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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929268


The dry root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has garnered much interest owing to its medicinal properties against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the therapeutic mechanisms of ginseng extract on the serum and urinary metabolic profiles in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Pharmacological and renal parameters in response to the administration of ginseng were also evaluated. In total, 16 serum endogenous metabolites and 14 urine endogenous metabolites, including pyruvic acid, indoleacetic acid, and phenylacetylglycine, were identified as potential biomarkers for diabetes. Pathway enrichment and network analysis revealed that the biomarkers modulated by ginseng were primarily involved in phenylalanine and pyruvate metabolism, as well as in arginine biosynthesis. Moreover, the levels of several renal injury-related biomarkers in T1DM rats were significantly restored following treatment with ginseng. The administration of the extract helped maintain tissue structure integrity and ameliorated renal injury. The findings suggest that the regulatory effect of ginseng extract on T1DM involves metabolic management of diabetic rats, which subsequently attenuates T1DM-induced early renal dysfunction.

Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Kidney , Metabolomics/methods , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928990


OBJECTIVES@#Patients with classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) require lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin therapy due to pancreatic beta-cell destruction and absolute insulin deficiency. T1DM accounts for about 90% of children with diabetes in China, with a rapid increase in incidence and a younger-age trend. Epidemiological studies have shown that the overall glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and compliance rate are low in Chinese children with T1DM. Optimal glucose control is the key for diabetes treatment, and maintaining blood glucose within the target range can prevent or delay chronic vascular complications in patients with T1DM. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the glycemic control of children with T1DM from Hunan and Henan Province with flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS), and to explore factors associated with glycemic variability.@*METHODS@#A total of 215 children with T1DM under 14 years old were enrolled continuously in 16 hospitals from August 2017 to August 2020. All subjects wore a FGMS device to collect glucose data. Correlation of HbA1c, duration of diabetes, or glucose scan rates with glycemic variability was analyzed. Glucose variability was compared according to the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, glucose scan rates and insulin schema.@*RESULTS@#HbA1c and duration of diabetes were positively correlated with mean blood glucose, standard deviation of glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE), and coefficient of variation (CV) of glucose (all P<0.01). The glucose scan rates during FGMS wearing was significantly positively correlated with time in range (TIR) (P=0.001) and negatively correlated with MAGE and mean duration of hypoglycemia (all P<0.01). Children with duration ≤1 year had lower time below range (TBR) and MAGE when compared with those with duration >1 year (all P<0.05). TIR and TBR in patients with HbA1c ≤7.5% were higher (TIR: 65% vs 45%, TBR: 5% vs 4%, P<0.05), MAGE was lower (7.0 mmol/L vs 9.4 mmol/L, P<0.001) than those in HbA1c >7.5% group. Compared to the multiple daily insulin injections group, TIR was higher (60% vs 52%, P=0.006), MAGE was lower (P=0.006) in the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion group. HbA1c was lower in the high scan rates (≥14 times/d) group (7.4% vs 8.0%, P=0.046), TIR was significantly higher (58% vs 47%, P<0.001), and MAGE was lower (P<0.001) than those in the low scan rate (<14 times/d) group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall glycemic control of T1DM patients under 14 years old in Hunan and Henan Province is under a high risk of hypoglycemia and great glycemic variability. Shorter duration of diabetes, targeted HbA1c, higher glucose scan rates, and CSII are associated with less glycemic variability.

Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 342-351, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285166


ABSTRACT Objective: Adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) and vitamin D have immunomodulatory actions that could be useful for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed in this study to investigate the safety and efficacy of ASCs + daily cholecalciferol (VIT D) for 6 months in patients with recent-onset T1D. Materials and methods: In this prospective, dual-center, open trial, patients with recent onset T1D received one dose of allogenic ASC (1 x 106 cells/kg) and cholecalciferol 2,000 UI/day for 6 months (group 1). They were compared to patients who received chol-ecalciferol (group 2) and standard treatment (group 3). Adverse events were recorded; C-peptide (CP), insulin dose and HbA1c were measured at baseline (T0), after 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6). Results: In group 1 (n = 7), adverse events included transient headache (all), mild local reactions (all), tachycardia (n = 4), abdominal cramps (n = 1), thrombophlebitis (n = 4), scotomas (n = 2), and central retinal vein occlusion at T3 (n = 1, resolution at T6). Group 1 had an increase in basal CP (p = 0.018; mean: 40.41+/-40.79 %), without changes in stimulated CP after mixed meal (p = 0.62), from T0 to T6. Basal CP remained stable in groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.58 and p = 0.116, respectively). Group 1 had small insulin requirements (0.31+/- 0.26 UI/kg) without changes at T6 (p = 0.44) and HbA1c decline (p = 0.01). At T6, all patients (100%; n = 7) in group 1 were in honeymoon vs 75% (n = 3/4) and 50% (n = 3/6) in groups 2 and 3, p = 0.01. Conclusions: Allogenic ASC + VIT D without immunosuppression was safe and might have a role in the preservation of β-cells in patients with recent-onset T1D. NCT03920397.

Humans , Stem Cells/cytology , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Pilot Projects , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Prospective Studies
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248819


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 185-197, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248805


ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the patients' glycemic control and adherence to self-care tasks. Materials and methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) using a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen with carbohydrate counting (n = 25, Subgroup B) or fixed insulin dose (n = 25, Subgroup C) were allocated to use the application (app) for 12 weeks. Both subgroups were compared with each other and against a control group (n = 25, Group A) comprising patients with T1DM or LADA treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a parallel-group, open-label, clinical treatment trial. All patients had glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels measured and were asked to fill out the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) questionnaire at study start and end. The patients were instructed to measure capillary glucose six times daily in study weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Mean A1C levels decreased 0.725% in Subgroup C in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0063), and had a mean variation of 0.834% compared with Group A (p = 0.003). Mean DSMP scores increased 5.77 points in Subgroup B in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0004) and increased by a mean of 6.815 points in relation to Group A (p = 0.002). Conclusion: OneTouch Reveal improved both A1C levels and DSMP scores in patients with T1DM or LADA compared with standard treatment (CSII).

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Self Care , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879819


OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSⅡ) versus multiple daily injection (MDI) on blood glucose control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 91 children with T1DM who were treated with CSⅡ for more than 1 year and 75 children with T1DM who were treated with MDI. The two groups were compared in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and the recurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) to evaluate the difference in the efficacy during the 3-year follow-up. A survey was conducted for the children in the CSⅡ group and their family members to investigate the degree of satisfaction with insulin pump.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in age, sex, and course of diabetes between the CSⅡ and MDI groups at disease onset and in the first year, the second year, and the third year of follow-up (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with T1DM treated with CSⅡ have a better control of blood glucose than those treated with MDI, and children and their family members are satisfied with CSⅡ treatment. Therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulins , Retrospective Studies
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20190343, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124793


RESUMO Objetivo descrever o processo de construção, avaliação e adequação de vídeos educativos sobre aplicação de insulina direcionados a pacientes adultos e cuidadores. Método estudo metodológico, de caráter descritivo, realizado em três fases: construção, avaliação e adequação. A construção dos vídeos foi realizada com base em revisão de literatura e no protocolo do município. A avaliação foi realizada com experts, por meio de um instrumento construído pelos pesquisadores. O nível de concordância entre os experts foi avaliado pelo índice de validade do conteúdo, que orientou o processo de adequação do material. Resultados os vídeos foram construídos contemplando os principais pontos críticos relacionados à aplicação de insulina. Os itens que obtiveram índice de validade de conteúdo < 0,8 foram reformulados. Conclusão e Implicações para a prática foram produzidos dois vídeos que abordam o transporte, armazenamento, preparo e aplicação da insulina, descarte de perfurocortantes e monitorização da glicemia. Os vídeos educativos construídos podem ser considerados ferramentas facilitadoras do processo de educação em diabetes mellitus e úteis na uniformização de orientações. A descrição do processo de construção, avaliação e adequação pode encorajar outros profissionais a desenvolver materiais que respondam às necessidades de seus contextos de trabalho e assim melhorar e qualificar o cuidado às pessoas.

RESUMEN Objetivo describir el proceso de construcción, evaluación y adecuación de vídeos educativos sobre la aplicación de insulina dirigidos a pacientes adultos y cuidadores. Método estudio de carácter descriptivo realizado en tres fases: construcción, evaluación y adecuación. La construcción de los vídeos se realizó en base a una revisión de la literatura y en el protocolo del municipio. La evaluación se realizó con expertos, utilizando un instrumento construido por los investigadores, el nivel de acuerdo entre los expertos se evaluó mediante el índice de validez de contenido, que guió el proceso de adaptación del material. Resultados los vídeos fueron construidos cubriendo los principales puntos críticos relacionados con la aplicación de insulina. Los ítems que obtuvieron un índice de validez de contenido <0.8 fueron reformulados. Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica se realizaron dos vídeos que abordan el transporte, el almacenamiento, la preparación y la aplicación de insulina, la eliminación de objetos punzantes y el control de la glucosa en sangre. Los vídeos educativos construidos pueden considerarse herramientas que facilitan el proceso de educación en diabetes mellitus y útiles para estandarizar las pautas. La descripción del proceso de construcción, evaluación y adaptación puede alentar a otros profesionales a desarrollar materiales que respondan a las necesidades de sus contextos de trabajo y así mejorar la atención a las personas.

ABSTRACT Objective to describe the process of development, evaluation, and adaptation of educational videos on insulin application whose target audience was adult patients and caregivers. Methods descriptive and methodological study, carried out in three phases: development, evaluation, and adaptation. The development of the videos was based on a literature review and the municipality's protocol. The evaluation was carried out by experts by applying an instrument designed by the researchers, and the level of agreement between the experts was assessed by the content validity index, which guided the material adaptation process. Results the videos were developed to address the main critical points related to insulin application. The items that obtained a content validity index < 0.8 were reformulated. Conclusion and implications for practice two videos were made addressing insulin transport, storage, preparation and application, sharps disposal, and blood glucose monitoring. The educational videos made in the present study can be considered tools that contribute to education in diabetes mellitus and are useful for standardizing guidelines. The description of the development, evaluation, and adaptation process can encourage other professionals to develop materials that meet the needs found in their work contexts and, consequently, improve and qualify the care provided to their patients.

Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Patient Education as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Self Care , Insulin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 640-647, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345205


ABSTRACT Objective: Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) is increasingly used in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) management. This study aimed to assess glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) in the first year of FGM use in patients with T1D and to identify predictive factors of benefit associated with its use. Subjects and methods: Retrospective study of T1D patients, using FGM for ≥ 6 months and under intensive insulin therapy with multiple daily injections. Results: In 179 patients with a median (Md) age of 43.0 years (P25 31.0; P75 52.0) and disease duration of 18.0 years (P25 10.0; P75 28.0), initial HbA1c was 7.9% (P25 7.2; P75 8.8) and initial BMI was 24.0 kg/m2 (P25 21.9; P75 26.2). With FGM, HbA1c improved significantly to 7.6% (P25 7.0; P75 8.3) at 6 months and 7.7% (P25 6.95; P75 8.5) at 12 months (p < 0.05), with more patients with HbA1c < 7% (16.1% vs 22.5%) and fewer patients with HbA1c ≥ 8% (49.1% vs 35.8%) (p < 0.05). Initial HbA1c 8.0-8.9% (HR 1.886; 95% CI 1.321-2.450) and ≥ 9.0% (HR 3.108, 95% CI 2.454-3.761) predicted greater HbA1c reduction. BMI increased significantly, especially between 6 and 12 months (BMI Md 23.8 [P25 21.9; P75 26.2] kg/m2 and 24.0 [P25 22.0; P75 26.2] kg/m2, respectively) (p < 0.05). Overweight (HR 4.319, 95% CI 3.185-5.453) and obesity (HR 8.112, 95% CI 3.919-12.306) predicted greater weight gain. Conclusions: FGM use was associated with significant improvement in HbA1c, mainly in patients with worse previous glycemic control. It was also associated with increased BMI, especially if baseline BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, so weight control strategies should be emphasized.

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 570-578, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345201


ABSTRACT Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the heterogeneity of the association between glycemic variability and oxidative stress markers in T1DM patients under daily life insulin treatment. Subjects and methods: We studied, in a cross-sectional analysis, 76 T1DM patients without clinical chronic diabetes complications and 22 healthy individuals. Were evaluated the short-term glycemic variability (STGV), long-term glycemic variability (LTGV), oxidative stress markers [8-isoprostaglandin-F2α (Ur-8-iso-PGF2α), nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and erythrocytes reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG)] and biochemical dosages (glycaemia, HbA1c, lipidogram, albuminuria). Results: Plasmatic NO was positively associated with LTGV (last year average of HbA1c) (8.7 ± 1.6% or 71 ± 18 mmol) (rS: 0.278; p: 0.042). Plasmatic TBARS, erythrocytes GSH/GSSH and Ur-8-iso-PGF-2α didn't show correlation with glycemic variability. GSH/GSSG was inversely correlated with LDL-cholesterol (rS: - 0.417; p: 0.047) and triglycerides (rS: −0.521; p: 0.013). Albuminuria was positive correlated with age (rS: 0.340; p: 0.002), plasmatic NO (rS: 0.267; p 0.049) and TBARS (rS: 0.327; p: 0.015). Conclusion: In daily life insulin treatment, young T1DM patients have higher plasmatic NO than healthy subjects. However, the correlation between glycemic variability and oxidative stress markers is heterogeneous. Lipid profile and albuminuria are associated with different oxidative stress markers. These data collaborate to explain the controversial results in this issue.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 241-250, ago. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040516


La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tiene evolución crónica y progresiva, prevalencia creciente y aún es diagnosticada tardíamente. Esto conlleva mayor incidencia de complicaciones crónicas, con incremento de costos en salud. Existe retraso en el inicio de insulinoterapia por causas relacionadas tanto al paciente como al médico. A pesar de los avances en su tratamiento, una baja proporción de enfermos logra control glucémico adecuado. La alta prevalencia de hipoglucemia en pacientes insulino-tratados, impulsó el desarrollo de una nueva generación de insulinas basales de acción prolongada, mayor estabilidad con menor variabilidad y riesgo de hipoglucemias. El programa EDITION evaluó la eficacia y seguridad de glargina U300 vs. glargina U100 en pacientes con diabetes tipo 1 y 2, en distintas etapas de la enfermedad. Glargina U300 es una nueva formulación de insulina glargina con perfil farmacocinético y farmacodinámico más estable y prolongado que glargina U100. Glargina U300 demostró eficacia y tolerabilidad comparable a glargina U100, con descenso significativo del riesgo de hipoglucemias nocturnas y en 24 horas, aportando mayor flexibilidad en el horario de inyección, con una ventana de 6 horas. Además, no se observó mayor aumento de peso que con glargina U100. El estudio Bright (2018) comparó glargina U300 vs. degludec U100, demostrando mayor beneficio en relación al riesgo de hipoglucemia con Gla-300 durante el período de titulación. Gla-300 es una insulina basal de última generación, disponible para mejorar el control metabólico, con menor riesgo de hipoglucemia.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease with increasing prevalence and still late diagnostic. This leads to an increase in the incidence of chronic complications, with signifi cantly increasing health costs. There is also a delay in the onset of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes for causes related to both patients and physicians. Despite advances in treatment, a low proportion of patients achieve adequate glycemic control. The high hypoglycemia prevalence, consequence of insulin, has led to the development of a new generation long-acting basal insulins to achieve a more stable and prolonged action profile, reducing the variability and risk of hypoglycemia. The EDITION program evaluated the efficacy and safety of glargine U300 compared to glargine U100 in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes at different stages of the disease. Gla-300 is a new formulation of insulin glargine which has a more stable and prolonged pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Gla-300 demonstrated efficacy and tolerability comparable to glargine U100, with a significant decrease in the risk of hypoglycemia, at night and in 24 hours, providing greater flexibility in the injection schedule, with a window of 6 hours. No increase in weight was observed compared to glargine U100. Bright study (2018) compared glargine U300 vs. degludec U100, demonstrating greater benefit in relation to the risk of hypoglycemia with Gla-300 during titration period. Gla-300 is a last-generation basal insulin, available to improve metabolic control, with a lower risk of hypoglycemia.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin Glargine/administration & dosage , Insulin Glargine/pharmacokinetics , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Evidence-Based Medicine , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(2): 124-132, abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995453


La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1), es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por la deficiencia de insulina debido a la pérdida de células ß pancreáticas, las alteraciones hormonales en la DM 1 no se limitan a la deficiencia de insulina; existiendo también secreción inadecuadada de glucagón en el período postprandial. Aunque el control glucémico con terapias intensivas con insulina ha reducido la incidencia de complicaciones microvascular y macrovasculares. La mayoría de las personas con DM1 tienen un control glucémico subóptimo; Por lo tanto, el uso de farmacoterapia adyuvante para mejorar el control ha sido de interés clínico. El uso de estos nuevos medicamentos brindaría la oportunidad de imitar más de cerca la fisiología pancreática normal, y contrarrestar otros mecanismos fisiopatológicos diferentes a Insulinopenia; contribuyendo a lograr un mejor control metabólico y expectativa de vida.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency due to the loss of pancreatic ß cells, the hormonal alterations in T1DM are not limited to insulin deficiency; there is also a deregulated glucagon secretion in the postprandial period. Although glycemic control with intensive therapies with insulin has reduced the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications, most people with T1DM1 glycemic control; therefore, the use of adjuvant pharmacotherapy to improve control has been of clinical interest. The use of these new drugs would offer the opportunity to imitate more closely the normal pancreatic physiology, and to counteract other physiopathological mechanisms different from insulinopenia; contributing to achieve better metabolic control and life expectancy.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 451-457, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014246


Background: Few studies have evaluated the details of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Chile. Aim: To describe clinical features and treatment details of adults with T1D and its association with metabolic control. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with T1D treated in a clinical network. Demographic and clinical features, types and doses of insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels were registered. The use flash glucose monitors (FGM) and insulin pumps (CSII) were also recorded. Results: 205 records were reviewed, with T1d lasting 12 ± 10 years. Twenty six percent had hypothyroidism, 1% had celiac disease, 12% had hypertension, 20% had dyslipidemia; 13% had diabetic retinopathy, 2% had diabetic nephropathy, 8% had neuropathy and 2% cardiovascular diseases. Mean body mass index was 25 kg/ m2 and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8%. Eighty-two percent used multiple daily injections, 18% used CSII and 24% used FGM. As basal insulin, 35% used slow acting analogs and 65% used ultra-slow analogs. As rapid acting insulin, 69 patients used Lispro, 79 Aspart and 50 Glulisin. Bolus doses were calculated using only capillary glucose in 22%, while 78% also considered carbohydrate consumption. Variables significantly associated to better control were the use of carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin (A1c 7,85% vs 8,59%, p = 0,008), use of CSII (A1c 7,36% vs 8,16%, p = 0,008), and basal dose < 0,4 U/kg (A1c 7,81% vs 8,58%, p = 0,003). There were no differences regarding insulin type or use of FGM. Conclusions: The use of formulas considering carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin, use of infusion pumps and physiological doses of basal insulin are significantly associated with a better metabolic control in adults with T1d.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 6-10, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981150


Antecedentes: En el tratamiento de la diabetes se buscan insulinas de acción más prolongada y con menores tasas de hipoglicemias. Objetivo. Uso del análogo de insulina de acción ultralenta degludec en diabéticos tipo 1 (DM1) tratados previamente con glargina. Pacientes y método: Se observaron 230 DM1 durante 18 meses, promedio de edad 34 años y de diagnóstico 14 años, registrándose parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos, hipoglicemias y requerimientos de insulina (U/kg/peso), en régimen basal/bolo, con degludec y ultra-rápida precomidas. Degludec se ajustó quincenalmente. Resultados: A los 3 meses, la glicemia de ayunas disminuyó de 253mg/dl (243-270) a 180 mg/dl (172- 240), (p< 0,05); a los 6 meses a 156 mg/dl (137-180) (p< 0,05), a los 12 meses a 151 mg/dl (50-328) (p< 0,001) y a los 18 meses 150 (50-321) (p<0,001). La HbA1c, inicialmente de 10,6% (10,3-12,2) bajó a los 3 meses a 8,7% (8,2-11,1) (p< 0,05), a 6 meses a 8,3% (8,0-9,6) (p<0,05), a los 12 meses subió 9,0% (5,9-14,5) (p<0,001) y a los 18 meses 9,0% (5,9-14,6) (p<0,001). La dosis de degludec fue 0,5 U/kg/peso a los 18 meses. Hubo reducción de hipoglicemias: a los 3 meses 14 leves, 4 moderados 1 grave; a los 6 meses 8 leves, 2 moderados y ninguna grave; a los 12 meses 1 leve, y a los 18 meses 2 leves, 1 moderado y ninguna grave. Un 7,8% no presentó hipoglicemias. Conclusión: Degludec en DM1 mostró reducir las glicemias de ayunas y HbA1c, y menor número de hipoglicemias.

Background: In the treatment of diabetes, longer-acting insulins with lower rates of hypoglycaemia are sought. Objective. Use of ultralow-acting insulin analog degludec in type 1 diabetic patients (T1D) previously treated with glargine. Patients and method: 230 T1D patients were observed during 18 months, average of age 34 years and of diagnosis 14 years, registering clinical, biochemical, hypoglycemia and insulin requirements (U / kg / weight), in basal / bolus regimen, with degludec and ultra-fast pre-meals. Degludec adjusted himself fortnightly. Results: At 3 months, the fasting glycemia decreased from 253 mg / dl (243-270) to 180 mg / dl (172 - 240), (p <0.05); at 6 months at 156 mg / dl (137-180) (p <0.05), at 12 months at 151 mg / dl (50-328) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 150 (50-321) ;(p <0.001). HbA1c, initially of 10.6% (10.3-12.2), decreased after 3 months to 8.7% (8.2 - 11.1) (p <0.05), to 6 months to 8 months, 3% (8.0-9.6) (p <0.05), at 12 months it rose 9.0% (5.9-14.5) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 9.0 % (5.9-14.6) (p <0.001). The dose of degludec was 0.5 U / kg / weight at 18 months. There was reduction of hypoglycemia: at 3 months, 14 mild, 4 moderate, 1 severe; at 6 months 8 mild, 2 moderate and none serious; at 12 months 1 mild, and at 18 months 2 mild, 1 moderate and none serious. 7.8% did not present hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Degludec in T1D patients showed to reduce fasting glycemia and HbA1c, and lower number of hypoglycemia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170500, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954513


Abstract Objectives Since most of the studies evaluates diabetics on multiple daily injections therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion may help gain better metabolic control and prevent complications, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the total bacteria load, Streptococcus spp. levels and Lactobacillus spp. levels in saliva and supragingival dental biofilm of type 1 diabetics on insulin pump. Material and Methods Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump and 60 nondiabetic individuals were included. The dental caries evaluation was performed using ICDAS and the oral hygiene was assessed according to Greene and Vermillion Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Unstimulated saliva and supragingival dental biofilm were collected. Total bacteria, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was quantified by qPCR. Results Patients with type 1 diabetes had a higher prevalence of dental caries and filled and missing teeth when compared with the control group. These patients were associated with more risk factors for the development of dental caries, namely a lower unstimulated salivary flow rate and a higher bacterial load in saliva and dental biofilm. Conclusion Some risk factors related to dental caries were associated with type 1 diabetics. An early diagnosis combined with the evaluation of the risk profile of the diabetic patient is imperative, allowing the dental caries to be analyzed through a perspective of prevention and the patient to be integrated into an individualized oral health program.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Oral Hygiene , Reference Values , Saliva/metabolism , Secretory Rate , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/physiology , DNA, Bacterial , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/physiology , Middle Aged
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 449-457, dic. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894520


Describimos los resultados del estudio internacional no intervencionista HAT en una muestra de Argentina que evaluó las hipoglucemias graves y no graves en 433 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DMT1) y 823 con diabetes tipo 2 (DMT2) tratados con insulina, mediante un cuestionario de autoevaluación doble (retrospectivo y prospectivo). La incidencia anual de al menos un evento de hipoglucemia fue 46 episodios/paciente-año en DMT1 y 14.2 en DMT2 (retrospectivo) y 96.5 y 24.6 eventos/paciente/año en DMT1 y DMT2, respectivamente (prospectivo). La hipoglucemia influyó en la calidad de vida (en escala 0-10 de temor a hipoglucemia: 60% en DMT1 y 37.6% en DMT2 puntuó de 5 a 10), en el desempeño cotidiano, laboral o académico (2.1% con DMT1 y el 3.2% con DMT2 no asistieron a su labor por hipoglucemia) y en el mayor consumo de recursos (en DMT1: 66.1% aumentó el monitoreo glucémico, 60.5% la ingesta, 51% las consultas y 60.5% redujo la insulina y el 20.9% el ejercicio, con 3.5% de internación, y en DMT2 aumentó un 46.2% el monitoreo glucémico, 43.8% las consultas, 38.6% la ingesta, el 24.1% redujo y el 13.9% salteó la dosis de insulina, 14.3% suspendió el ejercicio). Se registró mayor número de episodios en el período prospectivo. Es necesario contar con un instrumento para evaluar las hipoglucemias en la práctica clínica y con estrategias para reducir su riesgo. También es importante indagar sobre los episodios y reforzar la educación de pacientes y familiares sobre ajustes de tratamiento ante episodios de hipoglucemia.

We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective). The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective), 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective). Hypoglycaemia affected quality of life (on a scale of 0-10 for fear of hypoglycaemia: 60% in T1D and 37.6% in T2D scored 5 to 10), daily life, occupational or academic performance (2.1% with T1D and 3.2% with T2D did not attend to their work after hypoglycaemia), and induced an increased use of health resources (T1D: 66.1% increased glucose monitoring, 60.5% food intake, 51% consultations, 3.5% hospital admissions; 60.5% reduced insulin and 20.9% exercises; T2D increased 46.2% glucose monitoring, 43.8% consultations, 38.6% food intake, 24.1% reduced and 13.9% skipped the insulin dose and 14.3% suspended exercises). Greater numbers of episodes were recorded in the prospective period. An instrument to assess hypoglycaemia in clinical practice and strategies to reduce their risk are required. It is also important to ask about the episodes and reinforce the education of patients and close relatives on hypoglycaemia prevention and treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Argentina/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(4): 131-136, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998986


OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of degludec insulin in Type 1 diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: In a prospective study, 230 type 1 diabetics patients, average aged 34 years age and 14 years of diagnosis of diabetes and treated with two doses of insulin glargine U-100, were changed to degludec. Patients had glycosylated hemoglobins (HbA1c) greater than 10 percent. Results were recorded at 3 and 6 months with parameters clinical, biochemical, insulin requirements per kilogram of weight (U/kg/wt) and hypoglycemia. Capillary glycemia was evaluated three times a day and the dose of insulin degludec every two weeks. The statistical analysis used was average and rank, standard deviation, normal Swilk test, categorical Chi2 and continuous ANOVA or Kwallis, and p < 0.05. A psychological survey was conducted to evaluate satisfaction with the new treatment. RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose decreased from 253 (range 243-270) at 180 mg/dl (172-240) at 3 months and at 156 (137-180) at 6 months after the change insulin (p < 0.05). HbA1c, initially 10.6 percent (10.4-12.2) decreased to 8.7 percent (9.3-10.1) and 8.3 percent (8.7-9.7) at 3 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in basal insulin requirements from 0.7 to 0.4 U/kg/60 percent reduction in hypoglycaemia; both mild and moderate and severe. Isolated nocturnal hypoglycaemias were recorded in only 4 patients in this group. CONCLUSION: Six months of treatment with degludec insulin reduces fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and hypoglycemia, both mild and moderate severe and nocturnal, which makes this new ultra-long acting basal insulin a safe and effective tool for the management of type 1 diabetics patients

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Follow-Up Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Insulin, Long-Acting/administration & dosage , Insulin, Long-Acting/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/administration & dosage , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(3): 404-410, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899995


Dapaglifozina, un inhibidor del cotransportador de sodio-glucosa 2 (I-SGLT2) induce glucosuria y reduce la glicemia en adultos con diabetes tipo 2. Objetivo: Presentar una cetosis diabética “normoglicémica” en una adolescente con diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) que recibía dapaglifozina y alertar sobre el riesgo del uso I-SGLT2 que parece promisorio, pero no está aprobado en niños ni en DM1. Caso clínico: Paciente de 17 años sin cetosis durante 9 años con DM1, inició dapaglifozina 10 mg/día para reducir la insulina y el peso. Durante 11 meses de tratamiento tuvo cetonas capilares indetectables, redujo el índice de masa corporal 23,9 a 21,1 kg/m², la insulina basal 40 a 17 U, la hemoglobina glicosilada 8,3 a 7,5%, la glicemia capilar 175 a 161 mg/dl y la variabilidad de la glucosa (desvío estándar 85 a 77). Inesperadamente aparecieron náuseas y vómitos. La paciente portaba bomba de insulina con monitorización continua de glucosa, bien calibrada (glucosas intersticiales concordantes con glicemias), que mostraba glucosa estable bajo 200 mg/dl. Recibió insulina pero los vómitos persistieron; en tres horas, aparecieron deshidratación y desmayos, con cetonas 4,6 nmol/l y glicemia 224 mg/dl. Recibió suero fisiológico, ondansetrón, carbohidratos y varias dosis de insulina con pronta recuperación del estado general e hidratación, sin embargo, la cetosis continuó durante 24 horas. Cabe destacar que la bomba estaba funcionando bien y no se cambió la cánula. Al superar la cetosis, continuó con la misma cánula con buen control metabólico. Conclusión: Es importante sospechar la cetosis diabética normoglicémica por ser de riesgo vital.

Dapagliflozin, an insulin-independent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) induces glycosuria and reduces hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes. Objective: To present an “euglycemic” diabetic ketosis in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving dapagliflozin, to alert about the risk of a drug not approved in children nor in T1D. Case report: A 17 years old adolescent with T1D during 9 years, was started on dapagliflozin 10 mg / day to reduce insulin dose and weight. During 11 months on treatment, capillaries ketones were undetectable and she exhibited a reduction in body mass index 23.9 to 21.1 kg/m2, basal insulin 40 to 17 U, glycated hemoglobin 8.3 to 7.5%, capillary glucose 175 to 161 mg/dl and glucose variability (standard deviation) 85 to 77. Suddenly nausea and vomits appeared. The patient was on an insulin pump and well calibrated continuous glucose monitoring, showing stable glucose levels under 200 mg/dl, and an insulin bolus was delivered. Vomiting without hyperglycemia persisted; three hours later, she was severely dehydrated and fainting, with ketones 4.6 nmol/l and glucose 224 mg/dl. She received IV saline fluids, ondansetron, carbohydrates and several insulin boluses. Hydration and general condition improved soon, however despite several insulin doses, ketosis continued for 24 hours. It is remarkable that the pump was working well and the cannula was not changed. After the ketosis was resolved, she continued using the same cannula with good metabolic control. Conclusion: Euglycemic ketosis is a life-threatening condition that must be suspected.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 630-640, mayo 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902520


Technology for diabetes care has undergone major development during recent decades. These technological advances include continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), also known as insulin pumps, and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS). The integration of CSII and RT-CGMS into a single device has led to sensor-augmented pump therapy and more recently, a technology that has automated delivery of basal insulin therapy, known as hybrid system. These new technologies have led to benefits in attaining better metabolic control and decreasing the incidence of severe hypoglycemia, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes. This review describes the types of technologies currently available or under investigation for these purposes, their benefits and disadvantages, recommendations and the appropriate patient selection for their use. The clinical use of the hybrid system and artificial pancreas seem to be possible in the near future.

Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pancreas, Artificial , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(3): 393-396, Mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845553


Diabetic ketoacidosis with mild hyperglycemia is a major complication of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Although its use is not approved for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the drug is often prescribed with the hope of optimizing metabolic control. We report a 20 years old female with hypothyroidism and type 1 diabetes consulting for vomiting and abdominal pain. The patient had used canagliflozin during the two previous months. Laboratory showed a blood glucose of 200 mg/dl, a severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.1) and ketonemia. The patient was successfully treated in the intensive care unit.

Humans , Female , Adult , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use