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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 542-545, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041473

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study aims to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of different species of Candida isolated from diabetic patients against eight antifungal agents. METHODS Susceptibility testing of 111 clinical isolates of Candida species was performed against 8 antifungals using the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS Voriconazole, lanoconazole, and caspofungin showed the highest in vitro activity against all the isolates of C. albicans. Resistance against the tested antifungals was only observed in the C. albicans isolates. CONCLUSIONS Our finding revealed that resistance against amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole can be observed in C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Middle Aged
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 587-592, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The link between Candida albicans and diabetes mellitus is well-acknowledged, but incompletely elucidated. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to assess the growth rate of C. albicans (CA) in the presence of different concentrations of glucose and fructose, two of the main pathophysiologic and nutritionally relevant sugars in diabetic patients, in order to obtain a better understanding of the nutrient acquisition strategy and its possible relation to the hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients. METHODS The effects of different concentrations of glucose and fructose (1000 mg%, 500 mg%, 250 mg% and 100 mg% w/v) on the growth rate of CA have been studied by flow-cytometry. FINDINGS We found that glucose concentration is directly related to CA growth, which may be linked to the frequent yeast infections that occur in non-controlled diabetic patients; we also show that fructose inhibits CA growth rate. MAIN CONCLUSIONS As a consequence of our hypothesis, the study demonstrates that fructose-containing food may prevent the development of candidiasis, at least in oral sites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Fructose/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Flow Cytometry
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 417-422, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787553

ABSTRACT

Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Invasive/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Kidney Transplantation , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Invasive/classification , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Complications , DNA, Fungal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 351-354, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735809

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco). A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars); bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103). There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic ...


Objetivo: Estudar a microbiota conjuntival bacteriana aeróbica dos pacientes diabéticos em relação ao controle glicêmico, verificado através da hemoglobina glicada, em duas cidades distintas. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal utilizando raspados de conjuntiva de indivíduos diabéticos de ambos os sexos e idades variáveis de duas cidades: Sorocaba e Rio Branco. O grupo controle foi constituído de pacientes não diabéticos. A amostra foi constituída de pacientes diabéticos que foram considerados controlados com hemoglobina glicada ≤7% e glicemia de jejum ≤126 mg/dl e não controlados com hemoglobina glicada >7% e glicemia de jejum >126 mg/dl. O material obtido foi semeado em meio líquido Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) e em meios de cultivo para bactérias aeróbicas (ágar sangue e ágar chocolate). O crescimento bacteriano foi avaliado em laboratório de microbiologia. Resultados: Foram incluídos 120 olhos de 120 pacientes. A porcentagem de culturas nas quais houve crescimento bacteriano foi maior em pacientes diabéticos, sendo a diferença não estatisticamente significante (p=0,103). Não houve diferença entre o crescimento bacteriano em pacientes com hemoglobina glicada normal e alterada. Houve uma tendência maior de crescimento bacteriano em conjuntivas de pacientes diabéticos com glicemias de jejum elevada. Em Sorocaba houve crescimento bacteriano conjuntival semelhante a Rio Branco. O microrganismo mais frequente encontrado neste estudo foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, seguido de Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis e Escherichia coli. Conclusões: Não ocorreu diferença entre pacientes diabéticos com hemoglobina glicada normal e alterada. Os microrganismos encontrados foram semelhantes aos estudos da flora bacteriana de conjuntivas normais e de diabéticos. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteria, Aerobic/growth & development , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Microbiota , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Glycemic Index , Proteus mirabilis/growth & development , Sex Factors , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Staphylococcus epidermidis/growth & development
6.
Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 17 (1): 363-369
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142740

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection [UTI] is a condition in which the urinary tract is infected with a pathogen causing inflammation. One of the predisposing factors for UTIs is diabetes mellitus [DM], spillage of glucose into the urine provide a good culture medium for bacteria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of UTIs among diabetic patients of both genders with studying the effect of some relative factors, and identifying types of the causal microorganisms. Diabetic patients [type1 and 2], from both genders were included in this study. All patients were interviewed. Uncontaminated urine samples were collected for micro-scopic and macroscopic analysis. Isolations and identifications of bacteria were done by standard methods. Out of 150 diabetic patients, 53 [35.33%] have UTI. Gender, middle age and high level of proteinuria were risk factors, while type and duration of DM with its type of treatment, body mass index [BMI], and hypertension were non significant. The isolated types of pathogens were Escherichia coli [45.3%], Klebsiella pneumoniae [15.1%], Staphylococcus saprophyticus [15.1%], Citrobacter diversus [11.3%], Candida albicans [7.5%] and Staphylococcus aureus [5.7%]. This study revealed that diabetic females were most susceptible to get UTIs than diabetic males. In both genders the most reliable age for UTI were between 31-40 years. The results showed that the level of proteinuria was higher in patients suffering from UTIs associated with DM, which considered as a risk factor. Certain types of microorganisms were isolated; the most common types were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Bacteriuria/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Age Factors , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution
7.
IJPM-International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 4 (11): 1321-1322
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-143095

ABSTRACT

Primary perianal tuberculosis is a rare form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. We present a case of perianal tuberculosis without any pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement in a diabetic patient. Histopathological examination of perianal lesion demonstrated loose granulomas and positive staining for Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen [EZN] stain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Coloring Agents , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140001

ABSTRACT

Background: Halitosis has been correlated with the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced in the oral cavity by metabolic activity of bacteria colonizing the periodontal pockets and the dorsum of the tongue. It has been assumed that there is a relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms of subgingival plaque and tongue coating, such as P. gingivalis (Pg), T. forsythia (Tf), and F. nucleatum (Fn) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nondiabetic and diabetic chronic periodontitis patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients (with and without diabetes) with 5-7 mm pocket depth, radiographic evidence of bone loss, and presence of oral malodor participated in this study. Subjective assessment of mouth air was done organoleptically and by using a portable sulfide monitor. Tongue coating was also assessed. Results: The scores of plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, VSC levels, and tongue coating between the nondiabetic and diabetic patients were not significant (P>0.5). In nondiabetic patients, Fn was found to be significantly (P<0.5) more in tongue samples, whereas Pg and Tf have not shown significant values (P>0.5). In diabetic patients, Fn and Tf have shown significant (P<0.5) an increase in subgingival and tongue samples, respectively, whereas Pg has not shown significant difference between subgingival and tongue samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results confirm that there is no difference in clinical parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic periodontitis patients, but the odoriferous microbial profiles in tongue samples of diabetic patients were found to be high. However, there is a weak positive correlation between VSC levels, clinical parameters, and odoriferous microbial profiles.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alveolar Bone Loss/microbiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/diagnostic imaging , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , Bacteroides/isolation & purification , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque Index , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolation & purification , Gingival Hemorrhage/microbiology , Halitosis/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Periodontal Index , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Smell , Sulfur Compounds/analysis , Tongue/microbiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
9.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2011; 20 (3): 271-276
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110227

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the oral candidal carriage of patients seeking dental treatment at the Kuwait University Dental Clinic and to ascertain the Candida species composition among them. 370 oral rinse samples were collected from patients. The germ tube test, CHROMagar Candida medium and VITEK 2 yeast identification system were used for species identification. C. dubliniensis isolates were confirmed by the production of rough colonies with hyphal fringes and chlamydospores on simplified sunflower seed agar. Of the 370 samples investigated, 160 [43.24%] showed Candida in culture. The isolation of Candida was significantly higher in individuals who were smokers or were under medication for either diabetics or asthma [99 [62%]] compared to healthy individuals [61 [38%]]. Of the 210 samples which did not yield Candida, 131 [62.38%] were healthy and 79 [37.62%] were associated with smoking or with usage of drugs for aforementioned conditions. Species isolated were C. albicans [102 [63.7%]], C. dubliniensis [23[14.3%]], C. krusei [13 [8.1%]], C. tropicalis [12 [7.5%]] and C. glabrata [10 [6.2%]].Candida species were more prevalent in patients having predisposing factors implicated in oral candidosis, such as in smokers, diabetic patients and asthmatic patients using inhalation steroids. C. albicans was the most prevalent species isolated, followed by C. dubliniensis


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Carrier State , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31881

ABSTRACT

Melioidosis, an infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, has a wide range of clinical manifestations. Here, we describe rheumatological melioidosis (involving one or more of joint, bone or muscle), and compare features and outcome with patients without rheumatological involvement. A retrospective study of patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis admitted to Sappasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani during 2002 and 2005 identified 679 patients with melioidosis, of whom 98 (14.4%) had rheumatological melioidosis involving joint (n=52), bone (n = 5), or muscle (n = 12), or a combination of these (n=29). Females were over-represented in the rheumatological group, and diabetes and thalassemia were independent risk factors for rheumatological involvement (OR; 2.49 and 9.56, respectively). Patients with rheumatological involvement had a more chronic course, as reflected by a longer fever clearance time (13 vs 7 days, p = 0.06) and hospitalization (22 vs 14 days, p < 0.001), but lower mortality (28% vs 44%, p = 0.005). Patients with signs and symptoms of septic arthritis for longer than 2 weeks were more likely to have extensive infection of adjacent bone and muscle, particularly in diabetic patients. Surgical intervention was associated with a survival benefit, bur not a shortening of the course of infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/microbiology , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Melioidosis/pathology , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thailand
12.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2008 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 200-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74621

ABSTRACT

Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections. There is not enough information from India regarding their prevalence in diabetic and cancer patients. The present study was undertaken over a period of one year from January to December 2006 to study the incidence of MBL P. aeruginosa and the clinical outcome in diabetes and cancer patients admitted to S.L. Raheja Hospital, Mumbai. Two hundred and thirty isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from different samples of patients. These isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing to anti-pseudomonal drugs as per CLSI guidelines. They were further screened for the production of MBL by disc potentiation testing using EDTA-impregnated imipenem and meropenem discs. Of the 230 isolates of P. aeruginosa, 60 (26%) isolates were found resistant to carbapenems (both imipenem and meropenem) and 33 (14.3%) were found to be MBL producers. Of the 33 MBL-producing isolates, 24 (72.7%) were diabetic patients, six (18.1%) were cancer patients and three (9%) patients had both diabetes and cancer. Five (15.1%) patients responded to the combination therapy of colistin, piperacillin with tazobactam and amikacin, while 28 (84.8%) patients responded to the combination therapy of amikacin, piperacillin with tazobactam and gatifloxacin. Thus, the rapid dissemination of MBL producers is worrisome and necessitates the implementation of not just surveillance studies but also proper and judicious selection of antibiotics, especially carbapenems.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/complications , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis
13.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 43(4): 241-244, ago. 2007. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-461634

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus (DM), uma doença endócrino-metabólica de alta e crescente prevalência, é citada como responsável pela ocorrência das candidíases orais. A candidíase constitui um espectro de infecções causadas por fungos do gênero Candida, sendo o seu agente mais comum a Candida albicans, embora outras espécies tenham sido identificadas (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos atendidos no Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio da Universidade Federal do Ceará (HUWC/UFC). Foram coletadas amostras de 48 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os sexos, com situações variáveis de controle glicêmico. Os materiais clínicos foram colhidos com ajuda de swabs e semeados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol e incubado a 37ºC. Os crescimentos foram identificados pelas provas clássicas usadas em micologia. Depois, essas cepas de Candida foram submetidas a provas de detecção de enzimas fosfolipase e proteinase. Destas, 15 amostras (31,25 por cento) apresentaram cultura positiva para o gênero Candida. A espécie mais freqüente foi a C. albicans, com 80 por cento, seguida de C. tropicalis (13,3 por cento) e C. guillermondii (6,7 por cento). Quanto à pesquisa da atividade enzimática de Candida spp., foi observado que 86,6 por cento delas apresentaram atividade de proteinase e 80 por cento, de fosfolipase. Conclui-se com tais resultados que a C. albicans é a mais freqüente e que as espécies de Candida isoladas possuem fortes atividades enzimáticas.


Diabetes mellitus, a endocrine-metabolic disease, of high and increasing prevalence, is cited as responsible by the occurrence of oral candidiasis. Candidiasis constitutes a specter of infections caused by fungi of genera Candida; the most common agent is Candida albicans, but other species have also been identified (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei). The objective of this work was to evaluate frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of diabetic patients taken care in the service of endocrinology of the University Hospital Walter Cantídio of the Federal University of the Ceará. Samples had been collected of 48 diabetic patients, men and women, with various situations of glicemic control. Clinical materials had been collected with aid of swab and harvested in plates of Petri contend Sabouraud agar dextrose with cloranfenicol and incubated to 37ºC. The grown were identified by the used classic tests in mycology. In the following, these Candida strains were submitted to tests to detect phospholipase and proteinase enzymes. Of these, 15 samples (31,35 percent) presented positive culture for the genera Candida. The species more frequent was C. albicans with 80 percent, followed by C. tropicalis (13.3 percent) and C. guilliermondii (6.7 percent). Asfor the research on the enzymatic activity of Candida sp. it was observed that 86.6 percent presented activity of proteinase and 80 percent of phospholipase. It was concluded with these results that C. albicans is more frequent and that Candida spp. isolated species have strong enzymatic activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mouth/microbiology , Candida/enzymology , Candidiasis, Oral/enzymology , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Virulence Factors
14.
Iraqi Journal of Tropical Disease Researches. 2005; 2 (1): 1-10
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-71348

ABSTRACT

Bacteriological screening of urine samples taken from 140 patients of diabetes mellitus attending Diabetes Mellitus [DM] Center in the AL- Yarmouk Teaching Hospital was performed. Bacterial etiogenesis of the urogenital tract infection was significantly increased, especially among women. Gram negative bacteria represented 55.5% of isolates, whereas gram positive bacteria represented 28.1%. E coli, S. aureus and C and ida albicans exhibited 20.6, 14.3 and 15.9%, respectively Phagocytic activity was decreased in phagocytes of DM patients and in both sexes. Bacterial, as well as, C and idal infections had no significant influence on the activity of phagocytosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Urinary Tract Infections , Bacteriological Techniques , Phagocytosis
15.
Kufa Medical Journal. 2005; 8 (1): 67-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-73067

ABSTRACT

It is well known that diabetes is one of the predisposing factors, which affect the oral carriage rate of Candida species, in this paper we try to study the size of this problem. A total of 340 oral swabs from diabetic patients [type l and 2], 67% females and 33% males taken, results show that 37.9% of those had isolates of Candida species older patients had higher carriage rate but is not significant statistically [P>0.05]. Females had higher carriage raw [P<0.0l] possibly due to hormonal difference no difference found between type 1 and 2 of diabetes [P>0.05]. Those with poor control had higher carriage rate than those with good control [P<0.01]. In this study we see that being diabetic, female, with poor control had high chance to had oral carriage of Candida especially of albicans type


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Carrier State
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 21(2): 117-124, jun. 2004. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-363589

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un patógeno nosocomial frecuente que presenta elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos y causa infecciones graves cuando hay alteración de los mecanismos defensivos del paciente. Así, conocer los patrones locales de sensibilidad es importante para la elección del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado en cada institución. En este trabajo determinamos la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de P. aeruginosa aisladas desde pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Regional de Antofagasta. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía alguna condición predisponente a la infección y 48% tenía una infección grave. Las cepas mostraron mayor resistencia a los antimicrobianos que lo reportado en trabajos nacionales previos. Las cepas fueron altamente resistentes a amikacina (36,8%), ceftazidima (36,8%) y ciprofloxacina (68,4%), moderadamente resistentes a imipenem (26,3%), mientras que eran escasamente resistentes a piperacilina/tazobactam (5,3%) y cefoperazona/sulbactam (15,8%), Este es el primer trabajo, realizado en nuestra región, que estudia la susceptibilidad de P. aeruginosa frente a distintos grupos de antimicrobianos utilizados en clínica.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial pathogen that often displays a high degree of antibiotic resistance. This pathogen causes also serious infections specially in patients with severe diseases or immunodeficiency. To offer the best treatment in every institution it is necessary to know the local pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility, then we studied the antibiotic susceptibility of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients attended in the Regional Hospital of Antofagasta. Most of them had an underlying disease that predisposed them to the infection and 48% had a severe infection. The strains showed higher drug resistance than that reported by other chilean researchers. P. aeruginosa displayed high resistance to amikacin (36,8%), ceftazidime (36,8%) and ciprofloxacin (68,4%) intermediate resistance to imipenem (26,3%), but low resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam (5,3%) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (15,8%). This is the first drug susceptibility study conducted in the Second Region of Chile, where P. aeruginosa was assayed against those antibiotics used in the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Neoplasms/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Amikacin/pharmacology , Chile , Cefoperazone/pharmacology , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Hospitals, State , Imipenem/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Piperacillin/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification
17.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2003; 24 (10): 1064-1067
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-64443

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to define the pattern of bacteremia with clinical sepsis in diabetic patients at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital [KAUH], Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [KSA], in relation to the type of infection, microbial pattern, source, complication, outcome, and the risk factors associated with high mortality. Retrospective study of adult diabetic patients with bacteremia and septicemia admitted to KAUH during a 2 years period between January 2000 through to December 2002 was carried out. A total of 4850 blood culture were submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory of KAUH over a 2 years period. Two hundred and ninety [6%] cases had positive blood cultures, 70 were diabetic patients with an incidence rate of 24% with p-value of 0.043 which is statically significant. Urinary tract infection was the most common source of bacteremia in our study group with Escherichia coli as the most frequent organism in 62%. Mortality rate was 44%. Old age was an important risk factors for high mortality with p-value 0.011, which is statically significant. Other risk factors included comorbidity associated with diabetes, septic shock mechanical ventilation and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Increase age was one of the important risk factors for high mortality rate in our study group. Good empiric antibiotics coverage should be instituted early in high risk groups


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
18.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2001; 22 (4): 326-329
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-58259

ABSTRACT

To determine the clinical characteristics, risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility in diabetics and non-diabetics admitted to King Abdulaziz University Hospital Medical Unit to decide on the use of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Significant bacteriuria from the Medical Unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 1999 to August 1999 were included in the study. Medical records were reviewed and the patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of diabetes. The following information was recorded, patients' age, sex, type of infection [community or hospital acquired], presence of dysuria, urinary catheter, intensive care unit admission, duration of hospital stay, type of organism isolated and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 182 specimens were studied, 58 [32%] were diabetics. Mean age of diabetics was 64 years versus 54 years in non-diabetics and the male:female ratio was 1:1.6 versus 1:1.1 [p0.001, 0.03]. Urinary catheters were present in 12/58 [20%] diabetics and 31/124 [25%] non-diabetics, intensive care unit admission was in 23/58 [40%] versus 38/124 [31%], and duration of hospital stay was 43 days versus 38 days [p0.6, 0.1, 0.4]. Escherichia coli was isolated in 9/50 [18%] hospital acquired infections and 4/8 [50%] community acquired infections in diabetics versus 26/106 [25%] and 8/18 [47%] in non diabetics. Pseudomonas species were isolated in 16/50 [32%] and 1/8 [13%] in diabetics and 22/106 [21%] and 0/18 in non-diabetics. Escherichia coli and pseudomonas in both groups showed resistance to ampicillin and sensitivity to aminoglycoside and ciprofloxacin. Diabetics were older with high female ratio compared to non-diabetics. Escherichia coli is the most common isolate in community and hospital acquired infections in non-diabetics, while Escherichia coli was common in community acquired infection and pseudomonas was the predominant isolate in hospital acquired infection in diabetics. Aminoglycoside and ciprofloxacin can be used empirically to treat both types of infection in diabetics and non-diabetics


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/complications
19.
Med. interna Méx ; 15(4): 138-40, jul.-ago. 1999. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-266689

ABSTRACT

Antcedentes: la diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad crónica degenerativa y una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en nuestro país. Considerada un problema serio de salud pública, es una de las principales causas de atención institucional y pérdida de calidad de vida. Las descompensaciones agudas representan alrededor de 15 por ciento de la mortalidad general de estos pacientes. Objetivo: detectar las causas del descontrol metabólico en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Material y métodos: se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de los expedientes de los pacientes que ingresaron con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus descompensada al servicio de medicina interna del Hospital General de Ticomán de enero de 1993 a junio de 1994. Resultados: en dicho periodo ingresaron 70 pacientes con estas características en quienes las infecciones fueron la principal causa de descompensación (67 pacientes, 95.7 por ciento) seguida de falta de apego al tratamiento (3 pacientes, 4.3 por ciento). Conclusión: se deben tener en cuenta las causas de descompensación para implantar medidas que eviten tales situaciones


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/complications , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Mycoses/complications , Acute Disease , Causality , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Tertiary Healthcare
20.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 1998; 19 (1): 49-52
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-49096

ABSTRACT

In this study 40 NIDDM patients [group A] and 25 IDDM patients [group B] were compared to age matched 30 non-diabetic subjects as control [group C]. All studied subjects were complaining of dyspeptic symptoms. The studied groups had their clinical background, body weight, blood sugar levels, endoscopic and histopathologic data analyzed. Helicobacter pylori was diagnosed by means of rapid urease test, histological staining for H. pylori like organism and serological assessment of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies. Results showed statistically higher prevalence of H. pylori infection as well as chronic gastritis and reflux esophagitis among diabetic groups compared to non-diabetic dyspeptic patients. This could be related to defective gastric emptying and tendency for bacterial colonization among diabetic patients. Motility studies were warranted in such cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology
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