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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 121-126, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293387

ABSTRACT

La diabetes MODY 2 es un tipo de diabetes monogénica producida por una mutación en la enzima glucoquinasa, generando un fenotipo hiperglicémico. Para posibles fines terapéuticos o de diagnóstico, se debe conocer esta proteína, una enzima monomérica de la familia de las hexoquinasas, encargadas de convertir glucosa en glucosa-6-fosfato, el primer paso de la glicolisis. La glucoquinasa se caracteriza por sus propiedades cinéticas únicas: tiene una afinidad mucho menor por el sustrato que las demás hexoquinasas y no es inhibida por su producto. Se encuentra principalmente en páncreas e hígado (ßGK y LGK, respectivamente), donde como sensor regula los distintos estados metabólicos de estos tejidos, y controla la glicemia a nivel sistémico. Las formas ßGK y LGK se diferencian a nivel transcripcional, pues el gen posee dos promotores distintos, específicos para cada tejido. A nivel hormonal, la actividad de esta enzima es regulada selectivamente de manera tejido-específica por glucosa, insulina y otras proteínas reguladoras. La isoforma hepática puede ser secuestrada hacia el núcleo por la proteína reguladora de glucoquinasa (GKRP, por su sigla en inglés). La principal característica de la enzima glucoquinasa es su inusual regulación alostérica, propiedad que le permite adoptar dos conformaciones principales, una cerrada (activa) y otra súper-abierta (inactiva). Se han desarrollado distintas drogas activadoras de glucoquinasa, las cuales se unen al sitio alostérico de la enzima y estabilizan a la proteína en su estado cerrado. En esta revisión se describen las características estructurales y propiedades regulatorias que posee la enzima glucoquinasa, relacionándolas con su rol en el desarrollo de la diabetes MODY 2. También se profundiza en las implicancias moleculares de algunas mutaciones descritas que originan MODY 2, y se abordan los efectos de moléculas activadoras de glucoquinasa.


Diabetes MODY 2 or GCK-MODY is a type of monogenic diabetes produced by a mutation in the glucokinase enzyme, generating a hyperglycemic phenotype. This protein, a monomeric enzyme of the hexokinase family, is responsible for converting glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, the first step of glycolysis. Glucokinase is characterized by its unique kinetic properties: it has a much lower affinity for its substrate than other hexokinases and is not inhibited by its product. It is found mainly in pancreas (ßGK) and liver (LGK), where it acts as a sensor regulating the different metabolic states of these tissues, and ultimately, controlling systemic glycemia. The two forms ßGK and LGK differ at a transcriptional level, because the gene presents two different tissue-specific promoters. The activity of glucokinase in liver and pancreas is regulated by glucose, insulin and other regulatory proteins. The liver isoform can be sequestered to the nucleus by the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). The main characteristic of the enzyme is its unusual allosteric regulation, a property that allows the protein to adopt a closed (active) conformation, and a super-open (inactive) conformation. Different glucokinase activating drugs have been developed, which bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme and stabilize glucokinase in its closed state. This review describes the structural and regulatory properties of the glucokinase enzyme, and its role in the development of MODY 2 diabetes. The molecular implications of some mutations that originate MODY 2 are also described, and the effects of glucokinase activating molecules are addressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Glucokinase/genetics , Hyperglycemia/genetics , Mutation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the gene expression of adipose tissue CD14@*METHODS@#The data of GSE54350 were obtained from the public database of gene expression profiling. The data were pre-processed by Network Analyst, String 11.0, Cytoscape 3.7.1, and other analytical software. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed by gene ontology biological function and kyoto encycopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway to establish differential gene protein interaction network, transcription factor-gene regulatory network, microRNA-gene regulatory network, environmental factors-gene regulatory network, and other interaction systems.@*RESULTS@#The gene expression pattern of CD14@*CONCLUSIONS@#The gene expression of adipose tissue CD14


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Muscle Proteins
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct the differential expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) in plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explore the possibility of using miRNA as the target for diagnosis and treatment of T2DM.@*METHODS@#Agilent miRNA microarray was used to determine the expression profiles of miRNA in the plasma of patients with T2DM (FC> 2, P< 0.05). The result was verified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Candidate miRNA was analyzed by bioinformatic tools.@*RESULTS@#In total 122 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Among these, 14 were selected by multi-source intersection screening, which included 5 up-regulated genes and 9 down regulated genes. RT-qPCR showed that the expression of hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-328-5p have significantly increased in T2DM patients (P< 0.05). Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these miRNAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM through insulin secretion and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Differential expression of hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-328-5p in the plasma may be closely associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888188

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the main mechanism of Astragali Radix-Coptis Rhizoma pair(hereinafter referred to as the pair) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) based on network pharmacology and animal experiment. The main Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for T2 DM were retrieved from CNKI database and the medicinals with high frequency among these prescriptions were screened. The active components in the above medicinals were searched from TCMSP, TCMID, and previous research, targets of the components from SwissTargetPrediction and SEA, and targets for the treatment of T2 DM from DISGENET, TTD, and DrugBank. Thereby, the medicinal-component-disease-target network was constructed with Cytoscape. The targets were input in String database to yield the related proteins and the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by Cytoscape. The biological functions of proteins in the PPI network were analyzed by Cluego. Then, high-fat high-sugar diet and 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozotocin(STZ, intraperitoneal injection, once) were employed to induce T2 DM in rats and the T2 DM rats were classified into the control group, model group, positive drug(metformin) group, and pair group. After one month of administration, the changes of blood glucose and blood lipids [triglyceride(TG), cholesterol(CHO), low density lipoprotein(LDL), high density lipoprotein(HDL)] were detected with biochemical methods and pathological changes of islet and collagen deposition in pancreatic tissue by HE staining and Masson staining, respectively. The result showed that pair can be used for T2 DM treatment. ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1(RAC1), paraoxonase 1(PON1), beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase 1(ST6 GAL1), insulin receptor(INSR), sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG), ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter(SLC10 A2), endothelin-1 receptor A(EDNRA), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor A(PPARA), endothelin receptor B(EDNRB), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2 A(HTR2 A) were the targets of the pair for the treatment of T2 DM. The main biological functions of the pair were regulating the metabolism of blood glucose and li-pids and protecting the cardiovascular system. The fasting blood glucose, and serum TG, CHO, and LDL were higher(P<0.01) and the HDL was lower(P<0.05) in the model group than in the control group on the 7 th, 14 th, and 28 th days. The fas-ting blood glucose and the serum TG, CHO, and LDL decreased(P<0.05) and the serum HDL increased(P<0.05) in the metformin group and the pair group as compared with those in the model group on the 14 th and 28 th days. There were no significant differences in blood glucose, TG, CHO, LDL, and HDL between the metformin group and the pair group. Rats in the model group demonstrated damaged structures of islets and pancreas, obviously increased deposition of collagen in islets and pancreas, and blurred cell boundaries. Metformin and the pair significantly alleviated the damaged structures and collagen deposition. The pair can effectively regulate the disorders of blood glucose and lipid metabolism in T2 DM and protect the structure and functions of pancreas and islets by controlling cardiovascular system, which is worthy of clinical application and can be used for drug development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Coptis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metformin , Rats , Rhizome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888150

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the ameliorative effects of gypenosides(GPS) on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory factors in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) and explored their possible molecular mechanisms. After the successful establishment of T2 DM model, diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups, including model group, GPS groups(200, 100 mg·kg~(-1)) and metformin group(100 mg·kg~(-1)), with healthy rats serving as the control. After 6-week intragastric administration, fasting blood glucose(FBG) and oral glucose tolerance were examined. The levels of insulin, C-peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6) and C-reactive protein(CRP) in serum were examined. Then the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index(ISI) were calculated. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1(p-IRS-1) and phosphorylated protein kinase B(p-Akt) in skeletal muscle were measured by Western blot, as well as those of phosphorylated inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) kinase β(p-IKKβ), phosphorylated alpha inhibitor of NF-κB(p-IκBα) and phosphorylated p65 subunit of NF-κB(p-p65) in adipose tissue. The relative expression levels of glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) mRNA in skeletal muscle and NF-κB mRNA in adipose tissue were measured by qRT-PCR, and the morphological changes of pancreatic tissue were observed. Compared with the model group, the GPS groups witnessed significant decrease in FBG, marked amelioration of impaired oral glucose tolerance and significant increase in ISI. Further, the high-dose GPS group saw significantly reduced HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-1β and CRP, significantly increased expression levels of p-IRS-1(Tyr), p-Akt and GLUT4, and markedly inhibited p-IRS-1(Ser), p-IKKβ, p-IκBα, p-p65 and NF-κB. The concentration of CRP and the expression levels of p-IRS-1(Ser), p-IKKβ, p-IκBα and NF-κB were remarkably reduced in the low-dose GPS group. However, GPS was found less effective in the regulation of serum insulin, C-peptide and IL-6 levels and the alleviation of pancreatic islet injury. The results indicated that GPS can reduce FBG and improve insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, inhibiting inflammation, and thereby regulating the expression of key proteins in the insulin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gynostemma , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Plant Extracts , Rats , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a juvenile with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 12(MODY12).@*METHODS@#High-throughput sequencing was carried out to screen for the variants. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. Pathogenity of the variant was predicted by searching the genetic databases and analysis by using bioinformatic software.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing indicated that the patient and his mother have both carried a heterozygous c.3976G>A variant (p.Glu1326Lys) in exon 32 of the ABCC8 gene. Prediction of the protein structure suggested the variant to be deleterious. Based on the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#Whether the c.3976G>A variant of the ABCC8 gene is the cause of the disease in this patient or not depends on the functional studies and more case data. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of ABCC8 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genetic Testing , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation
8.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(2): e8859, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139046

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus se considera un síndrome heterogéneo con etiología compleja en el que influyen factores genéticos y ambientales. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de alteraciones del metabolismo glucídico y factores de riesgo aterogénicos en familiares de primera línea de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que incluyó a 120 pacientes adultos, hijos de pacientes diabéticos, en los que no se encontraban antecedentes de alteraciones del metabolismo glucídico, pertenecientes al Policlínico Universitario Héroes del Moncada, del municipio Plaza de la Revolución. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas, variables clínicas y relacionadas con los estilos de vida como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal, colesterol, triglicéridos, glucemias (ayunas y posprandial), hábito de fumar, actividad física y hábitos dietéticos. Resultados: Los pacientes tenían una edad promedio de 54,42 años y predominó el sexo femenino. Se detectaron alteraciones del metabolismo glucídico en 28,3 por ciento de los cuales 23,3 por ciento se consideraron prediabéticos y 5 por ciento diabéticos. Los factores de riesgo que predominaron fueron la dieta inadecuada, obesidad abdominal, hipercolesterolemia e hipertrigliceridemia que fueron más evidentes en los pacientes diagnosticados como diabéticos. Conclusiones: Los familiares de primer grado de pacientes diabéticos pueden presentar una alta prevalencia de alteraciones del metabolismo glucídico y factores de riesgo aterogénicos, aún sin sintomatología evidente, lo que refuerza la necesidad de realizar un diagnóstico temprano para evitar la progresión de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered a heterogeneous syndrome with a complex etiology, influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Objective: To identify the presence of alterations of the glucidic metabolism and atherogenic risk factors in first- degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Heroes del Moncada University Polyclinic, in Plaza de la Revolution municipality. The study included 120 adult patients, descendants of diabetic patients. They had no history of alterations of the glucidic metabolism. Sociodemographic, clinical variables were studied, and those related to lifestyles such as blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, (fasting and postprandial) glycaemia, smoking, physical activity and dietary habits. Results: These patients had average age of 54.42 years and the female sex predominated. Alterations of the glucidic metabolism were detected in 28.3 percent, 23.3 percent of them were considered pre-diabetic and 5 percent diabetic. The predominant risk factors were inadequate diet, abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which was much evident in patients diagnosed as diabetic. Conclusions: The first-degree relatives of diabetic patients may present high prevalence of alterations of glucidic metabolism and atherogenic risk factors, even with no evident symptoms, which reinforces the need of early diagnosis to avoid the progression of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Glucose/genetics , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Family , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Risk , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 965-976, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058631

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 2 diabetes etiology has a strong genetic component. More than 20 genetic variants have been associated with diabetes and other metabolic markers. However, the polymorphism rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene has shown the strongest association. Aim: To investigate the association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) genotype with adiposity and metabolic markers in the Chilean adult population. Material and Methods: The association of TCF7L2 (rs7093146) with adiposity and metabolic markers was studied in 301 participants. The outcomes of the study were adiposity markers (body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass and waist circumference) and metabolic markers (blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and leptin). Results: There was an association between the polymorphism TCF7L2 genotype and fasting blood glucose. The latter increased by 4.86 mg/dl per each copy of the risk allele [(95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.48; 9.24), p = 0.03] in the unadjusted adjusted model. However, this association was slightly attenuated in the fully adjusted model [4.38 mg/dl (95% IC: 0.16; 8.60), p = 0.04)]. There were no associations between the TCF7L2 genotype and any other metabolic or adiposity outcome. Conclusions: These findings confirm the association between the TCF7L2 (rs7903146) and fasting glucose in the Chilean population. However, further studies are needed to confirm the association between the TCF7L2 and diabetes risk in the Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Adiposity/genetics , Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein/genetics , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/genetics , Genetic Markers , Linear Models , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Alleles , Adiposity/ethnology , Genetic Association Studies , Gene Frequency , Genotype
10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(1): 58-62, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286460

ABSTRACT

Resumen El gen de la ataxina-2 es un blanco en la patogénesis de enfermedades complejas, entre ellas los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y enfermedades neurodegenerativas. El gen ATXN2 tiene un VNTR en el exón 1, cuya expansión por encima de las 30 repeticiones provoca al desarrollo de ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 2; las repeticiones en rango menor se asocian con diabetes tipo 2 o esclerosis lateral amiotrófica. También este locus está ligado con fenotipos metabólicos e inflamatorios. En conclusión, el gen puede ser utilizado como marcador clínico de fenotipos metabólicos y neurológicos, lo cual está relacionado con su efecto pleiotrópico.


Abstract The ataxin 2 gene is a target in the pathogenesis of complex diseases, including cardiovascular risk factors and neurodegenerative diseases. ATXN2 gen has VNTR in exon 1, whose expansion exceeding 30 repetitions leads to the development of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2; lower-range repetitions are associated with type 2 diabetes or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This locus is also linked with metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes. In conclusion, this gene can be used as a clinical marker of metabolic and neurological phenotypes, which is related to its pleiotropic effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Ataxin-2/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e034, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001601

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Specific variants in genes that encode adipokines and their mRNA and protein expression were previously studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, and similar studies have been performed for chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the possible impacts of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR), and resistin (RETN) on the etiopathogenesis of CP. Examinations were performed on 118 non-periodontitis healthy subjects (healthy controls, HC), 205 healthy individuals with CP (H + CP) and 86 type 2 diabetes patients with CP (T2DM + CP). Variants within the ADIPOQ (rs2241766, rs1501299), LEP (rs13228377, rs2167270), LEP receptor (rs1805096), and RETN (rs1862513) genes were determined by qPCR. In addition, the plasma levels of ADIPOQ, LEP, and RETN were analysed by ELISA for 80 individuals. The genotype frequencies of the SNP ADIPOQ +45G/T (rs2241766) differed between the HC and H + CP groups (p=0.03, pcorr>0.05), and carriers of the TT genotype had a lower risk of developing CP compared to carriers of the GG or TG genotypes (p<0.01, pcorr>0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the plasma levels of ADIPOQ, LEP or RETN between the study groups (p > 0.05). Plasma levels of the adipokines were also independent of the gene profiles (p > 0.05). Adipokine plasma levels did not change in patients with H + CP/T2DM + CP compared to HC, but we did identify a specific polymorphism in the ADIPOQ gene that was associated with CP. Although the ADIPOQ +45G/T (rs2241766) gene variant may be a candidate biomarker for CP, further research is required in larger populations with different ethnic backgrounds before any final conclusions can be drawn about the role of this gene in CP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Adipokines/genetics , Adipokines/blood , Chronic Periodontitis/blood , Reference Values , Genetic Variation , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Chronic Periodontitis/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 929-932, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961480

ABSTRACT

We report a 21 years old woman, without offspring, with diabetes mellitus diagnosed at 17 years of age, without ketosis or weight loss. Her body mass index was 18 kg/m2. Her C peptide was normal (2.3 ng/ml) and diabetes mellitus type 1 autoantibodies were negative. A monogenic diabetes Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) was proposed. Her family study disclosed a diabetic father and a brother with altered fasting glucose levels. The University of Exeter score for MODY yielded a 75.5% probability of MODY2. In the genetic-molecular study of the glucokinase gene (MODY2), the patient had a mutation at position 1343 of exon 10, corresponding to a heterozygous substitution of guanine by adenine (1343 G >A). The same mutation was found in her father and brother. This mutation is different from those previously described in the literature. The described change determines that a glycine is replaced by aspartic at amino acid 448 of the enzyme (non-synonymous substitution). The diagnosis of MODY2 was therefore confirmed in the patient and her father. The mutation was inherited by paternal line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Chile , Glucokinase , Mutation
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(7): 586-589, July 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041015

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: The impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus raises interest in understanding its evolutionary-genetic basis, to unveil yet unknown pathways that may have immediate medical relevance. The HNF1β gene (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta) is a transcription factor expressed in tissues such as liver, kidney, genital tract and pancreas that is known to be essential for insulin secretion and glucose balance. We tested the association of allelic variants produced by the HNF1β gene (rs4430796) variation with the clinical and biochemical profile of elderly Brazilian outpatients with metabolic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, blood pressure, glycaemia, lipemia and other parameters were assessed in 184 Brazilians aged 60 or older in clinical care settings. Alleles were determined by amplification of the polymorphic site by real time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Analysing variables across the genotypes, a statistically significant difference was noticed in the allele frequencies among diabetic patients, with 30.8% of the A homozygous bearing the condition compared to a prevalence of 12.2% between G homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate the possible protective property of the GG genotype from the rs4430796 variation (already presented in the literature) against occurrence of diabetes mellitus, which appears applicable to elderly individuals as well, even in the context of multiple metabolic disorders so typical in older Brazilians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta/genetics , Brazil , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Alleles , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta/metabolism , Gene Frequency , Genotype
15.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(1): 42-54, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959338

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En los últimos años, la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) ha evolucionado en forma epidémica, experimentando un rápido crecimiento y afectando a millones de individuos a nivel mundial. La cardiopatía isquémica es la principal causa de mortalidad en los pacientes diabéticos, quienes poseen un mayor riesgo cardiovascular respecto a los no diabéticos. La DM2 y la cardiopatía isquémica se caracterizan por ser prevenibles, sin embargo, existen diversos factores de riesgo comunes que contribuyen a su desarrollo. Los mecanismos que explican la ateroesclerosis acelerada y el incremento de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 incluyen a la hiperglicemia, dislipidemia y la inflamación del endotelio vascular. La diabetes es resultado de una interacción compleja entre la genética y el medio ambiente. Recientemente se han descrito varios genes implicados en el desarrollo de la diabetes y cardiopatía isquémica y que podrían significar nuevas opciones terapéuticas. En este artículo se revisa la relación entre ambas patologías, los mecanismos moleculares y el descubrimiento de factores de riesgo genéticos comunes y su implicancia en el desarrollo de nuevos blancos terapéuticos.


Abstracts: In recent years, type 2 diabetes mellitus has evolved as a rapidly increasing epidemic and affects millions of people worldwide. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the main cause of death among diabetic patients, who have a higher cardiovascular risk than non-diabetics. Both, DM2 and IHD are characterized by being preventable, however there are several common risk factors that contribute to their development. The mechanisms that explain accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include damage by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation on vascular endothelium. Diabetes is the result of a complex interaction between genetics and the environment, recently, several genes have been identified that appear to be involved in diabetes and ischemic heart disease that could explain its relationship and serve as new therapeutic possibilities. In this article, we review the relationship between diabetes and ischemic heart disease, the molecular mechanisms and the discovery of genetic risk factors common to both diseases and their implication in the development of new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Metformin/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 21-26, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887636

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the frequencies of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphisms in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and methods These polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 125 patients with obesity, 47 (T2DM) and 78 (Control Group). Results No significant difference was found on comparing the T2DM and Control Groups in respect to the genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms - (II: 13.3% vs. 12.0%; ID: 37.8% vs. 37.3; DD: 48.9% vs. 50.7%; CC: 36.2% vs. 39.0%; CT: 46.8% vs. 49.3%; TT: 17.0% vs. 11.7%), and alleles (I: 32.2% vs. 30.7%; D: 67.8% vs. 69.3%; C: 59.6% vs. 63.6%; T: 40.4% vs. 36.4%) and their synergisms in the pathophysiology of T2DM. On analyzing the T2DM Group, there were no significant differences in the presence of complications. In this population of Brazilian obese patients, no correlation was found between the ACE and MTHFR polymorphisms in the development of T2DM. Conclusion Analyzing only the group with diabetes, there was also no relationship between these polymorphisms and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/enzymology , Obesity/complications , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Gene Deletion , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genotype , Obesity/enzymology
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 441-444, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891428

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the gene expression of beta-trace protein in urine of diabetic patients, with no reduction in glomerular filtration rate, which was defined as below 60mL/min/1.73m2. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were recruited, and a group of non-diabetic individuals served as control. Beta-trace protein gene expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Blood samples were collected to establish glucose levels and baseline kidney function. Accuracy was analyzed using ROC curves. Results: Ninety type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 20 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. The area under the curve was 0.601, sensitivity of 20% and specificity of 89.47%. Among diabetic participants, 18% showed an expression above the cutoff point. Conclusion: These results of accuracy of beta-trace protein gene expression in urine of diabetic patients are promising, although they did not achieve a higher area under the curve level.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço na urina de pacientes diabéticos, sem redução na taxa de filtração glomerular, definida como abaixo de 60mL/min/1,73m2. Métodos: Foram recrutados pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, e um grupo de indivíduos não diabéticos serviu como controle. A expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço foi analisada por PCR quantitativa. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para estabelecer níveis de glicemia e função renal inicial. A acurácia foi analisada utilizando curvas ROC. Resultados: Foram recrutados 90 pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e 20 não diabéticos. A área sob a curva foi de 0,601, com sensibilidade de 20% e especificidade de 89,47%. Entre os diabéticos, 18% apresentaram expressão acima do ponto de corte. Conclusão: Estes resultados de acurácia da expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço na urina de pacientes diabéticos são promissores, apesar de não terem atingido um nível alto na área sob a curva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/genetics , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/urine , Lipocalins/genetics , Lipocalins/urine , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Lipocalins/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/metabolism , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(11): 971-977, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896309

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: Interaction between advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in cells could affect both extracellular and intracellular structure and function, which plays a pivotal role in diabetic microvascular complications. The results from previous epidemiological studies on the association between RAGE gene -374T/A polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to summarize the possible association between RAGE -374T/A polymorphism and DR risk. Method: We searched all relevant articles on the association between RAGE -374T/A polymorphism and DR risk from PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Wanfang, VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) web databases up to August 2016. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess those associations. All analyses were performed using the Review Manager software. Results: Nine case-control studies, including 1,705 DR cases and 2,236 controls were enrolled, and the results showed that the A allele of RAGE -374T/A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased DR risk in dominant model (TA/AA vs. TT: OR=1.22, 95CI 1.05-1.41, p=0.006) and heterozygote model (TA vs. TT: OR=1.26, 95CI 1.07-1.47, p=0.005). The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that significantly increased DR risk was found in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Conclusion: This meta-analysis reveals that the A allele of RAGE -374T/A polymorphism probably increase DR risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Alleles , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Genotype
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(5): 438-446, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887586

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate the association of plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and lL-10 levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms [TNF-α (-308 G→A), IL-6 (-174 C→G) and IL-10 (-1082 A→G, -819 T→C and -592 A→C)] in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obese patients. Subjects and methods One hundred and two T2DM patients and 62 controls were included in this study. Cytokine plasma levels were measured by the Cytometric Bead Array method. Genotyping was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction. Results IL-6 levels were significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. Interestingly, IL-6 levels were higher in T2DM patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 compared with other patients and obese controls. The genotype and allele frequencies were similar between patients and controls. In the T2DM group, the SNP IL-10 -819 T/C showed a difference between the cytokine level and genotypes: IL-10 level in the TT genotype was significantly higher when compared to CC genotype. Conclusions These results suggest an association between IL-6 levels and obesity, and IL-10 levels and the SNP -819 T/C in T2DM. Knowledge of these variants in T2DM might contribute to a better understanding of the role of inflammation in the etiology and progression of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Obesity/blood , Polymorphism, Genetic , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Obesity/genetics
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(9): 1203-1207, set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902608

ABSTRACT

Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) refers to a heterogeneous group of monogenic diabetes. Unlike other types of MODY characterized by genetic defects in transcription factors, MODY 2 is triggered by metabolic alterations caused by mutations of glucokinase (GCK), the first enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. We report a three-generation Chilean family with multiple cases affected with this disease. The index case is a patient who presented severe neonatal hyperglycemia (831 mg/dl, without ketosis) requiring continuous infusion of insulin, which was suspended after 48 hours with normalization of blood glucose. Subsequently, continuous glucose monitoring at 4 months of age revealed 47% of tissue glucose levels above 140 mg/dl, with fasting glucose levels between 120 and 166 mg/dl. The genetic analysis revealed a previously reported mutation in heterozygous state of the GCK gene (c.148C>T; p.His50Tyr). This mutation was also identified in more than one affected relative in the last two generations, with a transmission pattern suggestive of dominant inheritance. GCK gene sequencing led to a correct molecular diagnosis of MODY 2 while bioinformatic analysis indicated the possible molecular causes of the enzyme dysfunction. The knowledge of the molecular diagnosis allowed an adequate medical treatment for this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Glucokinase/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/congenital
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