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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 208, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103357

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) representa un problema de salud pública, debido a su alta incidencia y prevalencia en el mundo. Un método para evaluar el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 es la escala Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC). La DM2 es un factor de riesgo de enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP) la cual puede ser diagnosticada mediante el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB). Objetivo: evaluar la presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica mediante ITB y relacionarlo con el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 según LA FINDRISC. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, correlacional, de corte transversal. Se evaluaron 134 personas y se les midió glicemia capilar para descartar diabetes. Posteriormente, se realizó el LA FINDRISC y el ITB. Resultados: El puntaje LA FINDRISC y la glicemia alteradas en ayunas aumentaron proporcionalmente (R2=0,5). Esta relación no se observó entre LA FINDRISC y el ITB arrojado por la población general. Sin embargo, al seleccionar los pacientes con vasos no comprimibles aparece una correlación positiva (R2=0,36) entre los dos instrumentos diagnósticos. Conclusión: LA FINDRISC y el ITB son instrumentos de diagnósticos no invasivo, sencillos y válidos para detectar riesgo de desarrollar DM2, y detectar presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica, respectivamente(AU)


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) represents a public health problem, due to its high incidence and prevalence in the world. One method to assess the risk of developing DM2 is the Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC) scale. DM2 is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) which can be diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Objective: to evaluate the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease using ABI and to relate it to the risk of developing DM2 according to LA FINDRISC. Methods: descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study. 134 people were evaluated, and capillary glycemia was measured to rule out diabetes. Subsequently, the LA FINDRISC and the ITB were held. Results: The LA FINDRISC score and impaired fasting blood glucose increased proportionally (R2 = 0.5). This relationship was not observed between LA FINDRISC and the ITB showed by the general population. However, when selecting patients with non-compressible vessels, a positive correlation (R2 = 0.36) appears between the two diagnostic instruments. Conclusion: FINDRISC and ITB are simple and valid non-invasive diagnostic instruments to detect the risk of developing DM2, and detect the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease, respectively(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Body Weights and Measures , Anthropometry , Abdominal Circumference
2.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 137-144, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1012143

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o pico de torque e flexibilidade dos membros inferiores de indivíduos com e sem diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). O método foi o estudo com grupos expostos e não expostos ao DM2. Foram incluídos indivíduos com diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminhados para eletroneuromiografia, e não expostos ao DM2. Foram excluídos da pesquisa indivíduos com idade superior a 70 anos ou que, por algum motivo, não conseguiram realizar um ou dois dos testes. A amostra foi não probabilística, composta por 64 indivíduos: 34 (53,1%) expostos ao DM2 e 30 não expostos; 50 (78,1%) eram do sexo feminino, a idade média era de 60,7±7,1 anos, e o membro inferior dominante era o direito em 57 (89,1%) dos indivíduos. Comparando indivíduos com e sem diagnóstico de DM2, observou-se redução do torque de flexão à esquerda, em velocidade angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 vs. 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Relatou-se menor valor do torque de dorsiflexão à direita, em velocidade angular de 60°, dos diabéticos em relação aos não diabéticos (10,95±0,89 vs. 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Ao comparar indivíduos com DM2, com e sem diagnóstico de neuropatia diabética periférica (NDP), notou-se maior déficit de flexão entre os indivíduos neuropatas em comparação com não neuropatas (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas ao comparar os grupos de expostos e não expostos ao DM2 e diabéticos neuropatas e não neuropatas.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el pico de torque y la flexibilidad de los miembros inferiores de individuos con y sin diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). El método fue el estudio con grupos expuestos y no expuestos al DM2. Se incluyeron individuos con diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminados para electroneuromiografía, y no expuestos al DM2. Se excluyeron de la investigación a individuos mayores de 70 años o que, por algún motivo, no pudieron realizar una o dos de las pruebas. La muestra fue no probabilística, compuesta por 64 individuos: 34 (53,1%) expuestos al DM2 y 30 no expuestos; 50 (78,1%) eran de sexo femenino, la edad media era de 60,7±7,1 años, y el miembro inferior dominante era el derecho en 57 (89,1%) de los individuos. En comparación con individuos con y sin diagnóstico de DM2, se observó reducción del torque de flexión a la izquierda, en velocidad angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 frente a 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Se ha reportado un menor valor del torque de dorsiflexión a la derecha, en velocidad angular de 60°, de los diabéticos con relación a los no diabéticos (10,95±0,89 frente a 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Al comparar individuos con DM2, con y sin diagnóstico de neuropatía diabética periférica (NDP), se notó mayor déficit de flexión entre los individuos neuropáticos en comparación con no neuropáticos (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los grupos de expuestos y no expuestos al DM2 y los diabéticos neuropáticos y no neuropáticos.


ABSTRACT To compare the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs of individuals with and without T2DM. The method was a study of the types exposed and unexposed to T2DM. Individuals diagnosed with T2DM, individuals referred to electromyography, and those unexposed to T2DM were included. The exclusion criteria were: individuals over 70 years old; those who for some reason failed to complete one or both tests. The study population consisted of 64 individuals; 34 (53.1%) exposed to DM and 30 unexposed, 50 (78.1%) were female, the mean age was 60.7±7.1 and the dominant lower limb was right in 57 (89.1%) individuals. Comparing individuals with and without a diagnosis of DM, one observed a reduction in the flexion torque on the left at a 120 ° angular velocity in diabetics individuals compared with nondiabetic patients, 25.94±2.26 vs 33.79±2, 4nm, p=0.027, respectively. The reduction in dorsiflexion torque on the right, at a 60 ° angular velocity was observed in diabetics compared with nondiabetic patients, 10.95±0.89 vs. 13.95±0.96nm, p=0.033, respectively. When comparing diabetic individuals with and without a diagnosis of PDN, one observed a greater flexion deficit among neuropathic individuals when compared with non-neuropathic individuals, 46.57±9.47 vs 11.63±13.85nm, p=0.049, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing groups exposed and unexposed to T2DM, and neuropathic and non-neuropathic diabetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Torque , Lower Extremity/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18136, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1011645

ABSTRACT

The study was performed to estimate the association of hypertension and dyslipidaemia with increasing body weight and obesity in Type II diabetics of Lahore, Pakistan. An observational study was conducted by enrolling 2708 obese diabetics from four diabetes care centres of Lahore, Pakistan. Data was collected for a period of 7 months. Associations were estimated using chi-square, binary and multinomial logistic regression. Data suggested that blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, exhibited continual increase with increasing body weight and obesity class in diabetes patients with 41.8% increase in the prevalence of hypertension in obesity class III subjects (OR; 1.91, p=0.02). Likewise, triglycerides and total cholesterol exhibited continual increase in their mean values with increasing obesity, i-e., an overall increase in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia of 27.2% in obesity class 3 subjects (OR; 1.94, p=0.29). Taken together, this data suggested that hypertension is potentially associated with increasing obesity in diabetics, while dyslipidaemia demonstrated plausible association only with obesity class 3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Obesity Management/classification , Hypertension/complications , Pakistan/ethnology
4.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 35(4): 145-154, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102332

ABSTRACT

Las complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus pueden resultar en una baja calidad de vida, por lo cual la aplicación de un índice pronóstico puede ser una herramienta útil para mejorar esta situación.Objetivo: Asociar la presencia actual de complicaciones crónicas de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, con las presentes 10 años antes aplicando la formula RECODE. Métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, longitudinal, retro-prospectivo en pacientes mayores de 30 años, se evaluaron las complicaciones crónicas en el presente y se aplicó la formula RECODE tomando los datos de la historia anterior. Tratamiento estadístico: estadística descriptiva para cada variable a través de análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje, además de la formula RECODE. Resultados: Se evaluaron 593 pacientes, con 308 exclusiones. El promedio de edad fue 63 años ± 15,5 DE. Hubo leve predominio de mujeres en 55%. En 75% de los pacientes había hipertensión. Las complicaciones crónicas encontradas fueron: nefropatía diabética 44%, neuropatía en 41% y afección cardiovascular en 14%. La mortalidad fue de 2%. Al confrontar las complicaciones crónicas que predice la formula RECODE en la actualidad, con los resultados de la fórmula con datos de 10 años previos, se encontró que todos los eventos ya estaban presentes durante la evaluación actual y la fórmula estimaba una menor frecuencia de los hallazgos documentados, con excepción de la cardiopatía isquémica o enfermedad cerebrovascular. Conclusión: La presencia de complicaciones crónicas actuales fue mayor a la que estimada según RECODE 10 años antes; aún así se concluye que dicha fórmula es útil para el cálculo de riesgo de complicaciones crónicas(AU)


The chronic complications of diabetes mellitus can result in a low quality of life for these patients. The application of a prognostic index can be a useful medical tool to improve this issue. Objective: To associate the present chronic complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, with the result of the application of the RECODE formula in the recent past. Methods: observational, analytical, longitudinal, retro-prospective study of patients older than 30 years. the chronic complications were assesed in the clinical record and at the present time using the RECODE formula as well as for the former 10 years Statistics:descriptive statistics for each variable through frequency and percentage analysis, in addition to the RECODE formula. Results: 593 patients were evaluated, with 308 exclusions. The average age was 63 years ± 15.5 SD. There was a slight predominance of women in 55%. Hypertension was present in 75%. Among the chronic complications found were: diabetic nephropathy 44%, followed by neuropathy in 41% and cardiovascular disease in 14%. Mortality was 2%. When comparing the present chronic complications predicted by the RECODE formula, with the results of the formula dated 10 years before we found that all the events were already present during the current evaluation and the formula estimated a lower frequency of the documented findings, with the exception of ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease in 10 patients. Conclusion: The presence of current chronic complications was greater than estimated according to RECODE 10 years before.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Obesity/etiology , Quality of Life , Public Health , Chronic Disease
5.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(1): 42-54, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959338

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En los últimos años, la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) ha evolucionado en forma epidémica, experimentando un rápido crecimiento y afectando a millones de individuos a nivel mundial. La cardiopatía isquémica es la principal causa de mortalidad en los pacientes diabéticos, quienes poseen un mayor riesgo cardiovascular respecto a los no diabéticos. La DM2 y la cardiopatía isquémica se caracterizan por ser prevenibles, sin embargo, existen diversos factores de riesgo comunes que contribuyen a su desarrollo. Los mecanismos que explican la ateroesclerosis acelerada y el incremento de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 incluyen a la hiperglicemia, dislipidemia y la inflamación del endotelio vascular. La diabetes es resultado de una interacción compleja entre la genética y el medio ambiente. Recientemente se han descrito varios genes implicados en el desarrollo de la diabetes y cardiopatía isquémica y que podrían significar nuevas opciones terapéuticas. En este artículo se revisa la relación entre ambas patologías, los mecanismos moleculares y el descubrimiento de factores de riesgo genéticos comunes y su implicancia en el desarrollo de nuevos blancos terapéuticos.


Abstracts: In recent years, type 2 diabetes mellitus has evolved as a rapidly increasing epidemic and affects millions of people worldwide. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the main cause of death among diabetic patients, who have a higher cardiovascular risk than non-diabetics. Both, DM2 and IHD are characterized by being preventable, however there are several common risk factors that contribute to their development. The mechanisms that explain accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include damage by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation on vascular endothelium. Diabetes is the result of a complex interaction between genetics and the environment, recently, several genes have been identified that appear to be involved in diabetes and ischemic heart disease that could explain its relationship and serve as new therapeutic possibilities. In this article, we review the relationship between diabetes and ischemic heart disease, the molecular mechanisms and the discovery of genetic risk factors common to both diseases and their implication in the development of new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Metformin/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(4): 185-195, dic. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-957988

ABSTRACT

En esta parte de la revisión se describe la relación funcional entre el metabolismo de los lípidos y los hidratos de carbono y su interdependencia, desde el ciclo glucosa-ácido grasos y la hipótesis portal de la insulinorresistencia a los nuevos conocimientos sobre los adipocitos marrones y beiges, con énfasis en el normal funcionamiento de un patrón endocrino cuya disfunción es clave en la fisiopatología de la DMT2 y la obesidad. Se discute la ectopia o el asiento de grasa en el tejido magro por incapacidad del tejido adiposo para seguir acopiando lípidos y la actividad endocrina del adipocito, con la producción de moléculas (adipoquinas) que influyen sobre los mecanismos inductores de insulinorresistencia (leptina, adiponectina, TNF-α, resistina, etc.) y disfunción de la célula beta. Se describen la disminución de la capacidad oxidativa en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial y el renacer del concepto de lipogénesis de novo, ambas favoreciendo el acopie de lípido intracelular. En tejidos magros existen pequeñas reservas intracelulares de lípidos que mantienen la regulación de funciones esenciales, aunque si aparece una sobrecarga lipídica el fenómeno conduciría a una disfunción (lipotoxicidad) y a la muerte celular (lipoapoptosis). La tormentosa relación entre los lípidos y el islote de Langerhans va más allá del esfuerzo funcional que impone la insulinorresistencia periférica sobre la célula β, por efectos directos de los lípidos o de sus derivados sobre la función del islote pancreático. Sin déficit de insulina no se desarrolla diabetes.


In this part of the review, the functional relationship between lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms and their interdependence is described, from the glucose-fatty acid cycle and the portal hypothesis of insulin resistance to the new knowledge on brown and beige adipocytes, with emphasis on the normal functioning of an endocrine pattern in which its dysfunction is a key factor in the pathophysiology of T2DM and obesity. Ectopic fat deposition in lean tissues due to the inability of the adipose tissue to continuously collect lipids and the endocrine activity of adipocytes is discussed. The production of molecules (adipokines) influencing some of the mechanisms involved in the development of insulin resistance (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin, etc.) and beta cell dysfunction is also revisited. The decrease in the oxidative capacity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the rebirth of the concept of de novo lipogenesis are described, both effects favouring intracellular lipid accumulation. In lean tissues there are small intracellular lipid reserves that help to maintain the regulation of essential functions; however, when a lipid overload occurs the phenomenon could lead to severe cell dysfunction (lipotoxicity), and death (lipo-apoptosis). The stormy relationship between lipids and the Langerhans' islets goes beyond the functional effort imposed by peripheral insulin-resistance on the β cells, either by the direct effect of lipids or by their derivatives on overall pancreatic islet function. Within a scenario of no insulin deficit, diabetes does not develop.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Adipogenesis , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Adipokines/metabolism
7.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(3): 109-123, set. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-957976

ABSTRACT

Se describe la relación funcional del metabolismo de las grasas y los hidratos de carbono y su interdependencia, desde los tradicionales conceptos del ciclo glucosa-ácidos grasos (Randle) y la hipótesis portal de la insulinorresistencia hasta los nuevos sobre los adipocitos marrones y beiges, con énfasis en el normal funcionamiento de un patrón endocrino cuya disfunción es clave en la fisiopatología: el eje adipoinsular, vinculado funcionalmente incluso con el hipotálamo, la hipófisis y las adrenales, que involucra 2 hormonas adipogénicas (insulina y glucocorticoide) que facilitarían el desarrollo de la grasa omental perivisceral, con fuertes consecuencias metabólicas. Se discute la ectopia o asiento de grasa en tejido magro por incapacidad del tejido adiposo para seguir atesorando grasas y la actividad endocrina del adipocito, con la producción de moléculas que influyen sobre los mecanismos productores de insulinorresistencia (leptina, adiponectina, TNF-α, resistina, etc.) y disfunción insular. Se describe la disminución de la capacidad oxidativa en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial y el renacer del concepto de lipogénesis de novo, ambas favorecedoras del atesoramiento de grasas intracelular. En tejidos magros existen pequeñas reservas intracelulares de grasas que mantienen una regulación de funciones esenciales, aunque si aparece una sobrecarga lipídica, el fenómeno conduciría a disfunción (lipotoxicidad) y muerte celular (lipoapoptosis). La tormentosa relación entre las grasas y el islote de Langerhans va más allá del esfuerzo funcional que impone la insulinorresistencia periférica sobre la célula β, por efectos directos de los lípidos o sus derivados sobre la función del islote pancreático. Sin déficit de insulina no hay diabetes.


A review is presented on a functional relationship between fat and carbohydrate metabolism and inter-dependence from the traditional concepts of glucose-fatty acids cycle (Randle), and from the insulin resistance portal hypothesis up to the new aspects on brown and beige adipocytes. Emphasis is placed on the normal function of an endocrine pattern, in which its malfunction is the key in the pathophysiology of these conditions: the adipoinsular axis, with a functional link with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which involves 2 adipogenic hormones (insulin and glucocorticoid). This has an influence on the development of omental peri-visceral fat, with severe metabolic consequences. A discussion is also presented on the concept of ectopic fat on non-adipose tissues that results in the incapacity of fatty tissue for storing lipids and the considerations about the endocrine activity of adipocyte producing substances that influence several mechanisms that could result in insulin resistance (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin, etc.). New aspects are considered regarding the decrease in the oxidative capacity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the rebirth of the concept of de novo lipogenesis that increases the storing of intra-cellular fat. In non-adipose tissues there are small intra-cellular fat quantities for essential functions, but lipid overloading leads to cell dysfunction (lipo-toxicity) and death (lipo-apoptosis). The stormy relationship between fat and Langerhans' Islets goes beyond the functional effort as consequence of peripheral insulin-resistance and the pancreatic beta cell suffers a direct lipid (or derivatives) functional effect. Without insulin deficiency diabetes does not appear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Adipogenesis/physiology , Lipid Metabolism , Adipokines/metabolism
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 274-281, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pulpal and periodontal tissues have similar microbiota that allows cross-contamination between the pulp and periodontal tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of isolated Candida albicans from periodontal endodontic lesions in diabetic and normoglycemic patients, and the fungi's virulence in different atmospheric conditions. Material and Methods A case-control study was conducted on 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (G1) and 15 non-diabetics (G2) with periodontal endodontic lesions. Samples of root canals and periodontal pockets were plated on CHROMagar for later identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virulence test. Results C. albicans was identified in 79.2% and 20.8% of the 60 samples collected from diabetic and normoglycemic patients, respectively. Of the 30 samples collected from periodontal pockets, 13 showed a positive culture for C. albicans, with 77% belonging to G1 and 23% to G2. Of the 11 positive samples from root canals, 82% were from G1 and 18% from G2. Production of proteinase presented a precipitation zone Pz<0.63 of 100% in G1 and 72% in G2, in redox and negative (Pz=1), under anaerobic conditions in both groups. Hydrophobicity of the strains from G1 indicated 16.4% with low, 19.3% with moderate, and 64.3% with high hydrophobicity in redox. In G2, 42.2% had low, 39.8% had moderate, 18% had high hydrophobicity in redox. In anaerobic conditions, G1 showed 15.2% with low, 12.8% with moderate, and 72% with high hydrophobicity; in G2, 33.6% had low, 28.8% had moderate, and 37.6% had high hydrophobicity. There was statistical difference in the number of positive cultures between G1 and G2 (p<0.05) with predominance in G1. There was statistical difference for all virulence factors, except hemolysis (p=0.001). Conclusions Candida albicans was isolated more frequently and had higher virulence in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Periodontal Diseases/physiopathology , Periodontal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Phospholipases/analysis , Virulence , DNA, Fungal , Radiography, Dental , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dental Pulp Diseases/physiopathology , Dental Pulp Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Electrophoresis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 141-147, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-891379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate heart rate variability among adults with different risk levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was assessed in 130 participants (89 females) based on the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and was classified as low risk (n=26), slightly elevated risk (n=41), moderate risk (n=27) and high risk (n=32). To measure heart rate variability, a heart-rate monitor Polar S810i® was employed to obtain RR series for each individual, at rest, for 5 minutes, followed by analysis of linear and nonlinear indexes. Results The groups at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly lower linear and nonlinear heart rate variability indexes. Conclusion The individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower heart rate variability.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em adultos com diferentes níveis de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos O grau de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de 130 participantes (41 homens) foi avaliado pelo questionário Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Os participantes foram classificados em baixo risco (n=26), risco levemente elevado (n=41), risco moderado (n=27) e alto risco (n=32). Para medir a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, utilizou-se o frequencímetro Polar S810i® para obter séries de intervalo RR para cada indivíduo, em repouso, durante 5 minutos; posteriormente, realizou-se análise por meio de índices lineares e não-lineares. Resultados O grupo com maior risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 teve uma diminuição significante nos índices lineares e não-lineares da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Conclusão Os resultados apontam que indivíduos com risco alto para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tem menor variabilidade da frequência cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6400, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-888950

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the acute responses of bradykinin, insulin, and glycemia to exercise performed above and below lactate threshold (LT) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Eleven participants with a diagnosis of T2D randomly underwent three experimental sessions 72 h apart: 1) 20 min of exercise performed at 120% of LT (120%LT), 2) 20 min of exercise performed at 80% of LT (80%LT), and 3) 20 min of control session. Blood glucose was analyzed before, during, and at 45 min post-exercise. Bradykinin and insulin were analyzed before and at 45 min post-exercise. Both exercise sessions elicited a parallel decrease in glucose level during exercise (P≤0.002), with a greater decrease being observed for 120%LT (P=0.005). Glucose decreased 22.7 mg/dL (95%CI=10.3 to 35, P=0.001) at the 45 min post-exercise recovery period for 80%LT and decreased 31.2 mg/dL (95%CI=18.1 to 44.4, P<0.001) for 120%LT (P=0.004). Insulin decreased at post-exercise for 80%LT (P=0.001) and control (P≤0.035). Bradykinin increased at 45 min post-exercise only for 80%LT (P=0.013), but was unrelated to the decrease in glucose (r=-0.16, P=0.642). In conclusion, exercise performed above and below LT reduced glycemia independently of insulin, but exercise above LT was more effective in individuals with T2D. However, these changes were unrelated to the increase in circulating bradykinin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Bradykinin/blood , Exercise/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Insulin/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/physiology
11.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 203-213, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-859833

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença metabólica complexa. Sua etiologia é atribuída a uma combinação entre fatores genéticos, ambientais e de estilo de vida. Contudo, sabe-se que o estresse oxidativo desempenha papel crucial na patogênese do DM, acarretando em disfunção das células ß pancreáticas e resistência à insulina. Neste contexto, o fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) é considerado o regulador mestre da resposta antioxidante do organismo, sendo um mecanismo de importância crítica para a manutenção da homeostase e sobrevivência celular. Todavia, a função do Nrf2 não se limita somente à resposta antioxidante. Ao interagir com outras vias metabólicas, o Nrf2 possui importante papel na regulação do metabolismo, atuando no metabolismo dos lipídios, manutenção da glicemia, resposta inflamatória, entre outros. Entretanto, a exata relação do Nrf2 com outras vias metabólicas ainda não é totalmente conhecida. Contudo, sabe-se que o comprometimento da função do Nrf2 é evidente na fisiopatologia do DM bem como no desenvolvimento de suas complicações clínicas. A ativação do Nrf2 protege contra os danos mediados pelo DM, podendo ser adequada uma intervenção exógena para aumentar a sua atividade (AU)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease. Its etiology is attributed to a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. However, it is known that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DM, leading to pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. In this context, the nuclear factor- erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is considered the main regulator of the body's antioxidant response, being a mechanism of critical importance in the maintenance of homeostasis and cell survival. However, the role of Nrf2 is not limited to the antioxidant response alone. When interacting with other metabolic pathways, Nrf2 plays an important role in regulating metabolism, acting on lipid metabolism, in the maintenance of glycemia, and in inflammatory response, among others. However, the exact relationship of Nrf2 with other metabolic pathways is not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, impairment of Nrf2 function is known to be evident in the pathophysiology of DM as well as in the development of its clinical complications. Activation of the Nrf2 protects against damage mediated by DM, and an exogenous intervention may be adequate to increase its activity (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology
12.
Cienc. enferm ; 22(3): 25-34, set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-839753

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Conocer la relación entre la sensibilidad de los pies, índice de masa corporal (IMC), y los parámetros de la marcha y de equilibrio en adultos mayores entre 65 y 75 años de edad. Material y método: Estudio des criptivo, correlacional y transversal, con una muestra de 119 adultos mayores con diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). Se aplicaron las siguientes mediciones: el sistema GAITRite® Electronic Walkway para los parámetros de la marcha, la Batería Corta de Desempeño Físico para equilibrio y monofilamento de Semmes-Weinstein, North Coast Medical de 10 gramos para la sensibilidad y mediciones antropométricas para IMC. Se realizó un análisis estadístico con pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la velocidad, longitud del paso, de la zancada y el equilibrio entre los adultos mayores que tenían sensibilidad disminuida y normal. Conclusión: Una menor sensibilidad de los pies y mayor IMC se relacionan con mayor alteración de los parámetros de la marcha y el equilibrio en adultos mayores de 65 a 75 años de edad con DT2.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relationship between feet sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), and gait and balance parameters in older adults between 65 and 75 years of age. Material and methods: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study with a sample of 119 older adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (DT2). The following measurements were applied: the GAITRite® Electronic Walkway system for gait parameters, the Short Physical Performance Battery for balance, the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination, the North Coast Medical test using 10 grams for foot sensitivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI. A statistical analysis with non-parametric tests was performed. Results: Significant differences were found in speed, step length, stride length and balance between older adults who had decreased and normal sensitivity. Conclusion: Less foot sensitivity and a higher BMI are associated with a greater impairment reflected by the walking and balance parameters in older adults aged 65 to 75 with DT2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/physiopathology , Postural Balance/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gait/physiology
13.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 4-14, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-778383

ABSTRACT

Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) has been used to increase physical activity levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the effects of WBV on the glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity of patients with T2DM. Method: MEDLINE, LILACS, PEDro, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to June 1st, 2015. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV, compared to control or other intervention, on blood glucose levels, blood and physical cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity in adult individuals with T2DM. Two independent reviewers extracted the data regarding authors, year of publication, number of participants, gender, age, WBV parameters and description of intervention, type of comparison, and mean and standard deviation of pre and post assessments. Results: Out of 585 potentially eligible articles, two studies (reported in four manuscripts) were considered eligible. WBV interventions provided a significant reduction of 25.7 ml/dl (95% CI:-45.3 to -6.1; I2: 19%) in 12 hours fasting blood glucose compared with no intervention. Improvements in glycated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity were found only at 12 weeks after WBV intervention in comparison with no intervention. Conclusion: WBV combined with exercise seems to improve glycemic control slightly in patients with T2DM in an exposure-dependent way. Large and well-designed trials are still needed to establish the efficacy and understand whether the effects were attributed to vibration, exercise, or a combination of both.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibration/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Physical Therapy Modalities/standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors
14.
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2016; 17 (1): 17-25
in English | IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) | ID: emr-175824

ABSTRACT

Background: Pituitary and gonadal dysfunctions resulting from increased adiposity leading to disturbances of sexual and reproductive functions have been reported in males with metabolic syndrome [MS] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [DM2]. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dysfunction, leptin, and reproductive hormones in Nigerian males with MS and DM2


Methods: Participants were 104 men [34 males with DM2, 17 men with MS and 53 men with normal body mass index [18.5-24.9 Kg/m[2]] without MS [controls]]. The International Diabetes Federation [2005] criteria were used for MS diagnosis. Reproductive history, anthropometry, blood pressure [BP] and 10 ml fasting blood samples were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated. Leptin, follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinising hormone [LH], prolactin, testosterone and oestrogen were determined by enzyme immunoassay [leptin by Diagnostic Automation, Inc.; others by Immunometrics [UK] Ltd.] while oestrogen-testosterone ratio was calculated. Data analyzed using ANOVA, Chi square and multiple regression were statistically significant at p<0.05


Results: Testosterone was significantly lower in MS than controls while oestradiol and ETR were significantly higher in MS compared with controls and DM2 group [p<0.05]. ETR significantly predicted testosterone in all groups [p<0.05]. Significantly lower libido was observed in men in MS than controls and DM2 groups [p<0.05]


Conclusion: Sexual and reproductive dysfunction may be related to increased conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in increased adipose mass in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological , Leptin , Pituitary Hormones , Gonadal Hormones , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Cohort Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-122518

ABSTRACT

Prolonged P-wave duration has been observed in diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used. P-wave durations were obtained using surface electrocardiography and sizes of the left atrium were determined using echocardiography. Cardiac inward rectifier K+ currents (I(k1)), Na+ currents (I(Na)), and action potentials were recorded from isolated left atrial myocytes using patch clamp techniques. Left atrial tissue specimens were analyzed for total connexin-40 (Cx40) and connexin-43 (Cx43) expression levels on western-blots. Specimens were also analyzed for Cx40 and Cx43 distribution and interstitial fibrosis by immunofluorescent and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. The mean P-wave duration was longer in T2DM rats than in controls; however, the mean left atrial sizes of each group of rats were similar. The densities of I(k1) and I(Na) were unchanged in T2DM rats compared to controls. The action potential duration was longer in T2DM rats, but there was no significant difference in resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude compared to controls. The expression level of Cx40 protein was significantly lower, but Cx43 was unaltered in T2DM rats. However, immunofluorescent labeling of Cx43 showed a significantly enhanced lateralization. Staining showed interstitial fibrosis was greater in T2DM atrial tissue. Prolonged P-wave duration is not dependent on the left atrial size in rats with T2DM. Dysregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 protein expression, as well as fibrosis, might partly account for the prolongation of P-wave duration in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43/metabolism , Connexins/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrosis/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Membrane Potentials , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
16.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 32(2): 78-88, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1009505

ABSTRACT

Los riñones contribuyen a la homeostasis de la glucosa a través de varios mecanismos, incluyendo la gluconeogénesis, utilización y reabsorción de la glucosa a partir del filtrado glomerular. Bajo condiciones fisiológicas normales, la glucosa filtrada es casi totalmente reabsorbida en el epitelio de las células tubulares; en consecuencia, no aparece glucosa en la orina. El transporte de glucosa dentro de las células epiteliales del túbulo se cumple gracias a cotransportadores activos glucosa-sodio (SGLT), una familia de proteínas dependientes de adenosin trifosfato (ATP) involucradas en el transporte de glucosa contra un gradiente de concentración con carga simultánea de sodio, igualmente en contra gradiente. La mayoría de la glucosa filtrada es reabsorbida por medio del SGLT2, un transportador de baja afinidad pero elevada capacidad localizado, predominantemente, en el segmento S1 del tubo contorneado proximal. Por largo tiempo la inhibición del SGLT2 ha sido considerada como un abordaje terapéutico potencial de la hiperglucemia en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), ya que al prevenir la reabsorción de glucosa por los túbulos renales promueven su excreción renal y descienden los valores de la glucemia. Los datos en humanos indican que los inhibidores de SGLT2 representan una estrategia novedosa y efectiva para controlar las cifras de glucemia en los pacientes con DM2. El recién publicado estudio EMPA-REG OUTCOME diseñado para examinar los desenlaces cardiovasculares con empagliflozina en sujetos con DM2 y enfermedad ardiovascular coexistente mostró beneficios tempranos, los cuales se mantuvieron durante el período de observación(AU)


The kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis through several mechanisms, including gluconeogenesis, glucose use, and glucose reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. Under normal physiological conditions, this filtered glucose is almost completely reabsorbed by renal tubular epithelial cells; thus, there is no glucose in urine. The transport of glucose into renal tubular epithelial cells is mediated by active cotransporters, the SGLT, a family of ATP-dependent proteins involved in the transport of glucose against a concentration gradient with simultaneous transport of Na+ down a concentration gradient. Most of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed through SGLT2, a low-affinity high-capacity transporter located predominantly in the S1 segment of the renal proximal tubule. Inhibition of SGLT2 has long been regarded as a potential treatment approach for hyperglycemia during T2DM, as they prevent glucose reabsorption from renal tubules, thereby promoting urinary glucose excretion and decreasing plasma glucose levels. Current data in humans indicate that SGLT2 inhibitors represent an effective and novel strategy to control the plasma glucose concentration in patients with T2DM. The recently published EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, which assessed cardiovascular outcomes with empagliflozin therapy in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coexisting cardiovascular disease showed that the benefits were noted early and continued throughout the study(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Glucose/biosynthesis , Homeostasis/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Internal Medicine
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-163462

ABSTRACT

SECTION A: Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children Dr. Jyoti Kini While Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to be a disease of the elderly and the middle aged, currently there has been an upsurge in the incidence of T2DM in the adolescents and the young. Family history, maternal gestational diabetes, low birth weight have contributory role to play in the pathophysiology of T2DM. The pathophysiology underlying the development of alterations in glucose metabolism ranging from abnormal fasting glucose (AFG) to impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) is multifactorial. The early onset of diabetes in childhood or adolescence heralds a long disease interval with resultant escalation of the probability of development of co-morbidities and the entire range of macro- and microvascular complications. SECTION B: Clinical scenario of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children Dr. Mallikarjungowda S Patil Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and failure of beta cells to keep up with increasing insulin demand. T2DM children are usually obese, may present with mild symptoms of polyuria and polydypsia. A systemic approach for treatment of T2DM should be implemented according to the natural course of the disease, including adding insulin when oral hypoglycemic agents failure occurs. Life style modification is an essential part of management. When lifestyle interventions fail to normalize blood glucose, oral hypoglycemic agents are introduced for management of persistent hyperglycemia. SECTION C: Epidemiology and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children Dr. Savindika Nawarathna , Dr. Animesh Jain Type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered rare amongst children, but recently the incidence has increased worldwide with almost half of the newly diagnosed cases being children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is primarily characterized by insulin resistance detected at the level of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues with a failure of β-cell compensation and a relative insulin deficiency. A variety of risk factors like race, obesity, insulin resistance, family history, psychococial factors, birth weight, exposure to maternal DM and breastfeeding can influence the development of T2DM. Type 2 DM screening in the paediatric population should be clinically focused and take into account not only those risk factors identified in the American Diabetes Association guidelines, but also the clinical context, pubertal status, and the results of simple screening measures such as fasting glucose and triglycerides. More outcome-based research is required before general screening, to identify children and adolescents with pre-diabetes or insulin resistance can be recommended. The pathophysiology underlying the development of alterations in glucose metabolism ranging from abnormal fasting glucose (AFG) to impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) is multifactorial. The early onset of diabetes in childhood or adolescence heralds a long disease interval with resultant escalation of the probability of development of co-morbidities and the entire range of macro- and microvascular complications.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin , Male , Polydipsia
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; jul. 2015. 152 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-834119

ABSTRACT

A exposição ambiental aos poluentes orgânicos persistentes tem recebido amplo destaque na literatura recentemente devido à extensa associação entre o desenvolvimento de doenças metabólicas, obesidade e/ou diabetes mellitus, e a presença destes poluentes, principalmente os organoclorados, como as bifenilas policloradas (PCBs), no organismo. Por outro lado, os mecanismos de ação destes poluentes é controverso devido à elevada quantidade de representantes destas classes, gerando diversidade de protocolos de exposição e escassez de estudos experimentais. Por isto, foi objetivo deste trabalho elucidar os mecanismos de ação tóxica do PCB126, nas doses de 0,1; 1 ou 10 µg/kg de massa corpórea, em ratos Wistar machos, durante quinze dias, expostos por instilação intranasal. O procotolo de exposição empregado foi caracterizado e considerado suficiente para causar toxicidade, uma vez que foram observadas alterações no sistema imune, metabolismo e em parâmetros relacionados à gênese do diabetes mellitus. A caracterização da exposição foi determinada pela quantificação da concentração de PCB126 no fígado e pulmão (CG/MS) e pelo aumento da expressão do receptor aril hidrocarboneto (AhR) no rim, fígado, pulmão e tecido adiposo (Western Blot). O efeito imunossupressor do PCB126 foi evidenciado pelo comprometimento da produção de células na medula óssea e, consequentemente, no número de células totais no sangue circulante. Adicionalmente, foi evidenciada a interferência do poluente na via de ativação mediada por receptores acoplados à proteína G (GPCRs), principalmente em neutrófilos, alterando importantes funções destas células, como a expressão de moléculas de adesão, geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio e migração. Entre as alterações metabólicas observadas, destacamos o aumento dos níveis de triglicerídeos e colesterol sérico, aumento da liberação de ácidos graxos livres; aumento da atividade da enzima hepática gama glutamil transferase; aumento da resistência à insulina e aumento da geração de óxido nítrico pelas ilhotas de Langerhans, dados estes, possivelmente relacionados ao comprometimento das células beta (ß) pancreáticas, confirmados pelo aumento da expressão de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo, aumento da concentração de insulina sérica e aumento do estresse oxidativo nas ilhotas de Langerhans. Em conjunto, os dados obtidos destacam importantes alterações causadas pela exposição intranasal ao PCB126, evidenciando a participação do poluente na gênese do diabetes mellitus do tipo II


The environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants has been widely highlighted in recent literature due to the extensive association between the development of metabolic diseases, obesity and/or diabetes mellitus, and presence of these pollutants, especially organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in organism. Moreover, the mechanisms of action of these pollutants are controversial due to the high number of PCBs congeners, diversity of exposure protocols and lack of experimental studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of PCB126's toxic action at doses of 0.1; 1 or 10 µg/kg body weight in male Wistar rats exposed by intranasal instillation for 15 days. The established exposure procotol was characterized and considered sufficient to cause toxicity since changes were observed in the immune system, metabolism and in parameters related to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Characterization of exposure was determined by quantifying the concentration of PCB126 in liver and lung (GC-MS) and by the increased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in kidney, liver, lung, and adipose tissue (Western blot). The immunosuppressive effect of PCB126 was evidenced by impairment of cell production in the bone marrow and thus the total number of cells in the circulation. In addition, the interference of the pollutant in the activation pathway mediated by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), in particular in neutrophils, was observed by changing important functions of these cells such as the expression of adhesion molecules, reactive oxygen species generation, and migration. Among the metabolic changes observed, we highlight the increased levels of triglycerides and serum cholesterol, increased release of free fatty acids; increased gamma glutamyl transferase hepatic enzyme activity; increased insulin resistance and increased generation of nitric oxide by the islets of Langerhans, these data possibly related to the impairment of beta cells (ß) pancreatic function, suggested by the increased expression of GLUT4 in adipose tissue, increased serum insulin concentration and increased oxidative stress in the islets of Langerhans. Altogether, these results highlight important changes caused by intranasal exposure to PCB126, suggesting participation of the pollutant in the genesis of diabetes mellitus type II


Subject(s)
Male , Rats , Conservative Pollutants , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Epidemiology, Experimental , Organic Pollutants , Insulin Resistance/immunology , Toxicology/methods , Xenobiotics
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-120096

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing physical activity among community-dwelling older adults with type 2 diabetes. The study design was based on the Theory of Triadic Influence. METHODS: A total of 242 older adults with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. Six variables related to physical activity in older adults, including self-efficacy, social normative belief, attitudes, intention, experience, and level of physical activity, were measured using reliable instruments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analyses, and a path analysis. RESULTS: The mean physical activity score was 104.2, range from zero to 381.21. The path analysis showed that self-efficacy had the greatest total effect on physical activity. Also, experience had direct and total effects on physical activity as well as mediated the paths of social normative beliefs to attitudes and intention to physical activity. These factors accounted for 10% of the total variance, and the fit indices of the model satisfied the criteria of fitness. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study reveal the important role of self-efficacy and past experience in physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Motor Activity/physiology , Personal Satisfaction , Residence Characteristics , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2014; 21 (5): 992-997
in English | IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) | ID: emr-153940

ABSTRACT

To find out serum vitamin D levels in type 2 DM patients in Hyderabad. Cross sectional study. Private clinics, OPDs of government hospitals like Qasimabad, Latifabad and Pretabad. Duration: January to July 2013. Total 550 patients were selected, 450 patients [250 males and 200 females] taken from different OPDs of Hyderabad and towns or Tehsils with diagnosis of type 2 Diabetes mellitus and another 100 patients were taken as control [60 males and 40 females]. The mean age was 45.6 years. The written consent was obtained and demographic features were noted, 3cc of blood was taken for estimation of vitamin D levels. The level of vitamin D was done on an Electrochemiluminescence Immuno Assay [ECLIA] at Diagnostic and Research laboratory Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences [LUMHS] Jamshoro, Sind. Out of 550, 450 diabetic subjects tested for vitamin D, females were 44.4%and 55.5% were males. The deficiency was seen in 33.7% patients [p <0.04] and Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in20% in both sex. In control group, the deficiency was observed in 23% in females and 20% in males while insufficiency noted in 5% in both sex. The study showed significant decreased levels of vitamin D in type 2 Diabetic subjects than normal individuals. The vitamin D deficiency increased considerably in females with diabetes type 2


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency
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