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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 1057-1062, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009454

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of mare's milk on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank group(0.8 mL/day saline by gavage) and a DSS modeling group. After modeling, the DSS modeling group was further divided into a control group (0.8 mL/day saline), a salazosulfapyridine (SASP) treated group(430 mg/(kg.d)) and a mare's milk group(0.8 mL/day), with 16 mice in each group. After 10 days of gavage administration, HE staining was performed to observe colonic inflammation, and the disease activity index (DAI) and colonic mucosal damage index (CMDI) were scored. ELISA was used to determine the levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10 in mouse colonic tissues, and flow cytometry was used to detect the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Results Compared to the blank group, all indexes in mice of the control group indicated that DSS successfully induced UC. Compared to the control group, colon shortening in UC mice was attenuated in the mare's milk group; inflammation and ulcer formation in colonic tissues were inhibited; DAI and CMDI scores were lowere; IL-1β and IL-6 levels in mouse colonic tissues were significantly reduced; IL-10 levels were increased and the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio was reduced. Conclusion Mare's milk can inhibit the inflammation of DSS-induced UC mice through immune regulation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Female , Horses , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Dextran Sulfate , Interleukin-6 , Milk , Signal Transduction , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Colon
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2739-2748, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981377

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis(UC) is a recurrent, intractable inflammatory bowel disease. Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, serving as heat-clearing and toxin-removing drugs, have long been used in the treatment of UC. Berberine(BBR) and ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), the main active components of Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, respectively, were employed to obtain UDCA-BBR supramolecular nanoparticles by stimulated co-decocting process for enhancing the therapeutic effect on UC. As revealed by the characterization of supramolecular nanoparticles by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering(DLS), the supramolecular nanoparticles were tetrahedral nanoparticles with an average particle size of 180 nm. The molecular structure was described by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance(H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the formation of the supramolecular nano-particle was attributed to the mutual electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction between BBR and UDCA. Additionally, supramolecular nanoparticles were also characterized by sustained release and pH sensitivity. The acute UC model was induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in mice. It was found that supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve body mass reduction and colon shortening in mice with UC(P<0.001) and decrease disease activity index(DAI)(P<0.01). There were statistically significant differences between the supramolecular nanoparticles group and the mechanical mixture group(P<0.001, P<0.05). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6), and the results showed that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels(P<0.001) and exhibited an obvious difference with the mechanical mixture group(P<0.01, P<0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce the recruitment of neutrophils in the lamina propria of the colon(P<0.05), which was significantly different from the mechanical mixture group(P<0.05). These findings suggested that as compared with the mechanical mixture, the supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve the symptoms of acute UC in mice. The study provides a new research idea for the poor absorption of small molecules and the unsatisfactory therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine and lays a foundation for the research on the nano-drug delivery system of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Berberine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Colon , Nanoparticles , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2193-2202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981350

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of tryptanthrin on potential metabolic biomarkers in the serum of mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and predict the related metabolic pathways. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a tryptanthrin group, a sulfasalazine group, a control group, and a model group. The mouse model of UC was established by free drinking of 3% DSS solution for 11 days, and corresponding drugs were adminsitrated at the same time. The signs of mice were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) score was recorded from the first day. Colon tissue samples were collected after the experiment and observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-10(IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-8(IL-8) in the serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The serum samples were collected from 6 mice in each group for widely targeted metabolomics. The metabolic pathways were enriched by MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that compared with the model group, tryptanthrin treatment decreased the DAI score(P<0.05), alleviated the injury of the colon tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and elevated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. The metabolomic analysis revealed 28 differential metabolites which were involved in 3 metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. Tryptanthrin may restore the metabolism of the mice with UC induced by DSS to the normal level by regulating the purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study employed metabolomics to analyze the mechanism of tryptanthrin in the treatment of UC, providing an experimental basis for the utilization and development of tryptanthrin.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Tryptophan , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Colon , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Metabolomics , Purines/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2500-2511, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981326

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to elucidate the effect and underlying mechanism of Bovis Calculus in the treatment of ulcerative colitis(UC) through network pharmacological prediction and animal experimental verification. Databases such as BATMAN-TCM were used to mine the potential targets of Bovis Calculus against UC, and the pathway enrichment analysis was conducted. Seventy healthy C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a solvent model(2% polysorbate 80) group, a salazosulfapyridine(SASP, 0.40 g·kg~(-1)) group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose Bovis Calculus Sativus(BCS, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 g·kg~(-1)) groups according to the body weight. The UC model was established in mice by drinking 3% dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) solution for 7 days. The mice in the groups with drug intervention received corresponding drugs for 3 days before modeling by gavage, and continued to take drugs for 7 days while modeling(continuous administration for 10 days). During the experiment, the body weight of mice was observed, and the disease activity index(DAI) score was recorded. After 7 days of modeling, the colon length was mea-sured, and the pathological changes in colon tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-17(IL-17) in colon tissues of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-17RA, Act1, TRAF2, TRAF5, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL10 was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The protein expression of IL-17, IL-17RA, Act1, p-p38 MAPK, and p-ERK1/2 was investigated by Western blot. The results of network pharmacological prediction showed that Bovis Calculus might play a therapeutic role through the IL-17 signaling pathway and the TNF signaling pathway. As revealed by the results of animal experiments, on the 10th day of drug administration, compared with the solvent model group, all the BCS groups showed significantly increased body weight, decreased DAI score, increased colon length, improved pathological damage of colon mucosa, and significantly inhibited expression of TNF-α,IL-6,IL-1β, and IL-17 in colon tissues. The high-dose BCS(0.20 g·kg~(-1)) could significantly reduce the mRNA expression levels of IL-17, Act1, TRAF2, TRAF5, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL1, and CXCL2 in colon tissues of UC model mice, tend to down-regulate mRNA expression levels of IL-17RA and CXCL10, significantly inhibit the protein expression of IL-17RA,Act1,and p-ERK1/2, and tend to decrease the protein expression of IL-17 and p-p38 MAPK. This study, for the first time from the whole-organ-tissue-molecular level, reveals that BCS may reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by inhibiting the IL-17/IL-17RA/Act1 signaling pathway, thereby improving the inflammatory injury of colon tissues in DSS-induced UC mice and exerting the effect of clearing heat and removing toxins.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-17/pharmacology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2/pharmacology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction , Colon , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2325-2333, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981308

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the effect of anemoside B4(B4) on fatty acid metabolism in mice with colitis-associated cancer(CAC). The CAC model was established by azoxymethane(AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) in mice. Mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose anemoside B4 groups. After the experiment, the length of the mouse colon and the size of the tumor were measured, and the pathological alterations in the mouse colon were observed using hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The slices of the colon tumor were obtained for spatial metabolome analysis to analyze the distribution of fatty acid metabolism-related substances in the tumor. The mRNA levels of SREBP-1, FAS, ACCα, SCD-1, PPARα, ACOX, UCP-2, and CPT-1 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). The results revealed that the model group showed decreased body weight(P<0.05) and colon length(P<0.001), increased number of tumors, and increased pathological score(P<0.01). Spatial metabolome analysis revealed that the content of fatty acids and their derivatives, carnitine, and phospholipid in the colon tumor was increased. RT-qPCR results indicated that fatty acid de novo synthesis and β-oxidation-related genes, such as SREBP-1, FASN, ACCα, SCD-1, ACOX, UCP-2, and CPT-1 mRNA expression levels increased considerably(P<0.05, P<0.001). After anemoside B4 administration, the colon length increased(P<0.01), and the number of tumors decreased in the high-dose anemoside B4 group(P<0.05). Additionally, spatial metabolome analysis showed that anemoside B4 could decrease the content of fatty acids and their derivatives, carnitine, and phospholipids in colon tumors. Meanwhile, anemoside B4 could also down-regulate the expression of FASN, ACCα, SCD-1, PPARα, ACOX, UCP-2, and CPT-1 in the colon(P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001). The findings of this study show that anemoside B4 may inhibit CAC via regulating fatty acid metabolism reprogramming.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms , PPAR alpha/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colon , Azoxymethane , RNA, Messenger , Dextran Sulfate , Colitis/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 263-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982698

ABSTRACT

Platycodon grandiflorus polysaccharide (PGP) is one of the main components of P. grandiflorus, but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PGP on mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) and explore the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that PGP treatment inhibited the weight loss of DSS-induced UC mice, increased colon length, and reduced DAI, spleen index, and pathological damage within the colon. PGP also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the enhancement of oxidative stress and MPO activity. Meanwhile, PGP restored the levels of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cell-related cytokines and transcription factors in the colon to regulate colonic immunity. Further studies revealed that PGP regulated the balance of colonic immune cells through mesenteric lymphatic circulation. Taken together, PGP exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect and regulates colonic immunity to attenuate DSS-induced UC through mesenteric lymphatic circulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Platycodon , Colon/pathology , Cytokines , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced , Mice, Inbred C57BL
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1300-1309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970601

ABSTRACT

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was employed in this study to observe the effect of Huaihua Powder on the serum metabolites of mice with ulcerative colitis and reveal the mechanism of Huaihua Powder in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The mouse model of ulcerative colitis was established by dextran sodium sulfate salt(DSS). The therapeutic effect of Huaihua Powder on ulcerative colitis was preliminarily evaluated based on the disease activity index(DAI), colon appearance, colon tissue morphology, and the content of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS was employed to profile the endogenous metabolites of serum samples in blank control group, model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Huaihua Powder groups. Multivariate analyses such as principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were performed for pattern recognition. Potential biomarkers were screened by Mass Profiler Professional(MPP) B.14.00 with the thresholds of fold change≥2 and P<0.05. The metabolic pathways were enriched by MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that Huaihua Powder significantly improved the general state and colon tissue morphology of mice with ulcerative colitis, reduced DAI, and lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum. A total of 38 potential biomarkers were predicted to be related to the regulatory effect of Huaihua Powder, which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, mutual transformation of glucuronic acid, and glutathione metabolism. This study employed metabolomics to analyze the mechanism of Huaihua Powder in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, laying a foundation for the further research.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Powders , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Metabolomics , Colon , Disease Models, Animal , Biomarkers , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 226-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Huangqin Tang(HQT) on the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis(UC). C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group(DSS group), and low-, medium-and high-dose HQT groups(HQT-L, HQT-M, and HQT-H), and western medicine mesalazine group(western medicine group). The UC model was induced in mice. Subsequently, the mice in the HQT-L, HQT-M, HQT-H groups, and the western medicine group were given low-, medium-, high-dose HQT, and mesalazine suspension by gavage, respectively, while those in the blank and DSS groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage. After 10 days of administration, the body weight, DAI scores, and colonic histopathological score of mice in each group were determined. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed decreased body weight of mice and increased DAI scores and intestinal histopathological score. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group showed improved DAI scores, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). The intestinal histopathological scores of the HQT groups and the western medicine group significantly decreased, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). In addition, compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed elevated expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and decreased IL-10 level. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group displayed decreased expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduced serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 level. The improvement was the most significant in the HQT-H group and the western medicine group(P<0.01). In conclusion, HQT may reduce the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduce the se-rum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increase the expression of IL-10 by regulating the classic pyroptosis pathway of NLRP3/Caspase-1, thereby improving the symptoms of intestinal injury and inflammatory infiltration of intestinal mucosa in DSS mice to achieve its therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1637-1645, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing inflammation of the colon. Impaired epithelial repair is an important biological features of UC. Accelerating intestinal epithelial repair to achieve endoscopic mucosal healing has become a key goal in UC. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional coactivator that regulates organ size, tissue growth and tumorigenesis. Growing studies have focused on the role of YAP in intestinal epithelial regeneration. This study explore the molecular mechanism for the role YAP in modulating colonic epithelial proliferation, repair, and the development of colitis associated cancer.@*METHODS@#We constructed the acute colitis mouse model through successive 5 days of 3% dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induction. Then YAP-overexpressed mouse model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection the YAP overexpressed and negative control lentivirus into DSS mice. On the 5th day of DSS induction and the 5th day of normal drinking water after removing DSS (5+5 d), the mice were killed by spinal dislocation. The colon was taken to measure the length, and the bowel 1-2 cm near the anal canal was selected for immunohistochemical and Western blotting. We used YAP over-expressed colonic epithelial cells and small interfering signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) RNA to probe the regulation of YAP on STAT3, using cell counting kit-8 and scratch assays to explore the role of YAP on colonic epithelial cell proliferation. Finally, we conducted co-immunoprecipitation to test the relationship between YAP and STAT3.@*RESULTS@#After DSS treatment, the expression of YAP was dramatically diminished in crypts. Compared with the empty control mice, overexpression of YAP drastically accelerated epithelial regeneration after DSS induced colitis, presenting with more intact of structural integrity in intestinal epithelium and a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Further Western blotting, functional experiment and co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that the expression of YAP in nucleus was significantly increased by 2 h post DSS cessation, accompanied with up-regulated total protein levels of STAT3 and phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3). Overexpression of YAP enhanced the expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, and their transcriptional targets including c-Myc and Cyclin D1. In addition, it promoted the proliferation and the "wound healing" of colonic cells. However, these effects were reversed when silencing STAT3 on YAP-overexpressed FHC cells. Moreover, protein immunoprecipitation indicated that YAP could directly interact with STAT3 in the nucleus, up-regulatvng the expressvon of STAT3. Finally, during the process of CAC, overexpression of YAP mutant caused the down-regulated expression of STAT3 and inhibited the development and progress of CAC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#YAP activates STAT3 signaling in regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and promotes mucosal regeneration after DSS induced colitis, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target in UC. However, persistent and excessive YAP activation may promote CAC development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Proliferation , Colitis/drug therapy , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , YAP-Signaling Proteins/metabolism
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 481-501, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 124-129, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of Chinese herbal formula Huangqin Decoction (HQD) on ulcerative colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and human intestinal epithelial cell injury induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).@*METHODS@#In vivo, 30 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups using a random number table (n=6 per group), including control, DSS, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), HQD low- (HQD-L) and high-dose (HQD-H) groups. The colitis mouse model was established by 3% (w/v) DSS water for 5 days. Meanwhile, mice in the HQD-L, HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were administrated with 100, 200 mg/kg HQD or 100 mg/kg 5-ASA, respectively, once daily by gavage. After 9 days of administration, the body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score and colon length of mice were measured, the pathological changes of colons were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) staining, and the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, the human colon epithelial normal cells (FHC cells) were exposed to HQD (0.6 mg/mL) for 12 h and then treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The tight junction (TJ) protein expression levels of Claudin-4 and Occludin, and the protein phosphorylation levels of p65 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-α (IκBα) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#In vivo, compared with the DSS group, HQD-H treatment attenuated the weight loss and reduced DAI score of mice on the 8th day (P<0.05). Moreover, HQD-H treatment ameliorated the colon shortening in the DSS-induced colitis mice (P<0.05). HE staining showed HQD attenuated the pathological changes of colitis mice, and the histological scores of HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were significantly decreased compared with the DSS group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, HQD-H and 5-ASA significantly decreased the serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of mice (P<0.05). In vitro experiments showed that HQD up-regulated Occludin and Claudin-4 protein expressions and inhibited p-p65 and p-IκBα levels in FHC cells compared with the TNF-α group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HQD significantly relieved the symptoms in DSS-induced colitis mice by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and maintained the homeostasis of TJ protein in FHC cells by suppressing TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3915-3925, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888117

ABSTRACT

This study explored the mechanism of Sanhuang Decoction(SHD) in treating dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) in mice with Candida albicans(Ca) colonization via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Specifically, the animal model was established by oral administration of 3.0% DSS for 7 days followed by intragastrical administration of Ca suspension at 1.0 × 10~8 cells for 4 days and then the mice were treated with SHD enema for 7 days. Afterwards, the general signs were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) was recorded every day. After mice were sacrificed, colon length and colon mucosa damage index(CMDI) were determined and the histomorphology was observed with the HE staining method. The fungal loads of feces were detected with the plate method. Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody(ASCA) and β-1,3-glucan in serum, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon were detected by ELISA. High-throughput RNA sequencing method was adopted to identify transcriptome of colon tissues from the control, model and SHD(15.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) among groups were screened and the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed. The expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1β genes related to the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway which involved 9 DEGs, were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The results demonstrated that SHD improved the general signs, decreased DAI and Ca loads of feaces, alleviated colon edema, erosion, and shortening, and lowered the content of β-1,3-glucan in serum and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon tissues of mice. Transcriptome sequencing revealed 383 DEGs between SHD and model groups, which were mainly involved in the biological processes of immune system, response to bacterium, and innate immune response. They were mainly enriched in the NOD-like signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine interaction pathway, and retinol metabolism pathway. Moreover, SHD down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. In a word, SHD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in mice colonized with Ca, which probably relates to its regulation of NOD-like receptor signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Candida albicans/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Transcriptome
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4187-4192, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888079

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the effect of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling pathway in intestinal protection by Sishen Pills against ulcerative colitis(UC). After the UC model was induced by 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS), experimental animals were randomly divided into control group, model group, salazosulfapyridine(SASP) group, and low-and high-dose Sishen Pills groups. Drug intervention(ig) was performed for seven consecutive days during modeling. On the 7 th day, the mice were euthanized. The body weight and colon length were recorded, and the histopathological changes of the colon were observed by HE staining. Serum interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC), malondialdehyde(MDA), and reactive oxygen species(ROS) were detected by ELISA. The protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1) was determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited reduced body weight, colon length, and T-AOC, increased IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and ROS, and diminished protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 in the colon tissues. Compared with the model group, the SASP group and high-dose Sishen Pills group showed elevated body weight, colon length, and T-AOC, lowered IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and ROS levels, and increased protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 in the colon tissues. As assessed by HE staining, Sishen Pills could improve the pathological changes of the colon. The findings suggested that Sishen Pills could protect the colon against UC induced by 3% DSS. The specific mechanism of action may be related to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects by the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Dextran Sulfate , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2871-2880, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887962

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of Banxia Xiexin Decoction(BXD) on inflammatory factors and intestinal flora in a dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis(DSS-UC) mouse model, and to explore the mechanism of BXD in treating ulcerative colitis from the perspective of flora disorder. Forty C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into control group, model group and BXD group. A 2.5% DSS-induced ulcerative colitis model was established. On the 8 th day, normal saline, normal saline, and BXD were given daily for 14 days. After 14 days, HE staining was used to observe histopathological changes of the colon. Serum inflammatory factor content was detected by ELISA, and the change of intestinal flora in mice feces was detected by 16 S rRNA sequencing technology. Compared with control group, the colonic tissue of mice in model group was damaged seriously, and the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with model group, mice in BXD group had less colonic damage, and the contents of IL-6, TNF-α in serum were decreased significantly(P<0.05). After creation, the richness of Patescibacteria was increased significantly at the phylum level(P<0.05). At the same time, the richness of Faecalibaculum(P<0.01), norank_f_Muribaculaceae(P<0.01) were decreased significantly at the genus level, while the richness of Turicibacter(P<0.01), Romboutsia(P<0.01), Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1(P<0.01) were increased significantly. After the intervention with BXD, the content of Patescibacteria was significantly reduced at the phylum level(P<0.05), and the contents of Lactobacillus(P<0.01), Clostri-dium_sensu_stricto_1(P<0.01), Enterorhabdus(P<0.01), Candidatus_Saccharimonas(P<0.05), Eubacterium_fissicatena_group(P<0.05) were decreased significantly at the genus level, while the contents of Dubosiella, Bacteroides and Allobaculum were increased significantly. Therefore, BXD could significantly improve the symptoms of DSS-UC mice. It not only could reduce the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α, but also could reduce the richness of Patescibacteria at the phylum level, and those of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, Eubacterium_fissicatena_group at the genus level. Inaddition, BXD could increase the richness of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium. It suggested that BXD could play a role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis partially through reducing inflammatory factors and regulating the structure of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sulfates
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 206-213, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878931

ABSTRACT

This paper was to investigate the effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction(HLJD) on ulcerative colitis(UC) in mice, and determine the effective components in plasma, and virtually screen its therapeutic target, and predict its mechanism. Sixty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, mesalazine treatment group(0.3 g·kg~(-1)), and HLJD treatment groups(24.66, 12.33, 6.17 g·kg~(-1)). Excepted for the blank group, all the mice in HLJD and mesalazine treatment groups were gavage administration. All mice freely drank 2.5% DSS solution for seven days to induce UC. The disease activity index(DAI) was detected each day. At the end of the experiment, HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes in colon. The content of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in colon were determined by ELISA. The effective components in plasma were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The reverse docking in PharmMapper was used to screen the component targets. The disease targets of UC were collected by searching TTD, OMIM and GeneCards databases. The intersection of the component targets and disease targets was selected as the therapeutic targets. Then the therapeutic targets were imported into the STRING for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. Discovery Studio was used to simulate the docking between the components and the targets. RESULTS:: showed that the DAI in the model group increased significantly(P<0.05), and the number of inflammatory cells and infiltration degree increased significantly compared with the blank group. The DAI in HLJD treatment group was significantly reduced(P<0.05), and the number and infiltration degree of inflammatory cells were reduced compared with the model group. The ELISA results showed that the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were increased significantly in the model group(P<0.01) compared with the blank group, and significantly down regulated in the HLJD treatment group(P<0.05) compared with the model group. After UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analyse, ten components were identified. The network pharmacology analysis showed that the action targets were significantly enriched in 129 of biological processes, such as response to organic substance, chemical and oxygen-containing compound, etc., as well as 16 of signal pathways, such as IL-17, TNF and hepatitis B signal pathways, were enriched too. The results of molecular docking showed that limonin, palmatine and berberine could bind to CASP3 and MMP9 by hydrogen bond. In conclusion, HLJD could alleviate the colonic mucosal inflammatory infiltration and mucosal damage in UC mice. The mechanism may be related to the anti-inflammatory effect on UC mice by reducing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in colon through limonin, palmatine and berberine regulating IL-17 signal pathway and TNF signal pathway via CASP3 and MMP9 meditated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plasma
16.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 912-920, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922773

ABSTRACT

Pai-Nong-San (PNS), a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for years to treat abscessation-induced diseases including colitis and colorectal cancer. This study was aimed to investigate the preventive effects and possible protective mechanism of PNS on a colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) mouse model induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The macroscopic and histopathologic examinations of colon injury and DAI score were observed. The inflammatory indicators of intestinal immunity were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The high throughput 16S rRNA sequence of gut microbiota in the feces of mice was performed. Western blot was used to investigate the protein expression of the Wnt signaling pathway in colon tissues. PNS improved colon injury, as manifested by the alleviation of hematochezia, decreased DAI score, increased colon length, and reversal of pathological changes. PNS treatment protected against AOM/DSS-induced colon inflammation by regulating the expression of CD4


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Azoxymethane/toxicity , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Colitis/genetics , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Wnt Signaling Pathway/drug effects
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6395-6402, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921798

ABSTRACT

Huangqin Decoction(HQD) is a classic prescription for treating dysentery in the Treatise on Cold Damage and now is mainly used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis(UC). Since there are no requirements on specific Paeonia species, both Paeoniae Radix Alba(white peony root, WPR) and Paeoniae Radix Rubra(red peony root, RPR) are clinically used in HQD now. Although the two types of peony roots are close in origin and similar in primary components, the medicinal properties and efficacies are different. Furthermore, the systematic comparative analysis on the efficacy differences in treating UC of HQD with the roots of multi-originated peony has been seldom reported. This study compared and evaluated the pharmacological effects of HQD prepared from the roots of multi-originated peony, including WPR, RPR-l(derived from P. lactiflora), and RPR-v(derived from P. veitchii) based on the mouse model of UC induced by dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) by animal behaviors, pathological section(colon), and cytokine expression(IL-1β and IL-6), aiming to provide evidence for the identification of the original resource of peony root in HQD. The results indicated that all HQD samples prepared from WPR, RPR-l, and RPR-v could improve the symptoms of UC. Compared with the HQD-WPR, HQD-RPR-l and HQD-RPR-v were significantly different in weight loss, colon length, and disease activity index(DAI) score, but there was no significant difference between HQD-RPR-l and HQD-RPR-v. Moreover, HQD-RPR-v exhibited the most significant improvement in the pathological morphology of colonic tissue and mucosal defects. According to the previous comparative analysis of chemical profiling and content distribution of HQD prepared from the roots of multi-originated peony, RPR-v in HQD was potent in protecting against UC, which was presumedly attributed to a large number of monoterpene glycosides and galloyl glucoses. This study provided a scientific basis for the determination of peony root in HQD and its clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Monoterpenes , Paeonia/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3211-3219, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827996

ABSTRACT

To observe the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde on dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) with Can-dida albicans(Ca) colonization and its effect on dectin-1/TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, DSS group, DSS+Ca group, cinnamaldehyde group and mesalazine group. Mice in DSS+Ca group were given Ca(1×10~8 CFU per mouse) through intragastrical administration for 4 consecutive days and then distilled water with 3.0% DSS for 7 consecutive days. In cinnamaldehyde group and mesalazine group, in addition to the induction method of the DSS+Ca group, mice were given 75 mg·kg~(-1) cinnamaldehyde and 200 mg·kg~(-1) mesalazine accompanied with 3.0% DSS for 7 consecutive days, respectively. Mice in normal group and DSS group were correspondingly administered with distilled water. The general conditions of the mice were observed daily, the diseased activity index(DAI) score was calculated, and fungal loads of feces were detected by plate method. The mice were sacrificed on day 12, colon length was measured, colon mucosa damage index(CMDI) score was calculated, and histopathological analysis was carried out by HE staining. Anti-saccharomces cerevisiae antibody(ASCA) and β-1,3-glucan in serum, and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in serum and colon tissue were detected by ELISA. The contents of β-1,3-glucan and macrophage infiltration in colon tissues were examined by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4 and NF-κB were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that cinnamaldehyde could significantly improve the general conditions of UC mice with Ca colonization, decrease DAI and histopathological scores, reduce intestinal mucosal congestion, erosion and colon shortening, decrease Ca load in mouse feces and tissues, down-regulate the contents of ASCA and β-1,3-glucan in serum, reduce the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and increase IL-10 in serum and colon tissues, inhibit macrophages infiltration and down-regulate the protein expression of dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4 and NF-κB in colon tissue. These results suggested that cinnamaldehyde had a therapeutic effect on UC mice with Ca colonization, which might be related to the inhibition of Ca proliferation, the regulation of dectin-1/TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathways and the coordination of the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acrolein , Candida albicans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Lectins, C-Type , NF-kappa B , Signal Transduction
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1387-1392, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781245

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether kirenol, the major pharmacologically active compound of the Chinese medicinal herb , can protect mice from dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC).@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice with or without kirenol pretreatment were treated with DSS in drinking water for 7 days to induce UC. The symptoms of UC including weight loss, diarrhea and bloody stool were observed daily and graded using the disease activity index (DAI). Colon injury of the mice was assessed by measuring the length of the colon and HE staining of the colon tissue. The levels of inflammatory cytokines produced by the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) lymphocytes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; the apoptosis of the lymphocytes and CD4 T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The mice receiving pretreatment with kirenol showed obviously ameliorated symptoms of UC and milder pathological changes in the colon as compared with the control mice. Kirenol treatment significantly down-regulated the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6 and TNF-α by the MLNs lymphocytes and increased the apoptosis of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T cells in the DSS-treated mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Kirenol can protect against T cell-mediated colon injury in DSS-treated mice possibly by suppressing the secretion of inflammatory mediators and inducing apoptosis of the inflammatory lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cytokines , Dextran Sulfate , Diterpenes , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 28-36, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774002

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore whether aging increases severity of colitis in mice and its mechanism.Methods Young (6-8 weeks)and aged (56 weeks) C57Bl/6 mice were divided into the control and experimental group (n=5,each). Dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) was used to induce acute colitis mouse model in the experimental group.The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-6(IL-6)in colon were measured by RT-PCR. Tight junctions (TJs) of intestinal epithelial cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Protein expressions of E-cadherin and occludin were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in colon.Results Compared with the young DSS-induced mice,the aged DSS-induced mice had more weight loss(t=3.679,P=0.006),higher disease indexes (t=2.496,P=0.037),higher histologic scores(U=0.000,P=0.008) and higher colonic IL-6 level (U=4.000,P=0.191). The TJs of intestinal epithelial cells were discontinuous in old healthy rats,and the TJs were destroyed significantly in both young and aged DSS-induced mice. Compared with the young DSS-induced mice,the aged DSS-induced mice had decreased protein expressions of E-cadherin (t=0.184,P=0.863)and occludin (t=0.399,P=0.710).Conclusions Aging leads to more severe disease following DSS challenge. Age-related deterioration in the functions of the gastrointestinal barrier and integrity may be one of the possible mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Colitis , Colon , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa , Mice, Inbred C57BL
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