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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(5): 1691-1700, maio 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249512

ABSTRACT

Resumo No cenário do Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 (DM1), uma prática incentivada é o autocuidado. Dessa forma, objetivou-se elaborar e validar um aplicativo móvel (APP) para a promoção do autocuidado em adolescentes com DM1. O método foi divido em duas etapas: elaboração e validação, que vão desde a revisão de literatura, benchmarking, construção do protótipo e validação por especialistas. A construção do APP foi subsidiada pelos sete passos propostos pela American Association of Diabetes Educators. Foram desenhadas as telas e selecionaram-se as possíveis funções; após o desenho, o protótipo do APP foi desenvolvido e nomeado como "DM Agendinha". O processo de validação de conteúdo foi mediado pelo instrumento Suitability Assessment of Materials, por meio do qual o percentual obtido foi de 85,3%, caracterizando o APP como "Material Superior". Para a validação técnica, empregou-se o questionário Smartphone Usability questionnaire, que obteve um Índice de Validade de Conteúdo global de 0,96. Conclui-se, portanto, que o uso desse material por parte dos adolescentes favorecerá a aquisição de novos conhecimentos e a adesão de práticas saudáveis, tendo em vista que se trata de uma tecnologia de caráter eletrônico e de fácil compreensão.


Abstract Self-care is encouraged in the type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) setting. Thus, this research aimed to develop and validate a mobile application (APP) to promote self-care for adolescents with DM1. The method was divided into two stages: development and validation, ranging from literature review, benchmarking, prototype construction to validation by specialists. The APP construction was subsidized by the seven steps proposed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. The screens were designed and possible functions were selected. After the design, the APP prototype was developed and named "DM Agendinha". The content validation process was mediated by the Suitability Assessment of Materials tool, where the percentage obtained was 85.3%, characterizing the APP as "Superior Material". The Smartphone Usability questionnaire was employed for technical validation, and the APP reached a global Content Validity Index of 0.96. We concluded, therefore, that the use of this material by adolescents will favor the acquisition of new knowledge and adherence to healthy practices, considering that it is a highly intelligible electronic technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Telemedicine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Mobile Applications , Self Care , Technology
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200270, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1154202

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo compreender a relação que as mulheres com diabulimia têm com o corpo. Método pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com o Método da História Oral Temática, com quatro mulheres entre 18 e 30 anos que autorreferiram diabulimia. Resultados a relação das mulheres com o seu corpo foi pautada pela pressão social de magreza feminina que distorce a autoimagem, gera insatisfação com o corpo e a diminuição da autoestima. A perda de peso é proporcionalmente associada ao aumento da aceitação social e justifica a utilização de métodos deletérios à saúde como a diminuição da dose ou a suspensão do uso de insulina. As narradoras demonstraram conhecer os riscos, mas admitiram repeti-la em determinados contextos. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática o desejo que as mulheres com Diabetes Mellitus têm de perder peso precisa ser incorporado às estratégias de cuidado com a atenção dos profissionais da saúde à subjetividade, atuando para reconhecer e prevenir os transtornos alimentares em mulheres com diabetes e minimizar a adoção de ações prejudiciais à saúde.


Resumen Objetivo comprender la relación que tienen las mujeres con diabulimia con el cuerpo. Método investigación cualitativa, desarrollada con el Método de Historia Oral Temática, con cuatro mujeres entre 18 y 30 años que autoinformado diabulimia. Resultados la relación de la mujer con su cuerpo estuvo guiada por la presión social de la delgadez femenina que distorsiona la imagen de sí misma, genera insatisfacción con el cuerpo y la disminución de la autoestima. La pérdida de peso se asocia proporcionalmente con una mayor aceptación social y justifica el uso de métodos nocivos para la salud, como reducir la dosis o suspender el uso de insulina. Los narradores demostraron conocer los riesgos, pero admitieron repetirlo en determinados contextos. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica el deseo que tienen las mujeres con Diabetes Mellitus de adelgazar debe incorporarse a las estrategias de atención con la atención de los profesionales de la salud a la subjetividad, actuando para reconocer y prevenir los trastornos alimentarios en mujeres con diabetes y minimizar la adopción de acciones nocivas para la salud.


Abstract Objective to understand the relationship that women with diabulimia have with the body. Method a qualitative research, developed with the Thematic Oral History Method, with four women between 18 and 30 years of age who reported diabulimia. Results women's relationship with their bodies has been guided by the social pressure of female thinness that distorts self-image, generates dissatisfaction with the body and diminishes self-esteem. Weight loss is proportionally associated with increased social acceptance and justifies the use of harmful methods to health such as reducing the dose or suspending the use of insulin. The narrators showed to know the risks, but admitted to repeat it in certain contexts. Final considerations and implications for practice the desire that women with Diabetes Mellitus have to lose weight needs to be incorporated into the strategies of care with the attention of health professionals to subjectivity, acting to recognize and prevent eating disorders in women with diabetes and minimize the adoption of actions harmful to health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Body Image , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabulimia/psychology , Qualitative Research , Insulin/therapeutic use
3.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200278, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1142959

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Descrever o uso do brinquedo terapêutico no cuidado domiciliar de crianças com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1. Método Estudo qualitativo do tipo Estudo de Caso, realizado com crianças com diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1, residentes no interior do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados em 2018, por meio de entrevista com as mães, sessões de brinquedo terapêutico com as crianças e anotações no diário de campo. A análise dos dados foi realizada seguindo os preceitos da análise de conteúdo. Resultados As crianças simularam situações cotidianas com o brinquedo terapêutico com naturalidade, evidenciando que cuidados com a glicemia e aplicação da insulina fazem parte da rotina. Contudo, demonstram sinais de insatisfação com a própria saúde, traçando comparações com crianças que não apresentam a doença e demonstrando suas angústias quando submetidas a procedimentos dolorosos. Conclusão A utilização do brinquedo terapêutico permitiu a abertura de um canal efetivo de comunicação entre criança e profissional, possibilitando ao pesquisador compreender a percepção das crianças sobre sua condição de saúde e desenvolver orientações e cuidados direcionados. Implicações para a prática Ao utilizar o brinquedo terapêutico, recurso de intervenção na assistência de enfermagem, como tecnologia de cuidado, amplia-se as possibilidades de atuação da enfermagem pediátrica, auxiliando crianças em condições crônicas.


Resumen Objetivo Describir el uso de juguetes terapéuticos en el cuidado domiciliario de niños con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1. Método Estudio de caso tipo estudio cualitativo realizado con niños diagnosticados de Diabetes mellitus tipo 1, residentes del interior de Paraná. Los datos fueron recolectados en 2018, a través de entrevistas con madres, sesiones de juego terapéutico con niños y notas en el diario de campo. El análisis de datos se realizó siguiendo los preceptos del análisis de contenido. Resultados Los niños simularon situaciones cotidianas con el juguete terapéutico de forma natural, demostrando que los cuidados con la aplicación de glucosa e insulina son parte de su rutina. Sin embargo, muestran signos de insatisfacción con su propia salud, haciendo comparaciones con niños que no padecen la enfermedad y demostrando su angustia al ser sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos. Conclusión El uso de juguetes terapéuticos permitió la apertura de un canal de comunicación eficaz entre los niños y los profesionales, posibilitando al investigador comprender la percepción de los niños sobre su estado de salud, y desarrollar orientaciones y cuidados focalizados. Implicaciones para la práctica Al utilizar el juguete terapéutico, recurso de intervención en el cuidado de enfermería, como tecnología asistencial, se amplían las posibilidades del trabajo de enfermería pediátrica y se presta ayuda a los niños en condiciones crónicas.


Abstract Objective To describe the use of therapeutic toys in home care for children with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Method A qualitative case study carried out with children diagnosed with type 1 Diabetes mellitus, residents in the inland of Paraná. Data was collected in 2018, through interviews with mothers, therapeutic play sessions with children and notes in the field diary. Data analysis was performed following the precepts of content analysis. Results The children simulated everyday situations with the therapeutic toy naturally, showing that the care measures with blood glucose and insulin application are part of the routine. However, they show signs of dissatisfaction with their own health, drawing comparisons with children who do not suffer from the disease and demonstrating their distress when subjected to painful procedures. Conclusion The use of therapeutic toys allowed for the opening of an effective communication channel between children and professionals, enabling the researcher to understand the children's perception of their health condition, and to develop guidelines and targeted care measures. Implications for the practice When using the therapeutic toy, a resource for intervention in Nursing care, as a care technology, the possibilities for pediatric Nursing work are expanded, helping children in chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Play and Playthings/psychology , Child Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Pediatric Nursing/methods , Qualitative Research
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e46013, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145508

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: apreender perspectivas e vivências do cuidador familiar sobre os cuidados prestados às crianças e adolescentes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) no domicílio. Método: estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizada com 11 cuidadores residentes em um município no Noroeste do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados de fevereiro a maio de 2018, mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas, gravadas em áudio, e, então, submetidos à análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática, após aprovação do Comitê Permanente de Ética em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. Resultados: foram identificadas duas categorias temáticas: "Dos primeiros sintomas à aceitação do diagnóstico: um processo sempre em curso"; e "As dificuldades que permeiam o cuidado no cotidiano". Conclusão: as vivências relacionadas ao cuidado são permeadas por algumas dificuldades, especialmente em relação à aplicação correta da insulina, às restrições alimentares e à ausência de apoio por parte da escola, no controle alimentar e tratamento medicamentoso.


Objective: to learn family caregivers' perspectives and experiences regarding home care given to children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1). Method: in this qualitative, descriptive study conducted ­ after approval by the Standing Committee for Ethics in Research with Human Participants ­ with 11 caregivers residing in a municipality in northwestern Paraná, data were collected between February and May 2018 by recorded, semi-structured interview, and then subjected to thematic content analysis. Results: two thematic categories were identified: "From first symptoms to acceptance of the diagnosis ­ an ongoing process" and "Difficulties permeating everyday care". Conclusion: certain difficulties permeated the care-related experiences, especially as regards correct application of insulin, dietary restrictions, and lack of support from schools in dietary control and drug treatment.


Objetivo: conocer las perspectivas y experiencias de los cuidadores familiares con respecto al cuidado domiciliario de niños y adolescentes con Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 (DM1). Método: en este estudio cualitativo y descriptivo realizado - previa aprobación del Comité Permanente de Ética en la Investigación con Participantes Humanos - con 11 cuidadores residentes en un municipio del noroeste de Paraná, los datos fueron recolectados entre febrero y mayo de 2018 mediante entrevista grabada semiestructurada , y luego sometido a análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: se identificaron dos categorías temáticas: "Desde los primeros síntomas hasta la aceptación del diagnóstico - un proceso continuo" y "Dificultades que permean la atención diaria". Conclusión: ciertas dificultades impregnaron las experiencias asistenciales, especialmente en cuanto a la correcta aplicación de la insulina, las restricciones dietéticas y la falta de apoyo de las escuelas en el control dietético y el tratamiento farmacológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Family , Caregivers , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Home Nursing , Brazil , Child Care , Health Education , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Adolescent Health
5.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 95-104, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128985

ABSTRACT

La relación entre inmunidad y cáncer es compleja. Las células tumorales desarrollan mecanismos de evasión a las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. Esta capacidad permite su supervivencia y crecimiento. La inmunoterapia ha transformado el tratamiento oncológico mejorando la respuesta inmunitaria contra la célula tumoral. Esta se basa en el bloqueo de los puntos de control inmunitario mediante anticuerpos monoclonales contra la molécula inhibidora CTLA-4 (antígeno 4 del linfocito T citotóxico [CTLA-4]) y la proteína 1 de muerte celular programada y su ligando (PD-1/PD-L1). Aunque los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunitario (ICIs) son fármacos bien tolerados, tienen un perfil de efectos adversos conocido como eventos adversos inmunorrelacionados (EAI). Estos afectan varios sistemas, incluyendo las glándulas endocrinas. Los eventos adversos endocrinos más frecuentes son la disfunción tiroidea, la insuficiencia hipofisaria, la diabetes mellitus autoinmune y la insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. El creciente conocimiento de estos efectos adversos endocrinos ha llevado a estrategias de tratamiento efectivo con el reemplazo hormonal correspondiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es reconocer la incidencia de estas nuevas endocrinopatías, la fisiopatología, su valoración clínica y el manejo terapéutico. (AU)


The relationship between immunity and cancer is complex. Tumor cells develop evasion mechanisms to the immune system responses. This ability allows their survival and progression. Immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment by improving the immune response against tumor cells. This is achieved by blocking immune checkpoints with monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand (PD-1 / PD-L1). Although the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are well tolerated drugs, they have a profile of adverse effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAES). These involve diverse systems, including the endocrine glands. The most frequent endocrine immune-related adverse events are thyroid and pituitary dysfunction, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and primary adrenal insufficiency. The increasing knowledge of these irAES has led to effective treatment strategies with the corresponding hormonal replacement. The objective of this review is to recognize the incidence of these new endocrinopathies, the physiopathology, their clinical evaluation, and therapeutic management. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Diseases/pathology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Triiodothyronine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/pathology , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Hypophysitis/diagnosis , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/pathology , Hypophysitis/therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 68-75, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092789

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Comprender la relación entre apego y diabetes y el rol mediador del estrés en niños con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) y sus madres. Material y Método: Se aplicaron Instrumentos de evaluación correspondientes a Escalas de Apego (ECR-R), Estrés percibido (PSS), Seguridad (SS) y Estrés en niños (SiC), como medidas de autoreporte completadas por niños(as) y sus madres. Se analizaron variables demográficas, tiempo de inicio de diabetes, y el promedio de las ultimas 3 medi ciones de Hemoglobina glicosilada HbA1c como parámetro del control metabólico del último año. Resultados: Las estrategias de apego maternas e infantiles y el estrés materno mostraron una asocia ción significativa con los resultados de la diabetes del niño(a), aunque con importantes diferencias de género. Conclusiones: Las estrategias de apego, infantiles y maternas, son relevantes en el curso de la diabetes.


Abstract: Objective: To understand the relationship between attachment and diabetes and the role of stress mediators in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers. Material and Method: The following assessment instruments were applied as self-report measures: Attachment Scale (ECR- R), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Security Scale (SS), and the Stress in Children (SiC) questionnaire, which were completed by children and their mothers. We analyzed demographic variables, diabetes onset time, and the average of the last three glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements as a parameter of metabolic control in the last year. Results: Attachment strategies of both mother and child, as well as maternal stress, showed a significant association with the child's diabetes outcomes, although with important gender differences. Conclusions: Both mother and child attachment strate gies are relevant aspects of the T1D course.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Object Attachment , Prognosis , Psychological Tests , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Self Report , Mothers/psychology
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
9.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 43-47, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095229

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de los programas de transición (PT) es un paso fundamental para determinar su importancia como estrategia de seguimiento y apoyo a los adolescentes con diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) que transitan de una atención pediátrica a una adulta. OBJETIVO: evaluar un modelo de PT para adolescentes con DM1 a 4 años de su implementación. SUJETOS Y MÉTODO: este estudio se realizó en 65 adolescentes que ingresaron al PT. Se evaluó el cumplimiento de los indicadores de adherencia del PT (preparación, continuidad, regularidad, exclusividad en la atención médica y seguimiento psicológico), la participación de los adolescentes en el PT (cumplir con los 5 indicadores) y el control metabólico asociado a esa participación. El análisis estadístico se realizó con Prueba de Chi Cuadrado para las variables grados de participación y control metabólico; y Prueba T de Student para muestras pareadas para evaluar la variación de HbA1c al finalizar el primer año en atención como adulto. RESULTADOS: los indicadores de adherencia del PT se cumplen sobre el 65% en la población estudiada. Se encontró que el 38,5% de los adolescentes logran participación completa en el PT (cumplir 5 indicadores), 43,1% participación parcial (cumplir 3 o 4 indicadores) y 18,4% participación insuficiente en el PT (cumplir con 0, 1 ó 2 indicadores). Se observó una mayor frecuencia de mantenimiento o mejoría del control metabólico en los adolescentes con participación completa en el PT en comparación con los de participación parcial e insuficiente (76% v/s 59,2% y 22,2% respectivamente). Se observó un cambio significativo (p < 0,05) de la HbA1c en adolescentes con participación completa y participación parcial. CONCLUSIÓN: en los adolescentes con DM1, se debe incentivar la participación en el PT para fortalecer las conductas de adherencia al tratamiento diabético incluyendo el control metabólico.


INTRODUCTION: the evaluation of the transition programs (TP) is a fundamental step to determine its importance as a follow-up and support strategy for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who move from a pediatric to adult care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate a TP model for adolescents with T1D 4 years after its implementation. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: this study was carried out in 65 adolescents who entered the TP. Compliance with the TP adherence indicators was evaluated (preparation, continuity, regularity, exclusivity in medical care and psychological follow-up), the participation of adolescents in the TP (compliance with the 5 indicators) and the metabolic control associated with that participation. The statistical analysis was carried out with Chi-square test for the variable degrees of participation and metabolic control; and paired Student's T test for the change of HbA1c at the end of the first year in adult. RESULTS: TP adherence indicators are met over 65% in the population studied. When evaluating participation in the TP, it was found that 38.5% of adolescents achieved full participation in the TP (meet 5 indicators), 43.1% partial participation (meet 3 or 4 indicators) and 18.4% insufficient participation in the TP (comply with 0, 1 or 2 indicators). A higher frequency of maintenance or improvement of metabolic control was observed in adolescents with full participation in the TP compared to those with partial and insufficient participation (76% v/s 59.2% and 22.2% respectively). The statistical difference (p < 0.05) was obtained in the change of HbA1c of adolescents with full participation and partial participation. CONCLUSION: in adolescents with T1D, participation in TP should be encouraged to strengthen adherence to diabetic treatment including metabolic control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Program Evaluation/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Transition to Adult Care , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Chi-Square Distribution , Patient Compliance , Continuity of Patient Care , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.


Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
12.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(2, n. esp): 289-296, jan. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-969394

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo fue identificar las vivencias de adolescentes en el manejo de diabetes mellitus, en relación al autocuidado. Métodos: Fue llevada a cabo investigación descriptiva, predominantemente cualitativa, en hospital de referencia en DM, en Fortaleza-Ce, Brasil. Resultados: Participaron del estudio a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas 14 adolescentes con DM, con edades entre 12-18 años. Las entrevistas fueron sometidas a análisis de contenido para desconexión de las categorías. Del análisis, emergieron tres temas: el primero relacionado con los pacientes que demostraron adherencia al autocuidado; el segundo acerca de los dilemas de ser adolescente con diabetes; y el tercero para actuación de los profesionales de la salud y familia para el adolescente manejar el autocuidado. Conclusiones: Esta investigación con adolescentes con diabetes señaló la importancia del autocuidado con apoyo como herramienta que puede llevarse a la práctica por profesionales y familia, fomentando la adherencia al tratamiento


Objetivo: Conhecer as vivências de adolescentes acerca do autocuidado. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, entrevistas semiestruturadas foram conduzidas com 14 adolescentes, entre 12 a 18 anos, cadastrados em laboratório de endocrinologia pediátrica na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. Resultados: Com base nos dados desvelados observamos os seguintes enfrentamentos: adesão ao autocuidado; dilemas de ser adolescente com diabetes e ações do profissional de saúde e da família para o autocuidado do adolescente. Conclusão: Esta pesquisa com adolescentes portadores de diabetes demonstrou a importância do autocuidado apoiado como uma ferramenta que poderá ser operacionalizada por profissionais e família, favorecendo a adesão ao tratamento


Objective: This study aimed to identify the adolescents' experiences in the management of diabetes mellitus, regarding self-care. Methods: It is a descriptive research with a predominantly qualitative approach, which was carried out in a referral hospital in the assistance to patients with diabetes mellitus, located in Fortaleza city, Ceará State, Brazil. Fourteen adolescents bearing diabetes mellitus, within an age group from 12 to 18 years old, have participated in the study through semi-structured interviews. Results: The interviews were submitted to content analysis in order to identify the categories. After analysis, the following three thematic categories emerged: the first is related to patients who have demonstrated adherence to self-care; the second regarding the dilemmas of being an adolescent with diabetes; and the third concerning the actions of health professionals and the patients' relatives for the self-care management of adolescents. Conclusion: This research performed with adolescents bearing diabetes has revealed the importance of supported self-care as an instrument that can be worked out by both professionals and family, thus encouraging the treatment adherence


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Self Care/instrumentation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy
13.
In. Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão. Cardiologia do exercício: do atleta ao cardiopata / Exercise cardiology: from athlete to heart disease. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.335-383.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015678
14.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(4): 141-147, dic. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968637

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reduction in the expression of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress associated with exercise will protect against cardiovascular complications in Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Aim: The aim of this study was evaluated cardiovascular fitness (VO2 Max), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and serum lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in overweight patients with Type-1 diabetes (T1DM) participating in a lifestyle-change program. Results: 20 T1DM overweight patients (43.3 ± 13.8 years), with BMI= 29.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 , initial HbA1c 7.9 ± 0.91% and treated with multiple insulin injections, were included in this work. The lifestyle-change program consisted of: a) walking 10,000 steps/day, b) sequence of exercises of 24 minutes, 3-5 times/week, c) ¨healthy-plate¨ (and counting carbohydrates, and d) prandial insulin as blood-glucose levels. VO2 max, HbA1c, TBARS, IL6, MCP-1 were determined before starting the lifestyle-change program. Six months of adherence later, participants showed an average number of steps of 8242 ± 1834, a significant increase in VO2 max, (33.4 ±1.3 vs 36.2 ±1.5 ml.Kg-1.min-1 p= 0.008), a significant decrease in serum MCP-1 (314 ±42 vs 235 ±43 MFI p= 0.02), and less TBARS (3.01 ±0.44 vs 2.12 ±0.22 µmol/mL p= 0.015). IL-6 and HbA1c showed no significant decrease. Conclusion: Our results showed that a 6-month systemized and simple exercise plan improves cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max), and reduces both circulating oxidative stress and inflammation markers in overweight patients with T1DM.


Introducción: La reducción en la expresión de marcadores inflamatorios y de estrés oxidativo asociado con el ejercicio podría proteger contra las complicaciones cardiovasculares de la diabetes mellitus (DM). Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar en pacientes con DM tipo1 (DMT1) y sobrepeso, la capacidad cardiorespiratoria (VO2 Max), la expresión sérica de marcadores inflamatorios (IL-6 y MCP-1) y la peroxidación lipídica sérica (TBARS), luego de participar por 6 meses de un programa de cambios de estilo de vida. Resultados: Veinte pacientes adultos (43.3 ± 13.8 años), de ambos sexos, con un Índice de Masa Corporal de 29.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 , HbA1c inicial de 7,9% ± 0,91, en tratamiento con inyecciones múltiples de insulina participaron del estudio. Se indicó: 1) caminar 10.000 pasos/día, 2) realizar en domicilio una secuencia de ejercicios de 20 minutos, 3-5 veces/semana, 3) plato saludable (consumo de 1 fruta antes de las 3 comidas principales), 4) Insulina prandial según glucemia y conteo de carbohidratos. Se registraron parámetros antropométricos, presión arterial, se determinó VO2 max, y se midieron los niveles séricos de HbA1c, IL6, MCP-1 y TBARs. Luego de seis meses, los participantes alcanzaron un número promedio de pasos de 8242 ± 1834 y mostraron un aumento significativo en VO2 max, (33.4 ±1.3 vs 36.2 ±1.5 ml.Kg-1.min-1 p= 0.008). Además, se encontró una disminución significativa de MCP-1 (314 ±42 vs 235 ±43 MFI p=0.02) y TBARs (3.01 ±0.44 vs 2.12 ±0.22 µmol/mL p= 0.015) en comparación con el día 0. No se observaron modificaciones en los niveles de IL-6 y HbA1c. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados demuestran que el ejercicio, implementado como un plan accesible y acompañado, es adecuado para reducir los riesgos de inflamación y estado pro-oxidativo en pacientes con DM tipo1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Overweight/therapy , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Biomarkers , Lipid Peroxidation , Interleukin-6/blood , Oxidative Stress , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Inflammation , Life Style
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 937-942, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954211

ABSTRACT

We recently reported that insulin can partially protect the knee joint against osteoarthritis (OA) development in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the combined protective effect of insulin and swim exercise against OA development secondary to diabetes has not been investigated before. Therefore, we hypothesized that swim exercise can augment the protection of the knee joint in diabetic rats treated with insulin. T1DM was induced in Sprague Dawley rats and treated with insulin and/ or swim exercise. Tissues harvested from the articular cartilage of the knee joint were examined by light microscopy, and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin and swim exercise substantially protected the articular cartilage and significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the inflammatory biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA) measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) comparable to control. Whereas, a lesser effective protection was observed by insulin or swim exercise alone. Thus, we demonstrate a substantial protection against OA development in rats treated with combined insulin and swim exercise possibly due to a complete inhibition of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.


Recientemente informamos que la insulina puede proteger parcialmente la articulación de la rodilla contra el desarrollo de osteoartritis (OA) en un modelo de diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) en ratas. Sin embargo, el efecto protector combinado de la insulina y el ejercicio de natación contra el desarrollo de OA secundario a la diabetes no se ha investigado. Por lo tanto, planteamos la hipótesis de que el ejercicio de natación puede aumentar la protección de la articulación de la rodilla en ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina. La DM1 se indujo en ratas Sprague Dawley y se trataron con insulina y/o ejercicio de natación. Los tejidos recogidos del cartílago articular de la articulación de la rodilla se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica, y las muestras de sangre se analizaron en busca de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. El tratamiento de ratas diabéticas con insulina y ejercicio de natación protegió sustancialmente el cartílago articular y significativamente (p <0,0001) inhibió los biomarcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo, el malondialdehído (MDA) fue medido como sustancia reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), comparable al control. Se observó una menor protección efectiva mediante la insulina o el ejercicio de natación solo. Por lo tanto, demostramos una protección sustancial contra el desarrollo de OA en ratas tratadas con insulina combinada con el ejercicio de natación, posiblemente debido a una inhibición completa de biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Knee Joint
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 485-489, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038492

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the introduction of coaching in the interdisciplinary care of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the public health care system. Subjects and methods: Ten patients routinely attending a public health care service and with a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level above 75% participated in eight coaching sessions. This study evaluated the patients' self-management of the disease and personal behavior. The participants were assessed at the beginning of the program and on two occasions after the intervention, with evaluation of biochemical and anthropometric data, and frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Questionnaires were applied during these evaluations to analyze emotional burden (B-PAID), medication adherence (Morisky Adherence Scale), and self-efficacy (IMDSES). Results HbA1c had a median level of 8.0% (range 76-10.3%) at the beginning of the study and reduced significantly 3 months after initiation of the intervention (7.78% [6.5-10%], p = 0.028), with no significant increase at 6 months (8.3% [713-9.27%], p = 0.386). SMBG improved significantly from the beginning to the end of the study, with the median number of glucose tests per week varying from 16.5 (range 0-42) at baseline to 29.0 (7-42) at 3 months and 27.5 (10-48) at 6 months (p = 0.047). No significant differences were observed in anthropometric parameters or in the scores of the instruments between the three measurements. Conclusion: A coaching intervention focused on patients' values and sense of purpose may provide added benefit to traditional diabetes education programs and could be an auxiliary method to help individuals with type 1 diabetes achieve their treatment goals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Mentoring/methods , Self-Management/psychology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/psychology , Pilot Projects , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(3): 391-398, jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959539

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 es la patología endocrina crónica más común en niños. El tratamiento incluye dieta, actividad física, medicación con insulina y un autocontrol adecuado. Este autocontrol puede ser dificultoso, provocando que niños, adolescentes y sus familias sufran diversas complica ciones psicosociales. Existe una relación inversa entre autocontrol y presencia de complicaciones psicosociales, siendo los principales problemas ansiedad y depresión, donde los adolescentes llegan a ser 2,3 veces más propensos a presentar problemas de salud mental. Las familias se ven afectadas inicialmente en el período de debut por un estado de shock, con sentimientos de angustia e ira. Los necesarios cambios de hábitos y estilos de vida pueden generar problemas psicosociales entre los que destacan trastornos ansiosos, depresivos y alimenticios. Posteriormente, el niño o adolescente y su grupo familiar pueden transitar a un nuevo equilibrio caracterizado por un buen autocontrol y adherencia al tratamiento o profundizar los trastornos individuales y grupales, trastornos que pue den reaparecer, especialmente en la adolescencia. El tratamiento integral de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 requiere atender estos aspectos mediante equipos multidisciplinarios que incluyen profesionales médicos y del ámbito psicosocial. En esta revisión se analizan los principales aspectos relacionados al impacto psicosocial en niños y adolescentes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y sus familias.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine pathology among children. Treatment includes diet, physical activity, insulin medication, and proper self-control. This self-control may be difficult, resulting in children, adolescents and their families suffering diverse psychosocial complications. There is an inverse relationship between self-control and psychosocial complications, the main problems being anxiety and depression, where adolescents are 2.3 times more likely to have mental health problems. Families are initially affected, in the debut period by a state of shock, with feelings of distress and anger. The necesary changes in habits and lifestyles can lead to psychosocial problems, including anxiety, depression and eating disorders. Subsequently, the child or adolescent and his or her family group may move into new balance characterized by good self-control and adherence to tratment, or deepen individual and group disorders which may reappear, especially in adolescence. The comprehensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus requires addressing these aspects through multidisciplinary teams which include medical and phychosocial professionals. This review analyses the main aspects related to the psychosocial impact of diabetes mellitus type 1 among children, adolescents and their families.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Health Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders/etiology , Chile , Patient Compliance/psychology , Cost of Illness , Depression/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Family Relations , Life Style
18.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3039, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978605

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational workshop using games to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose techniques for school children with type 1 diabetes. Method: a quasi-experimental study was conducted with school children who attended two outpatient clinics of a university hospital. Data were collected by systematic observation of the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) technique before and after the intervention. Data analysis consisted of verifying changes while performing the technique, using pre- and post-intervention compliance rates using statistical tests. The sample consisted of 33 children. Each child participated in one session; 17 educational workshops were conducted in total. Results: we found an increased frequency of SMBG, changing lancets, rotation of puncture sites, as well as calibration and periodic checking of date and time of the glucose meter. Comparisons pre- and post-intervention showed that the average number of steps in accordance with the SMBG technique increased from 5.30 to 6.58, whereas the steps "Changing the lancet of the lancing device", "Pressing the puncture site" and "Disposing of materials used in a needlestick container" showed statistically significant differences. Conclusion: the educational workshop was effective, as it improved children's performance of the SBMG technique.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia de uma oficina educativa baseada em atividades lúdicas para melhorar a técnica de automonitoramento glicêmico (AMG) de crianças com diabetes tipo 1. Método: um estudo quase-experimental foi feito com crianças em idade escolar que recebiam tratamento em duas clínicas ambulatoriais de um hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados através da observação sistemática da prática do automonitoramento glicêmico antes e após a intervenção. A análise dos dados consistiu em verificar mudanças durante a execução da técnica, usando as taxas de conformidade de pré e pós-intervenção em testes estatísticos. A amostra consistiu em 33 crianças. Cada criança participou de uma sessão da oficina, e ao todo foram feitas 17 sessões. Resultados: encontramos uma maior frequência no AMG, na troca da lanceta, na alternância nos locais de punção, na calibração e verificação periódica de data e hora do monitor de glicemia. As comparações entre os períodos pré e pós-intervenção mostraram que o número médio de etapas em conformidade com a técnica de AMG aumentou de 5,30 para 6,58. As etapas "Trocar a lanceta do lancetador", "Pressionar o local puncionado" e "Eliminar corretamente os materiais utilizados" obtiveram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Conclusão: a oficina educativa foi eficaz, melhorando as práticas de AMG das crianças.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de un taller educativo que usa juegos para mejorar el autocontrol de las técnicas de glucosa en sangre para niños en edad escolar con diabetes tipo 1. Método: se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental con escolares que asistieron a dos clínicas ambulatorias de un hospital universitario. Los datos se recogieron mediante la observación sistemática de la técnica de autocontrol de la glucosa en sangre (AGS) antes y después de la intervención. El análisis de los datos consistió en verificar los cambios mientras se realizaba la técnica, utilizando las tasas de cumplimiento pre- y pos-intervención mediante pruebas estadísticas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 33 niños. Cada niño participó en una sesión; en total se realizaron 17 talleres educativos. Resultados: encontramos una mayor frecuencia de AGS, cambio de lancetas, rotación de los sitios de punción, así como la calibración y la comprobación periódica de la fecha y la hora del glucómetro. Las comparaciones previas y posteriores a la intervención mostraron que el número promedio de etapas de acuerdo con la técnica AGS aumentó de 5,30 a 6,58, mientras que las etapas "Cambio de la lanceta del dispositivo de punción", "Presión del sitio de punción", y "Eliminación de materiales utilizado en un contenedor de agujas" mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusión: el taller educativo fue efectivo, ya que mejoró el rendimiento de los niños en la técnica AGS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/classification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Health Education/methods
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(1): 7-10, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999004

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The transition programs (TP) are planned interventions with specific aims which support type 1 diabetes adolescents in their process to emigrate from a pediatric care system to an adult care system. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a TP in type 1 diabetes adolescents. Subjects and Method: This study was performed in 20 adolescents: 10 in TP and 10 controls (no TP) attended in an adult care system in a traditional way. The applied program included: coordination of attention dates, administrative supervision of the cases, and integral health team attention: physician every three months, psychologist with psychosocial follow-up every three months, nutricionist and university nurse according to the case necessities. After a year of the TP implementation the indicators of adherence were evaluated: continuity of care, regular medical appointments, physician/adolescent relationship, psychosocial follow-up, and to maintain or improve the HbA1c. The statistical analysis of variables comparison was performed with Kwallis Test o Mann-Whitney Test, in STATA 12.0 program. Results: At comparing groups, it was found that the intervened adolescents presented a major frequency of: continuity of diabetes care, regular medical appointments, physician/adolescent relationship and psychosocial follow-up (p < 0,01); the indicator of maintaining or improving the HbA1c was better in the patients with TP (60 percent vs 30 percent) yet not significant. Conclusion: In type 1 diabetes adolescents, with the applied TP we get better indicators of adherence to the diabetes treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Patient Compliance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Transition to Adult Care , Physician-Patient Relations , Self Care , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Chile , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.3): 1334-1342, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958749

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the experience of the child with diabetes type 1 in the care related to the techniques of glycemic monitoring and insulin application by use of instructional therapeutic toy, in accordance with the culture care. Method: Qualitative study with premise of the ethnonursing carried out in secondary public service of reference in the treatment of diabetes, in the city Fortaleza, Ceará State, between January and November of 2014, among 26 school-age children. Based on the Observation, Participation, Reflection Enabler, were developed educational activities using instructional therapeutic toy. Results: The children expressed doubts regarding the insulin therapy and the glycaemia checking. They also were interested in the orientations mediated by means of the therapeutic toy in the culture care. They asked about the rotation, location and administration of the insulin. Some children asked for the syringes to play and learn how to inject it in the dolls. Conclusion: To bring in this activity promoted approximation and effective communication with the child in the educational approach, increasing its ability in the self care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la experiencia del niño con diabetes tipo 1 en los cuidados relacionados con las técnicas de monitoreo glucémico y aplicación de insulina por medio del uso de juguete terapéutico instructivo, a la luz del cuidado cultural. Método: el estudio cualitativo con supuestos de la etnoenfermería realizado en servicio público de referencia en el tratamiento de diabetes, en la ciudad de Fortaleza, Ceará, de enero a noviembre de 2014, con 26 niños en edad escolar. Con base en el modelo observación-participación-reflexión, se desarrollaron actividades educativas con utilización de juguete terapéutico instructivo. Resultados: los niños expresaron sus dudas relacionadas con la insulinoterapia y la verificación de la glucemia y demostraron interés en las orientaciones mediadas por el juguete terapéutico en el cuidado cultural. Se preguntó sobre la rotación, los lugares y la forma de aplicación de la insulina. Otros solicitaron las jeringas para jugar y aprender a aplicar en los muñecos. Conclusión: la inserción de esa actividad favoreció la aproximación y la comunicación efectiva con el niño en el enfoque educativo, ampliando sus habilidades en su propio cuidado.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a experiência da criança com diabetes tipo 1 nos cuidados relacionados às técnicas de monitoração glicêmica e aplicação de insulina mediada pelo brinquedo terapêutico instrucional, à luz do cuidado cultural. Método: estudo qualitativo com pressupostos da Etnoenfermagem, realizado em serviço público de referência no tratamento de diabetes, em Fortaleza, Ceará, de janeiro a novembro de 2014, com 26 crianças em idade escolar. Com base no modelo observação-participação-reflexão, desenvolveram-se atividades educativas com utilização de brinquedo terapêutico instrucional. Resultados: as crianças expressaram suas dúvidas relacionadas à insulinoterapia e à verificação da glicemia e demonstraram interesse nas orientações mediadas pelo brinquedo terapêutico no cuidado cultural. Questionaram sobre rodízio, locais e forma de aplicação da insulina. Outras solicitaram as seringas para brincar e aprender a aplicar nos bonecos. Conclusão: essa atividade favoreceu a aproximação e a comunicação efetiva com a criança na abordagem educativa, ampliando suas habilidades no cuidado de si.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Play and Playthings/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Education/standards , Culturally Competent Care/methods , Self Care/methods , Qualitative Research , Education/methods
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