Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 396
Filter
1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 322-332, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed the efficacy and safety of a single injection of three bulking agents over the short- and long-term follow-ups in rabbits. Dermal and preputial matrices were compared with Deflux (DxHA) injection. Material and methods: Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three groups. Group I (n=8) underwent the injection of a lyophilized dermal matrix (LDM) beneath the seromuscular layer of the bladder wall. Rabbits in group II (n=8) were injected with lyophilized preputial matrix (LPM). Rabbits of group III (n=8) were injected with DxHA as the control group. They were followed up for 1 and 6 months after the injection. Subcutaneous injection of all bulking agents was also performed in nude mice. Biopsies were stained with LCA (leukocyte common antibody), CD68, CD31, and CD34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MTT assay were also performed. Results: Immunohistochemistry staining with CD68 and LCA revealed higher inflammation grade in LDM as compared with LPM and DxHA. Fibrosis grade was also higher in LDM both in short- and long-term follow-ups. However, no significant difference was detected in CD31 and CD34 staining between control and experimental groups. SEM analysis showed that the particle size of LPM was more similar to DxHA. MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was similar in DxHA, LDM, and LPM. In-vivo assay in nude mice model showed more promising results in LPM as compared with LDM. Conclusion: The long-term results demonstrated that LPM was more similar to Deflux with the least local tissue reaction, inflammation, and fibrosis grade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dextrans , Hyaluronic Acid , Rabbits , Urinary Bladder , Injections , Mice , Mice, Nude
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 321-333, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116432

ABSTRACT

In this study the in vitro investigation of the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Viburnum opulus L. bark sample on Streptococcus mutans planctonic cells and biofilm has been intended. A Scanning electron microscopy analysis has been performed in order to investigate the inhibitory effect of the extract on Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Furthermore, the Exopolysaccharide and dextran production of this bacteria have been identified in the presence of the extract. It has been found out that the bark extract with the concentration of 2,5 mg/mL is able to inhibit more than 50% of the cells in the different times development phases. According to this, the exopolymeric matrix on the biofilm surface disperses and the Exopolysaccharide and dextran production get lowered in the presence of bark extract compared to the control group. It is considered that this extract can be used as an alternative approach for the new chemotherapeutic strategies against tooth decay.


En este estudio se investigó el efecto inhibitorio in vitro del extracto de etanólico de una muestra de corteza de Viburnum opulus L. en biopelículas de células planctónicas de Streptococcus mutans. Se realizó un análisis de microscopía electrónica de barrido para investigar el efecto inhibitorio del extracto sobre las biopelículas de Streptococcus mutans. Además, se identificó la producción de exopolisacárido y dextrano de esta bacteria en presencia del extracto. Se descubrió que el extracto de corteza con una concentración de 2,5 mg/ml inhibió más del 50% de las células en las diferentes fases de desarrollo. Consecuentemente, la matriz exopolimérica en la superficie de la biopelícula se dispersa y la producción de exopolisacárido y dextrano se reduce en presencia de extracto de corteza en comparación con el grupo de control. Se sugiere que este extracto puede ser usado como un enfoque alternativo para las nuevas estrategias quimioterapéuticas contra la carie dental.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Viburnum opulus/pharmacology , Viburnum/chemistry , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/analysis , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dextrans/analysis , Biofilms/drug effects , Ethanol , Biofouling
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 192-194, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims to describe a challenging clinical case of a patient with a neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer. A 75-year-old male patient, with history of right eye (RE) limbic stem-cell insuficiency due to complications of recurrent herpetic keratitis, underwent successful limbic stem-cell transplantation in 2008. In 2010, an uneventful penetrating keratoplasty was performed. After a cataract phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation done in 2011, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20, and remained stable until 2015. In July 2015, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy and two months later, presented with an extensive central corneal ulcer, with a significant thinning of central stroma, without infection signs, but with an imminent risk of perforation. Treatment with topical ofloxacin and intensive ocular lubrification was started in association with permanent ocular oclusion. Due to lack of any clinical improvement, treatment with RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfate, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea) was started. After two weeks of treatment, a complete reepithelization and partial stromal filling was observed. Continued monitoring and treatment with artificial tears was maintained, with no recurrence observed. There is an unmet need for a medical therapy that could help corneal neurotrophic ulcers to heal. The presented clinical case shows that the approach of targeting extracellular matrix can be effective in the reepithelialization of neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer that do not respond to conventional treatments.


RESUMO Este trabalho relata um caso clínico desafiante de doente com uma úlcera de córnea neurotrófica e de exposição. Doente do sexo masculino, de 75 anos, com antecedentes de queratites herpéticas de repetição no olho direito (OD), complicadas com o desenvolvimento de uma insuficiência límbica, foi submetido com sucesso a transplante de células límbicas em 2008. Em 2010 foi submetido a queratoplastia penetrante e em 2011, após realização de cirurgia de catarata, apresentava uma melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC) de 20/20. A MAVC manteve-se estável até Julho de 2015, altura em que desenvolveu paresia facial periférica à direita. Dois meses depois, o doente desenvolveu uma úlcera de córnea central extensa, com adelgaçamento significativo do estroma central, sem sinais de infeção, mas com risco iminente de perfuração. Foi iniciado tratamento tópico com ofloxacina, lubrificação intensiva e oclusão ocular contínua. Por ausência de melhoria clínica, foi iniciado tratamento tópico com um RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfato, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea). Após duas semanas de tratamento, observou-se uma reepitelização completa e regeneração parcial do estroma. Foi mantida monitorização regular e tratamento com lágrimas artificiais, sem recidiva do quadro clínico. Há uma grande necessidade de tratamentos médicos que possam ajudar na regeneração de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição. O caso clínico apresentado sugere que os fármacos que têm por alvo a matrix extracelular poderão ser eficazes na reepitelização de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição que não respondem ao tratamento convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Regeneration/drug effects , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Glycosaminoglycans/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Stimulation, Chemical , Wound Healing , Administration, Topical , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Hypesthesia , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and their special calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin-1 (ANO1) play pivotal roles in regulating colonic transit. This study is designed to investigate the role of ICC and the ANO1 channel in colonic transit disorder in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated colitis mice. METHODS: Colonic transit experiment, colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), smooth muscle spontaneous contractile experiments, intracellular electrical recordings, western blotting analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied in this study. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expressions of c-KIT and ANO1 channels were significantly decreased in the colons of DSS-colitis mice. The colonic artificial fecal-pellet transit experiment in vitro was significantly delayed in DSS-colitis mice. The CMMCs and smooth muscle spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), an ANO1 channel blocker, and NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase activity, in DSS-colitis mice compared with that of control mice. Intracellular electrical recordings showed that the amplitude of NPPB-induced hyperpolarization was more positive in DSS-colitis mice. The electric field stimulation-elicited nitric-dependent slow inhibitory junctional potentials were also more positive in DSS-colitis mice than those of control mice. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that colonic transit disorder is mediated via downregulation of the nitric oxide/ICC/ANO1 signalling pathway in DSS-colitis mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colitis , Colon , Dextrans , Down-Regulation , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
5.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-439, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on the abnormal immune response to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were separated into five groups at random (control, DSS, DSS+B9 [B. infantis 1×10⁹ CFU], DSS+B8 [B. infantis 1×10⁸ CFU], and DSS+B7 [B. infantis 1×10⁷ CFU]). Colitis was induced by 5% DSS ad libitum for 7 days, at which time we assessed weight, the disease activity index (DAI) score, and the histological damage score. The nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 (a marker of Treg cells), cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and related proteins (programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1] and programmed cell death 1 [PD-1]) were detected by an immunohistochemical method and Western blot. RESULTS: B. infantis increased weight, decreased DAI scores and histological damage scores, increased the protein expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05) and cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mouse colon tissue (p<0.05), and increased the expression of PD-L1 in the treatment groups relative to that in the DSS group (p<0.05). The effect of B. infantis on Foxp3 and PD-L1 was dose dependent in the treatment groups (p<0.05). PD-L1 was positively correlated with Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β1. CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of IBD, B. infantis can alleviate intestinal epithelial injury and maintain intestinal immune tolerance and thus may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of immune damage in IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextrans , Immune Tolerance , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Methods , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Sodium , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transcription Factors , Transforming Growth Factors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763035

ABSTRACT

Angelica gigas has been used as a Korean traditional medicine for pain relief and gynecological health. Although the extracts are reported to have an anti-inflammatory property, the bioactive compounds of the herbal plant and the effect on T cell responses are unclear. In this study, we identified decursinol angelate (DA) as an immunomodulatory ingredient of A. gigas and demonstrated its suppressive effect on type 17 helper T (Th17) cell responses. Helper T cell culture experiments revealed that DA impeded the differentiation of Th17 cells and IL-17 production without affecting the survival and proliferation of CD4 T cells. By using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model, we determined the therapeutic potential of DA for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. DA treatment attenuated the severity of colitis including a reduction in weight loss, colon shortening, and protection from colonic tissue damage induced by DSS administration. Intriguingly, Th17 cells concurrently with neutrophils in the colitis tissues were significantly decreased by the DA treatment. Overall, our experimental evidence reveals for the first time that DA is an anti-inflammatory compound to modulate inflammatory T cells, and suggests DA as a potential therapeutic agent to manage inflammatory conditions associated with Th17 cell responses.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Cell Culture Techniques , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Dextrans , Interleukin-17 , Medicine, Korean Traditional , Neutrophils , Plants , Sodium , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Weight Loss
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a bioactive flavone that is originally extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. This plant has long served as Chinese herbal medicine in the management of multiple diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. Although it has been revealed that baicalein inhibits experimental colitis in mice, the molecular mechanisms still remain largely unrecognized. METHODS: The experimental colitis was induced in mice by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. The mice were given baicalein (10 or 25 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 days before and after DSS administration. Expression of COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and molecules involved in NF-κB signaling, such as inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), pIκBα, p65, and phospho-p65 was examined by Western blot analysis in the tissue of the mouse colon. Activity of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) was assessed by measuring the relative amount of radioactive γ-phosphate of ATP transferred to the IκBα substrate protein. The expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 and its target gene cyclin D1 were also measured. RESULTS: Baicalein prominently mitigated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. It inhibited the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, baicalein attenuated activity and phosphorylation of IKKβ and subsequent degradation of IκBα. Baicalein suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, resulting in a reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Baicalein also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of cyclin D1. Baicalein exhibited the synergistic effect on inhibition of COX-2 induced by DSS with curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric. CONCLUSIONS: Protective effects of baicalein on DSS-induced colitis are associated with suppression of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways, which may contribute to its cancer preventive effects on colon carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Curcuma , Curcumin , Cyclin D1 , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , DNA , Drinking Water , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plants , Scutellaria baicalensis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774215

ABSTRACT

The biocompatible hydrogel was fabricated under suitable conditions with natural dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the reaction materials. The oligomer (Dex-AI) was firstly synthesized with dextran and allylisocyanate (AI). This Dex-AI was then reacted with poly (ethyleneglycoldiacrylate) (PEGDA) under the mass ratio of 4∶6 to get hydrogel (DP) with the maximum water absorption of 810%. This hydrogel was grafted onto the surface of medical catheter via diphenyl ketone treatment under ultraviolet (UV) initiator. The surface contact angle became lower from (97 ± 6.1)° to (25 ± 4.2)° after the catheter surface was grafted with hydrogel DP, which suggests that the catheter possesses super hydrophilicity with hydrogel grafting. The evaluation after they were implanted into ICR rats subcutaneously verified that this catheter had less serious inflammation and possessed better histocompatibility comparing with the untreated medical catheter. Therefore, it could be concluded that hydrogel grafting is a good technology for patients to reduce inflammation due to catheter implantation, esp. for the case of retention in body for a relative long time.


Subject(s)
Allyl Compounds , Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Catheters , Dextrans , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate , Hydrogels , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Isocyanates , Polyethylene Glycols , Rats , Water
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20170288, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) instillation has been studied experimentally as an adjuvant therapy in the preservation of lung grafts during cold ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaporized PFC is also protective of lung grafts at different cold ischemia times. We performed histological analysis of and measured oxidative stress in the lungs of animals that received only preservation solution with low-potassium dextran (LPD) or vaporized PFC together with LPD. We conclude that vaporized PFC reduces the production of free radicals and the number of pulmonary structural changes resulting from cold ischemia.


RESUMO O perfluorocarbono (PFC) líquido tem sido estudado experimentalmente como uma substância adjuvante na preservação de enxertos pulmonares durante o período de isquemia fria. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o PFC vaporizado (e não instilado) também atuaria como protetor de enxertos pulmonares em diferentes tempos de isquemia fria. Realizamos análise histológica e dosamos o estresse oxidativo em pulmões de animais que receberam somente uma solução de preservação com low-potassium dextran (LPD, dextrana com baixa concentração de potássio) ou PFC vaporizado associado a LPD. Concluímos que o PFC vaporizado reduziu a produção de radicais livres e provocou menor número de alterações estruturais pulmonares decorrentes do período de isquemia fria que o uso de LPD isoladamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Organ Preservation/methods , Lung Transplantation/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cold Ischemia/methods , Fluorocarbons/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Dextrans/pharmacology , Organ Preservation Solutions , Glucose/pharmacology , Lung/pathology
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1200-1206, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify how many endoscopic injection (EI) procedures, STING method, must be performed before reaching an ideal success rate when simulation training has not been received. Materials and Methods: The EI procedures performed by two pediatric urology fellows were investigated. The study excluded patients without primary VUR and those with previous EI or ureteroneocystostomy, lower urinary tract dysfunction, and/or duplicate ureters. The EIs used dextranomer hyaluronate and the STING method, as described by O'Donnell and Puri. Groups number was determined by multiple statistical trials. Statistically significance differences were achieved with one combination that had 35 EI procedures each and with 3 different combination of patients, having 12, 24, and 36 patients, respectively. Therefore, groups were established 12 patients. The first fellow performed 54 EIs, and the second performed 51. Therefore, each of the first fellow's three groups contained 18 EI procedures, and each of the second fellow's 17. Results: The study included 72 patients and 105 ureter units. When the data from both fellows were combined, each of the three groups contained 35 procedures. For the first fellow, the success rates in the first, second, and third groups were 38.3%, 66.6%, and 83.3% (p = 0.02), respectively, and for the second fellow, the success rates were 41.2%, 64.7%, and 82.3% (p = 0.045), respectively. The increased success rates for both fellows were very similar. Conclusions: An acceptable rate of success for EI may be reached after about 20 procedures and a high success rate after about 35-40 procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/therapy , Learning Curve , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Clinical Competence , Cystoscopy
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1194-1199, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975658

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Various bulking agents were utilized for endoscopic correction of VUR. A study reviewing multi-institutional data showed that the amount of injection material has increased over time with the purpose of improving success rates, which also resulted in costs. We noticed an opposite trend in our center since we started using a new bulking agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate evolution of our practice with different bulking agents. Patients and Methods: Records of VUR patients who underwent subureteric injection with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (PPC) and dextronomere hyaluronic acide (DxHA) between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Variation of different parameters throughout the study period was evaluated along with the success rate. Success was defined as complete resolution of reflux. Results: A total of 260 patients with 384 refluxing units were included. The success rate was higher in PPC group compared to DxHA group. There was no statistically significant difference between years regarding distribution of VUR grade, body weight, patient height, and age in PPC group. Despite significant reduction in injection volume, success rate did not decrease through the years with PPC. Conclusion: Different bulking agents may require different injection volumes to achieve the same success rate in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Habits gained with previous experience using other materials should be revised while using a new agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Polymers/administration & dosage , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/therapy , Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage , Acrylic Resins/administration & dosage , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopy
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 585-590, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Durasphere® EXP (DEXP) is a compound of biocompatible and non--biodegradable particles of zirconium oxide covered with pyrolytic carbon. The aim of this study is to evaluate the durability of off-label use of DEXP in the treatment of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent subureteric injection of DEXP for the correction of primary VUR were retrospectively reviewed. Patients aged >18 years as well as those who had grade-I or -V VUR, anatomic abnormalities (duplicated system, hutch diverticulum), neurogenic bladder or treatment refractory voiding dysfunction were excluded. Radiologic success was defined as the resolution of VUR at the 3rd month control. Success was radiographically evaluated at the end of the first year. Results: Thirty-eight patients (9 boys, 29 girls; mean age, 6.3±2.7 years) formed the study cohort. Forty-six renal units received DEXP (grade II: 22; grade III: 18; grade IV: 6). Mean volume per ureteric orifice to obtain the mound was 0.70±0.16mL. First con- trol VCUG was done after 3 months in all patients. After the first VCUG, 6 patients had VUR recurrence. Short-term radiologic success of DEXP was 84.2%. Rate of radiologic success at the end of the first year was 69.4% (25/32). Lower age (p:0.006) and lower amount of injected material (p:0.05) were associated with higher success rates at the end of 1 year. Conclusion: This is the first study to assess the outcomes of DEXP for treatment of primary VUR in children. After 1 year of follow-up, DEXP had a 69.4% success rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/drug therapy , Zirconium/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Glucans/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Dextrans/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endoscopy/methods , Hyaluronic Acid/therapeutic use , Injections
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 461-470, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the dextranase production by fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) and evaluate its activity in dextran reduction in sugarcane juice. The effects, over the P. chlamydosporia dextranase production, of different components from the culture medium were analyzed by Plackett-Burman design and central composite design. The response surface was utilized to determine the levels that, among the variables that influence dextranase production, provide higher production of these enzymes. The enzymatic effect on the removal of dextran present in sugarcane juice was also evaluated. It was observed that only NaNO3 and pH showed significant effect (p<0.05) over dextranase production and was determined that the levels which provided higher enzyme production were, respectively, 5 g/L and 5.5. The dextranases produced by fungus P. chlamydosporia reduced by 75% the dextran content of the sugarcane juice once treated for 12 hours, when compared to the control treatment.


Subject(s)
Models, Statistical , Saccharum/metabolism , Dextranase/biosynthesis , Hypocreales/enzymology , Temperature , Dextrans/metabolism , Culture Media/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Activation , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrates
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 593-604, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719132

ABSTRACT

Tetrodes, consisting of four twisted micro-wires can simultaneously record the number of neurons in the brain. To improve the quality of neuronal activity detection, the tetrode tips should be modified to increase the surface area and lower the impedance properties. In this study, tetrode tips were modified by the electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dextran (Dex) doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The electrochemical properties were measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). A decrease in the impedance value from 4.3 MΩ to 13 kΩ at 1 kHz was achieved by the modified tetrodes. The cathodic charge storage capacity (CSC(C)) of AuNPs-PEDOT deposited tetrodes was 4.5 mC/cm², as determined by CV measurements. The tetrodes that were electroplated with AuNPs and PEDOT exhibited an increased surface area, which reduced the tetrode impedance. In vivo recording in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus was performed to investigate the single-unit activity in normal rats. To evaluate the recording performance of modified tetrodes, spontaneous spike signals were recorded. The values of the L-ratio, isolation distance and signal-to-noise (SNR) confirmed that electroplating the tetrode surface with AuNPs and PEDOT improved the recording performance, and these parameters could be used to effectively quantify the spikes of each cluster.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Dextrans , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electric Impedance , Electrodes , Electroplating , Microelectrodes , Nanoparticles , Neurons , Rats , Thalamus
15.
Immune Network ; : e30-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716247

ABSTRACT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has a crucial role in various autoimmune disorders including, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our previous study demonstrated that STAT3 activation by IL-6 in colonic epithelial cells exacerbates experimental ulcerative colitis. Activated T lymphocytes are also found in ulcerative colitis patients with intestinal inflammation, but the role of STAT3 in T cells remains elusive. To determine the STAT3 function of T cells in intestinal inflammation, we generated T cell-specific STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. In this study, we demonstrated that T cell-specific STAT3 deletion alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice, resulting in reduced histological scores and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Importantly, the population of T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes was significantly decreased in the control and DSS-induced groups of STAT3 KO mice. In addition, STAT3 deficiency in T cells markedly reduced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A, whereas IL-10 secretion was increased. Collectively, the results suggest that STAT3 in T cells may be a therapeutic target in ulcerative colitis by balancing the immune response through T cell homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Cytokines , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , Epithelial Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interferons , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Peroxidase , Spleen , STAT3 Transcription Factor , T-Lymphocytes
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric manifestations like depression and cognitive dysfunction commonly occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the context of the brain-gut axis model, colitis can lead to alteration of brain function in a bottom-up manner. Here, the changes in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation-related markers in the brain in colitis were studied. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to generate a mouse model of colitis. Mice were treated with DSS for 3 or 7 days and sacrificed. We analyzed the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression of GFAP, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol/corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Alteration of inflammatory-related markers varied depending on the brain region and exposure time. In the hippocampus, COX-2 mRNA, GFAP mRNA, and GFAP expression were upregulated during exposure to DSS. However, in the hypothalamus, COX-2 mRNA was upregulated only 3 days after treatment. In the amygdala, BDNF and COX-2 mRNAs were downregulated. CRP and corticosterone expression increased with DSS treatment at day 7. CONCLUSION: IBD could lead to neuroinflammation in a bottom-up manner, and this effect varied according to brain region. Stress-related hormones and serum inflammatory markers, such as CRP, were upregulated from the third day of DSS treatment. Therefore, early and active intervention is required to prevent psychological and behavioral changes caused by IBD, and region-specific studies can help understand the precise mechanisms by which IBD affects the brain.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , C-Reactive Protein , Colitis , Corticosterone , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Depression , Dextrans , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Hippocampus , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 664-673, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Regulatory dendritic cells (rDCs), which can be induced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), play an important role in inducing and maintaining homeostasis of regulatory T cells and exhibit anti-inflammatory functions. In this study, we investigated whether MSCs could differentiate DCs into rDCs and compared the therapeutic effects of rDCs and MSCs on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mice. METHODS: Immature DCs (imDCs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mature DCs (mDCs) were co-cultured with MSCs for 48 hours, and then the profiles of surface markers and cytokines and regulatory roles of these DCs for primary splenocytes were analyzed. In addition, the therapeutic effects of MSCs and DCs co-cultured with MSCs were compared in chronic colitis mice. RESULTS: After co-culture of imDCs (MSC-DCs) or LPS-treated mDCs (LPS+MSC-DCs) with MSCs, the expression of CD11c, CD80, CD86, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), was decreased, but that of CD11b, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was increased. Furthermore, MSC-DCs and LPS+MSC-DCs induced the expression of CD4, CD25, and Foxp3 in primary splenocytes isolated from mice. In DSS-induced colitis mice, MSCs and MSC-DCs increased colon length, body weight, and survival rate and induced histological improvement. Moreover, in the colon tissues, the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ decreased, but that of IL-10, TGF-β, and Foxp3 increased in the MSC- and MSC-DC-injected groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that MSCs differentiate DCs into rDCs, which ameliorate chronic colitis. Thus, rDCs stimulated by MSCs may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Coculture Techniques , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Dextrans , Homeostasis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Necrosis , Sodium , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742374

ABSTRACT

Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, the modulation of intestinal integrity and immune responses in IBD can be the critical factor to be considered to reduce the severity of damages. Substance-P (SP), endogenous peptide to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and immune modulation, can exert the therapeutic effect on diverse diseases including cornea damage, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic complications. SP was found to elevate expression of junctional molecule. Considering the function of SP reported previously, it was inferred that SP is capable of exert the beneficial effect of SP on intestinal diseases by controlling intestinal structure as well as immune responses. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of SP on dextran sodium sulfate-induced intestine damage by injecting SP. The effects of SP were evaluated by analyzing crypt structures, proliferating cell pool and infiltration of immune cells. DSS treatment provoked abnormal immune response and disruption of intestine epithelial barrier. However, co-treatment of SP obviously blocked the development of intestinal damages by declining inflammatory responses and sustaining intestinal structure more intact. The treatment of SP to chronic damages also promoted intestinal regeneration by preserving the integrity of colon tissue. Moreover, DSS-induced reduction of epithelial junctional molecule was obviously inhibited by SP treatment in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that SP can reduce intestinal damages, possibly by modulating barrier structure and immune response. Our results propose SP as candidate therapeutics in intestinal damages.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cell Proliferation , Colon , Cornea , Dextrans , Diabetes Complications , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestinal Diseases , Intestines , Mucous Membrane , Regeneration , Sodium , Tight Junctions
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aggravating factors still remained unclear in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite many different therapeutic approaches, many patients do not respond to the therapy. The anti-inflammatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was suggested because of its capability of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesized that the up-regulation of IGFBP-3 would inhibit an inflammatory process. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treated intestinal epithelial cell 6 (IEC-6) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis mice were used as colitis models. Exogenous IGFBP-3 expression was accomplished using the adenoviral vector system expressing IGFBP-3 (Ad/IGFBP-3). The inflammatory responses and relevant cellular responses in IEC-6 cells influenced by IGFBP-3 expression were evaluated by western blotting, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement. The severity of colitis was evaluated with the colon tissues of DSS-induced mouse model. RESULTS: We found that the IGFBP-3 expression reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines (cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) and ROS formation. IGFBP-3 expression also induced cell viability and inhibited NF-κB activation. In line with this data, the severity of DSS-induced mouse colitis was greatly ameliorated by the treatment of IGFBP-3 expressing adenoviral particles characterized with less weight loss and preserved colon length compared with the mice treated with DSS alone. The histopathology of the colon showed the reducing signs of colitis in Ad/IGFBP-3 treated DSS-mice group. CONCLUSION: Therefore, our data suggest that Ad/IGFBP-3 up-regulation reduces colonic inflammatory response as a novel therapeutic protocol for IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextrans , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Necrosis , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sodium , Up-Regulation , Weight Loss
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL