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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Cities
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las úlceras de pie diabético tienen una importante morbimortalidad, más aun, si están asociadas a bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las úlceras de pie diabético infectadas con bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, no experimental y transversal, en 87 pacientes con úlceras de pie diabético infectadas, atendidos en una consulta especializada del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizó la anamnesis y exploración física, especialmente centrada en las características de las úlceras de pie diabético. Se obtuvieron muestras de tejido ulceroso para identificar las bacterias presentes y el antimicrobiano correspondiente. Resultados: Todos los pacientes tenían úlcera previa, con agudización de la infección (75,86 por ciento), rehospitalización (59,77 por ciento), amputación previa (36,78 por ciento), úlceras de pie diabético infectadas de larga duración (86,21 por ciento). El 95,40 por ciento recibieron antibióticos previos y 57,62 por ciento habían sido hospitalizados, la antigüedad de la enfermedad fue 16,17 ± 8,41 años y la HbA1c 8,87 ± 1,23. Las úlceras de pie diabético infectadas más frecuente fue neuroisquémica (71,26 por ciento). Predominó la flora monomicrobiana con un (62,07 por ciento) y bacterias gramnegativas (87,36 por ciento). El 79,3 por ciento presentaron bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos y el 20,69 por ciento panresistencia. Las bacterias multirresistentes fueron predominantemente gramnegativas, y para las grampositivas solo estuvo el Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusiones: Se presenció una alta frecuencia de úlceras de pie diabético infectadas con multirresistencia, predominantemente monomicrobianas y todas con resistencia a betalactámicos y fluoroquinolonas(AU)


Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers have significant morbidity and mortality, even more so if they are associated with multi-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers infected with bacteria multi-resistant to antimicrobials. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental and cross-sectional investigation was carried out in 87 patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers. They were treated in a specialized clinic in Zulia state, Venezuela. Anamnesis and physical examination were performed, especially focused on the characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers. Ulcer tissue samples were obtained to identify the bacteria existing and the corresponding antimicrobial. Results: All the patients had previous ulcer, with exacerbation of the infection (75.86percent), rehospitalization (59.77percent), previous amputation (36.78percent), long-lasting infected diabetic foot ulcers (86.21percent). 95.40percent received previous antibiotics and 57.62percent had been hospitalized, the disease age was 16.17 ± 8.41 years and Hb A1c was 8.87 ± 1.23. The most frequent infected diabetic foot ulcers were neuroischemic (71.26percent). The monomicrobial flora (62.07percent) and gram-negative bacteria (87.36percent) predominated. 79.3percent had multi-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials and 20.69percent pan-resistance. Multi-resistant bacteria were predominantly gram-negative and for gram-positive only staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: High frequency of multidrug-resistant infected diabetic foot ulcers was found, predominantly monomicrobial and all with resistance to beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536320

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neuropatía diabética es la complicación más frecuente de la diabetes mellitus y una de sus posibles consecuencias es el síndrome del pie diabético. Los médicos del primer nivel de atención deben conocer el comportamiento clínico de la neuropatía diabética y, sobre todo, como influye en la aparición y desarrollo del síndrome del pie diabético. Objetivo: Describir el papel de la neuropatía diabética en la aparición y desarrollo del síndrome del pie diabético. Métodos: Para la obtención de la información se utilizaron como motores de búsqueda de información científica los correspondientes a Scielo, Pubmed, y Google Académico. Se usaron como palabras clave: diabetes mellitus; neuropatía diabética; pie diabético; síndrome de pie diabético; úlcera de pie diabético; ataque de pie diabético. Se evaluaron diferentes trabajos de revisión, investigación y páginas web, y se excluyeron los artículos que tuvieran más de 10 años de publicados, en idiomas diferentes al español, portugués e inglés y que no se refirieran al tema de estudio a través del título. Esto permitió la cita de 45 referencias bibliográficas. Conclusiones: La neuropatía diabética constituye el principal factor de riesgo en la aparición y desarrollo del síndrome del pie diabético, sobre todo cuando se asocia a artropatía (defectos podálicos), enfermedad vascular periférica y/o sepsis. El control de la glucemia, la detección temprana del pie de riesgo y el cuidado preventivo de los miembros inferiores, repercutirá favorablemente en la salud y bienestar del paciente(AU)


Introduction: Diabetic neuropathy is the most frequent complication of diabetes mellitus and one of its possible consequences is diabetic foot syndrome. First level of care physicians should know the clinical behavior of diabetic neuropathy and, above all, how it influences the appearance and development of diabetic foot syndrome. Objective: To describe the role of diabetic neuropathy in the appearance and development of diabetic foot syndrome. Methods: To obtain the information, SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar were used as search engines for scientific information. The keywords used were: diabetes mellitus; diabetic neuropathy; diabetic foot; diabetic foot syndrome; diabetic foot ulcer; diabetic foot attack. Different review papers, research papers and web pages were evaluated and articles that were more than 10 years old and published in languages other than Spanish, Portuguese and English and that did not refer to the subject of the study through the title were excluded. This allowed the citation of 45 bibliographic references. Conclusions: Diabetic neuropathy constitutes the main risk factor in the appearance and development of diabetic foot syndrome, especially when associated with arthropathy (foot defects), peripheral vascular disease and/or sepsis. Glycemic control, early detection of the foot at risk and preventive care of the lower limbs will have a favorable impact on the patient's health and well-being(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1450007

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La semaglutida es un fármaco que contribuye a la liberación de insulina por el páncreas y a la supresión del apetito por lo que lo convierte en un importante candidato para ser usado en el tratamiento de la diabesidad. Objetivo: Describir el efecto de la semaglutida en el tratamiento de las personas con diabesidad. Métodos: Se revisó la literatura publicada en el período comprendido de enero-febrero de 2021. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron obesidad; diabetes mellitus; diabesidad; semaglutida; análogo del péptido similar al glucagón tipo 1. Se utilizaron como motores de búsqueda las bases de datos de Google Académico, PubMed y SciELO. Se evaluaron diferentes trabajos de revisión, investigación y páginas web que tenían menos de 10 años de publicados en idioma español, portugués o inglés, y que por el título trataban el tema de estudio. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no abordaron la relación entre diabetes y obesidad, así como el tratamiento con análogos del péptido similar al glucagón tipo 1. Esto permitió la consulta de 84 artículos, de los cuales 59 fueron referenciados. Conclusiones: El empleo de semaglutida favorece una mejor evolución en paciente con diabesidad, como complemento de una dieta y una actividad física adecuada. Al optimizar el control glucémico, contribuir a la pérdida de peso y a la mejoraría de ciertas comorbilidades, entre ellas la salud cardiovascular(AU)


Introduction: Semaglutide is a drug that contributes to the release of insulin from the pancreas and suppresses appetite, which makes it an important candidate for treating diabesity. Objective: To describe the role of semaglutide in the treatment of diabesity individuals. Methods: The necessary information to write this article was obtained in the 2022 two-month period January-February. The keywords used were obesity; Mellitus diabetes; diabesity; semaglutide; type 1 glucagon-like peptide analogue. The search engines corresponding to the Google Scholar, PubMed and SciElO databases were used. Different review, research and web pages were evaluated, which in general were published no more than 10 years ago, in Spanish, Portuguese or English and which dealt with the subject of study by title. Articles that did not address the relationship between diabetes and obesity, as well as treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues, were excluded. This allowed the consultation of 84 articles, 59 of them were referenced. Conclusions: The use of semaglutide, as a complement to a diet and physical activity appropriate to the needs of patients with diabesity, brought about several effects that favor better evolution of this health problem, by optimizing glycemic control, contributing to the loss of weight and the improvement of certain comorbidities, including cardiovascular health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Obesity/epidemiology
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508247

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus es un problema emergente de salud pública; que mostrará un crecimiento del 45 por ciento para el año 2030, influenciado por el incremento demográfico y el envejecimiento poblacional a escala global. Objetivo: Desarrollar una estrategia educativa sobre la diabetes mellitus e implementarla en la comunidad de Ojo de Agua, Holguín. Método: Se realizó una investigación siguiendo el paradigma cuanticualitativo, con una población fuente o de estudio de 27 pacientes diabéticos que se caracterizaron a partir de variables seleccionadas, en el período 2020-2021. Se aplicó escala tipo Likert (previamente validada por expertos y con α-Cronbach de 0,693) y el cuestionario Martín-Bayarre-Grau para adherencia. Resultados: El sexo femenino, el envejecimiento poblacional, el bajo grado de escolaridad, la malnutrición por exceso y una adherencia parcial al tratamiento caracterizaron a los diabéticos. Se elaboró e implementó una estrategia educativa con un plan de acción organizado por objetivos en el que se aplicó el concepto de pensar globalmente y actuar localmente que, a los seis meses, incrementó la adherencia con una actitud favorable hacia el control de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: La estrategia educativa sobre diabetes mellitus proporcionó los medios necesarios para mejorar y ejercer un mayor control sobre la salud individual y familiar, al crear un ambiente favorable con reforzamiento de acciones comunitarias y actitudes personales favorables, con mayor adherencia al tratamiento, lo que permitió un mejor control de la enfermedad, con un incremento de la calidad de vida de toda la población(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is an emerging public health concern, which will show a growth of 45percent by the year 2030, influenced by demographic increase and population aging on a global scale. Objective: To develop an educational strategy on diabetes mellitus and to implement it in the community of Ojo de Agua, Holguín. Methods: A research was carried out following the quantitative-qualitative paradigm, with a source or study population of 27 diabetic patients who were characterized based on variables selected in the period 2020-2021. A Likert-type scale, previously validated by experts and with a Cronbach's α of 0.693, was applied, together with the Martín-Bayarre-Grau questionnaire for adherence. Results: The diabetics were mostly characterized by the female sex, an aging population, a low level of schooling, excess malnutrition, and partial adherence to treatment. An educational strategy was elaborated and implemented, with an action plan organized by objectives in which the concept of think globally and act locally was applied, which, at six months, increased adherence with a favorable attitude towards the control of the disease. Conclusions: The educational strategy on diabetes mellitus provided the necessary means for improving and exercising greater control over individual and family health, by creating a favorable environment with reinforcement of community actions and favorable personal attitudes, with greater adherence to treatment, which allowed better control of the disease, with an increase in the quality of life of the entire population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Attitude to Health , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Risk Factors
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508240

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un importante problema de salud pública con una alta prevalencia y carga económica. En Cuba, se estima que viven 1 134 000 personas entre los 20 y 79 años con diabetes, ubicándose como la octava causa de muerte.1 A pesar de existir en el país programas para la atención integral a pacientes diabéticos, todavía existe un vacío en la educación diabetológica, afectado fundamentalmente por el tránsito del paciente entre la atención endocrinológica especializada y la atención médica brindada por los médicos de familia. El conocimiento sobre el tratamiento con insulinas entre los profesionales de la salud del primer nivel de atención es bajo, con una relación directa entre dicho conocimiento y el control glucémico.2 Se asume que un paciente bien educado en su enfermedad logrará un mejor control de esta con adecuada calidad de vida. Según varios estudios,3,4,5 la adherencia al tratamiento en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es baja, donde influyen, entre otros factores, el desconocimiento de la enfermedad, las opciones terapéuticas y conductas de autocuidado y la autorresponsabilidad. En este sentido, con la finalidad de conocer la percepción sobre el tratamiento con insulina por parte de pacientes con DM, se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, en el Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Arnaldo Milián Castro de Villa Clara (Cuba), en entre enero y marzo de 2020, que fue detenido en este período ante la contingencia generada por la COVID-19. Para ellos se encuestaron 21 pacientes con DM tipo 2 que acudieron a consulta externa de Endocrinología, a los cuales se les aplicó la escala de percepción del tratamiento con insulina (Insuline Treatment Appraisal Scale [ITAS]),6,7 conformada por 16 ítems de percepción negativa y 4 ítems de percepción positiva; con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,89. La calificación de la encuesta es de 20 a 100 puntos, donde a mayor puntuación mayor es la opinión negativa (peor percepción). Del total de pacientes, 12 (57,14 por ciento) eran usuarios de insulina y el resto se trataban con antidiabéticos orales. La edad media de los participantes fue 62,38 ± 2,25 años, predominó el sexo femenino (n = 11; 52,38 por ciento) y el nivel educacional medio-universitario (n = 14; 66,66 por ciento). La media de evolución de la enfermedad fue 10,95 ± 2,25 años para la totalidad del grupo y 13,67 ± 3,28 años para los usuarios de insulina; con un promedio de la glicemia en ayunas previo a la recogida de datos de 7,79 ± 0,92 mmol/L. El 95,23 por ciento de los pacientes tenía al menos alguna complicación crónica de la diabetes y 15 (71,42 por ciento) no habían recibido educación diabetológica previa. En 13 pacientes, desde el debut, existió la necesidad de realizar cambio de tratamiento, en general de antidiabéticos orales hacia esquemas de insulina. La puntuación media global de la escala fue 60,05 ± 1,96 puntos, ligeramente superior en los usuarios de antidiabéticos orales (62,22 ± 9,06 vs. 58,42 ± 9,02), sin diferencia significativas entre ambos grupos (p = 0,95 > 0,05), no obstante, la mayor puntuación en los no usuarios de insulina indica una peor percepción sobre esta. Investigaciones previas coinciden con esta observación, donde la percepción es peor en pacientes no insulinizados.6,7,8 La atención al paciente con DM debe ser integral y, tomando en cuenta este precepto, darse prioridad a la educación diabetológica desde el momento del diagnóstico e incorporar elementos nuevos en cada consulta, sin llegar a saturar de información al paciente. Es conocido el temor que puede generar la necesidad de utilizar insulina entre la población con diabetes, es por ello que debe mostrarse al paciente las ventajas de su utilidad incluso cuando no exista la necesidad inmediata de su uso. Otra conducta extendida entre profesionales de la salud, es la ejemplificación del tratamiento con insulina como último recurso para lograr un control metabólico óptimo en caso de fallar otras terapias o las modificaciones en el estilo de vida, actitud que debe ser erradicada en las consultas de atención integral al paciente con diabetes. Actualmente, los autores de la presente carta, desarrollan una investigación para validar la ITAS en población cubana y contribuir al desarrollo de instrumentos útiles en la educación diabetológica a todos los niveles de atención. Futuros estudios pueden elaborar propuestas de programas formativos, on-line o presencial, y cualquier variedad de materiales educativos que contribuyan con el desconocimiento sobre la DM, tanto de pacientes como de profesionales de la salud(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Insulin Coma/prevention & control , Risk Factors
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 581-586, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985530

ABSTRACT

Objective: To forecast mortality, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature mortality from diabetes, and to simulate the impact of controlling risk factors by 2030 in China. Methods: We simulated the burden of disease from diabetes in six scenarios according to the development goals of risk factors control by the WHO and Chinese government. Based on the theory of comparative risk assessment and the estimates of the burden of disease for China from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015, we used the proportional change model to project the number of deaths, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature mortality from diabetes under different scenarios of risk factors control in 2030. Results: If the trends in exposures to risk factors from 1990 to 2015 continued. Mortality, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature mortality from diabetes would increase to 32.57/100 000, 17.32/100 000, and 0.84% by 2030, respectively. During that time, mortality, age-standardized mortality and probability of premature mortality for males would all be higher than for females. If the goals of controlling risk factors were all achieved, the number of deaths from diabetes in 2030 would decrease by 62.10% compared to the predicted numbers based on the historical trends in exposure to risk factors, and the probability of premature mortality would drop to 0.29%. If only the exposure to a single risk factor were achieved by 2030, high fasting plasma glucose control would have the greatest impact on diabetes, resulting in a 56.00% reduction in deaths compared to the predicted numbers based on the historical trends, followed by high BMI (4.92%), smoking (0.65%), and low physical activity (0.53%). Conclusions: Risk factors control plays an important role in reducing the number of deaths, age-standardized mortality rate, and probability of premature mortality from diabetes. We suggest taking comprehensive measures to control relevant risk factors for certain populations and regions, to achieve the goal of reducing the burden of disease from diabetes as expected.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Mortality, Premature , Smoking , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 867-877, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010808

ABSTRACT

Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of inactivated vaccines is not well characterized in people with comorbidities, who are at high risk of severe infection. We compared the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection after complete vaccination with Sinopharm/BBIBP in people with comorbidities (e.g., autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, and diabetes) with healthy individuals using a Cox-proportional hazard model. In July-September 2021, a total of 10 548 people (comorbidities, 2143; healthy, 8405) receiving the complete primary series of vaccination with Sinopharm/BBIBP in Bangkok, Thailand were prospectively followed for SARS-CoV-2 infection through text messaging and telephone interviewing for 6 months. A total of 295 infections from 284 participants were found. HRs (95% CI) of individuals with any comorbidities did not increase (unadjusted, 1.02 (0.77-1.36), P = 0.89; adjusted, 1.04 (0.78-1.38), P = 0.81). HRs significantly increased in the subgroup of autoimmune diseases (unadjusted, 2.64 (1.09-6.38), P = 0.032; adjusted, 4.45 (1.83-10.83), P = 0.001) but not in cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, or diabetes. The protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection of the Sinopharm vaccine was similar in participants with any comorbidities vs. healthy individuals. However, the protection appeared lower in the subgroup of autoimmune diseases, which may reflect suboptimal immune responses among these people.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Prospective Studies , Thailand , Autoimmune Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
9.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 62-70, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970012

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Studies of concordance between patients' self-report of diseases and a criterion standard (e.g. chart review) are usually conducted in epidemiological studies to evaluate the agreement of self-reported data for use in public health research. To our knowledge, there are no published studies on concordance for highly prevalent chronic diseases such as diabetes and pre-diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the concordance between patients' self-report and their medical records of diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnoses, and to identify factors associated with diabetes concordance.@*METHOD@#A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was conducted on patients with chronic diseases after obtaining written consent to assess their medical notes. Interviewers were blinded to the participants' profiles. Concordance was evaluated using Cohen's kappa (κ). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with diabetes concordance.@*RESULTS@#There was substantial agreement between self-reported and medical records of diabetes diagnoses (κ=0.76) and fair agreement for pre-diabetes diagnoses (κ=0.36). The logistic regression model suggested that non-Chinese patients had higher odds of diabetes concordance than Chinese patients (odds ratio [OR]=4.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-14.13, P=0.03). Patients with 3 or more chronic diseases (i.e. multimorbidity) had lower odds of diabetes concordance than patients without multimorbidity (OR=0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.48, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Diabetes concordance was substantial, supporting the use of self-report of diabetes by patients with chronic diseases in the primary care setting for future research. Pre-diabetes concordance was fair and may have important clinical implications. Further studies to explore and improve health literacy and patient-physician communication are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prediabetic State , Singapore/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Medical Records , Self Report
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 401-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969920

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the associations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with FPG and oral glucose tolerance test 2-hour (OGTT-2 h) in areas at different altitude in China. Methods: Subjects who participated in 2018-2019 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance and had no prior type 2 diabetes diagnosis were included. Subsequently, they were categorized into three groups based on altitude of living area (<2 000, 2 000- and ≥3 000 m). With adjustment for intracluster correlation, multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations of HbA1c with FPG and OGTT-2 h in the context of HbA1c was normal (<5.7%) or abnormal (≥5.7%). Furthermore, the shape of relationships between HbA1c and glucose indicators was examined using restricted cubic spline. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HbA1c for diabetes. Results: A total of 157 277 subjects were included in the analysis. While FPG and OGTT-2 h levels gradually decreased with increase of altitude, HbA1c level was similar among the three groups. When HbA1c was <5.7%, its association with FPG and OGTT-2 h was weak and no obvious difference was observed among the three groups. When HbA1c was ≥5.7%, the FPG and OGTT-2 h increased by 15.45% (95%CI:14.71%- 16.18%) and 24.54% (95%CI:23.18%-25.91%) respectively per one standard deviation increase in HbA1c in group in area at altitude <2 000 m. However, the FPG and OGTT-2 h increased by 13.08% (95%CI:10.46%-15.76%) and 21.72% (95%CI:16.39%-27.31%), respectively, in group in area at altitude 2 000- m, and increased by 11.41% (95%CI:9.32%-13.53%) and 20.03% (95%CI:15.38%- 24.86%), respectively, in group of altitude ≥3 000 m. The restricted cubic spline indicated that the curve showing the association of HbA1c with FPG and OGTT-2 h was flat when HbA1c was <5.7%, but showed a positive linear relationship when HbA1c was ≥5.7%. The area under curve for detecting diabetes was 0.808 (95%CI:0.803-0.812) in group of altitude <2 000 m and 0.728 (95%CI:0.660-0.796, P=0.022) in group of altitude ≥3 000 m. The relevant optimal cutoff value of HbA1c was 5.7%, with a sensitivity of 65.4% and a specificity of 83.0%, and 6.0%, with a sensitivity of 48.3% and a specificity of 93.7%, respectively. Conclusions: When HbA1c was ≥5.7%, the association between HbA1c and glucose indicators became weaker as the increase of altitude. In the area at altitude ≥3 000 m, it may not be appropriate to use HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glucose , Altitude , Fasting , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1451841

ABSTRACT

A conformidade entre as fontes de dados sobre diabetes mellitus (DM) e hipertensão arterial (HA) é fundamental para medidas de vigilância. Neste aspecto, pretende Avaliar se há uniformidade entre os dados de prevalência de DM e HA no Estado de Goiás a partir de duas diferentes fontes de acesso a esses dados. Casuística e métodos: Comparação entre os dados do Levantamento de Hipertensão e Diabetes do estado de Goiás 2021 (LHD) e do banco de dados da Estratégia e-SUS Atenção Básica (e-SUS AB) com relação ao número de indivíduos cadastrados na rede de atenção primária à saúde com os diagnósticos de DM e HA. Resultados: Em Goiás, a diferença entre o número absoluto de indivíduos com diagnóstico de DM e HA pelo LHD e pelo e-SUS AB foi de 46,56% e de 27%, respectivamente (p <0,001). A diferença entre os dados foi maior que 50% para o diagnóstico de DM em 104 municípios e para HA em 94 municípios. Discussão: As divergências encontradas podem estar relacionadas a fatores como a qualidade dos dados fornecidos pela população, duplicidade de registros, problemas técnicos relacionados à internet e ao software e dificuldades na integração entre os sistemas de informação. Demonstra-se a necessidade de padronização de registros e uniformização dos dados para o fortalecimento de ações de vigilância. Concluiu que há inconsistências entre os dados sobre o número de indivíduos cadastrados com os diagnósticos de DM e HA a partir do LHD e e-SUS AB em grande parte dos municípios do Estado de Goiás


Introduction: Conformity between data sources on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (H) is critical for surveillance measures. Objective: To assess whether there is uniformity between data on the prevalence of DM and H in the State of Goiás, based on two different sources of access to these data. Material and methods: A comparison was made between the data from the 2021 Hypertension and Diabetes Survey of the State of Goiás (LHD) and the data from the e-SUS Primary Care Strategy (e-SUS AB) database about the number of people who had hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: In Goiás, the difference between the absolute number of individuals diagnosed with DM and H according to data from the LHD and e-SUS AB was 46.56% and 27%, respectively (p <0.001). The difference between the data was greater than 50% for the diagnosis of DM in 104 municipalities and for H in 94 municipalities. Discussion: The differences found may be related to the quality of personal data provided by the population, duplicate records, obstacles in using the software or the internet, difficulties in integrating information systems. The findings demonstrate the necessity of establishing standardized records for data related to these diseases in order to strengthen surveillance actions. Conclusion: There are inconsistencies between the data on the number of individuals registered as having DM and H from the LHD and e-SUS AB in most municipalities in the State of Goiás


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Diseases Registries/statistics & numerical data , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 75, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportions of awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Brazilian adult population. METHOD This is a cross-sectional study, with data from a representative sample of the Brazilian population, taken from the National Health Survey(PNS 2014/2015). Outcomes were defined based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements, self-reported DM diagnosis, and use of hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The proportion of DM awareness, treatment, and control was estimated according to sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and access to health services, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS DM prevalence in the Brazilian population was of 8.6% (95%CI: 7.8-9.3): 68.2% (95%CI: 63.9-72.3) were aware of their diagnosis, 92.2% (95%CI: 88.6-94.7) of those who were aware were undergoing drug treatments, and, of these, 35.8% (95%CI: 30.5-41.6) had controlled HbA1c levels. The proportions of DM awareness, control, and treatment were lower in men aged 18 to 39 years, individuals with low education, without health insurance, and beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program. CONCLUSION Approximately one in ten Brazilians has DM. A little more than half of this population is aware of their diagnosis, a condition measured by HbA1c dosage and clinical diagnosis. Among those who know, the vast majority are undergoing drug treatments. However, less than half of these have their HbA1c levels controlled. Worse scenarios were found in subgroups with high social vulnerability.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar as proporções dos indivíduos que têm conhecimento do diagnóstico, tratamento e controle do diabetes mellitus (DM) na população adulta brasileira. MÉTODO Este é um estudo transversal, com dados de amostra representativa da população brasileira, provenientes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2014/2015). Os desfechos foram definidos com base na medida de hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), no diagnóstico autorreferido de DM e no uso de hipoglicemiantes ou de insulina. Estimou-se a proporção do conhecimento, tratamento e controle do DM de acordo com as características sociodemográficas, condição de saúde e de acesso aos serviços de saúde, e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência de DM na população brasileira foi 8,6% (IC95% 7,8-9,3), 68,2% (IC95% 63,9-72,3) tinham conhecimento do seu diagnóstico, 92,2% (IC95% 88,6-94,7) dos que tinham conhecimento realizam tratamento medicamentoso, e desses, 35,8% (IC95% 30,5-41,6) tinham os níveis de HbA1c controlados. As proporções de conhecimento, controle e tratamento foram menores nos homens, com idade de 18 a 39 anos, indivíduos que possuem baixa escolaridade, sem plano de saúde e beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família. CONCLUSÃO Aproximadamente um em cada dez brasileiros apresenta DM. Um pouco mais da metade desta população tem conhecimento do seu diagnóstico, condição aferida por dosagem de HbA1c e diagnóstico clínico. Entre os que sabem, a grande maioria está sob tratamento medicamentoso. Porém, menos da metade destes tem seus níveis de HbA1c controlados. Cenários piores foram encontrados em subgrupos com alta vulnerabilidade social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Awareness , Therapeutics , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220176, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521582

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight among Brazilian adults aged 20 to 59, according to sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and food consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on data from a population-based survey in a major metropolitan city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, conducted between 2015-2016. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression; food consumption means were estimated using linear regression. Results: We analyzed data from 855 adults, 61% of whom were overweight. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among males, those aged 30 or older, with 8 to 11 years of education, and those who reported eating more than they should. The body mass index was significantly associated with hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, waist-to-height ratio, taking weight-loss medications, overeating, and the habit of checking labels. Overweight adults reported eating meat with visible fat and drinking soda more frequently than those not overweight. Overweight adults reported eating significantly more grams of food daily and had a higher intake of energy, total fat, saturated fats, trans fats, carbohydrates, protein, insoluble dietary fiber, sodium, and potassium. Their diets had a higher glycemic load when compared to participants who were not overweight. Conclusion: Adults with and without overweight differed in their sociodemographic, dietary, and clinical characteristics. Diet quality was similar between both groups, suggesting a need for improving dietary habits in this population regardless of body weight.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de excesso de peso entre adultos brasileiros, de 20 a 59 anos, segundo características sociodemográficas, de comportamentos relacionados à saúde e quanto ao consumo alimentar. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de pesquisa de base populacional, em uma cidade metropolitana de São Paulo - Brasil, conduzida entre os anos de 2015 e 2016. Foram estimadas as prevalências e as razões de prevalência por meio da regressão de Poisson, e as médias de consumo alimentar pelo uso da regressão linear. Resultados: Foram analisados dados referentes à 855 adultos, 61% destes apresentavam sobrepeso. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi significativamente maior entre: homens, com 30 anos ou mais, pessoas que possuíam entre 8 e 11 anos de estudo e entre aqueles que acreditavam comer mais do que deveriam. O índice de massa corporal foi significativamente associado à hipertensão, diabetes, colesterol alto, razão cintura-estatura, uso de medicamentos, comer mais do que deveria e o hábito de checar rótulos. Adultos com excesso de peso ingeriam carnes com gordura e refrigerantes em maior frequência quando comparados à adultos com peso saudável. Adultos com excesso de peso consumiam, significativamente, mais gramas de alimentos por dia e apresentaram maior ingestão de calorias, gorduras totais, saturadas e trans, carboidratos, proteína, fibras insolúveis, sódio e potássio. A dieta deles continha uma maior carga glicêmica quando comparada àqueles com peso saudável. Conclusão: Adultos com e sem excesso de peso, diferiram quanto às características sociodemográficas, dietéticas e clínicas. A qualidade da dieta foi similar em ambos os grupos, o que sugere a necessidade de melhora dos hábitos alimentares da população, independentemente do peso corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Behavior/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Eating/physiology , Waist-Height Ratio , Glycemic Load/physiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology
15.
In. Pradines Terra, Laura; García Parodi, Lucía; Bruno, Lorena; Filomeno Andriolo, Paola Antonella. La Unidad de Pie Diabético del Hospital Pasteur: modelo de atención y pautas de actuación: importancia del abordaje interdisciplinario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.23-26.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418691
16.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 48(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441846

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El reciente incremento de la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus en Cuba sucedió con mayor celeridad, y las políticas encaminadas a su control requieren de su cuantificación sistemática. Objetivo: Identificar las diferencias en Cuba, según provincia y sexo, de los años de vida saludable perdidos por la diabetes mellitus en el 2015. Métodos: En el estudio de extensión nacional se obtuvieron los años de vida saludable perdidos como resultado de la suma de los años perdidos de vida potencial por mortalidad prematura y los años de vida perdidos por morbilidad y otros indicadores para identificar la mortalidad temprana en el año 2015. Resultados: En todas las provincias los índices de años de vida saludable perdidos por morbilidad superaron los de mortalidad prematura con predominio del sexo femenino, mientras en la mayoría de las provincias, las edades de las defunciones fueron más tempranas en el masculino. Las diferencias halladas permitieron agrupar a Artemisa, La Habana, Mayabeque, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, Santi Spíritus y Camagüey, con los mayores promedios de años perdidos por morbilidad y fallecimientos más tardíos, y al resto de las provincias cubanas, con los menores años perdidos por morbilidad, pero con defunciones en edades más tempranas. Conclusiones: Las pérdidas de años de vida saludable difieren según el sexo y la provincia. Este conocimiento permite la identificación de diferentes patrones de morbimortalidad útiles para orientar las acciones de prevención y control de la enfermedad para cada territorio(AU)


Introduction: The recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Cuba occurred more rapidly, and policies aimed at its control require systematic quantification. Objective: To identify the differences in Cuba, according to province and sex, of the years of healthy life lost due to diabetes mellitus in 2015. Methods: The national extension study collected data on the healthy years of life lost as a result of the sum of years lost from potential life due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to morbidity and other indicators to identify early mortality in 2015. Results: In all provinces, the rates of years of healthy life lost due to morbidity exceeded those of premature mortality with a predominance of women, while in most provinces, the ages of death were earlier in the male sex. The differences found allowed to group Artemisa, Havana, Mayabeque, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, Santi Spíritus and Camagüey provincesn with the highest averages of years lost due to morbidity and later deaths, and the rest of the Cuban provinces, with the lowest years lost due to morbidity, but with deaths at younger ages. Conclusions: Losses of years of healthy life differ by sex and province. This knowledge allows the identification of different patterns of morbidity and mortality useful to guide the prevention and control actions of the disease for each territory(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Life Expectancy , Cuba , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Mortality, Premature , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441751

ABSTRACT

El incremento de la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus a nivel global en los últimos años la convierte en un desafío para los sistemas de salud. La retinopatía diabética como una de sus complicaciones crónicas más frecuentes se convierte en una de las principales causas de ceguera prevenible en el mundo, convirtiéndose el embarazo en un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo de esta enfermedad. El embarazo en mujeres con diagnóstico previo de diabetes mellitus, puede favorecer la aparición y la progresión de la retinopatía diabética. En esta etapa, las alteraciones metabólicas descritas de la diabetes mellitus se unen a las propias del embarazo con lo que el cuadro clínico se refuerza y acentúa, de hecho, se considera el mayor factor de riesgo y se asocia con un incremento en su prevalencia y gravedad. La presencia de retinopatía diabética no es una contraindicación para el embarazo, pero su diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz para prevenir la pérdida de visión, es esencial para preservar la calidad de vida de las gestantes previa y posterior al parto. La aparición y progresión de la retinopatía diabética en mujeres con diabetes mellitus pregestacional, se puede prevenir o reducir con una adecuada atención preconcepcional, un riguroso seguimiento clínico durante el embarazo y un temprano tratamiento, contribuyendo así a evitar la pérdida visual por esta causa(AU)


The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus globally in recent years makes it a challenge for health systems. Diabetic retinopathy as one of its most frequent chronic complications has become one of the main causes of preventable blindness in the world, and pregnancy has become an important risk factor for the development of this disease. Pregnancy in women previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus may favor the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. At this stage, the metabolic alterations described for diabetes mellitus are added to those of pregnancy itself, so that the clinical picture is reinforced and accentuated, in fact, it is considered the greatest risk factor and is associated with an increase in its prevalence and severity. The presence of diabetic retinopathy is not a contraindication for pregnancy, but its early diagnosis and treatment to prevent vision loss is essential to preserve the quality of life of pregnant women before and after delivery. The onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy in women with pregestational diabetes mellitus can be prevented or reduced with adequate preconception care, rigorous clinical follow-up during pregnancy and early treatment, thus helping to prevent visual loss due to this cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications
18.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(9): 1145-1151, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 affects all age groups, but higher mortality rates are recorded in older people, men and with comorbidities, mainly hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Aim: To describe the main clinical characteristics, evolution and prognostic factors for death in older patients hospitalized for COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 128 patients aged 73 years, 66% men, hospitalized at a clinical hospital, with a diagnosis of COVID-19, admitted from May 1 to August 1, 2020. Data were collected from the clinical records, a description of the study population was made, and a univariate analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Seventy-two percent of patients had two or more comorbidities, mainly arterial hypertension in 66%, diabetes mellitus in 34% and cardiovascular disease in 19%. Forty-one percent were admitted to intensive care and 31% were connected to mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mortality was 26.6%. A multivariate analysis was performed in two blocks, finding in the first that arterial hypertension and older age significantly predict mortality. However, when previous institutionalization and immuno-suppression were included as variables in the second block, age ceased to be a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic factors associated with death in this age group are arterial hypertension and previous institutionalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prognosis , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Hypertension/epidemiology
19.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441688

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus, requiere atención médica multifactorial y multisectorial. La oftalmopatía diabética demanda sistemas de salud integrados que faciliten la prevención, detección y tratamiento de las complicaciones en los niveles de atención primaria, secundaria y terciaria. Objetivo: Exponer los conceptos teóricos, prácticos y las tendencias actuales sobre diabetes mellitus y salud visual. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliografía y documental sobre diabetes mellitus y salud visual, estudios y documentos publicados por instituciones nacionales e internacionales, temas vinculados a la diabetes mellitus y la salud visual, se accedió a artículos desde diferentes fuentes, revistas indexadas, metaanálisis y fuentes primarias no publicadas, tesis de maestría, y doctorados. Resultados: Para conservar la salud visual es necesario llevar a cabo medidas que conlleven a prevenir la pérdida de la visión por catarata, glaucoma, retinopatia y edema macular diabético, que incluyen no sólo un buen control de los parámetros metabólicos y las revisiones periódicas al oftalmólogo, sino también el cumplimiento de la educación diabetológica por un equipo multidisciplinario y actualización sobre este tema de los prestadores de salud. La disminución visual que provoca la catarata y otras enfermedades oculares puede conducir a padecer discapacidades como, pérdida de autonomía para administrarse los medicamentos, limitar las actividades de la vida cotidiana e incapacidad laboral y social, con la consiguiente afectación de la calidad de vida Conclusiones: Acudir al oftalmólogo con frecuencia, mantener el control glucémico, del colesterol y presión arterial representan el pilar fundamental para preservar la salud visual en el paciente diabético(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus requires multifactorial and multisectoral medical attention. Diabetic ophthalmopathy demands integrated health systems that facilitate the prevention, detection and treatment of complications at the primary, secondary and tertiary care levels. Objective: To show the theoretical and practical concepts and current trends on diabetes mellitus and visual health. Methods: A bibliographic and documentary review on diabetes mellitus and visual health was carried out. Studies and documents published by local and international institutions, articles, topics related to diabetes mellitus and visual health were retrieved from different sources, indexed journals, meta-analysis and unpublished primary sources, research degree and master's, theses. Results: To preserve visual health, it is necessary to carry out reading that lead to preventing vision loss due to cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, which include not only good control of metabolic parameters and regular check-ups with the ophthalmologist , but also compliance with diabetes education by a multidisciplinary team and updating the health providers on this subject. The visual decrease caused by cataract and other eye diseases can lead to disabilities such as loss of autonomy to manage medications, limit activities of daily life and work and social incapacity, with the consequent impact on quality of life. Conclusions: Frequently going to the ophthalmologist, maintaining glycemic, cholesterol and blood pressure control represent the fundamental pillar to preserve visual health in diabetic patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cataract/diagnosis , Eye Health , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/diagnosis
20.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.


A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
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