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2.
Dolor ; 30(72): 20-24, nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362442

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de dolor crónico postmastectomía es frecuente en pacientes sometidas a cirugía por cáncer de mamas, llegando a ser invalidante en casos severos. Existen distintos factores de riesgo para que éste se presente, siendo el dolor agudo postoperatorio el único en el cual podemos intervenir. La importancia de implementar estrategias de prevención en el periodo perioperatorio es fundamental. En la mantención de la anestesia general, la utilización de propofol se asocia con menor incidencia de dolor agudo postoperatorio. El uso de anestésicos locales, ya sea por vía tópica, subcutánea y sistémica, ha demostrado su beneficio para disminuir el dolor agudo. No obstante, solo el uso tópico y endovenoso ha sido útil para reducir el dolor hasta 3 meses postcirugía. Técnicas de analgesia regional, como el bloqueo PEC I y II, bloqueo paravertebral y bloqueo del erector de la espina han demostrado ser útiles para reducir el dolor agudo; pero solo el bloqueo paravertebral ha demostrado su utilidad en reducir el dolor hasta 1 año postcirugía. El uso de gabapentina, pregabalina y ketamina desde el periodo preoperatorio disminuyen la incidencia de dolor agudo postoperatorio. En tanto, la venlafaxina y dexmedetomidina demostraron su utilidad para reducir el dolor crónico.


Postmastectomy chronic pain syndrome is common in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer, becoming invalidating in severe cases. There are different risk factors for this to occur, with acute post-operative pain being the only one in which we can intervene. The importance of implementing prevention strategies in the perioperative period is essential. In the maintenance of general anesthesia, the use of propofol is associated with a lower incidence of acute post-operative pain. The use of local anesthetics, whether topically, subcutaneously and systemically, has shown its benefit in reducing acute pain. However, only topical and endovenous use has been useful to reduce pain up to 3 months after surgery. Regional analgesia techniques, such as PEC I and II block, paravertebral block, and spinal erector block have been shown to reduce acute pain; but only the paravertebral block has shown its usefulness in reducing pain up to 1 year after surgery. The use of gabapentin, pregabalin and ketamine from the preoperative period reduce the incidence of acute postoperative pain. Meanwhile, venlafaxine and dexmedetomidine proved useful in reducing chronic pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Mastectomy/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Propofol/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/etiology , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local
3.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
4.
s.l; s.n; 3 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1099470

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 153-158, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of post-thoracotomy analgesia with dexmedetomidine and morphine on immunocytes. Methods A total of 118 patients with post-thoracotomy Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) in our hospital from March 2016 to July 2018 were randomly selected and divided into the Composite (COM) Group (57 patients administered with dexmedetomidine [1.0 µg.kg-1 body weight] and morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1 body weight]) and the Morphine (MOR) group (61 patients administered with morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1]). The values of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and Natural Killer cells in the peripheral blood of these two groups were detected by FACSCalibur flow cytometry at different time points (before anesthesia induction [T0], immediately after tracheal extubation [T1], 12 hours after surgery [T2], 24 hours after surgery [T3], 48 hours after surgery [T4], 72 hours after surgery [T5], and 7 days after surgery [T6]). The doses of morphine at T3 to T5 and the adverse reactions between the two groups were also recorded and compared. Results The CD3+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at T2 to T5 and the CD4+ level and NK cells at T3 to T5 were significantly higher in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). The postoperative morphine dose and the incidence of postoperative itching, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with morphine for post-thoracotomy PCIA can improve the function of immunocytes, reduce morphine consumption, and reduce the adverse reactions during analgesia induction.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar o impacto em linfócitos causado pelo uso da dexmedetomidina associada à morfina para analgesia pós-toracotomia. Método Um total de 118 pacientes utilizando Analgesia Intravenosa Controlada pelo Paciente (AICP) pós-toracotomia em nosso hospital, de março de 2016 a julho de 2018, foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: o Grupo Combinado [COM, 57 pacientes que receberam dexmedetomidina (1,0 µg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo) associada à morfina (0,48 mg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo)] e o Grupo Morfina [MOR, 61 pacientes, que receberam somente morfina (0,48 mg.kg-)]. Os valores dos subconjuntos de linfócitos (CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+) e das células NK no sangue periférico desses dois grupos foram medidos por citometria de fluxo FACSCalibur em diferentes momentos do estudo [antes da indução anestésica (T0), imediatamente após extubação traqueal (T1), 12 horas após a cirurgia (T2), 24 horas após a cirurgia (T3), 48 horas após a cirurgia (T4), 72 horas após a cirurgia (T5) e 7 dias após a cirurgia (T6)]. As doses de morfina do momento T3 ao T5 e as reações adversas entre os dois grupos também foram registradas e comparadas. Resultados O nível de CD3+ e a razão CD4+/CD8+ de T2 a T5, e o nível de CD4+ e as células NK de T3 a T5 do Grupo COM foram significantemente maiores (p< 0,05) quando comparados ao Grupo MOR. A dose de morfina no pós-operatório e a incidência de prurido, náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foram significantemente menores no grupo MOR (p< 0,05). Conclusões Dexmedetomidina combinada com morfina para AICP no período pós-toracotomia pode melhorar a função dos linfócitos, reduzir o consumo de morfina e diminuir reações adversas durante a analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Morphine/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e7905, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984036

ABSTRACT

Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, has anti-inflammation properties and potential beneficial effects against trauma, shock, or infection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether DEX might protect against multiple-organ dysfunction in a two-hit model of hemorrhage/resuscitation (HS) and subsequent endotoxemia. Eighty Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: NS (normal saline), HS/L (HS plus lipopolysaccharide), HS/L+D (HS/L plus dexmedetomidine), and HS/L+D+Y (HS/L+D plus yohimbine). Six hours after resuscitation, blood gas (PaO2) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The histopathology was assayed by staining. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were assayed. The PaO2 levels in HS/L rats were lower whereas the ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and NO levels were higher compared to the control group. The HS/L+D increased PaO2 and further increased IL-10 and decreased ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-8, and NO levels of the HS/L groups. In addition, the MDA in the HS/L groups increased whereas SOD activity decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, the HO-1 expression levels were increased by DEX administration in lung, liver, and kidney tissues. Lungs, livers, and kidneys of the HS/L group displayed significant damage, but such damage was attenuated in the HS/L+D group. All of the above-mentioned effects of DEX were partly reversed by yohimbine. DEX reduced multiple organ injury caused by HS/L in rats, which may be mediated, at least in part, by α2-adrenergic receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Resuscitation , Endotoxemia/drug therapy , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/drug effects , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Endotoxemia/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hemorrhage/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 404-417, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958432

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute post-operative pain remains a troublesome complication of cardiothoracic surgeries. Several randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a single or as an adjuvant agent before, during and after surgery. However, no evidence-based conclusion has been reached regarding the advantages of dexmedetomidine over the other analgesics. Objective: To review the effect of dexmedetomidine on acute post-thoracotomy/sternotomy pain. Methods: Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were used to search for randomized controlled trials that investigated the analgesia effect of dexmedetomidine on post-thoracotomy/sternotomy pain in adults' patients. The outcomes were postoperative pain intensity or incidence, postoperative analgesia duration, and the number of postoperative analgesic requirements. Results: From 1789 citations, 12 trials including 804 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Most studies showed that pain score was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group up to 24 hours after surgery. Two studies reported the significant lower postoperative analgesia requirements and one study reported the significant lower incidence of acute pain after surgery in dexmedetomidine group. Ten studies found that the total consumption of narcotics was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group. The most reported complications of dexmedetomidine were nausea/vomiting, bradycardia and hypotension. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine can be used as a safe and efficient analgesic agent for reducing the postoperative pain and analgesic requirements up to 24 hours after cardiothoracic surgeries. However, further well-designed trials are needed to find the optimal dosage, route, time, and duration of dexmedetomidine administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Procedural/drug therapy , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 42-48, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Shivering, a common intraoperative problem under spinal anesthesia increases the oxygen consumption considerably and is uncomfortable and distressing to the patient, anesthesiologist as well as surgeon. The present study was designed to explore the effectiveness of tramadol, clonidine and dexmedetomidine in the treatment of post spinal anesthesia shivering and to look for their adverse effects. Methods This prospective, randomized, double blinded control study was done on 90 patients who developed shivering under spinal anesthesia. They were randomly allocated into three groups with Group T receiving tramadol 1 mg.kg-1, Group C getting clonidine 1 mcg.kg-1 and Group D patients receiving dexmedetomidine 0.5 mcg.kg-1. The time taken to control shivering, recurrence rate, hemodynamic variables, sedation score and adverse effects were observed. Results Dexmedetomidine was faster in the control of shivering in 5.7 ± 0.79 minutes (min) whereas tramadol took 6.76 ± 0.93 min and clonidine was slower with 9.43 ± 0.93 min. The recurrence rate was much lower in the dexmedetomidine group with 3.3% than for clonidine (10%) and tramadol (23.3%) group. The sedation achieved with dexmedetomidine was better than clonidine and tramadol. The tramadol group had more cases of vomiting (four) and dexmedetomidine group had six cases of hypotension and two cases of bradycardia. Two of the clonidine patients encountered bradycardia and hypotension. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine is better than tramadol and clonidine in the control of shivering because of its faster onset and less recurrence rate. Though complications are encountered in the dexmedetomidine group, they are treatable.


Resumo Introdução O tremor, problema comum no período intraoperatório sob raquianestesia, aumenta consideravelmente o consumo de oxigênio, além de ser desconfortável e angustiante para o paciente, o anestesiologista e o cirurgião. O presente estudo foi concebido para explorar a eficácia de tramadol, clonidina e dexmedetomidina no tratamento de tremores pós-raquianestesia e observar seus efeitos adversos. Métodos Este estudo prospectivo, randômico, controlado e duplo-cego foi feito com 90 pacientes que desenvolveram tremores sob raquianestesia. Os pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos para receber 1 mg.kg-1 de tramadol (Grupo T), 1 mcg.kg-1 de clonidina (Grupo C) e 0,5 mcg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina (Grupo D). O tempo necessário para controlar os tremores, a taxa de recorrência, as variáveis hemodinâmicas, os níveis de sedação e os efeitos adversos foram registrados. Resultados Dexmedetomidina foi mais rápida para controlar os tremores, com tempo de 5,7 ± 0,79 minutos (min); o tempo de tramadol foi de 6,76 ± 0,93 min; clonidina foi mais lenta, com tempo de 9,43 ± 0,93 min. A taxa de recorrência foi muito menor no grupo dexmedetomidina (3,3%) do que nos grupos clonidina (10%) e tramadol (23,3%). A sedação obtida com dexmedetomidina foi melhor do que a obtida com clonidina e tramadol. O grupo tramadol teve mais casos de vômito (quatro); o grupo dexmedetomidina teve seis casos de hipotensão e dois casos de bradicardia. Dois pacientes do grupo clonidina apresentaram bradicardia e hipotensão. Conclusão Dexmedetomidina foi melhor do que tramadol e clonidina para o controle de tremores devido ao seu início de ação mais rápido e à taxa de recorrência mais baixa. Embora complicações tenham sido observadas no grupo dexmedetomidina, elas foram tratáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Shivering/drug effects , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Clonidine/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Complications/drug therapy , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 538-540, Sept-Oct. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α-2 agonist which has recently revolutionized our anesthesia and intensive care practice. An obstetric patient presented for emergency cesarean delivery under general anesthesia, with pre-eclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage. In carefully selected cases with refractory hypertension and postpartum hemorrhage, dexmedetomidine can be used for improving overall patient outcome. It was beneficial in controlling both the blood pressure and uterine bleeding during cesarean section in our patient.


Resumo Dexmedetomidina é um α2-agonista altamente seletivo que recentemente revolucionou a nossa prática de anestesia e tratamento intensivo. Uma paciente obstétrica foi admitida para cesariana de emergência sob anestesia geral, com pré-eclâmpsia e hemorragia pós-parto. Em casos cuidadosamente selecionados com hipertensão refratária e hemorragia pós-parto, dexmedetomidina pode ser usada para melhorar o resultado geral da paciente. O fármaco foi benéfico no controle tanto da pressão arterial quanto do sangramento uterino durante cesariana em nossa paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Postpartum Hemorrhage/etiology , Anesthesia, Obstetrical , Cesarean Section/methods , Emergency Treatment
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(6): 429-439, June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886202

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) could attenuate acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Four groups each containing six rats were created (sham control(S), diabetes-sham (DS), diabetes I/R (DI/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (DI/R-DEX). In diabetes groups, single-dose (65 mg/kg) STZ was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). In Group DI/R, ischemia reperfusion was produced via 25 min of bilateral renal pedicle clamping followed by 48 h of reperfusion. In Group DI/R-DEX, 50 μg/kg dexmedetomidine was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and oxidative stress in diabetic kidney were determined. Moreover, expression of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38-MAPK), phosphorylated-P38-MAPK(p-P38-MAPK) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) were assessed. Results: The degree of renal I/R injury was significantly increased in DI/R group compared with S group and DS group. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, oxidative stress and apoptosis were found significantly higher in DI/R Group when compared with S Group and DS Group. The protein expression of p-P38-MAPK and TXNIP were significantly increased after I/R. All these changes were reversed by DEX treatment. Conclusion: The renoprotective effects of DEX-pretreatment which attenuates I/R-induced AKI were partly through inhibition of P38-MAPK activation and expression of TXINP in diabetic kidney.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Kidney/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Carrier Proteins/drug effects , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Kidney/injuries , Kidney/pathology
12.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2017; 21 (1): 65-78
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187465

ABSTRACT

Background: Subarachnoid block is still the most commonly used anesthetic technique for lower abdominal surgeries, however local anesthetics alone are associated with relatively short duration of action.The intrathecal adjuvants has been reported to improve the quality of anesthesia along with prolongation of postoperative analgesia and has gained popularity nowadays. So the aim of our study was to compare the dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as intrathecal adjuvant to 0.5% hyberbaric 0.396 bupivacaine with regards respect to onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic variations and incidence of side effects


Material and Methods: Sixty four female patients, aged 30-60 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] physical status I or II, scheduled for elective total abdominal hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were randomly allocated into two groups, Group BD received 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 5 microg dexmedetomidine diluted in 0.5 ml preservative free normal saline while Group BF received 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25microg [0.5 ml] fentanyl


Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups with respect to onset of sensory and motor block, [p > 0.05]. The mean time for two segment sensory regression was significantly slower in Group BD as compared to Group BF, [p < 0.05]. Patients in Group BD had significantly prolonged duration of sensory and motor block as compared to Group BF [p < 0.05]. Similarly the duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in Group BD [p < 0.05], along with reduced requirement of rescue analgesics. The patients in both groups did not show any significant difference with respect to hemodynamic changes and incidence of side effects [p > 0.05]


Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine as intrathecal adjuvant was found to have prolonged sensory and motor block, provide good quality of intraoperative analgesia, stable hemodynamics, minimal side effects and prolonged postoperative analgesia along with reduced demand for rescue analgesics as compared to fentanyl


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Subarachnoid Space , Injections, Spinal , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Bupivacaine/analogs & derivatives , Adjuvants, Anesthesia , Prospective Studies , Double-Blind Method
13.
Anest. analg. reanim ; 29(2): 31-44, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-949973

ABSTRACT

Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 58 años, coordinado para resección de tumor temporo insular izquierdo mediante una craneotomía despierto. Se analiza en este trabajo, a partir de la descripción del caso clínico, las ventajas de la resección de este tipo de lesiones con el paciente despierto. La posibilidades de abordaje, despierto durante todo el procedimiento (awake), dormido-despierto-dormido (asleep-awake-asleep), dormido-despierto (asleep-awake). A su vez se analiza la técnica anestésica, la combinación de fármacos y especialmente las características de la Dexmedetomidina. Conclusiones: la neurocirugía con el paciente despierto, determina una serie de características y desafíos para el equipo anestésico tratante y la interacción con un equipo mulitidisciplinario (neurocirujanos, neurofisiologos, anestesiologos). Existen diferentes combinaciones de fármacos; siendo la Dexmedetomidina una opción que mejorar la satisfacción de los pacientes durante la etapa de despertar, así como las condiciones quirúrgicas con mínimas interferencia en la monitorización neurofisiológica.


We present the case of a 58-year-old patient, scheduled to resection of left insular tumor by an awake craniotomy. In this paper, from the description of the clinical case, we analyzed the advantages of a resection of this type of lesion with an awake patient. We discuss the surgical approach, and options of an awake patient all throughout the procedure, asleep-awake-asleep and asleep-awake. Also, the anesthetic technique, the combination of drugs and especially the characteristics of Dexmedetomidine are analyzed. Conclusions: neurosurgery with an awake patient, determines a series of characteristics and challenges for the anesthetic and multidisciplinary team (neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, anesthesiologists). There are different combinations of drugs, with Dexmedetomidine being an option that would improve patient satisfaction during the awakening stage, as well as surgical conditions with minimal interference in neurophysiological monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Wakefulness , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Craniotomy , Intraoperative Awareness , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Cerebral Cortex/surgery , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 583-593, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829717

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether dexmedetomidine and thiopental have cerebral protective effects after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (Group C, n = 10), dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n = 10), thiopental group (Group T, n = 10). After all rats were anesthetized, they were intubated, then mechanically ventilated. A catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery for continuous mean arterial pressure, physiological parameters and blood sampling at baseline, 5 min after occlusion and 20 min after reperfusion. A catheter was inserted into the left femoral vein for intravenous (IV) medication administration. Right common carotid artery of each rat was isolated and clamped for 45 min. At the end of the duration common carotid artery were unclamped and the brain reperfusion was achieved for 90 min. Dexmedetomidine was administered for Group D IV infusion, and Group T received thiopental IV. According to histopathologic scores cerebral ischemia was documented in all rats in Group C, but no ischemia was found in three rats in Group T and in four rats in Group D. Grade 3 cerebral ischemia was documented in three rats in Group C, and in only one rat in both groups T and D. For histopathologic grades the difference between Group T and Group D was not significant (p > 0.05). But the differences between Group C and Group T (p < 0.05) and Group C and Group D (p < 0.01) were statically significant. In conclusion, we demonstrated that dexmedetomidine and thiopental have experimental histopathologic cerebral protective effects on experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rats.


Resumo Este estudo foi desenhado para investigar se dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos protetores cerebrais após isquemia cerebral focal em ratos. Trinta ratos da linhagem Sprague Dawley foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: controle (Grupo C, n = 10), dexmedetomidina (Grupo D, n = 10) e tiopental (Grupo T, n = 10). Após a anestesia, foram intubados e ventilados mecanicamente. Um cateter foi inserido na artéria femoral direita para monitoração contínua da pressão arterial média (PAM) e dos parâmetros fisiológicos e para coleta de amostras de sangue na fase basal, 5 minutos após a oclusão e 20 minutos após a reperfusão. Um cateter foi inserido na veia femoral esquerda para administração intravenosa (IV) de medicamentos. A artéria carótida comum direita de cada rato foi isolada e pinçada durante 45 minutos. No fim dos 45 minutos, o pinçamento foi removido e a reperfusão do cérebro foi obtida por 90 minutos. Dexmedetomidina foi administrada por infusão IV no Grupo D e tiopental no Grupo T. De acordo com as pontuações histopatológicas, isquemia cerebral foi observada em todos os ratos do Grupo C, mas não foi encontrada em três ratos do Grupo T e em quatro ratos do Grupo D. O grau 3 de isquemia cerebral foi encontrada em três ratos do grupo C e em apenas um rato de ambos os grupos T e D. Para os graus histopatológicos, a diferença entre o Grupo T e o Grupo D não foi significativa (p > 0,05). Porém, as diferenças entre o Grupo C e o Grupo T (p < 0,05) e entre o Grupo C e o Grupo D (p < 0,01) foram estatisticamente significativas. Em conclusão, demonstramos que dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos histopatológicos protetores cerebrais sobre isquemia cerebral focal experimental em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thiopental/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthesia
15.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 323-328
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Incidence of junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is 5.6–14%. Dexmeditomidine is a α-2 adrenoceptor agonist modulates the release of catecholamine, resulting in bradycardia and hypotension. These effects are being explored as a therapeutic option for the prevention of perioperative tachyarrhythmia. We undertook this study to examine possible preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative JET and its impact on the duration of ventilation time and length of Intensive Care Unit stay. Methods: After obtaining approval from the hospitals ethics committee and written informed consent from parents, this quasi-randomized trial was initiated. Of 94 patients, 47 patients received dexmedetomidine (dexmedetomidine group) and 47 patients did not receive the drug (control group). Results: Dexmedetomidine group had more number of complex variants like TOF with an absent pulmonary valve or pulmonary atresia (P = 0.041). Hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), heart rate while coming off from CPB and inotrope score was significantly low in the dexmedetomidine group compared to control group. The incidence of JET was significantly low in dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.040) compared to control group. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine may have a potential benefit of preventing perioperative JET.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional/prevention & control , Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional/surgery , Tetralogy of Fallot/epidemiology , Tetralogy of Fallot/surgery
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 414-421, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749644

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on testicular damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Sham group underwent left scrotal exploration only (group 1). The ischemia-reperfusion only group underwent left testicular torsion and detorsion (group 2). The ischemia-reperfusion plus Dex group underwent left testicular torsion, received 50 µg/kg Dex (group 3) and 100 µg/kg Dex (group 4) intraperitoneally at minute 180 of ischemia and then underwent detorsion. We determined histopathological findings and performed specific biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Increasing doses of Dex significantly increased TAS, and significantly decreased OSI. Analyzing the antioxidant effects of increasing doses of Dex in torsion and contrlateral testicles: Dex 100 µg/kg statistically significant increased the tissue total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) when compared with Dex 50 µg/kg but not found significantly change on the tissue total oxidant status (TOS). However, Dex did not significantly improve these histological alterations. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in ipsilateral and contrlateral testis, but in the histopathological level, there was no difference statistically according to Johnsen's scoring system between groups at both sides. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , /pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Spermatic Cord Torsion/prevention & control , Testis/blood supply , /therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Time Factors , Testis/pathology
17.
Anest. analg. reanim ; 27(2): 5-5, dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754116

ABSTRACT

Para todas las mujeres el trabajo de parto y el parto son experiencias dolorosas, sumado a esto, el miedo y la ansiedad pueden incrementarlo y dificultar su manejo. Así mismo el dolor durante la labor de parto es equiparable con el dolor post-quirúrgico, sin olvidarnos que además la atención del trabajo de parto es un procedimiento médico de alto valor y prevalencia a nivel mundial. En la analgesia obstétrica el estándar de oro es la técnica regional pero cuando esta se encuentra contraindicada o rechazada por la paciente, habitualmente se decide abandonar la analgesia y proseguir la labor de parto con dolor; dejando a un lado toda la información descrita en la literatura con respecto a que el adecuado tratamiento del dolor disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad materno fetal, además de obtenerse mejorías en relación al costo-beneficio acortando el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria e impactando favorablemente en la economía de los pacientes. El uso de sedantes y narcóticos en la paciente en labor de parto siempre ha sido motivo de controversia ya que estos medicamentos tienden a cruzar la membrana placentaria y pueden tener efectos nocivos sobre el neonato. Sin embargo; los medicamentos más nuevos como remifentanilo debido a sus propiedades farmacocinéticas aunque cruzan la placenta no producen efectos secundarios clínicamente significativos en el binomio madre-feto. Además de que la dexmedetomidina no pasa a la circulación fetal, una razón de valor por la cual puede ser usada en conjunto con remifentanilo para la analgesia en labor de parto y obtener de esta manera un mejor control del dolor, estancia más confortable y hemodinámia estable aún en las pacientes obstétricas en estado crítico; ya que es de carácter imperativo ofrecer la mejor atención y cuidados posibles tanto a la madre como al neonato.


For all women in labor and childbirth are painful experiences, in addition to that, fear and anxiety can increase it and hinder its management. Also pain during labor is equated with pain after surgery, without forgetting also the attention of labor is a medical procedure of high value and prevalence worldwide. In obstetric analgesia the gold standard is the regional technique but when this is contraindicated or refused by the patient, usually you decide to leave analgesia and further labor pain, although there is enough information that the proper approach to pain decreases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality, in addition to improvements obtained in a cost-effective shortening the length of hospital stay and impacting positively on patients economy. The use of sedatives and narcotics in the patient in labor has always been controversial as these drugs tend to cross the uteroplacental barrier and can have adverse effects on the neonate. But the newer drugs such as remifentanil and dexmedetomidine because of their pharmacokinetic properties do not cross the placenta so significantly further literature refers that dexmedetomidine does not pass into the fetal circulation. One more reason to value which can be used in conjunction remifentanil for analgesia in labor and thereby obtain better pain management, better state of comfort, and hemodynamics in obstetric patients and that it is mandatory to provide the best possible care and attention to both the mother and the neonate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/chemistry , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacokinetics , Labor Pain
18.
Clinics ; 69(11): 777-786, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731102

ABSTRACT

Premedication is important in pediatric anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of dexmedetomidine as a premedicant for pediatric patients. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing dexmedetomidine premedication with midazolam or ketamine premedication or placebo in children. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5. The main parameters investigated included satisfactory separation from parents, satisfactory mask induction, postoperative rescue analgesia, emergence agitation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving 1190 patients were included. When compared with midazolam, premedication with dexmedetomidine resulted in an increase in satisfactory separation from parents (RD = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.30, p = 0.003) and a decrease in the use of postoperative rescue analgesia (RD = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.09, p = 0.0003). Children treated with dexmedetomidine had a lower heart rate before induction. The incidence of satisfactory mask induction, emergence agitation and PONV did not differ between the groups. Dexmedetomidine was superior in providing satisfactory intravenous cannulation compared to placebo. This meta-analysis suggests that dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam premedication because it resulted in enhanced preoperative sedation and decreased postoperative pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the dosing schemes and long-term outcomes of dexmedetomidine premedication in pediatric anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , /therapeutic use , Anesthesia/methods , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Premedication/methods , Anesthetics, Dissociative/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 209-215, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50980

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 microg/kg, followed by 0.1 microg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. RESULTS: ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/methods , Child , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Female , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Male , Methyl Ethers/therapeutic use , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Young Adult
20.
Dolor ; 22(60): 34-40, dic.2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779247

ABSTRACT

La dexmedetomidina es un fármaco agonista de los receptores alfa-2 adrenérgicos, altamente selectivo, utilizado para sedación en unidades de cuidados críticos. Posee también, efectos analgésicos importantes que pueden atribuirle un rol en el manejo clínico del dolor. Diversas comunicaciones científicas han estudiado su utilidad en el manejo del dolor agudo, crónico y en cuidados paliativos, tanto en adultos como en niños. En este artículo de revisión se analiza la evidencia científica disponible hasta la fecha con el objeto de dilucidar cuál es el real aporte de este fármaco en el tratamiento de las diversas formas de dolor...


Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist commonly used in the critical care units for sedation therapy. It has analgesic effects that may be used in pain treatment. Many scientific reports have studied its utility in the management of acute and chronic pain and palliative care. In this review we analyze the scientific evidence in relation to the real role of dexmedetomidine in pain therapy...


Subject(s)
Humans , /therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Pain/drug therapy
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