used them. However, there is no consensus about which treatment constitute the best alternative. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified two systematic reviews that included four primary studies overall, all randomized trials. We concluded that it is not possible to establish whether aflibercept is superior to dexamethasone in terms of improvement of visual acuity and safety, because the certainty of the existing evidence has been evaluated as very low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/administration & dosage , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Macular Edema/etiology , Databases, Factual , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1444-1451, dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991355

ABSTRACT

Thalidomide changed the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, however, its effectiveness has been compromised due to its side effects. New strategies are needed to specifically target the challenges of multiple myeloma through innovative, more effective, and less toxic therapy. The new immunomodulatory (IMiDs) compounds are structural and functional analogs of thalidomide, which were designed to improve the immunomodulatory and anticancer properties and tolerability profiles. We review the development of second generation IMiDs, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, their immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects, their mechanisms of action, as well as the influence of dexamethasone on their effect and pharmacological resistance. In conclusion, lenalidomide and pomalidomide demonstrate a powerful activity and they are highly effective and well-tolerated treatment options for patients with myeloma, used alone or in combination with dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Immunomodulation , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 744-752, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973504

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate cardiac changes in young rats, whose mothers underwent autogenic fecal peritonitis, during organogenesis phase and to evaluate the role of intravenous administration of moxifloxacin and dexamethasone in preventing infection-related cardiac changes. Methods: A prospective histomorphometric study was performed on 29 hearts of Wistar four-month old rats. Animals were divided into three groups: Negative Control Group (NCG) included 9 subjects from healthy mothers; Positive Control Group (PCG) included 10 subjects from mothers with fecal peritonitis (intra-abdominal injection of 10% autogenic fecal suspension in the gestational period) and did not receive any treatment; and Intervention Group (IG), with 10 animals whose infected mothers received moxifloxacin and dexamethasone treatment 24 hours after induction of fecal peritonitis. Results: Nuclear count was higher in the IG group as compared to PCG (p = 0.0016) and in NCG as compared to PCG (p = 0.0380). There was no significant difference in nuclear counts between NCG and IG. Conclusion: Induced autogenic fecal peritonitis in pregnant Wistar rats determined myocardial changes in young rats that could be avoided by the early administration of intravenous moxifloxacin and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Myocardium/pathology , Peritonitis/complications , Peritonitis/pathology , Pregnancy Complications , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar , Organogenesis , Disease Models, Animal , Moxifloxacin , Heart/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 366-369, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038490

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease that leads to ocular proptosis caused by fat accumulation and inflammation, and the main treatment is corticosteroid therapy. Retinoid acid receptor-alpha (RARα) seems to be associated with inflammation and adipocyte differentiation. This study aimed to assess the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on orbital fibroblasts of GO patient treated or not with different glucocorticoid doses. Materials and methods: Orbital fibroblasts collected during orbital decompression of a female patient with moderately severe/severe GO were cultivated and treated with 10 nM and 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex). rRARα gene expression in the treated and untreated cells was then compared. Results: Fibroblast RARα expression was not affected by 100 nM Dex. On the other hand, RARα expression was 24% lower in cells treated with 10 nM Dex (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Orbital fibroblasts from a GO patient expressed the RARα gene, which was unaffected by higher, but decreased with lower doses of glucocorticoid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orbit/drug effects , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Gene Expression/drug effects , Graves Ophthalmopathy/drug therapy , Fibroblasts/chemistry , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Orbit/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Graves Ophthalmopathy/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha/drug effects , Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha/genetics
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 254-260, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951553

ABSTRACT

Abstract In spite of advances in root canal therapy and better knowledge of pulpal and periapical inflammation, up 40% of endodontic patients report varying degrees of pain. The aim of this present study was to compare the effect of single preoperative dose of ibuprofen or dexamethasone on post-endodontic pain. Sixty volunteers were divided into three groups (n=20 per group): PL, placebo; IB, 400 mg of ibuprofen; and DE, 8 mg of dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the post-endodontic pain intensity measured with a numerical rating scale (4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h). Secondary outcomes included number of anesthetic cartridges used and consumption of rescue medication. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There was no significant difference among groups (p>0.05) considering the pain intensity. Only 37% of IB group patients and 28% of DE group patients used some rescue medication. On the other hand, 74% of PL group patients mentioned the consumption of rescue medication; PL group had a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in comparison with IB and DE groups. The number of anesthetic cartridges used had no statistically significant difference among the groups (p>0.05). Significant differences were not found in the reduction of pain intensity and the number of anesthetic cartridges used. Considering the consumption of rescue medication (secondary outcome), preoperative administration of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone reduces post-endodontic pain and discomfort in comparison with a placebo. Premedication with anti-inflammatory drugs drugs could be contributed to control of the post-endodontic pain, mainly in patients more sensible for pain.


Resumo Apesar dos avanços no tratamento do canal radicular e melhor conhecimento da inflamação pulpar e periapical, 40% dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de endodôntico relatam diferentes graus de dor. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito pré-operatório (dose única) de ibuprofeno ou dexametasona na dor pós-endodôntica. Sessenta voluntários foram divididos em três grupos (n=20 por grupo): PL, placebo; IB, 400 mg de ibuprofeno; e DE, 8 mg de dexametasona. O desfecho primário foi a intensidade da dor pós-endodôntica medida com uma escala numérica (4, 8, 12, 24 e 48 h). Os desfechos secundários incluíram o número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados e o consumo de medicação resgate. Os dados foram analisados com os testes ANOVA, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis. Não houve diferença entre os grupos (p>0,05) considerando a intensidade da dor. Apenas 37% dos pacientes do grupo IB e 28% do grupo DE utilizaram alguma medicação resgate. Por outro lado, 74% dos pacientes do grupo PL mencionaram o consumo de medicação resgate; o grupo PL apresentou diferença significativa (p<0,05) em comparação com os grupos IB e DE. O número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05). Não encontramos diferença significativa na redução da intensidade da dor e no número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados. Considerando o consumo de medicação resgate (desfecho secundário), a administração pré-operatória de ibuprofeno ou dexametasona reduz a dor pós-endodôntica e o desconforto em comparação com placebo. A pré-medicação com anti-inflamatórios poderia contribuir para o controle da dor pós-endodôntica, principalmente em pacientes mais sensíveis à dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Placebos , Premedication , Root Canal Therapy/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral
16.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 59(1): 10-15, mar. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910114

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar macroscópica e histológicamente la cicatrización muscular utilizando Dexametasona (DEX) o Traumeel (TRM), en un modelo experimental animal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio experimental en 45 ratones BKS. Se seccionó transversal y completamente el cuádriceps derecho en todos los animales. Se definieron 3 grupos de estudio de 15 ratones cada uno, un grupo control, un grupo tratado con Dexametasona y uno con Traumeel. Los animales fueron sacrificados a las 1,2 y 4 semanas después del procedimiento y se les extrajo ambos cuádriceps (derecho como intervención e izquierdo como control) y luego fueron analizados macroscópica e histológicamente por un patólogo calificado, de manera ciega. Los datos se analizaron estadísticamente con el test de Kruskal - Wallis (p < 0,05), utilizando el programa Stata V12.1. RESULTADOS: Macroscopía: A la semana, en todos los grupos se evidenció ausencia de cicatrización con gap persistente. A la segunda semana, se evidencia cicatrización inicial sin gap en todos los grupos. A las 4 semanas todas las muestras estaban cicatrizadas. HISTOLOGÍA: La administración de Dexametasona disminuye el infiltrado inflamatorio y aumenta las fibras regenerativas, pero induce mayor fibrosis y pérdida de masa muscular. La adición de Traumeel aumenta la cantidad de fibras regenerativas, pero incrementa el infiltrado inflamatorio. CONCLUSIONES: A las 4 semanas ninguno de los grupos de estudio presentó regeneración muscular completa, con resultados macroscópicos e histológicos variables.


OBJETIVES: To macroscopically and histologically evaluate a muscle strain healing model, using Dexamethasone and Traumeel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study in 45 BKS mice. 3 groups of 15 mice were defined: control group, Dexamethasone treated group and Traumeel treated group. The animals were sacrificed at the 1st, 2nd and 4th week, both quadriceps were resected (right as intervention and left as control) and then analyzed macroscopically and histologically by a qualified and blinded pathologist. Results were analyzed statistically using Kruskal - Wallis test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Macroscopy: the first week, all groups showed absence of healing with persistent gap. At the 2nd week, evidence of initial healing without gap in all groups. By week 4, all samples were healed. HISTOLOGY: Dexamethasone decreased the inflammatory infiltration and increased the regenerative fibers, but induced a higher fibrosis and loss of muscle mass. Traumeel increased the amount of regenerative fibers and the inflammatory infiltration. DISCUSSION: The results of our study fail to define a definitive posture. We observed that Traumeel actually increases the amount of regenerative fibers and contrary to the literature, it increases the inflammatory infiltrate. On the other hand, Dexamethasone showed similar results in both regenerative fibers, fatty infiltration and muscle mass, but with increased necrosis. CONCLUSIONS By the 4th week none of the groups showed complete muscle regeneration with macroscopic and histological variable results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Muscular Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Quadriceps Muscle , Rupture , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888719

ABSTRACT

Abstract This trial evaluated the preemptive and postoperative effect of dexamethasone and ibuprofen on prevention of pain/discomfort, edema and interference in daily life in patients undergoing root coverage combined with subepithelial connective tissue graft (CAF + CTG). Twenty patients were randomly assigned as follows: NSAID Group: 400mg Ibuprofen 60 min preemptive + 400mg Ibuprofen postoperative; or SAID Group: 4mg Dexamethasone 60 min preemptive + 4mg Dexamethasone postoperative. The postoperative medication was administered 8 and 16 h post-surgery. Each patient received questionnaires based on a numeric scale (101-point numeric scale rate [NRS-101]) and multiple choice questions (four-point verbal rating scale [VRS-4]) about trans-operative pain/discomfort, hourly for 8 h after surgery and once a day for three days. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for edema and interference in daily life during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th day was also answered. The degree of anxiety was rated statistically by the Chi-square test. The Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests were used for the other questionnaires. The surgery time and number of analgesic pills consumed were compared using Student's t-test. Patients who used dexamethasone presented a trend toward less pain when compared to individuals who ingested ibuprofen, with a significant difference observed 3 h after the procedure (p<0.05). The use of dexamethasone also promoted less edema until the 2nd day and lower interference in daily life on the third day when compared with ibuprofen (p<0.05). We concluded that the use of dexamethasone as a preemptive and postoperative medication was more suitable as a drug therapeutic protocol for CAF + CTG.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito preventivo e pós-operatório de dexametasona e ibuprofeno na prevenção da dor, desconforto, edema e interferência na vida diária, em pacientes submetidos ao recobrimento radicular associado a enxerto de tecido conjuntivo subepitelial (CAF + CTG). Vinte pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente: Grupo AINES: Ibuprofeno 400 mg 60 min antes da cirurgia + Ibuprofeno 400 mg no período pós-operatório e Grupo AIES: 4 mg de dexametasona 60 min antes da cirurgia + Dexametasona 4mg no pós-operatório. A medicação pós-operatória foi administrada 8 e 16 horas pós-cirurgia. Cada paciente recebeu questionários com base na escala numérica NRS-101 (101 pontos numéricos) e perguntas de múltipla escolha (VRS-4) sobre dor / desconforto no período transoperatório, de hora em hora durante 8 h e uma vez por dia durante três dias após a cirurgia. A Escala Visual Analógica (VAS) para análise de edema e interferência na vida diária também foi respondida no 1º, 2º, 3º e 7º dia após a cirurgia. O grau de ansiedade foi estatisticamente avaliado pelo teste do Qui-quadrado. Mann-Whitney e Friedman foram utilizados para os demais questionários. Para o tempo de cirurgia e o número de analgésicos consumidos, o teste t de Student foi aplicado. Os pacientes que utilizaram dexametasona apresentaram uma tendência para menores níveis de dor quando comparados aos indivíduos que ingeriram ibuprofeno, com diferença significativa observada 3 h após o procedimento cirúrgico (p<0,05). A utilização de dexametasona também promoveu menores níveis de edema até ao segundo dia e menor interferência na vida diária no terceiro dia, quando comparada com o ibuprofeno (p<0,05). Concluiu-se que a utilização de dexametasona como medicamento preventivo e pós-operatório mostra ser mais adequado como protocolo medicamentosos para cirurgias de recobrimento radicular com associação de enxerto de tecido conjuntivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Connective Tissue/transplantation , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Periodontal Diseases/surgery , Tooth Root , Double-Blind Method , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Patient Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La hipoacusia neurosensorial súbita idiopática se define como la pérdida de audición súbita, de más de 30 dB, en por lo menos 3 frecuencias contiguas de la audiometría tonal, que ocurre dentro de los 3 días de inicio del síntoma, en un paciente sin antecedentes otológicos previos. OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la relación entre el comienzo temprano del tratamiento con corticoide intratimpánico y el grado de recuperación auditiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Es un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. A través de una revisión de historias clínicas se recolectaron pacientes con diagnóstico de hipoacusia neurosensorial súbita, valorados entre 2016 y 2017. El protocolo terapéutico utilizado fue la inyección de corticoide intratimpánico bajo visión microscópica, del oído afectado. Este procedimiento se realizó una vez por semana, durante 4 semanas. Se solicitó un control audiométrico una vez finalizado el tratamiento para evaluar el grado de recuperación auditiva...


INTRODUCTION: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss surdez neurosensorial subita is defined as a sudden loss of hearing, of more than 30dB, in at least three adjacent frequencies of the tone audiometry, which occurs within the three days after the symptom onset, in patients without previous otologic background. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the relationship between the early beginning of treatment with intratympanic corticoid and the degree of hearing recovery. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is an observational, descriptive and retrospective study. Medical records of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss diagnosis between 2016 and 2017 were gathered. The therapeutic protocol used was injection of intratympanic corticoid in the affected ear under microscopic vision. This procedure was carried out once a week, for 4 weeks. An audiometric control was done after finishing treatment in order to assess the hearing recovery degree…


INTRODUÇÃO: A surdez neurosensorial subita idiopatica define-se como a perda de audição subita, a mais de 30dB, em pelo menos 3 frequências contíguas da audiometria tonal, que ocorre dentro dos 3 dias de início do sintoma, num paciente sem antecedentes otológicos prévios. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a relação entre o começo temporão do tratamento com corticoide intratimpánico e o grau de recuperação auditiva. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: É um estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo. Através de uma revisão de histórias clínicas colectaram-se pacientes com diagnóstico de hipoacusia neurosensorial súbita, avaliados entre 2016 e 2017. O protocolo terapêutico utilizado foi a injeção de corticoide intratimpánico baixo visão microscópica, do ouvido afectado. Este procedimento realizou-se uma vez por semana, durante 4 semanas. Solicitou-se um controle audiométrico uma vez finalizado o tratamento para avaliar o grau de recuperação auditiva...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/drug therapy , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/rehabilitation , Correction of Hearing Impairment/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Early Medical Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Observational Study
19.
Medwave ; 18(3): e7220, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-911670

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de las células plasmáticas de la medula ósea. Las terapias disponibles no son curativas y la mayoría de los pacientes se vuelve refractario al tratamiento. Agentes como lenalidomida y bortezomib han demostrado su eficacia en el tratamien-to en segunda línea de estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-efectividad de la combinación lenalidomida/dexametasona frente a bortezomib/dexametasona en pacientes con mieloma múltiple, no candidatos a trasplante, previamente tratados con bortezomib, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno. METODOLOGÍA: Se empleó un modelo de Markov que simula la evolución de una cohorte de pacientes a través de cuatro estados de salud (preprogresión en tratamiento, preprogresión sin tratamiento, progresión o muerte) en un horizonte temporal de 25 años. Los datos de eficacia, uso de recursos y frecuencia de efectos adversos fueron extraídos de los ensayos sobre mieloma múltiple MM-009 y MM-010 y de un estudio retrospectivo de retratamiento con bortezomib. Todos los parámetros fueron validados por expertos. Se aplicó una tasa de descuento en costos y beneficios de 3%. La robustez de los resultados fue evaluada mediante un análisis de sensibilidad univariante y probabilístico. RESULTADOS: El tratamiento con lenalidomida/dexametasona proporciona 1,41 años de vida y 0,83 años de vida ajustados por calidad incrementales respecto a bortezomib/dexametasona, con un costo incremental de 11 864 597,86 pesos chilenos (19 589,86 dólares). La ratio de cos-to-efectividad y costo-utilidad incremental se cifró en 8 410 266,92 pesos chilenos (13 886,35 dólares) por año de vida ganado y 14 271 896,16 pesos chilenos (23 564,59 dólares) por año de vida ajustado por calidad respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La lenalidomida/dexametasona representa una alternativa potencialmente costo-efectiva, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno, para el tratamiento en segunda línea de pacientes con mieloma múltiple no candidatos a trasplante.


BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy affecting bone marrow derived plasma cells. Current therapies are not able to eradicate the disease and most patients become refractory to the treatment. Lenalidomide and bortezomib have proved effective in the second-line treatment of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone compared to bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma previously treated with bortezomib, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service. METHODOLOGY: A four-state Markov model (preprogression on treatment; preprogression off treatment, progression and death) was used to simulate the evolution of a cohort of multiple myeloma patients over a 25-year time horizon. Efficacy data, resource use and frequency of adverse events were extracted from MM009/010 studies and a retrospective analysis of retreatment with bortezomib. All inputs were validated by experts. A 3% annual discount rate was used for costs and health outcomes. The robustness of the results was evaluated through univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone treatment provided 1.41 incremental life years and 0.83 incremental quality-adjusted life years in comparison with bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone, with an incremental cost of 11 864 597.86 CLP (19 589.86 US$). The incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio were estimated at 8 410 266.92 CLP (13 886,35 US$) / incremental life year and 14 271 896.16 CLP (23 564,59 US$)/incremental quality-adjusted life years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone represents a potentially cost-effective alternative for the second-line treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who are not eligible for transplantation, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Markov Chains , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression , Bortezomib/administration & dosage , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/economics , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(4): 307-318, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837699

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative analgesic and adverse effects of three doses of dexamethasone, administered epidurally in combination with lignocaine, in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Methods: Twenty-four female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were pre-medicated with acepromazine and general anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol. Animals were randomly allocated into four groups of six. The control group was given lignocaine 2% (LI) and the treatment groups were given lignocaine with either 2 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX2), 4 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX4) or 8 mg dexamethasone (LIDEX8) administered at the lumbosacral epidural space. Duration of postoperative analgesia, first analgesic rescue, motor blockade, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were evaluated. Results: The duration of postoperative analgesia was 19.5 (SD 6) hours for LIDEX8 (p=0.001), 10 (SD 2) hours for LIDEX4 (p=0.002), 4 (SD 2) hours for LIDEX2 (p=0.074) treatments compared with values for the LI control treatment 2.2 (SD 1.6) hours. All treatments had significant cardiovascular and respiratory alterations but they were within acceptable range in these clinically healthy female dogs. Conclusion: Dexamethasone added to epidural lignocaine significantly extends the postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in female dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Analgesia, Epidural/veterinary , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hysterectomy/adverse effects
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