Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 90
Filter
1.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 315-322, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is hypothesized that increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression may contribute to diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of MIF inhibition in a diabetic experimental model. Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230 ± 20 g) were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) diabetic (STZ, 50 mg/kg, dissolved in saline, ip), 3) diabetic + MIF antagonist (p425, 1 mg/kg per day, ip, on the 21th day, for 21 consecutive days). The treatment started since we founwd a significant increase in urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate in the diabetic rats in comparison with the control rats. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages (8 AM-2 PM) and urine samples were collected in the 21 and 42th day. At the end, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical (BS, UPE, urine GAG, BUN, Cr, Na, and K) and histological analyses. Results: The results of this study showed that MIF antagonist (p425) significantly decreased urine protein and GAG excretion, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and serum BUN and Cr in the streptozotocin-induced DN in the rats. Pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the MIF antagonist (p425)-administered DN rats. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggested that MIF antagonist (p425) was able to protect against functional and histopathological injury in the DN.


Resumo Introdução: Supõe-se que elevações da expressão do fator de inibição da migração de macrófagos (MIF) possam contribuir para a patogênese da nefropatia diabética (ND). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos renais da inibição do MIF em um modelo experimental diabético. Métodos: Dezoito ratos Wistar machos (230 ± 20g) foram divididos em três grupos: 1) controle, 2) diabético (STZ 50 mg/kg dissolvida em soro fisiológico, IP), 3) diabético + antagonista do MIF (p425 1 mg/kg por dia IP no 21o dia por 21 dias consecutivos). O tratamento começou após a identificação de aumento significativo na albuminúria nos ratos diabéticos em relação aos controles. Os ratos foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas (8h-14h) e amostras de urina foram colhidas no 21o e no 42o dia. Ao final do estudo, amostras de sangue e tecido foram colhidas para análises bioquímicas (BS, excreção urinária de proteína, excreção urinária de GAGs, BUN, Cr, Na e K) e histológicas. Resultados: O presente estudo demonstrou que o antagonista do MIF (p425) diminuiu significativamente proteinúria, excreção urinária de GAGs , relação proteína/creatinina na urina, BUN e Cr no grupo com ND induzida por estreptozotocina. As alterações patológicas foram significativamente abrandadas nos ratos com ND que receberam antagonista do MIF (p425). Conclusão: Coletivamente, os dados sugerem que o antagonista do MIF (p425) teve efeito protetor contra lesões funcionais e histopatológicas da ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Blood Glucose , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/urine , Kidney/pathology , Macrophage Activation
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4635, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012003

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Plathymenia reticulata hydroalcoholic extract and related changes in body weight, lipid profile and the pancreas. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 75 adult male Wistar rats via oral gavage of 65mg/Kg of streptozotocin. Rats were allocated to one of 8 groups, as follows: diabetic and control rats treated with water, diabetic and control rats treated with 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of plant extract, and diabetic and control rats treated with glyburide. Treatment consisted of oral gavage for 30 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were measured weekly. Animals were sacrificed and lipid profile and pancreatic tissue samples analyzed. Statistical analysis consisted of ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey-Kramer, paired Student's t and χ2 tests; the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Extract gavage at 100mg/kg led to a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in the second, third (198.71±65.27 versus 428.00±15.25) and fourth weeks (253.29±47.37 versus 443.22±42.72), body weight loss (13.22±5.70 versus 109.60±9.95) and lower cholesterol levels (58.75±3.13 versus 80.11±4.01) in control rats. Extract gavage at 200mg/Kg led to a decrease in glucose levels on the fourth week in diabetic rats, body weight loss in the second, third and fourth weeks in control rats, and lower cholesterol levels in diabetic and control rats. Islet hyperplasia (p=0.005) and pancreatic duct dilation (p=0.047) were observed in diabetic and control rats. Conclusion: Plathymenia extract reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and body weight in control rats, and promoted pancreatic islet hyperplasia in diabetic and control rats.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito anti-hiperglicêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Plathymenia reticulata, alterações no peso, lipídeos e efeito sobre o pâncreas. Métodos: O diabetes foi induzido pela administração de estreptozotocina 65mg/kg, em 75 ratos Wistar adultos machos, divididos em 8 grupos diferentes: ratos diabéticos e controle + água, ratos diabéticos e controle + 100mg/kg ou 200mg/kg de extrato, ratos diabéticos e controle + gliburida. O tratamento foi realizado por gavagem (oral) por 30 dias. Níveis de glicose e peso foram verificados semanalmente. Os animais foram sacrificados, e amostras de lipídeos e do pâncreas foram analisadas. A análise estatística incluiu ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey-Kramer, teste t de Student pareado e teste do χ2, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O extrato 100mg/kg promoveu redução nos níveis de glicose sanguínea em ratos diabéticos na segunda, terceira (198,71±65,27 versus 428,00±15,25) e quarta semanas (253,29±47,37 versus 443,22±42,72), perda de peso (13,22±5,70 versus 109,60±9,95) e diminuição do colesterol (58,75±3,13 versus 80,11±4,01) em ratos controle. Com extrato de 200mg/kg, houve redução dos níveis de glicose na quarta semana, nos ratos diabéticos; de peso na segunda, terceira e quarta semanas, nos ratos controle; e de colesterol nos animais diabéticos e controle. Ocorreram hiperplasia de ilhotas (p=0,005) e dilatação dos ductos pancreáticos (p=0,047) em ratos diabéticos e controles. Conclusão: O extrato de Plathymenia reduziu os níveis de glicose em ratos diabéticos e de peso em ratos controle, além de ter promovido hiperplasia de ilhotas pancreáticas em diabéticos e controles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Fabaceae , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholesterol , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Plant Leaves , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperplasia/pathology , Phytotherapy
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4353, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953188

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of physical training on metabolic and morphological parameters of diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic. Diabetes mellitus was induced by Alloxan (35mg/kg) administration for sedentary diabetic and Trained Diabetic Groups. The exercise protocol consisted of swimming with a load of 2.5% of body weight for 60 minutes per day (5 days per week) for the trained control and Trained Diabetic Groups, during 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for determinations of serum glucose, insulin, albumin and total protein. Liver samples were extracted for measurements of glycogen, protein, DNA and mitochondrial diameter determination. Results The sedentary diabetic animals presented decreased body weight, blood insulin, and hepatic glycogen, as well as increased glycemia and mitochondrial diameter. The physical training protocol in diabetic animals was efficient to recovery body weight and liver glycogen, and to decrease the hepatic mitochondrial diameter. Conclusion Physical training ameliorated hepatic metabolism and promoted important morphologic adaptations as mitochondrial diameter in liver of the diabetic rats.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos do treinamento físico nos parâmetros morfológicos e metabólicos de ratos diabéticos. Métodos Ratos Wistar foram randomizados para quatro grupos: controle sedentário, controle treinado, diabético sedentário e diabético treinado. Diabetes mellitus foi induzido por administração de Aloxana (35mg/kg) nos Grupos Diabético Sedentário e diabético treinado. O protocolo de treinamento físico incluiu natação com carga de 2,5% do peso corporal, por 60 minutos por dia (5 dias por semana) para os Grupos Controle Treinado e diabético treinado, durante 6 semanas. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados, e o sangue foi coletado para determinação das concentrações séricas de glicose, insulina, albumina e proteínas totais. Amostras do fígado foram coletadas para determinação do glicogênio, proteínas, DNA e diâmetro mitocondrial. Resultados O Grupo Sedentário Diabético apresentou redução no peso corporal, insulinemia e glicogênio hepático, além de maior glicemia e diâmetro mitocondrial hepático. O protocolo de treinamento físico em animais diabéticos foi eficiente para restaurar o peso corporal e o glicogênio hepático, além de reduzir o diâmetro mitocondrial hepático. Conclusão O treinamento físico melhorou o metabolismo hepático e promoveu importantes adaptações morfológicas, como no diâmetro mitocondrial no fígado de animais diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Mitochondria, Liver/ultrastructure , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Glycogen/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Exercise Test , Insulin , Liver/anatomy & histology
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17347, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951901

ABSTRACT

Abstract Activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes of glucuronidation and sulfation of 4-nitrophenol (PNP) and biliary excretion of its glucuronide (PNP-G) and sulfate (PNP-S) conjugates have been investigated in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. 500 µM PNP solution was luminally perfused in a cannulated jejunal loop for 90 minutes. It was found that biliary excretion of PNP-G was significantly decreased in the diabetic rats. This effect of STZ could be completely reversed by administration of rapid-acting insulin. Activity of hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase and ß-glucuronidase was also depressed by the STZ pretreatment. Administration of insulin antagonized the inhibitory action of STZ on UDP-glucuronyltransferase, but the reduced activity of ß-glucuronidase was not reversed. Biliary excretion of PNP-S was also depressed in the diabetic rats. Whereas, different effects of insulin administration were observed. Namely, the lower biliary excretion rate of PNP-S was not changed after administration of insulin. Activity of the sulfotransferase and the arylsulfatase enzymes was not altered either by STZ pretreatment or by insulin administration. Biliary excretion of PNP was also significantly depressed by STZ and this depression was not changed after insulin administration. The results call attention to hepatobiliary circulation of low molecular weight xenobiotics and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Hepatobiliary Elimination , Streptozocin , Hepatobiliary Elimination/immunology
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 579-589, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is a severe chronic disease leading to systemic complications, including cardiovascular dysfunction. Previous cell therapy studies have obtained promising results with the use bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells derived from healthy animals (MSCc) in diabetes animal models. However, the ability of MSC derived from diabetic rats to improve functional cardiac parameters is still unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether bone-marrow-derived MSC from diabetic rats (MSCd) would contribute to recover metabolic and cardiac electrical properties in other diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with streptozotocin. MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry, morphological analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Cardiac electrical function was analyzed using recordings of ventricular action potential. Differences between variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: In vitro properties of MSCc and MSCd were evaluated. Both cell types presented similar morphology, growth kinetics, and mesenchymal profile, and could differentiate into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. However, in an assay for fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F), MSCd formed more colonies than MSCc when cultured in expansion medium with or without hydrocortisone (1 µM). In order to compare the therapeutic potential of the cells, the animals were divided into four experimental groups: nondiabetic (CTRL), diabetic (DM), diabetic treated with MSCc (DM + MSCc), and diabetic treated with MSCd (DM + MSCd). The treated groups received a single injection of MSC 4 weeks after the development of diabetes. MSCc and MSCd controlled hyperglycemia and body weight loss and improved cardiac electrical remodeling in diabetic rats. Conclusions: MSCd and MSCc have similar in vitro properties and therapeutic potential in a rat model of diabetes induced with streptozotocin.


Resumo Fundamentos: O diabetes mellitus é uma doença crônica grave que leva a complicações sistêmicas, como a disfunção cardiovascular. Estudos anteriores de terapia celular obtiveram resultados promissores com utilização de células estromais mesenquimais (CEM) derivadas de medula óssea de animais saudáveis (CEMc) em modelos de animais diabéticos. No entanto, a capacidade das CEM derivadas de ratos diabéticos em melhorar parâmetros cardíacos funcionais é ainda desconhecida. Objetivos: Investigar se CEM derivadas de medula óssea de ratos diabéticos (CEMd) poderiam contribuir para a recuperação metabólica e de propriedades elétricas cardíacas em outros ratos também com diabetes. Métodos: O diabetes foi induzido em ratos Wistar com estreptozotocina. As CEM foram caracterizadas por citometria de fluxo, análise morfológica e imunohistoquímica. A função elétrica cardíaca foi analisada através de registro do potencial de ação ventricular. As diferenças entre as variáveis foram consideradas significativas quando p < 0,05. Resultados: As propriedades in vitro das CEMc e CEMd foram avaliadas. Ambos os tipos celulares apresentaram morfologia, cinética de crescimento e perfil mesenquimal semelhante, e puderam ser diferenciadas em linhagens adipogênica e osteogênica. No entanto, em ensaios para unidades formadoras de colônias de fibroblastos (UFC-F), as CEMd formaram mais colônias em comparação às CEMc quando cultivadas em meio com ou sem hidrocortisona (1 µM). Para comparar o potencial terapêutico das células, os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais: não diabéticos (CTRL), diabéticos (DM), diabéticos tratados com CEMc (DM + CEMc) e diabéticos tratados com CEMd (DM + CEMd). Os grupos tratados receberam uma única injeção de CEM 4 semanas após o estabelecimento do diabetes. Ambas CEMc e CEMd controlaram a hiperglicemia e a perda de peso corporal e melhoraram o remodelamento elétrico cardíaco em ratos com diabetes. Conclusão: As CEMd e CEMc possuem propriedades in vitro e potencial terapêutico semelhante em um modelo de rato com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; 109(6):579-589)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Rats, Wistar , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 443-449, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798174

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Materials and methods Wistar, adult, male rats were used in the study. Animals were divided in the following groups: Citrate (control, citrate buffer 0.01M, pH 4.2 was administrated intravenously - i.v - in the caudal vein), Uninephrectomy+Citrate (left uninephrectomy-20 days before the study), DM (streptozotocin, 65 mg/kg, i.v, on the 20th day of the study), Uninephrectomy+DM. Physiological parameters (water and food intake, body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight, and relative kidney weight); renal function (creatinine clearance), urine albumin (immunodiffusion method); oxidative metabolites (urinary peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and thiols in renal tissue), and kidney histology were evaluated. Results Polyphagia, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and reduced body weight were observed in diabetic rats. Renal function was reduced in diabetic groups (creatinine clearance, p < 0.05). Uninephrectomy potentiated urine albumin and increased kidney weight and relative kidney weight in diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Urinary peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, and the reduction in thiol levels demonstrated endogenous substrate consumption in diabetic groups (p < 0.05). The histological analysis revealed moderate lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion This study confirms lipid peroxidation and intense consumption of the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. The association of hyperglycemia and uninephrectomy resulted in additional renal injury, demonstrating that the model is adequate for the study of diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Peroxides/urine , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Creatinine/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Albuminuria/urine , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 825-837, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794686

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: We investigate the effect of active peptide from Urechis unicinctus (UU) by high temperature/pressure and ultra-wave assisted lysis on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg). One week later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, untreated diabetes control, and groups treated with 100 or 500mg/kg/d UU peptide. Rats were fed with UU peptide by intragastric administration for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, penile hemodynamic function was evaluated in all groups by measuring the intracavernosal pressure after electrostimulating the cavernous nerve. Nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activities were measured and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: Maximum intracavernosal pressure in diabetic control rats decreased significantly compared to normal control rats, and was increased significantly compared to untreated diabetic rats after UU peptide supplementation. Treatment with the higher dose of UU peptide significantly increased the NO and cGMP levels compared with the diabetic control group. Decreased activity and expression eNOS and nNOS were found in the diabetic rats compared with the normal control group. Decreased eNOS and nNOS in diabetic rats were improved by UU peptide administration. Conclusions: Active peptide from UU ameliorates erectile function in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model of erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peptides/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/drug therapy , Annelida/chemistry , Penis/drug effects , Peptides/analysis , Peptides/therapeutic use , Temperature , Random Allocation , Cells, Cultured , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(8): 498-504, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792412

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) at 685 nm on diabetic wound healing in rats suffering from bacterial infection induced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). METHODS: Thirty streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were allocated into two groups: control and PBMT. A 4-cm full-thickness linear-incision was made on the dorsal midline and was contaminated with S. aureus. The wounds in the PBMT group were irradiated daily for 5 consecutive days, starting 3 days after the induction and always in the mornings. RESULTS: The result revealed that PBMT resulted in a significant decrease in S. aureus CFU in the PBMT group in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). The length of wounds, in the 2nd and 3rd weeks, in the PBMT group were significantly shorter compared to the control group (P<0.05). PBMT caused a significant increase in the histological parameters in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, PBMT significantly increased the breaking strength of the surgical scars produced in the skin of the PBMT group when compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Photobiomodulation therapy may be useful in the management of wound infection through a significant bacterial growth inhibition and an acceleration of wound healing process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Staphylococcal Infections/radiotherapy , Surgical Wound Infection/radiotherapy , Wound Healing/radiation effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/radiation effects , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 239-249, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes an increased production of free radicals that can impair bone healing. Melatonin is a hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland, which participates in the neutralization process of free radicals. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate histologic and biochemical effects of supplemental melatonin administration on bone healing and antioxidant defense mechanism in diabetic rats. Material and Methods Eighty-six Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in this study. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Surgical bone defects were prepared in the tibia of each animal. Diabetic animals and those in control groups were treated either with daily melatonin (250 μg/animal/day/i.p.) diluted in ethanol, only ethanol, or sterile saline solution. Rats were humanely killed at the 10th and 30th postoperative days. Plasma levels of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were measured. The number of osteoblasts, blood vessels and the area of new mineralized tissue formation were calculated in histologic sections. Results At the 10th day, DM+MEL (rats receiving both STZ and melatonin) group had significantly higher number of osteoblasts and blood vessels as well as larger new mineralized tissue surfaces (p<0.05 for each) when compared with DM group. At the 30th day, DM group treated with melatonin had significantly lower levels of AOPP and MDA than those of DM group (p<0.05). Conclusion Melatonin administration in STZ induced diabetic rats reduced oxidative stress related biomarkers and showed beneficial effects on bone healing at short term.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Fracture Healing/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/pathology , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Biomarkers , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Advanced Oxidation Protein Products/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 150-155, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate in the kidney the pathologic changes and expression of GRP78 and CHOP in the Kunming (KM) mice with combination of high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS : Sixty two male KM mice were randomly divided into a normal control (NC) group (n=20) and a high-fat diet (HFD) group (n=42). After a four-week dietary manipulation, the KM mice in the HFD group were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After diabetic models were successfully established, the kidneys were excised and conserved for further test. RESULTS : No significant difference in the body weight was observed after the dietary manipulation (p=0.554). After the streptozotocin was injected, fasting blood glucose levels in the diabetes group (DM) were significantly higher than that in the NC group (p<0.0001). Glomerular atrophy observed under light microscope in the DM group was more serious compared with the NC group. The expression of GRP78 and CHOP in the kidneys of the mice in the DM group were higher compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION : Renal lesion occurs in the diabetic Kunming mice induced by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and CHOP may contribute to the injury process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , Diet, High-Fat , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Random Allocation , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Transcription Factor CHOP/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response/physiology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 404-409, July-Sep. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761957

ABSTRACT

Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivoas well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats.Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined.Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different.Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors.


Objetivo Reestudar o funcionamento da bexiga in vivo e determinar as características funcionais e bioquímicas dos receptores muscarínicos vesicais de ratos com diabetes crônico induzido por aloxana.Métodos Ratos Wistar de dois meses de idade receberam injeção de aloxana, e os animais que apresentaram glicemia >300mg/dL foram mantidos por 11 meses junto de outros não tratados e pareados por idade. Nos dois grupos de animais, peso corpóreo, peso da bexiga, glicemia e volume urinário de 24 horas foram medidos. Em ambos os grupos, realizou-se a cistometria miccional em animais não anestesiados. Foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros: pressão máxima de micção, intervalo e contração de micção, bem como o volume de esvaziamento e o volume residual pós-miccional. Além disso, foram determinadas as curvas de concentração-resposta a betanecol em preparações isoladas de bexiga e também as características dos sítios de ligação da [3H]-N-metil-escopolamina em homogenatos de bexiga.Resultados O peso médio da bexiga foi de 162,5±21,2mg versus290±37,9mg nos animais controles e tratados, respectivamente (p<0,05). A amplitude de contração (34,6±4,7mmHg versus 49,6±2,5mmHg), a duração (14,5±1,7 segundos versus 23,33±4,6 segundos) e o intervalo (87,5±17,02 segundos versus 281,11±20,24 segundos) de micção foram significantemente maiores nos ratos tratados com aloxana. O volume de urina eliminada durante a contração miccional também foi maior nos animais diabéticos. Contudo, o volume residual pós-miccional não foi estatisticamente diferente. Não foram observadas diferenças na resposta ao betanecol (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) e no seu efeito máximo (31,2±5,9g/g versus 36,1±6,8g/g) em preparações isoladas de bexiga, bem como no número total (169±43fmol/mgversus 176±3fmol/mg) e na afinidade (0,69±0,1nMversus 0,57±0,1nM) dos receptores muscarínicos da bexiga.Conclusão O funcionamento da bexiga in vivo está alterado no diabetes crônico induzido por aloxana, porém sem alterações funcionais e bioquímicas nos receptores muscarínicos da bexiga.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Receptors, Muscarinic/metabolism , Urinary Bladder/metabolism , Alloxan/administration & dosage , Bethanechol/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , N-Methylscopolamine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Muscarinic/drug effects , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 158-163, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: In the lacrimal gland (LG) acinar cells, signaling regulates the release of secretory vesicles through specific Rab and SNARE exocytotic proteins. In diabetes mellitus (DM), the LGs are dysfunctional. The aim of this work was to determine if secretory apparatus changes were associated with any effects on the secretory vesicles (SV) in diabetic rats as well as the expression levels of constituent Rab and members of the SNARE family, and if insulin supplementation reversed those changes. Methods: DM was induced in male Wistar rats with an intravenous dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). One of the two diabetic groups was then treated every other day with insulin (1 IU). A third control group was injected with vehicle. After 10 weeks, Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to compared the Rab and SNARE secretory factor levels in the LGs. Transmission electron microscopy evaluated acinar cell SV density and integrity. Results: In the diabetes mellitus group, there were fewer and enlarged SV. The Rab 27b, Rab 3d, and syntaxin-1 protein expression declined in the rats with diabetes mellitus. Insulin treatment restored the SV density and the Rab 27b and syntaxin expression to their control protein levels, whereas the Vamp 2 mRNA expression increased above the control levels. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus LG changes were associated with the declines in protein expression levels that were involved in supporting exocytosis and vesicular formation. They were partially reversed by insulin replacement therapy. These findings may help to improve therapeutic management of dry eye in diabetes mellitus. .


RESUMO Objetivo: Células acinares da glândula lacrimal (GL) sinalizam a regulação da liberação através de vesículas secretórias específicas Rab proteínas exocitóticas SNARE. No diabetes mellitus (DM), as glândulas lacrimais são disfuncionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se em ratos diabéticos, alterações dos aparatos secretórios estão associados a efeitos sobre vesículas secretoras (VS) e sobre os níveis de expressão do constituinte Rab, bem como membros da família SNARE, e se a suplementação de insulina reverte as alterações. Métodos: DM foi induzido em ratos Wistar machos com uma dose intravenosa de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg). Um dos dois grupos diabéticos foi então tratado a cada dois dias com insulina (1 UI). Um terceiro grupo controle foi injetado com o veículo. Após 10 semanas, western blot e RT-PCR comparou níveis de fatores secretórios de Rab e SNARE na glândula lacrimal. Microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) avaliaram a densidade e integridade de VS de célula acinar. Resultados: No grupo diabetes mellitus , houve poucas e alargadas VS. Rab27b, Rab 3d e Sintaxina-1 diminuiu a expressão da proteína em ratos com Diabetes Mellitus. O tratamento com insulina restaurou a densidade das VS e expressão de Rab 27b e Sintaxina para seus níveis de proteína controle, enquanto a expressão de Vamp 2 RNAm aumentou em relação aos controles. Conclusões: Alterações na glândula lacrimal de diabetes mellitus estão associadas a reduções nos níveis de expressão de proteínas envolvidas no apoio a exocitose e formação vesicular. Eles são, em parte, revertida por terapia de reposição de insulina. Estes resultados podem ajudar a melhorar a conduta terapêutica do olho seco no diabetes mellitus. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Lacrimal Apparatus/drug effects , Secretory Vesicles/metabolism , Acetylcholine/analysis , Acinar Cells/ultrastructure , Blotting, Western/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Exocytosis/drug effects , Lacrimal Apparatus , Models, Animal , Qa-SNARE Proteins/metabolism , R-SNARE Proteins/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Secretory Vesicles/drug effects , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 148-153, 04/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746465

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise on the pattern of muscle myostatin (MSTN) protein expression in two important metabolic disorders, i.e., obesity and diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods MSTN, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We evaluated the effect of exercise on MSTN protein expression in diabetes mellitus and high fat diet-induced obesity. MSTN protein expression in gastrocnemius muscle was analyzed by Western Blot. P < 0.05 was assumed. Exercise induced a significant decrease in glycemia in both diabetic and obese animals. Results The expression of precursor and processed protein forms of MSTN and the weight of gastrocnemius muscle did not vary in sedentary or exercised obese animals. Diabetes reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight in sedentary animals. However, gastrocnemius muscle weight increased in diabetic exercised animals. Both the precursor and processed forms of muscle MSTN protein were significantly higher in sedentary diabetic rats than in control rats. The precursor form was significantly lower in diabetic exercised animals than in diabetic sedentary animals. However, the processed form did not change. Conclusion These results demonstrate that exercise can modulate the muscle expression of MSTN protein in diabetic rats and suggest that MSTN may be involved in energy homeostasis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Gene Expression/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Myostatin/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Sedentary Behavior , Streptozocin , Swimming
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(1): 47-53, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746451

ABSTRACT

Objective The diabetic state induced by streptozotocin injection is known to impair oligodendroglial remyelination in the rat brainstem following intracisternal injection with the gliotoxic agent ethidium bromide (EB). In such experimental model, propentofylline (PPF) recently showed to improve myelin repair, probably due to its neuroprotective, antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PPF administration in diabetic rats submitted to the EB-demyelinating model. Materials and methods Adult male rats, diabetic or not, received a single injection of 10 microlitres of 0.1% EB solution into the cisterna pontis. For induction of diabetes mellitus the streptozotocin-diabetogenic model was used (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route – IP). Some diabetic rats were treated with PPF (12.5 mg/kg/day, IP route) during the experimental period. The animals were anesthetized and perfused from 7 to 31 days after EB injection and brainstem sections were collected for analysis of the lesions by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results Diabetic rats injected with EB showed larger amounts of myelin-derived membranes in the central areas of the lesions and considerable delay in the remyelinating process played by surviving oligodendrocytes and invading Schwann cells after the 15th day. On the other hand, diabetic rats that received PPF presented lesions similar to those of non-diabetic animals, with rapid remyelination at the edges of the lesion site and fast clearance of myelin debris from the central area. Conclusion The administration of PPF apparently reversed the impairment in remyelination induced by the diabetic state. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):47-53 .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Astrocytes/drug effects , Demyelinating Diseases/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Myelin Sheath/physiology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Xanthines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Demyelinating Diseases/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Ethidium/toxicity , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Macrophages/drug effects , Mesencephalon/pathology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Pons/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Schwann Cells/drug effects , Xanthines/administration & dosage
15.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1501-1512
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164214

ABSTRACT

Aims: The study evaluates the antidiabetic, and the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats (Wistar strain). Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for ten months in 2012 in Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Biochemistry Unit), School of Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos- Nigeria, and Department of Hematology and blood transfusion, APIN Clinic LUTH, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Methodology: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were carried out to determine the presence of secondary metabolites present in the extract of Jatropha curcas. The animals were weighed using weighing balance, there blood sugar levels were assayed using Accu-chek Active Glucometer and blood glucose test strips. The hematological parameters were determined using BC-3200 Auto Hematology Analyzer, lipid profiles, total protein, total bilirubin and liver biomarker enzymes were assayed using Randox kits. Results: The phytochemical constituents of J. curcas extract indicate the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins, saponins, flavonoids etc. The weight of diabetic untreated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reduced when compared to other groups. The animals treated with glibenclamide, 150 and 250mg/Kg body weight of J. curcas extract showed significant decrease (P<0.05) of blood sugar level compared to the untreated rats. The extract does possess hematopoietic activity and is not hematotoxic. J. curcas had hypolipidemic effect and can be used in the management of diabetes. The extract significantly reduced (P<0.05) total bilirubin and liver biomarker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP). Conclusion: The results show that the methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas can be used in the management of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Alloxan/adverse effects , Animals , Biochemical Phenomena , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Jatropha/therapeutic use , Lipids/blood , Liver/enzymology , Male , Methanol , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(4): 413-419, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732452

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring. .


Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do diabetes materno sobre a pressão arterial e a função renal da prole feminina, bem como verificar se as alterações observadas se exacerbam durante a prenhez. Métodos O diabetes mellitus foi induzido em ratas com a administração de estreptozocina em dose única, uma semana antes do cruzamento. Durante a prenhez, foram feitas medidas da pressão arterial por pletismografia. No 20o dia da prenhez, os animais foram colocados durante 24 horas em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de amostras de urina. Após a retirada dos animais das gaiolas, foram obtidas amostras de sangue. Um mês após a prenhez, foram obtidas novas amostras de sangue e urina para as determinações. A função renal foi avaliada por meio de proteinúria, ureia plasmática, creatinina plasmática, carga excretada de creatinina, fluxo urinário e clearance de creatinina. Resultados As fêmeas da prole de mães diabéticas apresentaram elevação da pressão arterial e redução do ritmo de filtração glomerular em relação ao grupo controle. Conclusão A hiperglicemia durante a gestação foi capaz de causar elevação da pressão arterial e disfunção renal na prole de sexo feminino. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Gestational Age , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Proteinuria/urine , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Streptozocin , Time Factors , Urea/blood
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 452-460, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709442

ABSTRACT

It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old), while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10th or the 30th day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA) of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10th, but not on the 30th day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30th day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease). There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cathepsin B/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Lysosomes/enzymology , Albumins/analysis , Blotting, Western , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Creatinine/urine , Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Hexosaminidases/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Sulfatases/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51696

ABSTRACT

We aimed to elucidate the effect of bilirubin on dyslipidemia and nephropathy in a diabetes mellitus (DM) type I animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, DM, and bilirubin-treated DM (Bil) groups. The Bil group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg bilirubin 3 times per week and hepatoma cells were cultured with bilirubin at a concentration of 0.3 mg/dL. The Bil group showed lower serum creatinine levels 5 weeks after diabetes onset. Bilirubin treatment also decreased the amount of mesangial matrix, lowered the expression of renal collagen IV and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, and reduced the level of apoptosis in the kidney, compared to the DM group. These changes were accompanied by decreased tissue levels of hydrogen superoxide and NADPH oxidase subunit proteins. Bilirubin decreased serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TGs), as well as the TG content in the liver tissues. Bilirubin suppressed protein expression of LXRalpha, SREBP-1, SCD-1, and FAS, factors involved in TG synthesis that were elevated in the livers of DM rats and hepatoma cells under high-glucose conditions. In conclusion, bilirubin attenuates renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia in diabetes by suppressing LXRalpha and SREBP-1 expression and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bilirubin/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/pathology , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Orphan Nuclear Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Streptozocin/toxicity , Triglycerides/analysis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69674

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder accompanied by increased blood glucose levels along with glucocorticoid and cognitive deficits. The disease is also thought to be associated with environmental changes in brain and constantly induces oxidative stress in patients. Therefore, glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site are very important to understand the development of this disease. Many researchers have used streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic animals to study changes in GR expression in the brain. However, few scientists have evaluated the hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure. In the present study, we found GR expression in the hippocampus varied based on the period after STZ administration for up to 4 weeks. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to validate the sequential alterations of GR expression in the hippocampus of STZ-treated type 1 diabetic rats. GR protein expression increased significantly until week 3 but decreased at week 4 following STZ administration. GR expression after 70 mg/kg STZ administration was highest at 3 weeks post-treatment and decreased thereafter. Although STZ-induced increase in GR expression in diabetic animals has been described, our data indicate that researchers should consider the sequential GR expression changes during the hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Time Factors
20.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(8): 594-602, Nov. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of interval training on blood biochemistry and immune parameters in type 1 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary (SE, n = 15), interval training (IT, n = 17), diabetic sedentary (DSE, n = 17), diabetic interval training (DIT, n = 17). Diabetes was induced by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Swimming Interval Training consisted of 30-s exercise with 30-s rest, for 30 minutes, during 6 weeks, four times a week, with an overload of 15% of body mass. Plasma glucose, lactate, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol concentrations, phagocytic capacity, cationic vesicle content, and superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes was also estimated. RESULTS: Interval training resulted in attenuation of the resting hyperglycemic state and decreased blood lipids in the DIT group. Diabetes increased the functionality of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DSE group. Interval training increased all functionality parameters of peritoneal macrophages in the IT group. Interval training also led to a twofold increase in the proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes after 6 weeks of exercise in the DIT group. CONCLUSION: Low-volume high-intensity physical exercise attenuates hyperglycemia and dislipidemia induced by type 1 diabetes, and induces changes in the functionality of innate and acquired immunity.


OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou os efeitos do treinamento intervalado sobre parâmetros bioquímicos e imunológicos em ratos diabéticos do tipo 1. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: sedentário (SE, n = 15), treinamento intervalado (TI, n = 17), sedentário diabético (SED, n = 17) e treinamento intervalado diabético (TID, n = 17). O diabetes foi induzido por uma injeção intravenosa de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg). O treinamento intervalado de natação consistiu de 30s de exercício com 30s de recuperação, 30 minutos, durante 6 semanas, 4 vezes por semana, com sobrecarga de 15% da massa corporal. Foram avaliados glicemia, lactato sanguíneo, concentração de triacilglicerol e colesterol total, capacidade fagocítica, conteúdo de vesículas catiô­nicas, produção de ânion superóxido e peróxido de hidrogênio por neutrófilos sanguíneos e macrófagos peritoneais. A proliferação de linfócitos mesentéricos também foi avaliada. RESULTADOS: O treinamento intervalado resultou em atenuação do estado hiperglicêmico e diminuiu os lipídeos sanguíneos no grupo TID. O diabetes aumentou a funcionalidade dos neutrófilos sanguíneos e macrófagos peritoneais do grupo SED. O treinamento intervalado aumentou todos os parâmetros funcionais dos macrófagos peritoneais do grupo TI. O treinamento intervalado também aumentou duas vezes a proliferação dos linfócitos mesentéricos após seis semanas de exercício do grupo TID. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento intervalado atenua a hiperglicemia e a dislipidemia induzida pelo diabetes do tipo 1 e induz mudanças na funcionalidade da imunidade inata e adquirida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Phagocytosis/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sedentary Behavior , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Superoxides/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL