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Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 159-165, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344801


La diabetes Tipo 1 (DT1) es una compleja enfermedad autoinmune con una etiología aún desconocida. La vitamina D ha sido ampliamente estudiada debido a su potencial terapéutico en los potenciales nuevos casos de DT1. Por otra parte, los microARNs (miRs) han sido propuestos como posibles biomarcadores en diversos procesos biológicos como en la apoptosis e inflamación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con vitamina D sobre el perfil de expresión del miR-21 y marcadores de apoptosis tales como: BCL2, STAT3, TIPE2 y DAXX, en células mononucleares periféricas provenientes de pacientes con DT1 y sujetos controles. RESULTADOS: El perfil de expresión de miR-21 se encontró disminuido en los pacientes con DT1 en comparación con los controles. La expresión relativa de BCL2 se encontró aumentada en controles al comparar con pacientes DT1 en todas las condiciones experimentales. La expresión relativa de DAXX mostró un perfil de expresión diferencial al comparar pacientes con DT1 versus controles (p=0.006). CONCLUSIÓN: El estímulo con vitamina D parece tener un posible efecto regulador sobre los genes BCL2 y DAXX.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex chronic autoimmune disease. Vitamin D has been one of the most studied therapeutic potential outbreaks related to T1D. Specific miRNAs have been proposed as potential biomarkers in several biological processes as apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on the expression profiles of miR-21 and apoptotic markers BCL2, STAT3, TIPE2 and DAXX, in PBMCs from T1D patients and control subjects. RESULTS: miR-21 expression was increased in controls regarding T1D patients. BCL2 was increased in controls compared to T1D patients in all experimental conditions. DAXX showed different expression patterns between T1D patients and controls (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D showed a possible regulation effect on apoptosis markers mainly through the regulation of BCL2 and DAXX

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Biomarkers , Molecular Chaperones/drug effects , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/drug effects , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/drug effects , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Co-Repressor Proteins/drug effects , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Co-Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Glucose/administration & dosage
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 312-318, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131086


ABSTRACT Objective To identify the level of physical activity and glycemic variability of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to compare glycemic variability on days with different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Subjects and methods A sample of 34 subjects aged 10 to 15 years, 18 (52.94%) female; age: 13.04 ± 1.94; HbA1c: 9.76 ± 1.51. Physical activity was measured by wGT3X accelerometer. The glucose data were obtained using continuous glucose monitoring, and the following glycemic variability measures were calculated: standard deviation (SD), low blood glucose index (LBGI), high blood glucose index (HBGI), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), glycemic risk assessment in diabetes equation (GRADE) and coefficient of variation (CV). The most and least active days (the days with greater and lesser time dedicated to physical activities of moderate to vigorous intensity, respectively) were identified. In addition, based on the whole period of accelerometer use, daily means of time spent in MVPA were identified among participants, who were then divided into three groups: up to 100 minutes; from 101 to 200 minutes and above 201 minutes. Then, the measures of glycemic variability were compared among the most and least active days and among the groups too. Results The amount of MVPA was significantly different between the days evaluated (237.49 ± 93.29 vs. 125.21 ± 58.10 minutes), but glycemic variability measures did not present a significant difference. Conclusion Despite the significant differences in the amount of MVPA between the two days evaluated, the glycemic variability did not change significantly. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):312-8

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901106, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054683


Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether GDF11 ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury in diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to MIR (30 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion) with/without GDF11 pretreatment. Cardiac function, myocardial infarct size, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 15-F2tisoprostane, autophagosome, LC3II/I ratio and Belcin-1 level were determined to reflect myocardial injury, oxidative stress and autophagy, respectively. In in vitro study, H9c2 cells cultured in high glucose (HG, 30mM) suffered hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) with/without GDF11, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment, cell injury; oxidative stress and autophagy were assessed. Results: Pretreatment with GDF11 significantly improved cardiac morphology and function in diabetes, concomitant with decreased arrhythmia severity, infarct size, CK-MB, LDH and 15-F2tisoprostane release, increased SOD activity and autophagy level. In addition, GDF11 notably reduced HR injury in H9c2 cells with HG exposure, accompanied by oxidative stress reduction and autophagy up-regulation. However, those effects were completely reversed by H2O2 and 3-MA. Conclusion: GDF11 can provide protection against MIR injury in diabetic rats, and is implicated in antioxidant stress and autophagy up-regulation.

Animals , Male , Autophagy/drug effects , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Growth Differentiation Factors/pharmacology , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Line , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349


ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. registration: NCT01713023.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 451-457, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014246


Background: Few studies have evaluated the details of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Chile. Aim: To describe clinical features and treatment details of adults with T1D and its association with metabolic control. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with T1D treated in a clinical network. Demographic and clinical features, types and doses of insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels were registered. The use flash glucose monitors (FGM) and insulin pumps (CSII) were also recorded. Results: 205 records were reviewed, with T1d lasting 12 ± 10 years. Twenty six percent had hypothyroidism, 1% had celiac disease, 12% had hypertension, 20% had dyslipidemia; 13% had diabetic retinopathy, 2% had diabetic nephropathy, 8% had neuropathy and 2% cardiovascular diseases. Mean body mass index was 25 kg/ m2 and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8%. Eighty-two percent used multiple daily injections, 18% used CSII and 24% used FGM. As basal insulin, 35% used slow acting analogs and 65% used ultra-slow analogs. As rapid acting insulin, 69 patients used Lispro, 79 Aspart and 50 Glulisin. Bolus doses were calculated using only capillary glucose in 22%, while 78% also considered carbohydrate consumption. Variables significantly associated to better control were the use of carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin (A1c 7,85% vs 8,59%, p = 0,008), use of CSII (A1c 7,36% vs 8,16%, p = 0,008), and basal dose < 0,4 U/kg (A1c 7,81% vs 8,58%, p = 0,003). There were no differences regarding insulin type or use of FGM. Conclusions: The use of formulas considering carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin, use of infusion pumps and physiological doses of basal insulin are significantly associated with a better metabolic control in adults with T1d.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 34-40, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887623


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this research was to analyze the expression profile of miR-155, miR-146a, and miR-326 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 47 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and 39 control subjects, as well as the possible association with autoimmune or inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods Expression profile of miRs by means of qPCR using TaqMan probes. Autoantibodies and inflammatory markers by ELISA. Statistical analysis using bivariate correlation. Results The analysis of the results shows an increase in the expression of miR-155 in T1D patients in basal conditions compared to the controls (p < 0.001) and a decreased expression level of miR-326 (p < 0.01) and miR-146a (p < 0.05) compared T1D patients to the controls. miR-155 was the only miRs associated with autoinmmunity (ZnT8) and inflammatory status (vCAM). Conclusion Our data show a possible role of miR-155 related to autoimmunity and inflammation in Chilean patients with T1D.

Humans , Child , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers , Autoimmunity/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(6): 532-541, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838658


Abstract Background: Impaired angiogenesis in cardiac tissue is a major complication of diabetes. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play important role during capillary-like network formation in angiogenesis process. Objectives: To determine the effects of testosterone and voluntary exercise on levels of vascularity, phosphorylated Akt (P- AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) in heart tissue of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. Methods: Type I diabetes was induced by i.p injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin in animals. After 42 days of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, heart tissue samples were collected and used for histological evaluation and determination of P-AKT and P-ERK levels by ELISA method. Results: Our results showed that either testosterone or exercise increased capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in the heart of diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had a synergistic effect on capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in heart. Furthermore, in the castrated diabetes group, capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels significantly decreased in the heart, whereas either testosterone treatment or exercise training reversed these effects. Also, simultaneous treatment of castrated diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had an additive effect on P-AKT and P-ERK levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that testosterone and exercise alone or together can increase angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. The proangiogenesis effects of testosterone and exercise are associated with the enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in heart tissue.

Resumo Fundamento: Angiogênese prejudicada em tecido cardíaco é uma das principais complicações das diabetes. As vias de sinalização da proteína-quinase B (AKT) e a quinase regulada por sinal extracelular (ERK) exercem um importante papel durante a formação de uma rede similar à capilar no processo de angiogênese. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos da testosterona e exercícios voluntários sobre os níveis de vascularidade, AKT fosforilada (P- AKT) e ERK fosforilada (P-ERK) sobre o tecido cardíaco de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Métodos: A diabetes tipo 1 foi induzida através de injeção intraperitoneal de 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina em animais. Após 42 dias de tratamento com testosterona (2mg/kg/dia) ou exercícios voluntários, individualmente ou em conjunto, as amostras de tecidos cardíacos foram coletadas e usadas para avaliação histológica e determinação de níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK através do método ELISA. Resultados: Os nossos resultados mostraram que a testosterona ou os exercícios aumentaram a capilaridade, os níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK nos corações de ratos diabéticos. O tratamento de ratos diabéticos com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito sinérgico sobre a capilaridade, níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK no coração. Além disto, na capilaridade do grupo diabético castrado, os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK diminuíram significativamente no coração, ao passo que o tratamento com testosterona ou o treinamento com exercícios reverteu tais efeitos. O tratamento simultâneo de ratos diabéticos castrados com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito aditivo sobre os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK. Conclusão: Nossas descobertas sugerem que a testosterona e exercícios, em conjunto ou individualmente, podem aumentar a angiogênese nos corações de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Os efeitos favoráveis à angiogênese da testosterona e dos exercícios estão associados à ativação reforçada de AKT e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Testosterone/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Heart/drug effects , Androgens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Androgens/therapeutic use , Myocardium/chemistry
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(4): 355-366, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792944


ABSTRACT Objective In this study, the effects of a green banana pasta diet on the oxidative damage from type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated. Materials and methods Formulations containing 25 (F25), 50 (F50), and 75% (F75) of green banana pasta were prepared and included in a 12-week diet of Wistar rats with alloxan-induced type 1 DM. The effects of these formulations in preventing oxidative damage in kidneys and liver homogenates of rats were evaluated using the TBARS assay (lipid peroxidation in liver) and the DNPH assay (protein oxidation in liver and kidneys). Furthermore, the effects of the formulations on the fasting glycemia, fructosamine levels, renal function (creatinine), liver function (enzymes aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), and lipid profile (total cholesterol and fractions) in the serum of rats were evaluated in addition to the evaluation of the centesimal composition and microbiological analysis of the produced green banana pasta. Results An F75 diet prevented hyperglycemia in diabetic rats (p < 0.05) compared to the diabetic rats fed a standard diet (commercial feed). Notably, the protein oxidation in both the liver and kidneys were prevented in diabetic rats on the F50 or F75 diets compared to the control group, whereas the lipid peroxidation was only prevented in the liver (p < 0.05). Moreover, all formulations prevented an increase in the amount of triglycerides in the serum of the rats. The F25 and F50 diet prevented the increase of cholesterol, and the F75-based diet of ALT and fructosamine (p < 0.05) supported the anti-hyperglycemic effects and the protection against oxidative damage. Conclusion The green banana pasta (F75) diet showed great potential for preventing complications associated with diabetes.

Animals , Male , Musa/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diet Therapy/methods , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 9(4): 125-129, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291571


The worldwide increased incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the decreased genotypes that confer increased risk to T1D indicate a strong environmental impact on the disease. These mechanisms could occur through epigenetic modifications that operate on several gene expression patterns (methylation and acetylation, among others). An alternative mechanism of gene expression inhibition are the microRNAs families. These small noncoding RNAs bind the of mRNAs, downregulating and can downregulate the expression of multiple genes. In this review we discussed the role of certain miRNAs in three characteristics observed in T1D, such as inflammation, autoimmunity and apoptosis.

Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Autoimmunity , Apoptosis/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Epigenomics , Inflammation/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e4736, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951645


Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) are important regulators of bone repair and regeneration. In this study, we examined whether TGF-β1 and BMP-2 expressions were delayed during bone healing in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Tibial fractures were created in 95 diabetic and 95 control adult male Wistar rats of 10 weeks of age. At 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after fracture induction, five rats were sacrificed from each group. The expressions of TGF-β1 and BMP2 in the fractured tibias were measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, weekly for the first 5 weeks post-fracture. Mechanical parameters (bending rigidity, torsional rigidity, destruction torque) of the healing bones were also assessed at 3, 4, and 5 weeks post-fracture, after the rats were sacrificed. The bending rigidity, torsional rigidity and destruction torque of the two groups increased continuously during the healing process. The diabetes group had lower mean values for bending rigidity, torsional rigidity and destruction torque compared with the control group (P<0.05). TGF-β1 and BMP-2 expression were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the control group than in the diabetes group at postoperative weeks 1, 2, and 3. Peak levels of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 expression were delayed by 1 week in the diabetes group compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that there was a delayed recovery in the biomechanical function of the fractured bones in diabetic rats. This delay may be associated with a delayed expression of the growth factors TGF-β1 and BMP-2.

Animals , Male , Tibial Fractures/physiopathology , Bony Callus/physiopathology , Fracture Healing/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/metabolism , Tibial Fractures/metabolism , Time Factors , Biomechanical Phenomena , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Torque , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 129-136, 04/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746458


Objectives To evaluate, in a group of patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes (DM1), an association of dyspepsia symptoms with: changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa, infection by Helicobacter pylori, glycemic control, and psychological and nutritional factors. Subjects and methods A total of 32 patient with DM1 were studied (age: 38 ± 9 years; females: 25; diabetes duration: 22 ± 5 years). All patients answered a standardized questionnaire for the evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with gastric biopsies for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of anxiety and depression was evaluated by the HAD scale. Nutritional parameters were BMI, arm and waist circumference, skinfold measurement, and body fat percentage. Results Upper endoscopy detected lesions in the gastric mucosa in 34.4% of the patients, with similar frequency in those with (n = 21) and without dyspepsia (n = 11). The patients with dyspepsia complaints showed greater frequency of depression (60% vs. 0%; p = 0.001), higher values for HbA1c (9.6 ± 1.7 vs. 8.2 ± 1.3%; p = 0.01) and lower values for BMI (24.3 ± 4.1 vs. 27.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2; p = 0.02), body fat percentage (26.6 ± 6.2 vs. 30.8 ± 7.7%; p = 0.04), and waist circumference (78.7 ± 8 vs. 85.8 ± 8.1 cm; p = 0.02). No association was found between the symptoms and the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusions Dyspepsia symptoms in patients with long-standing DM1 were associated with glycemic control and depression, and they seem to negatively influence the nutritional status of these patients. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Dyspepsia/complications , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Mood Disorders/complications , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/microbiology , Biopsy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/microbiology , Duodenum/metabolism , Duodenum/microbiology , Duodenum/pathology , Dyspepsia/microbiology , Gastroscopy , Helicobacter Infections/metabolism , Mood Disorders/microbiology , Nutritional Status , Stomach/metabolism , Stomach/microbiology , Stomach/pathology
J. bras. med ; 102(4)julho - agosto 2014. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-725926


Os pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) apresentam maior prevalência de doenças tireoidianas que a população geral. A autoimunidade certamente é um fator-chave na relação entre essas disfunções endócrinas. Entretanto, outros mecanismos, como redução da captação de iodeto, da atividade tireoperoxidase e aumento do estresse oxidativo na glândula tireoide, também parecem contribuir para este fato. O presente trabalho visa rever aspectos importantes na relação entre DM e doenças tireoidianas, com especial ênfase nos mecanismos envolvidos no aumento do estresse oxidativo na glândula tireoide decorrente do DM...

Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients show a greater prevalence of thyroid disorders than general population. Autoimmunity is a key factor in the relation between these endocrine diseases. However, additional mechanisms, such as reduction of iodide uptake and thyroperoxidase activity, besides increased oxidative stress in the thyroid gland seem to contribute for this fact. The present work aims to review important aspects in the relation between DM and thyroid disease, with special emphasis in the mechanisms involved in the increased oxidative stress in the thyroid gland due to DM...

Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Thyroid Diseases , Autoimmunity , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Thyroid Hormones/biosynthesis , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases/analysis , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(8): 594-602, Nov. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696898


OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of interval training on blood biochemistry and immune parameters in type 1 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary (SE, n = 15), interval training (IT, n = 17), diabetic sedentary (DSE, n = 17), diabetic interval training (DIT, n = 17). Diabetes was induced by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Swimming Interval Training consisted of 30-s exercise with 30-s rest, for 30 minutes, during 6 weeks, four times a week, with an overload of 15% of body mass. Plasma glucose, lactate, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol concentrations, phagocytic capacity, cationic vesicle content, and superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes was also estimated. RESULTS: Interval training resulted in attenuation of the resting hyperglycemic state and decreased blood lipids in the DIT group. Diabetes increased the functionality of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DSE group. Interval training increased all functionality parameters of peritoneal macrophages in the IT group. Interval training also led to a twofold increase in the proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes after 6 weeks of exercise in the DIT group. CONCLUSION: Low-volume high-intensity physical exercise attenuates hyperglycemia and dislipidemia induced by type 1 diabetes, and induces changes in the functionality of innate and acquired immunity.

OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou os efeitos do treinamento intervalado sobre parâmetros bioquímicos e imunológicos em ratos diabéticos do tipo 1. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: sedentário (SE, n = 15), treinamento intervalado (TI, n = 17), sedentário diabético (SED, n = 17) e treinamento intervalado diabético (TID, n = 17). O diabetes foi induzido por uma injeção intravenosa de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg). O treinamento intervalado de natação consistiu de 30s de exercício com 30s de recuperação, 30 minutos, durante 6 semanas, 4 vezes por semana, com sobrecarga de 15% da massa corporal. Foram avaliados glicemia, lactato sanguíneo, concentração de triacilglicerol e colesterol total, capacidade fagocítica, conteúdo de vesículas catiô­nicas, produção de ânion superóxido e peróxido de hidrogênio por neutrófilos sanguíneos e macrófagos peritoneais. A proliferação de linfócitos mesentéricos também foi avaliada. RESULTADOS: O treinamento intervalado resultou em atenuação do estado hiperglicêmico e diminuiu os lipídeos sanguíneos no grupo TID. O diabetes aumentou a funcionalidade dos neutrófilos sanguíneos e macrófagos peritoneais do grupo SED. O treinamento intervalado aumentou todos os parâmetros funcionais dos macrófagos peritoneais do grupo TI. O treinamento intervalado também aumentou duas vezes a proliferação dos linfócitos mesentéricos após seis semanas de exercício do grupo TID. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento intervalado atenua a hiperglicemia e a dislipidemia induzida pelo diabetes do tipo 1 e induz mudanças na funcionalidade da imunidade inata e adquirida.

Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Phagocytosis/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sedentary Behavior , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Superoxides/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 205-211, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618049


Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (Ito) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM + TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg-1·day-1). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of Ito was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated Ito reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced Ito of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Trimetazidine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/blood , Glucose/analysis , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(5): 434-439, nov. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608939


O hormônio de crescimento (GH), principal regulador do crescimento pós-natal, tem importantes ações metabólicas em diferentes tecidos, sinérgicas ou até antagônicas às do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo I (IGF-I), produzido sobretudo no fígado após ligação do GH ao seu receptor. Experimentos em modelos animais indicam um papel importante do GH na resistência a insulina, enquanto o papel do IGF-I nessa condição ainda não está completamente elucidado. Em humanos, o GH promove aumento da lipólise e da oxidação lipídica, enquanto o IGF-I desencadeia o aumento da oxidação lipídica apenas cronicamente. Enquanto as ações sobre o crescimento são tempo limitado, as ações metabólicas e cardiovasculares do eixo GH/IGF-I perduram durante toda a vida. Os potenciais efeitos anabólicos do GH têm sido utilizados em condições crônicas e hipercatabólicas, embora as investigações sobre os desfechos clínicos ainda sejam escassas. Neste artigo, pretendemos revisar as ações metabólicas do GH oriundas de modelos animais, os estudos em humanos normais e indivíduos com deficiência de GH, diabete melito tipo 1, síndrome metabólica, estados hipercatabólicos e a relação do eixo GH/IGF-I com as adipocinas, disfunção endotelial e aterogênese.

Growth hormone (GH), the main regulator for post-natal growth, has important metabolic actions on different tissues, similar or opposite to insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I), mainly produced by the liver after the binding of GH to its receptor. Experiments with animal models indicate an important role of GH on insulin resistance although the IGF-I role is not yet completely established. In humans, GH promotes an increase on lypolisis and lipid oxidation, while IGF-I leads to an increase on lipid oxidation only in a chronic way. While growth actions are time-limited, metabolic and cardiovascular actions of the GH/IGF-I axis are throughout life. GH anabolic effects have been used on chronic and hypercatabolic conditions, although investigations on the clinical outcomes are still scarce. In this paper, we intend to review GH metabolic actions experienced by animal models, studies with normal humans and GH deficient individuals, individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1 and metabolic syndrome individuals, hypercatabolic states and the relationship between GH and adipokines, endothelial disfunction and atherogenesis.

la hormona de crecimiento (GH), principal regulador del crecimiento postnatal, tiene importantes acciones metabólicas en diversos tejidos, sinérgicas o incluso antagónicas a las del factor de crecimiento, a semejanza de la insulina tipo I (IGF-I) producido, principalmente, en el hígado y después del vínculo del GH con su receptor. Experimentos en modelos animales indican un papel importante del GH en la resistencia a la insulina, mientras que el papel del IGF-I en esa condición, todavía no está completamente elucidado. En los humanos, el GH genera el aumento de la lipólisis y de la oxidación lipídica, mientras que el IGF-I desencadena el aumento de la oxidación lipídica solamente desde el punto de vista crónico. Mientras las acciones sobre el crecimiento son de tiempo limitado, las acciones metabólicas y cardiovasculares del eje GH/IGF-I duran toda la vida. Los efectos potenciales anabólicos del GH han sido utilizados en condiciones crónicas e hipercatabólicas, aunque las investigaciones sobre los desenlaces clínicos todavía sean escasas. En este artículo, pretendemos revisar las acciones metabólicas del GH provenientes de modelos animales, los estudios en humanos normales y en individuos con deficiencia de GH, diabetes mellitus tipo 1, síndrome metabólico, estados hipercatabólicos y la relación del eje GH/IGF-I con las adipocinas, disfunción endotelial y aterogénesis.

Animals , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Growth Hormone/physiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Growth Hormone/deficiency
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 29(3): 378-384, set. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601109


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre consumo alimentar e controle metabólico em crianças e adolescentes com diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 11 crianças e 39 adolescentes com DM1. Coletaram-se dados alimentares (hábitos, três recordatórios de 24 horas - R24h), terapêuticos (insulinoterapia), bioquímicos (índice da hemoglobina glicada - inHbA, glicemias casuais - GLC, pós-prandiais - GLPP e perfil lipídico). Utilizou-se o teste t de Student e a correlação de Pearson, sendo significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Dentre os indivíduos estudados, identificaram-se alimentação fora de horário em 64 por cento e consumo de produtos açucarados em 6 por cento. Os parâmetros que compõem o perfil lipídico foram adequados em: colesterol total sérico - CTs (88 por cento), LDL (92 por cento), TG (100 por cento das crianças e 69 por cento dos adolescentes) e HDL (82 por cento das crianças e 85 por cento dos adolescentes). Quanto aos parâmetros que medem o controle glicêmico, o inHbA foi adequado em 64 por cento e a GLPP em 18 por cento. Houve correlação negativa entre CTs e consumo de carboidratos (r=-0,324; p=0,022) e positiva com o consumo de lipídeos (r=0,315; p=0,026). CONCLUSÕES: O maior consumo de lipídeos e a consequente menor ingestão de carboidratos correlacionaram-se a maiores níveis de CTs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between dietary intake and metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 11 children and 39 adolescents with DM1. The following variabes were collected: meals data (habits, three 24-hour recall - R24h), therapeutic (insulin) and biochemical data (index of glycated hemoglobin - inHbA, casual glucose - GLC, post-prandial glucose - GLPP, and lipid profile). Student's t-test and Pearson correlation were applied, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: Among the studied subjects, consumption of food out of time was identified in 64 percent and consumption of sugary products in 6 percent. The parameters included in the lipid profile were adequate in 88 percent for serum total cholesterol (sCT), in 92 percent for LDL, in 100 percent of children and 69 percent of adolescents for TG and in 82 percent of children and 84.6 percent of adolescents for HDL. InHbA was adequate in 64 percent and GLPP in 18 percent of the studied population. There was a negative correlation between sCT and carbohydrate intake (r=-0.324; p=0.022) and a positive correlation with lipids intake (r=0.315; p=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The increased consumption of lipids and the lower carbohydrate intake are correlated with higher levels of sCT.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dyslipidemias , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diet therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Eating , Blood Glucose
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604933


Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the incidence of which has been considerably increasing in the world, is characterized by the deficiency in the production and secretion of insulin by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and disorders in the metabolism of the macronutrients. Therefore, it is known that the presence of the nutritionist in the health-care team that deals with diabetic patients is essential for the maintenance of a good metabolic control, encouraging modifications in the eating habits and the practice of physical activity. Evidences show that the amount of carbohydrate may be more important than its quality in determining the postprandial glycemic levels. In this context, carbohydrate counting is a dietary method that allows thepatients to choose the food they wish to eat in each meal, and adjust the insulin doses according to the sum of the carbohydrate grams ingested. The goal of this study was to review the literature for the nutritional aspects ofthis dietary method, which has been used with patients with type 1 diabetes. Studies verified a decrease in the levels of glycosy lated hemoglobin anda higher compliance with the treatment in patients using carbohydrate counting, as it allows more flexibility in the food choices. The nutritionist's rolein the education of the patient who chooses to start counting carbohydrates is further discussed.

La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) se caracteriza por una deficiencia en la producción y secreción de insulina por el páncreas, lo que resulta en hiperglucemia y alteraciones en el metabolismo de macronutrientes. Su incidencia mundial ha aumentado considerablemente y se sabe quela actuación del nutricionista en el cuidado de los portadores de DM1 esesencial para la mantención de un control metabólico adecuado, por medio del estimulo a cambio de hábitos alimentarios y a la práctica de actividad física. Hay evidencias mostrando que la glucemia pósprandial es más afectada por la cantidad total que por el tipo de carbohidratos ingeridos en una comida. En este contexto el cálculo delos carbohidratos es un método que permite al paciente seleccionar los alimentos que desea consumir en cada comida, y de acuerdo con los gramos de carbohidratos contenidos en cada alimento, ajustar la dosis de insulina regular o ultra rápida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue hacer una revisión bibliográficade los aspectos nutricionales de este método, utilizado actualmente en el control de la DM1. Los estudios encontraron una disminución en los niveles de hemoglobina glucosilada y una mejor adherencia al tratamiento en pacientes que utilizan el cálculo de carbohidratos, debido a que permite una mayor flexibilidad en la elección de alimentos. Se plantea la participación denutricionistas en la educación de los pacientes que deseen comenzar este cálculo.

O diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) caracteriza-se pela deficiência na produção e secreção de insulina pelo pâncreas, resultando em hiperglicemia e distúrbios no metabolis modos macronutrientes. Sua incidência vem aumentando consideravelmente no mundo, e sabe-se que a atuação do nutricionista no cuidado de pacientes com DM1 é essencial para a manutenção de um bom controle metabólico, através do incentivo de alterações nos hábitos alimentares e da prática de atividade física. Evidências relatam ser mais importante a quantidade de carboidratos ingeridos numa refeição do que seu tipo na determinação da resposta glicêmica pós-prandial. Nesse contexto, a contagem de carboidratos é um método dietético que permite ao paciente escolher os alimentos que deseja consumir em cada refeição, e a partir da soma dos gramas de carboidrato contidos em cada alimento, ajustar as doses de insulina regular ou ultrarrápida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer uma revisão bibliográfica dos aspectos nutricionais desse método dietético, usado atualmente no controle do DM1. Estudos verificaram diminuição nos níveis de hemoglobina glicosilada e maior adesão ao tratamento em pacientes utilizando a contagem de carboidratos, já que ela permite maior flexibilidade nas escolhas alimentares. Discute-se a participação do nutricionista na educação do paciente que deseja iniciar a contagem.

Carbohydrate Metabolism , Dietary Carbohydrates , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diet therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Metabolism , Nutritional Sciences , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Nutrition Therapy
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 55(3): 189-193, abr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588890


OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the relationship between body fat composition, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes (DM1). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-five DM1 women (36 ± 9 years; body mass index 24.6 ± 4.4 kg/m²) had body composition and insulin resistance determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and estimated glucose disposal ratio (eGDR), respectively. Twenty patients (45 percent) had MS according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS: Women with DM1 and MS had increased central fat and lower eGDR than women without MS (41.9 ± 2.0 vs. 33.7 ± 1.8 percent; p = 0.004 and 4.99 ± 0.40 vs. 8.37 ± 0.39; p < 0.0001, respectively). Total body fat and peripheric fat were similar between the groups. Central fat negatively correlated with eGDR (r = -0.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Central fat deposition in young non-obese DM1 women was related to MS and insulin resistance. Thus, body fat composition analysis might be important to identify DM1 patients with increased metabolic risk.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre composição corporal, síndrome metabólica (SM) e resistência insulínica (RI) no diabetes tipo 1 (DM1). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco mulheres com DM1 (36 ± 9 anos; índice de massa corporal 24,6 ± 4,4 kg/m²) foram submetidas à análise de composição corporal e RI por meio de densitometria por dupla emissão de raios-X e taxa de disponibilização de glicose estimada (eGDR), respectivamente. Vinte mulheres (45 por cento) apresentavam SM, conforme critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). RESULTADOS: Mulheres com SM apresentaram maior gordura central e menor eGDR do que as sem SM (41,9 ± 2,0 vs. 33,7±1,8 por cento; p = 0,004 e 4,99 ± 0,40 vs. 8,37 ± 0,39; p < 0,0001). A gordura corporal total e a gordura periférica não diferiram entre os grupos. A gordura central foi inversamente correlacionada com eGDR (r = -0,33; p = 0,03). CONCLUSÃO: Deposição de gordura central em mulheres jovens não obesas com DM1 esteve associada com SM e RI. Avaliação da composição corporal pode ser importante na identificação de pacientes com risco metabólico elevado.

Adult , Female , Humans , Adipose Tissue , Body Composition , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue , Body Composition/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Risk Factors
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 55(3): 233-237, abr. 2011. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-588897


Resistência insulínica consiste em reduzida resposta celular a esse hormônio e, portanto, disfunção do transporte de glicose para o meio intracelular. Esse fenômeno associa-se a fatores genéticos e principalmente comportamentais relacionados a obesidade e comorbidades a ela associadas como diabetes melito tipo 2, hipertensão arterial e dislipidemia. Entretanto, fatores clínicos de resistência insulínica também estão presentes em diabéticos tipo 1 não obesos na conhecida síndrome de extrema resistência à insulina subcutânea e intramuscular (DRIASM). Condição rara que consiste em resistência à ação da insulina no tecido subcutâneo e muscular e sensibilidade normal, ou próxima do normal, quando administrada via intravenosa. Tratamentos propostos até o momento mostram-se pouco efetivos e se relacionam a complicações e falhas frequentes. Descrevemos dois casos de pacientes femininas de 45 e 46 anos com DRIASM que se diferenciam dos demais já descritos por apresentar diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 tardio, hiperglicemia constante associada a complicações catabólicas, microvasculares (retinopatia) e neuropáticas sem, no entanto, nenhum episódio de cetoacidose diabética. Os tratamentos propostos variaram desde aplicação de insulina intramuscular e intravenosa até listagem para possível realização de transplante de pâncreas como tentativa de tratamento definitivo. Este trabalho teve aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto.

Insulin resistance signs reduced cellular response to this hormone and dysfunction of glucose transport to intracellular compartment. This phenomenon is associated to genetic factors and principally behavior factors correlating to obesity and its comorbidities, as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. However clinical factors of insulin resistance are still present at not obese type 1 diabetes in a known syndrome called type 1 diabetes mellitus with resistance to insulin administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly (DRIASM). This is a rare condition that consists into insulin resistance at subcutaneously and intramuscularly use and normal or near to normal sensitivity at intravenously way. Treatments until now proposed are ineffective and are related to frequent fails and complications. We report here two cases of DRIASM in 45 and 46 female patients that are different from others yet related because they have late diabetes type 1, sustained hyperglycemia associated to catabolic, microangiopathy and neuropathic complications without any ketoacidosis episode. The treatment vary from alternative ways for insulin infusion to inscription to a possible performance of pancreas transplantation like a experiment of definitive treatment. This report was approved by Research Ethic Committee from São José do Rio Preto medical school.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Injections, Intramuscular , Injections, Subcutaneous
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 86(4): 271-278, jul.-ago. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558816


OBJETIVO: Abordar os aspectos práticos da realização segura de atividade física e esportes em crianças e adolescentes portadores de diabetes tipo 1. FONTES DOS DADOS: A pesquisa dos artigos foi conduzida em fontes de dados nacionais (SciELO) e internacionais (PubMed/MEDLINE), assim como nas próprias referências dos artigos encontrados, adotando como limites: artigos publicados nos últimos 10 anos, preferencialmente conduzidos em crianças e adolescentes com diabetes tipo 1, sendo em sua maioria estudos experimentais e meta-análises sobre atividade física. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Com o metabolismo aeróbico, os músculos esqueléticos consomem maior quantidade de glicose para gerar energia, o que diminui a gliconeogênese hepática, levando a uma diminuição na glicemia e aumentando o risco de hipoglicemia. A reposição de carboidratos antes, durante e após o exercício em quantidade adequada e a redução da dose de insulina de ação rápida (pré-refeição) são os principais aliados da criança e adolescente com diabetes tipo 1 para evitar a ocorrência da hipoglicemia severa. CONCLUSÕES: Para a reposição de carboidratos e a redução da dose de insulina, deve-se considerar o tipo, a duração e a intensidade da atividade física, bem como o horário de sua realização. A participação em diversos esportes, coletivos e individuais, e em atividades físicas de intensidades variadas é possível, sendo muito recomendado no tratamento do diabetes infantil.

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the practical aspects of safe physical activity and sports participation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using national (SciELO) and international (PubMed/MEDLINE) databases and the reference lists of the articles found, adopting the following limits: articles on physical activity published in the last 10 years, preferably conducted in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Most studies had an experimental design or were meta-analyses. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Skeletal muscle glucose uptake is greater during aerobic metabolism in order to generate energy for muscle contraction, which suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus promotes a decrease in blood glucose levels and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Adequate carbohydrate replacement before, during, and after exercise and reduction of preprandial rapid-acting insulin doses are the main allies in avoiding severe hypoglycemic events among diabetic children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Type, duration, and intensity of physical activity must be considered when planning carbohydrate replacement and insulin dose reduction, as must the timing of exercise. Nonetheless, physical activity and participation in many individual and team sports is possible and highly recommended in the treatment of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Motor Activity/physiology , Sports/physiology