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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1606-1613, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134486

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Disturbances of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in the spinal cord as well as degenerated myelin sheaths are observed in diabetic patients and animal models. Indeed, oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are important neuroglial cells, generate myelin in the central nervous system. Spinal enlargement, including cervical and lumbar enlargements, innervates all limbs. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine and compare the ultrastructural alterations of OLs in spinal enlargements of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats and controls. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with STZ in citrate buffer and six control rats were injected with the same buffer solution. All rats were sacrificed after inductions at four (short-term DM) and twenty-four weeks (long-term DM). The selected spinal enlargements were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The OL alterations in both the cervical and lumbar enlargements were apparently the same. In short-term DM, the nuclei of OLs became swelled with chromatin clumping. Cytoplasmic organelles were moderately damaged. In long-term DM, OLs contained shrinkage nuclei with thick heterochromatin clumping. Severely degenerated mitochondria with disrupted cristae and broken membranes were observed. Moreover, distended and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed, and large clear areas were present in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the loosening, splitting, and destruction of myelin lamellae were found. This study can provide important preliminary information about the alteration of OLs in the spinal cords of diabetic patients, which might be involve in the impairments of sensory and motor conduction velocities in these individuals.


RESUMEN: En pacientes diabéticos y modelos animales se observan alteraciones de la velocidad de conducción nerviosa sensorial y motora en la médula espinal, así como vainas de mielina degeneradas. De hecho, los oligodendrocitos (OL), que son importantes células neurogliales, generan mielina en el sistema nervioso central. La intumescencia espinal, a nivel cervical y lumbar, inerva los miembros. Por lo tanto, los propósitos de este estudio fueron examinar y comparar las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los OL en la intumescencia espinal de ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ) y controles. Se indujeron trece ratas macho Sprague-Dawley con STZ en tampón citrato y se inyectaron seis ratas de control con la misma solución tampón. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron después de la inducción a las cuatro (DM a corto plazo) y a las veinticuatro semanas (DM a largo plazo). Las ampliaciones de la columna seleccionadas se procesaron para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Las alteraciones de OL en las intumescencias cervical y lumbar eran aparentemente las mismas. En la DM a corto plazo, los núcleos de los OL se hincharon con la acumulación de cromatina. Los orgánulos citoplasmáticos sufrieron daños moderados. En la DM a largo plazo, los OL contenían núcleos de contracción con aglutinación de heterocromatina gruesa. Se observaron mitocondrias severamente degeneradas con crestas y membranas rotas. Además, se observó un retículo endoplásmico rugoso distendido y fragmentado, y estaban presentes grandes áreas claras en el citoplasma. Además, se encontraron el aflojamiento, la división y la destrucción de las laminillas de mielina. Este estudio puede proporcionar información preliminar importante sobre la alteración de los OL en la médula espinal de los pacientes diabéticos, que podría estar involucrada en las alteraciones de las velocidades de conducción sensorial y motora en estos individuos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/pathology , Oligodendroglia/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Spinal Cord/ultrastructure , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myelin Sheath
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1003-1009, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124889

ABSTRACT

This study was set to investigate the effect of gum Arabic (G.A.) on diabetic kidney disease. We divided sixty male Sprague rats randomly into six groups. Normal control, normal rats treated with G.A., untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, diabetic rats treated with G.A., and diabetic rats treated with both insulin and G.A. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Forty eight hr post injections. Insulin was injected subcutaneously (1.6/IU/100g/day). We provided G.A. in drinking water (10 %w/ v).). At the end of the twelve weeks, blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum lipids, serum creatinine, and blood urea. Renal tissue oxidative stress (O.S.) was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). For histological assessments, sections from segments of kidneys were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for assessment under the light microscope. STZinduced diabetes caused an elevation of blood glucose, HbA1c, urea and creatinine, triglycerides LDL and cholesterol, MDA with reduction of HDL, GSH level, and CAT and SOD activities. Histologically, kidneys from diabetic rats showed marked glomerular and tubular changes. Administration of G.A. alone to diabetic rats had a significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect, although the levels achieved remained significantly abnormal compared with the untreated group with no effect on urea and creatinine levels. Co-administration of G.A. with insulin reversed the impact of D.M. on all parameters evaluated including the histological changes and led to normal urea and creatinine levels. We concluded that G.A., in combination with insulin, improves chemically-induced diabetes and its renal complications, possibly by modulation of oxidative stress.


En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la goma arábiga (GA) en la enfermedad renal diabética. Dividimos sesenta ratas macho Sprague Dawley al azar en seis grupos. Control normal, ratas normales tratadas con GA, ratas diabéticas no tratadas, ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina, ratas diabéticas tratadas con GA y ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina y GA. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola inyección intraperitoneal de STZ. Cuarenta y ocho horas después se inyectó insulina por vía subcutánea (1,6 / UI / 100 g / día). A los animales se les dió GA en agua potable (10 % p / v)). Al final de las doce semanas, se extrajo sangre para medir la glucosa, la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C), los lípidos en suero, la creatinina en suero y la urea en sangre. El estrés oxidativo del tejido renal (SO) se evaluó midiendo las actividades de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la catalasa (CAT), y las concentraciones de glutatión reducido (GSH) y malondialdehído (MDA). Para las evaluaciones histológicas, se procesaron secciones de segmentos de riñones y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H & E) para análisis bajo microscopio óptico. La diabetes inducida por STZ causó una elevación de la glucosa en sangre, HbA1c, urea y creatinina, triglicéridos LDL y colesterol, MDA con reducción de las actividades de HDL, GSH y CAT y SOD. Histológicamente, los riñones de ratas diabéticas mostraron marcados cambios glomerulares y tubulares. La administración de GA solo en las ratas diabéticas tuvo un efecto hipoglucémico, hipolipidémico y antioxidante significativo, aunque los niveles alcanzados permanecieron significativamente anormales en comparación con el grupo no tratado, sin ningún efecto sobre los niveles de urea y creatinina. La dministración conjunta de GA con insulina revirtió el impacto de DM en todos los parámetros evaluados, incluidos los cambios histológicos y condujeron a niveles normales de urea y creatinina. Concluimos que GA en combinación con insulina, mejora la diabetes inducida químicamente y sus complicaciones renales, posiblemente mediante la modulación del estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8389, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055479

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) promotes cell death, and it has been successfully employed as a treatment resource for neuropathic complications of diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the major organ involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and in pathological conditions such as T1DM, changes in liver metabolic pathways result in hyperglycemia, which is associated with multiple organic dysfunctions. In this context, it has been suggested that chlorophyll-a and its derivatives have anti-diabetic actions, such as reducing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, but these effects have not yet been proven. Thus, the biological action of PDT with chlorophyll-a on hepatic parameters related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress in T1DM Wistar rats was investigated. Evaluation of the acute effects of this pigment was performed by incubation of isolated hepatocytes with chlorophyll-a and the chronic effects were evaluated by oral treatment with chlorophyll-based extract, with post-analysis of the intact liver by in situ perfusion. In both experimental protocols, chlorophyll-a decreased hepatic glucose release and glycogenolysis rate and stimulated the glycolytic pathway in DM/PDT. In addition, there was a reduction in hepatic oxidative stress, noticeable by decreased lipoperoxidation, reactive oxygen species, and carbonylated proteins in livers of chlorophyll-treated T1DM rats. These are indicators of the potential capacity of chlorophyll-a in improving the status of the diabetic liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chlorophyll/analogs & derivatives , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glycolysis/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology , Photochemotherapy , Chlorophyll/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Glycolysis/physiology , Liver/pathology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e8763, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132529

ABSTRACT

Upper limb performance is affected by diabetes mellitus (DM). Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a key structure to understand the relationship between performance and morphology in DM. The aim of the study was to analyze NMJ plasticity due to DM in an animal model and its relationship with the function of forelimbs in rats. Twelve Wistar rats were divided into control (C) and DM groups. Animals were trained to perform a grasping task, following procedures of habituation, shaping, and reaching task. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Forelimb neuromuscular performance for dexterity was evaluated one day before DM induction and five weeks following induction. After that, biceps, triceps, and finger flexors and extensors were removed. Connective tissue and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. NMJ was assessed by its morphometric characteristics (area, perimeter, and maximum diameter), using ImageJ software. Motor performance analyses were made using single pellet retrieval task performance test. Student's t-test was used for comparisons between groups. A significant decrease in all NMJ morphometric parameters was observed in the DM group compared with the C group. Results showed that DM generated NMJ retraction in muscles involved in a reaching task. These alterations are related to signs of muscular atrophy and to poor reaching task performance. In conclusion, induced DM caused NMJ retraction and muscular atrophy in muscles involved in reaching task performance. Induced DM caused significantly lower motor performance, especially in the final moments of evaluation, when DM compromised the tropism of the muscular tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Task Performance and Analysis , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Neuromuscular Junction/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Junction/physiopathology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901105, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054679

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of Dexmedetomidine (Dex) on spinal pathology and inflammatory factor in a rat model of Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Methods: The rats were divided into 3 groups (eight in each group): normal group (N group), diabetic neuropathic pain model group (DNP group), and DNP model with dexmedetomidine (Dex group). The rat model of diabetes was established with intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) injections. Nerve cell ultrastructure was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) tests documented that DNP rat model was characterized by a decreased pain threshold and nerve conduction velocity. Results: Dex restored the phenotype of neurocytes, reduced the extent of demyelination and improved MWT and MNCV of DNP-treated rats (P=0.01, P=0.038, respectively). The expression of three pain-and inflammation-associated factors (P2X4, NLRP3, and IL-IP) was significantly upregulated at the protein level in DNP rats, and this change was reversed by Dex administration (P=0.0022, P=0.0092, P=0.0028, respectively). Conclusion: The P2X4/NLRP3 signaling pathway is implicated in the development and presence of DNP in vivo, and Dex protects from this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spine/drug effects , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Receptors, Purinergic P2X4/analysis , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Sural Nerve/drug effects , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Pain Threshold , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Neural Conduction/drug effects
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 405-411, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is present in the epithelial enterochromaffin cells (EC), mast cells of the lamina propria and enteric neurons. The 5-HT is involved in regulating motility, secretion, gut sensation, immune system and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of diabetes and quercetin supplementation on serotoninergic cells and its cell loss by apoptosis in jejunal mucosa of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats). METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normoglycemic (C), normoglycemic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (DQ). After 120 days, the jejunum was collected and fixated in Zamboni's solution for 18 h. After obtaining cryosections, immunohistochemistry was performed to label 5-HT and caspase-3. Quantification of 5-HT and caspase-3 immunoreactive (IR) cells in the lamina propria, villi and crypts were performed. RESULTS: The diabetic condition displayed an increase of the number of 5-HT-IR cells in villi and crypts, while decreased number of these cells was observed in lamina propria in the jejunum of STZ-rats. In the diabetic animals, an increased density of apoptotic cells in epithelial villi and crypts of the jejunum was observed, whereas a decreased number of caspase-3-IR cells was observed in lamina propria. Possibly, quercetin supplementation slightly suppressed the apoptosis phenomena in the epithelial villi and crypts of the STZ-rats, however the opposite effect was observed on the 5-HT-IR cells of the lamina propria. Quercetin supplementation on healthy animals promoted few changes of serotoninergic function and apoptotic stimuli. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin supplementation mostly improved the serotonergic function affected by diabetes maybe due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A serotonina (5-HT) está presente nas células epiteliais enterocromafins (CE), nos mastócitos da lâmina própria e nos neurônios entéricos. A 5-HT está envolvida na regulação da motilidade, secreção, nocepção intestinal, sistema imunológico e inflamação. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do diabetes e da suplementação de quercetina sobre a função serotoninérgica e a perda celular por apoptose na mucosa jejunal de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (ratos STZ). MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: normoglicêmico (C), normoglicêmico suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (Q), diabético (D) e diabético suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (DQ). Após 120 dias, o jejuno foi coletado e fixado na solução de Zamboni por 18 horas. Após a obtenção de cortes em criostato, a imuno-histoquímica foi realizada para marcar 5-HT e caspase-3. A quantificação de células imunorreativas (IR) à 5-HT e caspase-3 foram realizadas na lâmina própria, vilosidades e criptas. RESULTADOS: A condição diabética ocasionou um aumento do número de células 5-HT-IR nas vilosidades e criptas, enquanto que na lâmina própria houve uma redução dessas células, no jejuno de ratos STZ. Nos animais diabéticos, foi observada uma densidade aumentada de células apoptóticas no epitélio do jejuno, tanto nas vilosidades quanto nas criptas, por outro lado um número reduzido de células caspase-3-IR foi observado na lâmina própria. Possivelmente, a suplementação de quercetina suprimiu ligeiramente os fenômenos de apoptose no epitélio de vilosidades e criptas do jejuno de ratos STZ, no entanto, o efeito oposto foi observado nas células 5-HT-IR da lâmina própria. A suplementação com quercetina em animais saudáveis promoveu poucas alterações na função serotoninérgica e nos estímulos apoptóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que a suplementação de quercetina melhorou principalmente a função serotoninérgica afetada pelo diabetes, talvez devido às propriedades antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias da quercetina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Serotonin/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Jejunum/pathology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Jejunum/drug effects
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 315-322, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is hypothesized that increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression may contribute to diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of MIF inhibition in a diabetic experimental model. Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230 ± 20 g) were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) diabetic (STZ, 50 mg/kg, dissolved in saline, ip), 3) diabetic + MIF antagonist (p425, 1 mg/kg per day, ip, on the 21th day, for 21 consecutive days). The treatment started since we founwd a significant increase in urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate in the diabetic rats in comparison with the control rats. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages (8 AM-2 PM) and urine samples were collected in the 21 and 42th day. At the end, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical (BS, UPE, urine GAG, BUN, Cr, Na, and K) and histological analyses. Results: The results of this study showed that MIF antagonist (p425) significantly decreased urine protein and GAG excretion, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and serum BUN and Cr in the streptozotocin-induced DN in the rats. Pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the MIF antagonist (p425)-administered DN rats. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggested that MIF antagonist (p425) was able to protect against functional and histopathological injury in the DN.


Resumo Introdução: Supõe-se que elevações da expressão do fator de inibição da migração de macrófagos (MIF) possam contribuir para a patogênese da nefropatia diabética (ND). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos renais da inibição do MIF em um modelo experimental diabético. Métodos: Dezoito ratos Wistar machos (230 ± 20g) foram divididos em três grupos: 1) controle, 2) diabético (STZ 50 mg/kg dissolvida em soro fisiológico, IP), 3) diabético + antagonista do MIF (p425 1 mg/kg por dia IP no 21o dia por 21 dias consecutivos). O tratamento começou após a identificação de aumento significativo na albuminúria nos ratos diabéticos em relação aos controles. Os ratos foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas (8h-14h) e amostras de urina foram colhidas no 21o e no 42o dia. Ao final do estudo, amostras de sangue e tecido foram colhidas para análises bioquímicas (BS, excreção urinária de proteína, excreção urinária de GAGs, BUN, Cr, Na e K) e histológicas. Resultados: O presente estudo demonstrou que o antagonista do MIF (p425) diminuiu significativamente proteinúria, excreção urinária de GAGs , relação proteína/creatinina na urina, BUN e Cr no grupo com ND induzida por estreptozotocina. As alterações patológicas foram significativamente abrandadas nos ratos com ND que receberam antagonista do MIF (p425). Conclusão: Coletivamente, os dados sugerem que o antagonista do MIF (p425) teve efeito protetor contra lesões funcionais e histopatológicas da ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Blood Glucose , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/urine , Kidney/pathology , Macrophage Activation
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 815-824, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hyperglycemia is caused by diabetes mellitus-committed genital morphophysiology, and oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in this process. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can prevent metabolic and morphological changes in diabetic individuals. Objectives In present study, we evaluated the effects of regular ALA consumption on the spermatogenesis and histoarchitecture in the male genital system of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (CG); Diabetic Control (DCG), receiving commercial diet: ALA Group (ALAG) and Diabetic ALA Group (DALAG), fed diets with added ALA (300 mg/Kg bw). The diabetic groups received a single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After sixty days of the diet, the animals were euthanized, and semen, testis and epididymis samples were collected. A histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter, tubular and luminal area of seminiferous tubules and each epididymal region. Sertoli cells were evidenced using the antivimenti antibody and were quantified. The results were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA test. Results At the end of the experiment, the DALAG glycemia was significantly lower than DCG. The histomorphometric parameters of the seminiferous and epididymal tubules did not show improvement in the DALAG. However, there was an improvement in the DALAG in terms of the concentration, motility and percentage of spermatic pathologies, as well as in the number of Sertoli cells (p<0.001). Conclusions The results demonstrated that supplementation with the ALA antioxidant retards testicular lesions and preserve the process of spermatogenesis in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Thioctic Acid/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Epididymis/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sertoli Cells , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiopathology , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Epididymis/pathology
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 606-611, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002265

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the expression levels of the dental pulp to elucidate the role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and CD68 on vascular angiogenesis, inflammation and odontoblast differentiation in the pulp tissue of diabetic rats depending on the effect of possible damage induced by diabetes. Wistar rats were used in the study, divided into two groups. Control group was fed with standard rat chow and drinking water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg), was disolved in sodium citrate buffer and administered by intraperitoneal injection. Blood glucose concentration of rats exceeding 250 mg/dl were accepted as diabetic. Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Tissues were immediately dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin and cut with a microtome then examined under light microscope. In the cross-sections of pulp tissue of diabetic group; the dilation of blood vessels besides hemorrhage and a significant increase in inflammatory cells were seen. The expression of VEGF in the blood vessel endothelial cells of the pulp was increased. VEGF showed positive reaction for degenerative odontoblast cells in the pulp. In this study, increase in VEGF and CD68 expressions in pulp tissue due to the effect of diabetes was thought to delay pulp treatment by inducing soft tissue damage and hypoxia.


El propósito de este estudio fue examinar los niveles de expresión en la pulpa dental para dilucidar el papel del Factor de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular (VEGF) y el CD68 en la angiogénesis, la inflamación y la diferenciación de odontoblastos en el tejido pulpar de ratas diabéticas, dependiendo del efecto de daño inducido por la diabetes. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar divididas en dos grupos. El grupocontrol se alimentó con comida estándar para ratas y agua potable ad libitum durante 8 semanas. Se administró mediante inyección intraperitoneal dosis única de estreptozotocina (STZ) (55 mg / kg), se disolvió en tampón de citrato de sodio. La concentración de glucosa en sangre de ratas que excedían los 250 mg / dl se aceptó como diabética. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas bajo anestesia. Los tejidos se disecaron de inmediato, se fijaron en parafina y se cortaron para luego ser examinados con un microscopio óptico. En las secciones transversales del tejido pulpar del grupo diabético se observó la dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos además de hemorragia y un aumento significativo de células inflamatorias. La expresión de VEGF se incrementó en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos de la pulpa. VEGF mostró una reacción positiva para las células odontoblásticas degenerativas en la pulpa. El aumento en la expresión de VEGF y CD68 en el tejido de la pulpa debido al efecto de la diabetes puede retrasar el tratamiento de la pulpa al inducir hipoxia y daños en los tejidos blandos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dental Pulp/metabolism , Dental Pulp/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Inflammation , Neovascularization, Pathologic
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 28-35, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990000

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: There is an increasing amount of evidence that supports the diabetic complications of the central nervous system structure and function. The cerebellum, which is one of the primary structure derived from the hindbrain, plays an important role in motor control, motor coordination, and non-motor functions, such as cognitive processing. The synapse is a critical structure that regulates neuronal communication, and well-defined afferent and efferent fibre connections in the cerebellum help in maintaining the proper working order. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the long-term effects of diabetes-induced synaptopathy in the cerebellum, using both histological and ultrastructural studies. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided randomly into control and diabetic groups, and diabetes was then induced through a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Six month later, the rats were sacrificed and the cerebellum was removed. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed a degeneration of Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) with shrunken cells, pyknotic nuclei, and synaptopathy, including the reduction in synapse density, number of synaptic vesicles, and maturation of synapses in the molecular layer of diabetic cerebellum. The disruptions in synaptic profiles, which observed in the diabetic condition, could be related to cerebellar dysfunction, thus leading to the defects in coordinated movement, balance, as well as cognitive learning and memory.


RESUMEN: Actualmente existe una creciente evidencia que apoya las complicaciones diabéticas de la estructura y función del sistema nervioso central. El cerebelo, una de las estructuras primarias del cerebro posterior, desempeña un papel importante en el control motor, la coordinación motora y las funciones no motoras, tanto como en el procesamiento cognitivo. La sinapsis es una estructura crítica que regula la comunicación neuronal y las conexiones de fibras aferentes y eferentes bien definidas en el cerebelo, ayudan a mantener el funcionamiento correcto. Por lo tanto, en el presente estudio se investigaron los efectos a largo plazo de la sinaptopatía inducida por la diabetes en el cerebelo, utilizando estudios histológicos y ultraestructurales. Veinte ratas SpragueDawley macho se dividieron al azar en grupos de control y diabetes, se indujó la diabetes a través de una inyección intraperitoneal única de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg de peso corporal). Seis meses después, se sacrificaron las ratas y se extrajo el cerebelo. Los exámenes de microscopías óptica y electrónica mostraron una degeneración de las neuronas purkinjenses (células de Purkinje), con células reducidas, núcleos picnóticos y sinaptopatía, como también la densidad reducida de sinapsis, el número de vesículas sinápticas y la maduración de las sinapsis en la capa molecular del cerebelo de las ratas diabéticas. Las interrupciones en los perfiles sinápticos, que se observaron en la condición diabética, podrían estar relacionadas con la disfunción cerebelosa, lo que lleva a defectos en el movimiento coordinado, el equilibrio, así como al aprendizaje cognitivo y la memoria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Synapses/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Purkinje Cells/pathology , Weight Loss , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glycosuria/pathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Microscopy/methods
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 375-385, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886280

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study. Results: Tissue MDA and MPO levels were found to be significantly higher in diabetes group compared to control group (p<0.05) whilst administration of melatonin was found to significantly lower this increase down to normal levels (p<0.05). Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was more severe in diabetics whereas administration of melatonin alleviated this hyperplasia. Cleaved caspase 3 activity was severe in hyperplastic BALT in diabetic rats however in lowered down to moderate level when melatonin was administered. Conclusion: The melatonin caused an increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased the expression of cleaved-caspase 3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Caspase 3/analysis , Pyroptosis/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Peroxidase/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Caspase 3/drug effects , Glutathione/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 206-211, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893212

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the alveolar bone with histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. Wistar rats were divided into two groups, control and diabetes group. Control group was fed standard rat chow and drinking water for 8 weeks. Single dose (Streptozotocin) STZ (55 mg/kg), was dissolved in sodium citrate buffer and introduced intraperitoneal injection. Diabetes group and control group were compared in terms of glucose values. The blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats was significantly high (p <0.05). In diabetes group; periodontal membrane and the dilation of blood vessels, hemorrhage has also been a significant increase in inflammatory cells. In the diabetes group, osteonectin showed positive expression in periodontal membrane and showed negative expression in osteocytes of alveolar bone. Osteopontin expression in fibroblast cells and periodontal membrane collagen fibrils was positive, alveolar cells, osteocytes and bone matrix bone was found positive. Diabetes results showed that there formed periodontitis; due to the increase in inflammation inhibiting bone formation delaying the development of early bone cells.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la diabetes mellitus (DM) sobre el hueso alveolar con métodos histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron en dos grupos, grupo control y grupo de diabetes. El grupo control fue alimentado con comida estándar y agua potable durante 8 semanas. La dosis única Streptozotocina (STZ) (55 mg/ kg), se disolvió en tampón de citrato de sodio y se introdujo mediante inyección intraperitoneal. El grupo diabetes y el grupo control se compararon en términos de valores de glucosa. La concentración de glucosa en sangre en ratas diabéticas fue significativamente alta (p <0,05). En el grupo diabetes hubo un aumento significativo de la membrana periodontal y dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos y hemorragia, con un aumento significativo de células inflamatorias. En el grupo diabetes, la osteonectina mostró una expresión positiva en la membrana periodontal además se observó expresión negativa en los osteocitos del hueso alveolar. La expresión de osteopontina en fibroblastos y fibrillas de colágeno en membrana periodontal fue positiva, las células alveolares, osteocitos y hueso de la matriz ósea dio positivo. Los resultados de la diabetes mostraron que existía periodontitis, debido al aumento de la inflamación que inhibió la formación ósea retardando el desarrollo de células óseas tempranas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Alveolar Process/metabolism , Alveolar Process/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Blood Glucose , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Osteonectin/metabolism , Osteopontin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e7035, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889054

ABSTRACT

The urethral muscle of diabetic pregnant rats is affected by long-term mild diabetes and short-term severe diabetes, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pelvic floor disorders. We hypothesized that muscles outside the pelvis are subject to similar changes. The current study aimed at analyzing the effects of long-term mild and short-term severe diabetes on the structure and ultrastructure of fiber muscles and collagen in rats' rectus abdominis (RA) muscle. Therefore, the RA muscle of virgin, pregnant, long-term mild diabetic, short-term severe diabetic, long-term mild diabetic pregnant and short-term severe diabetic pregnant 3-month-old Wistar rats were collected. The structure was analyzed by picrosirius red staining, immunohistochemistry for fast and slow muscle fibers and transmission electron microscopy. We investigated two levels of STZ- induced diabetes: long-term mild diabetes (blood glucose level: 120-200 mg/dL) and short-term severe diabetes (blood glucose level >300 mg/dL). Long-term mild diabetic pregnant and short-term severe diabetic pregnant rats had decreased fast fibers and increased slow fibers, disrupted areas of sarcomere, intermyofibrillar mitochondria and myelin figures in the RA muscle. Both groups enabled us to analyze the specific influence of pregnancy, separately from diabetes. The current study demonstrated that diabetes and pregnancy induced intramuscular transformation and reorganization of RA muscle with a switch of fiber type adjusting their architecture according to intensity and duration of hyperglycemic insult within pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy in Diabetics/pathology , Collagen/ultrastructure , Rectus Abdominis/ultrastructure , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/ultrastructure , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889106

ABSTRACT

Ulomoides dermestoides is a beetle traditionally consumed to treat diabetes. In this study, we performed a composition analysis of U. dermestoides to obtain the principal fractions, which were used to assess the effect on glycemia, liver and pancreatic architecture, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Normal mice and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered fractions of chitin, protein or fat, and the acute hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. A subacute study involving daily administration of these fractions to diabetic mice was also performed over 30 days, after which the liver and pancreas were processed by conventional histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphological changes. The most active fraction, the fat fraction, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions were determined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The protein and fat fractions exhibited hypoglycemic effects in the acute as well as in the 30-day study. Only the fat fraction led to elevated insulin levels and reduced glycemia, as well as lower intake of water and food. In the liver, we observed recovery of close hepatic cords in the central lobule vein following treatment with the fat fraction, while in the pancreas there was an increased density and percentage of islets and number of cells per islet, suggesting cellular regeneration. The GC-MS analysis of fat revealed three fatty acids as the major components. Finally, increased expression of PPARγ and GLUT4 was observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating an antidiabetic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancreas/drug effects , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use , Coleoptera/chemistry , Fat Body/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Tissue Extracts/isolation & purification , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
15.
HU rev ; 44(1): 7-13, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-981853

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diabetes mellitus é uma doença metabólica que afeta vários órgãos-alvo, incluindo os ossos. Objetivo: Avaliar pelo método de esqueletonização o efeito do Diabetes mellitus tipo I (DM1) na microarquitetura de osso esponjoso. Material e métodos: Quatorze ratos Wistar foram divididos em: Saudável (S, n=7) e Diabético (D, n=7). O DM1 foi induzido por meio de injeção endovenosa de estreptozotocina no grupo D, sendo a confirmação da condição realizada por checagem do nível glicêmico. Os animais foram sacrificados após 35 dias da indução no grupo D, juntamente com os do grupo S. As epífises femorais foram seccionadas, removidas, desmineralizadas e incluídas em parafina. Dois cortes (5 µm) foram obtidos, corados em Hematoxilina e Eosina, e analisados ao Microscópio de Luz. Foi realizada a delimitação interativa das trabéculas ósseas, seguido pelo processo de binarização utilizando threshold global, feita por dois operadores distintos. Depois, foi realizado o processo de esqueletonização para acesso às características das trabéculas e da rede de interconexão entre elas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: Área óssea em micrômetros quadrados (B.Ar, seguido pela proporção em porcentagem BV/TV), Índice de Modelo estrutural (SMI), Dimensão Fractal (FD), Número de trabéculas (Tb.N), Número de ramos (B.N), Número total de junções (Junc.N), Média de pontos terminais (End.p), Média de extensão de cada ramo (R.Le) e Número de junções triplas (Triple.points.N). Resultados: Houve diferença significante apenas no parâmetro SMI para os diferentes operadores (p<0,0001), sendo o mesmo retirado da análise entre diabetes vs saudável. Houve diferença significante na quantidade óssea, sendo maior no grupo S (0,46±0,09) comparado ao grupo D (0,41±0,07) (p=0,0082). Os demais parâmetros não mostraram diferença significante. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a área óssea no grupo saudável é maior em comparação ao DM1. Dentro das limitações deste estudo, parece que a distribuição espacial das trabéculas e suas características de interconexão não são alteradas no diabetes.


Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects several target-organs, including bone. Objective: Analyze the effects of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1) on the trabecular bone microarchitecture by using the skeletonization process. Material and methods: Fourteen Wistar rats were divided in two groups: Health (S, n=7) and Diabetic (D, n=7). DM1 was induced with streptozotocin in D group, and glycemic levels were tested on peripheral blood samples. After 35 days, the animals were euthanized and had their femurs removed. The epiphysis were decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Five microns sections were stained in Hematoxylin and Eosin, and analyzed at the light microscope. Bone trabeculae were manually delimited, and then the binarization process with a global threshold was performed for each image. The whole process were conducted by two operators separately. Skeletonization was applied to binary images in order to evaluate the trabeculae characteristics and their network. Bone area (B.Ar), Bone proportion (BV/TV) Strucutre Model Index (SMI), Fractal Dimension (FD), Trabeculae number (Tb.N), Mean branches (B.N), Mean junction points (Junc.N), Mean End-points (End.p), Mean branches length (B.Le), and Mean triple points (Triple.points.N) were evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference only for SMI between different operators (p<0.0001), being this parameter excluded for the evaluation between health and diabetic groups. There was a significant difference between S and D for bone area, with S (0.46±0.09) higher than D (0.41±0.07) (p=0.0082). The other parameters analyzed were not significantly different. Conclusion: Bone trabecular area was higher in health compared with diabetes. Within the limitations of this study, one could suggest that there are no alterations of the spatial distribution of the trabeculae with their network and their inner structural characteristics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Cancellous Bone/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1560-1567, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893169

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hyperglycaemia is one of the main causes for the endothelial cell (EC) damage in diabetic patients. Even though circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) could be used as a prognosis for microvascular complications, there is very little information on the islet microvasculature. We analysed by immunohistochemistry and by flow cytometric immunophenotyping, the expression of CD34 on EC and the expressions of CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD133 on CEPC in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Peripheral blood and tissue specimens were obtained from rats of different treatment regimens: STZ treatment, control saline (NS) and sodium citrate (CB) treatments. Blood cells were exposed to flow cytometric immunophenotyping for CD133, CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD133. While tissues from the pancreas, liver and kidney were routinely processed and stained immunohistochemically for CD34. There was a tendency of an increased in CD45-/CD133+/CD31+/CD34+ cells (0.04 ± 0.11 %) in diabetic rats compared to the controls (CB: 0.03 ± 0.04 %; Saline: 0.01 ± 0.03 %). But there was no significant statistical difference between them. The expression pattern of CD34 on the EC in the organs' vascular beds including arterioles, venules, capillaries and sinusoids was extremely heterogeneous across and within treatment regimens. The ECs in the sinusoids of the liver presented similar CD34 expression patterns across different treatment regimens, while the expression of CD34 on the ECs of sinusoidal capillaries in the pancreas vary with the treatment regimen. We conclude that the degree of endothelial cell damage is not uniform across organs' vascular beds in the rat, contrary to mice and humans. Furthermore, the sinusoids in the pancreas and the kidney may have the same degree of endothelial damage when exposed to the same deleterious causes.


RESUMEN: La hiperglucemia es una de las principales causas del daño de las células endoteliales (EC) en pacientes diabéticos. A pesar de que las células progenitoras endoteliales circulantes (CEPC) podrían utilizarse como pronóstico de las complicaciones microvasculares, hay muy poca información sobre la microvasculatura de los islotes. Se analizaron por inmunohistoquímica y por inmunofenotipificación citométrica de flujo, la expresión de CD34 en EC y las expresiones de CD31, CD34, CD45 y CD133 en CEPC en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ). Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre y tejidos periféricos a partir de ratas de diferentes regímenes de tratamiento: tratamiento con STZ, solución salina control (NS) y citrato de sodio (CB). Las células sanguíneas fueron expuestas a inmunofenotipado por citometría de flujo para CD133, CD31, CD34, CD45 y CD133. Mientras que los tejidos del páncreas, el hígado y el riñón fueron rutinariamente procesados y teñidos inmunohistoquímicamente para CD34. Se observó una tendencia a un aumento en las células CD45- / CD133 + / CD31 + / CD34 + (0,04 ± 0,11 %) en ratas diabéticas en comparación con los controles (CB: 0,03 ± 0,04 %; Salino: 0,01 ± 0,03 %). Pero no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos. El patrón de expresión de CD34 en la EC en los lechos vasculares de los órganos incluyendo arteriolas, vénulas, capilares y sinusoides fue extremadamente heterogéneo a través de y dentro de los regímenes de tratamiento. Las EC en los sinusoides del hígado presentaron patrones de expresión de CD34 similares a través de diferentes regímenes de tratamiento, mientras que la expresión de CD34 en las CE de capilares sinusoidales en el páncreas varía con el régimen de tratamiento. Concluimos que el grado de daño de las células endoteliales no es uniforme en los lechos vasculares de los órganos en la rata, en comparación de los ratones y los seres humanos. Además, los sinusoides en el páncreas y el riñón pueden tener el mismo grado de daño endotelial cuando se exponen a las mismas causas deletéreas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/pathology , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Islets of Langerhans/blood supply , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Rats, Wistar
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 162-166, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840948

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one form of diabetes affect approximately 7 % of pregnancies. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes that is associated with loss of nerve fibers, myelin abnormalities and significant decrease in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves. This study was done to determine the effect of induced diabetes during pregnancy on sciatic nerve in adult rat offspring. In this study, wistar rats' dams were allocated to control and diabetic groups. Diabetic rats were received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) on the first day of gestation. Six offspring of each group were randomly selected on 12 weeks postnatal and histopathological changes in their nerve tissue were examined through H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the expression of MBP in sciatic nerve was examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that the myelinated fiber number of sciatic nerve in offspring of diabetic rats was reduced compared to the controls, but this difference was not significant. The average thickness of the myelin sheath of sciatic nerve fibers in the control and GDM was 97.1±0.1and 94.1±0.2 µm, respectively that the difference was not statistically significant. The expression of MBP protein in the myelin sheath of both groups was similar. TEM results showed that myelin sheath of diabetic offspring had not any changes compared to control. Atrophy of axons and schwannocytus (Schwann cells) alterations were not observed in diabetic offspring. Induction of diabetes during pregnancy reduced the number of nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath. But it has no effect on MBP expression and schwannocytus morphology.


La diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) es una forma de diabetes que afecta aproximadamente al 7 % de los embarazos. La neuropatía periférica diabética (NPD) es una complicación frecuente de la diabetes asociada a la pérdida de fibras nerviosas, anomalías de la mielina y disminución significativa de la expresión de la proteína básica de mielina (PBM) en los nervios periféricos. Este estudio se realizó para determinar el efecto de la diabetes inducida durante el embarazo en el nervio ciático en descendientes de ratas adultas. Las ratas Wistar madres fueron asignadas a los grupos control y diabéticas. Las ratas diabéticas recibieron 40 mg/kg/peso corporal de estreptozotocina (STZ) el primer día de gestación. Seis descendientes de cada grupo fueron seleccionados al azar en la semana 12 postnatal y los cambios histopatológicos en su tejido nervioso se examinaron a través de tinción H-E y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Además, la expresión de PBM en el nervio ciático se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica. Se encontró que el número de fibras mielinizadas de nervio ciático en descendientes de ratas diabéticas se redujo en comparación con los controles, pero esta diferencia no fue significativa. El espesor medio de la vaina de mielina de las fibras nerviosas ciáticas en el control y DMG fue de 97,1±0,1 y 94,1±0,2 µm, respectivamente, y la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. La expresión de la proteína PBM en la vaina de mielina de ambos grupos fue similar. Los resultados del TEM mostraron que la vaina de mielina de la descendencia diabética no tuvo ningún cambio en comparación con el control. La atrofia de los axones y las alteraciones de los schwannocitos (células de Schwann) no se observaron en descendientes diabéticos. La inducción de diabetes durante el embarazo redujo el número de fibras nerviosas y el grosor de la vaina de mielina. Pero no tiene ningún efecto sobre la expresión de PBM y la morfología de las schwannocitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Rats, Wistar
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(8): e6204, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888983

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we determined whether the effect of astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on diabetic cardiomyopathy was associated with its impact on oxidative stress. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and heterozygous superoxide dismutase (SOD2+/-) knockout mice were administered APS. The hemodynamics, cardiac ultrastructure, and the apoptosis, necrosis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes were assessed to evaluate the effect of APS on diabetic and oxidative cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, H2O2 formation, oxidative stress/damage, and SOD activity in cardiomyocytes were evaluated to determine the effects of APS on cardiac oxidative stress. APS therapy improved hemodynamics and myocardial ultrastructure with reduced apoptosis/necrosis, and enhanced proliferation in cardiomyocytes from both STZ-induced diabetic mice and heterozygous SOD2+/- knockout mice. In addition, APS therapy reduced H2O2 formation and oxidative stress/damage, and enhanced SOD activity in both groups of mice. Our findings suggest that APS had benefits in diabetic cardiomyopathy, which may be partly associated with its impact on cardiac oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Astragalus Plant/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Streptozocin , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1386-1391, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840897

ABSTRACT

Previous study has shown the adverse effects of gestational diabetes on hippocampal and spinal cord neuronal density in animal model. This study was conducted to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on beta cells in rat pancreas in early postnatal life. In this experimental study, 10 dams randomly allocated into control and diabetic groups on day 1 of gestation. Five dams in diabetic group received 40 mg/kg/BW of streptozotocin (intraperitoneally) and control animals received normal saline. Six of 28 and 56-day-old offspring of each gestational diabetes mellitus and controls were randomly scarified and sections were taken from the pancreas and stained using Gomorra's method. The density of beta cells and number and area of pancreatic islets were evaluated by quantitative computer-assisted morphometric method. The density of beta cells of 28-day-old offspring pancreas significantly reduced from 96.23±5.0 in control group to 71.5±5.3 cells in 10000 mm2 area of islet in diabetic group (P <0.01). The number of the pancreatic islets of in gestational diabetes (15.25±3.7) significantly reduced in comparison with the controls (8.61±0.7). The density of beta cells of 56-day-old offspring pancreas significantly reduced from 105.33±8.6 in control group to 62.12±5.9 in diabetic group (P <0.01). The number of the pancreatic islets of in gestational diabetes (13.5±0.5) significantly reduced compared to controls (6.75±1.7) (P <0.01). This study revealed that gestational diabetes loss the number of the beta cells in 28 and 56-day-old rat offspring.


Estudios previos han mostrado los efectos adversos de la diabetes gestacional en la densidad neuronal del hipocampo y de la médula espinal en modelos animales. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar el efecto de la diabetes gestacional en las células beta del páncreas de rata en vida postnatal temprana. En este estudio experimental, 10 ratas fueron asignadas al azar a los grupos control y diabético en el día 1 de gestación. Cinco ratas del grupo diabético recibieron 40 mg/kg/BW de estreptozotocina (intraperitonealmente), mientras que los animales del grupo control recibieron solución salina normal. Seis de los descendientes, de 28 y 56 días de edad, de cada grupo, diabetes mellitus gestacional y control, se escarificaron al azar y se tomaron secciones del páncreas, que se tiñeron usando el método de Gomorra. La densidad de las células beta y el número y área de islotes pancreáticos fueron evaluados a través de método cuantitativo asistido por computadora morfométrica. La densidad de células beta del páncreas en las crías de 28 días disminuyó significativamente de 96,23 ± 5,0 en el grupo de control a 71,5 ± 5,3 células en el grupo diabético, en 10000 mm2 de área de islote (P <0,01). El número de islotes pancreáticos de la diabetes gestacional (15,25 ± 3,7) se redujo significativamente en comparación con los controles (8,61 ± 0,7). La densidad de células beta del páncreas en las crías de 56 días de edad se redujo de 105,33 ± 8,6 en el grupo de control a 62,12 ± 5,9 en el grupo diabético (P <0,01). El número de islotes pancreáticos en el grupo de diabetes gestacional (13,5 ± 0,5) se redujo significativamente en comparación con los controles (6,75 ± 1,7) (P <0,01). Este estudio reveló que la diabetes gestacional provoca una pérdida en el número de células beta en crías de ratas de 28 y 56 días de edad.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Pregnancy, Animal , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 205-211, Mar. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780495

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined as impaired glucose tolerance affects approximately 6 % of all pregnant women who have never before had diabetes, but who do have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. This study was done to evaluate the apoptosis in the neuronal cells in the CA1, CA2 and CA3 subfields of hippocampus and dentate gyrus in offspring of gestational diabetes at the 7, 21 and 28 d in postnatal rats. Thirty Wistar rat dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. Dams in diabetic group were received 40 mg/kg/BW of streptozotocin at the first day of gestation and control groups received an equivalent volume normal saline injection intraperitoneally (IP). Six offspring of GDM and control dams, at the 7, 21, 28 postnatal day were randomly were sacrificed quickly with anesthesia. The coronal sections of brain serially collected. The apoptosis neurons were evaluated with TUNEL Assay. In the CA1, the number of apoptotic cells in 7, 21 and 28 d of postnatal life were significantly increased in GDM compared to controls (P<0.001). In the CA2, CA3 the number of apoptotic cells in 7, 21 and 28 d age-old offspring were significantly increased in GDM compared to controls (P<0.001). In the dentate gyrus, the number of apoptotic cells in 7, 21 and 28 d of postnatal life were significantly increased in GDM compared to controls (P<0.01). This study showed that the uncontrolled gestational diabetes significantly increases neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal and dentate gyrus in rat offspring.


La diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) se define como la intolerancia a la glucosa que afecta aproximadamente al 6 % de todas las mujeres embarazadas que nunca han tenido diabetes, pero que sí tienen niveles de glucosa en la sangre elevados durante el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la apoptosis de células neuronales en CA1, CA2 y CA3, subcampos del hipocampo y el giro dentado, en las crías de ratas con diabetes gestacional en los días 7, 21 y 28 luego del nacimiento. Se utilizaron 30 ratas Wistar asignadas aleatoriamente en grupos control y diabético (GDM). Se administró al grupo diabético 40 mg/kg de peso corporal de estreptozotocina en el primer día de gestación y el grupo control recibió un volumen equivalente de solución salina normal por inyección vía intraperitoneal. Seis crías de los grupos GDM y control fueron seleccionadas aleatoriamente y sacrificadas bajo anestesia los días 7, 21, 28. Se tomaron secciones seriales coronales del cerebro. La apoptosis neuronal se evaluó mediante ensayo TUNEL. En el CA1, el número de células apoptóticas a los 7, 21 y 28 d se incrementó significativamente en el grupo GDM en comparación con los controles (P <0.001). En el CA2 y CA3 el número de células apoptóticas en los días 7, 21 y 28 también se incrementó significativamente en GDM en comparación con los controles (P <0,001). En el giro dentado, el número de células apoptóticas en los días 7, 21 y 28 se incrementó significativamente en GDM en comparación con los controles (P <0,01). Este estudio mostró que la diabetes gestacional no controlada aumenta significativamente la apoptosis neuronal en el hipocampo y el giro dentado en las crías de las ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Apoptosis , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Dentate Gyrus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
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