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1.
Femina ; 49(9): 530-536, 20211030. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342322

ABSTRACT

A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é uma condição endócrina frequente em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. O quadro clínico é manifesto por anovulação crônica hiperandrogênica, acompanhada muitas vezes de infertilidade; além disso, essa condição está associada ao aumento de distúrbios do metabolismo glicídico e a diversos outros riscos em longo prazo. Uma vez gestante, a mulher portadora de SOP apresenta risco aumentado em 2,8 vezes para o diabetes gestacional, em 2,0 a 4,0 vezes para o desenvolvimento de síndromes hipertensivas da gestação e em 2,3 vezes para internação em UTI neonatal. Independentemente do excesso de peso, que é comumente associado à síndrome e que certamente potencializa o risco de complicações, a SOP por si só promove alterações que cursam com a elevação dessas complicações. Esta é uma revisão narrativa sobre as potenciais complicações gestacionais relacionadas à SOP e compila a literatura mais atual sobre o tema.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/physiopathology
2.
Revagog ; 3(3): 80-87, Jul-Sept. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343841

ABSTRACT

Caminar durante el embarazo, la actividad física preferida entre las mujeres embarazadas, tiene múltiples beneficios para la salud del binomio materno - fetal en comparación con otras modalidades de actividad física. El no requerir tanto esfuerzo, la facilidad de ejecución, posibilidad de interacción social y de integrarse de manera muy significativa en algunas actividades, como los desplazamientos y las actividades ocupacionales, cuando a las embarazadas les es imposible realizar actividad física en su tiempo libre, son algunas de las ventajas que la convierten en la elegida por la mayor parte de las embarazadas. La falta de tiempo, las molestias físicas, la fatiga o la falta de energía, son algunos de los factores que impiden caminar a las gestantes. Dados los múltiples beneficios que tiene caminar para las embarazadas, las autoridades sanitarias deberían fomentar campañas de concienciación que promovieran la importancia de la práctica de actividad física por las mujeres embarazadas, entre las cuales, debería estar muy presente caminar.


Walking during pregnancy, the preferred physical activity among pregnant women, has multiple health benefits for the maternalfetal pairing compared to other forms of physical activity. Not requiring so much effort, the ease of execution, the possibility of social interaction and of integrating in a very significant way in some activities, such as travel and occupational activities, when it is impossible for pregnant women to perform physical activity in their free time, are some of the advantages that make it the one chosen by most pregnant women. Lack of time, physical discomfort, fatigue or lack of energy are some of the factors that prevent pregnant women from walking. Given the multiple benefits that walking has for pregnant women, health authorities should promote awareness campaigns that promote the importance of practicing physical activity by pregnant women, among whom walking should be very present.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Exercise , Walking , Pregnant Women , Maternal Health , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Fetal Macrosomia/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Obstetric Labor, Premature/prevention & control
3.
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 20210430.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 13-20, ene. - abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248270

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la provincia de La Pampa no hay registro del número de pacientes con diabetes gestacional (DG) que vuelve a control metabólico posparto, cuando se conoce el riesgo que evolucione a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Objetivos: analizar en el Hospital Público Interzonal (Dr. Lucio Molas) el porcentaje de mujeres con DG que volvió a control metabólico posparto y desarrolló DM2 durante seis años de seguimiento. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo ambispectivo en 44 pacientes con DG diagnosticada en 2013 con seguimiento hasta el 31/12/2019. Se analizaron antecedentes previos de DG y familiares de diabetes (AFD), edad, semana de gestación del diagnóstico con glucemia/prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa (PTOG), índice de masa corporal (IMC), presión arterial, vía del parto, peso del recién nacido, HbA1c. Resultados: en 2013 se efectuaron 1.238 partos, 44 pacientes (3,7%) tenían DG diagnosticada, 68% mediante PTOG. Presentaban 43% AFD, 38,6% sobrepeso, 20,45% obesidad, 68,2% cesáreas y 11,4% recién nacidos con alto peso. En seis años de seguimiento, 54,5% de estas pacientes realizó control metabólico; este grupo, a diferencia del grupo sin control, presentó mayor IMC al inicio del embarazo (t:2,103; p<0,02), glucemia basal (t:10,59; p<0,001), presión arterial sistólica (t:2,629; p<0,01), diastólica (t:1,965; p<0,05) y macrosomía fetal (4 vs 1). El 33,3 % manifestó DM2 predominantemente a partir de tres años del posparto. Conclusiones: el 54,5% de las pacientes con DG concurrió a control metabólico posparto tardíamente, y el 33,3% evolucionó a DM2; incluso estas pacientes presentaron mayor número de factores de riesgo obstétricos y cardiometabólicos que el grupo sin control al inicio del embarazo.


Introduction: there is no register of the number of women with gestational diabetes (GD) that have undergone metabolic post-partum control in the province of La Pampa, even though it is well-known the increased associated risk of becoming a diabetes type 2 patient (T2DM). Objectives: to analyze at the Interzonal Public Hospital (Dr. Lucio Molas) the percentage of women with GD who returned to postpartum metabolic control and developed T2DM during six years of follow-up. Materials and methods: descriptive ambispective study in 44 patients with GD diagnosed in 2013 with follow-up until 31 December 2019. Different characteristics were analyzed in all participants: previous history of GD and family members of diabetes (FHD), age, gestational week of the diagnosis with fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, delivery route, newborn weight, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Results: a number of 1,238 of deliveries were performed in 2013, 44 women (3.7%) developed GD diagnosed by OGTT (68%), 43% presented FHD, 38.6% overweight, 20.45% obesity. Among the totality of deliveries 68.2% were by caesarea and 11.4% high birth weight newborns. In six years of follow-up, 54.5% of these patients underwent metabolic control, presenting this group, unlike the group without control, higher BMI at the beginning of pregnancy (t:2.103; p<0.02), fasting blood glucose (t:10 .59; p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (t:2.629; p<0.01), diastolic blood pressure (t; 1.965; p<0.05) and fetal macrosomia (4 vs 1). 33.3% developed T2DM predominantly from at three years postpartum. Conclusions: the present study reported that 54.5% of women with GD performed a late metabolic postpartum control evolving 33.3% developed T2DM presenting higher obstetric and cardiometabolic risk factors than the group without control at the beginning of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes, Gestational , Blood Glucose , Gestational Age , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
5.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 13(1): 21-30, Abril/2021.
Article in English | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1252689

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study's purpose is to evaluate the economic context in which the Brazilian public health system, the only universal public health system with more than 200 million users, stands out. This evaluation will be made through the lens of the execution of gestational health care services in a city of approximately 500 thousand inhabitants in southern Brazil. The care costs of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will be compared to those of patients without GDM, analyzing the different economic valuation methods. And lastly, there was an intent to explore the generated costs in the context of economic valuation applied to health to comprehend better the complexity of the union of the financial and health areas to optimize the services offered. Methods: For the economic context in health, an analysis of health investments was performed through the Transparency Portal. The costs involved in preventing GDM were raised by the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) table of procedures performed ordinarily in low-risk pregnancies. The expenses involved in DMG patients were increased at the High-Risk Pregnancy and Fetal Medicine Clinic of DMG patients. Results: Preventing GDM is more cost-effective, cost-minimizing, and cost-useful than treating patients diagnosed with GDM. Conclusion: The result is an extremely interesting costopportunity, given the economic context in which it is presented


Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o contexto econômico em que se encontra o sistema público de saúde brasileiro, único sistema público universal de saúde com mais de 200 milhões de usuários. Essa avaliação será feita sob a ótica da execução de serviços de saúde gestacional em um município de aproximadamente 500 mil habitantes no Sul do Brasil. Os custos assistenciais de pacientes com diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) serão comparados aos de pacientes sem DMG, analisando os diferentes métodos de valoração econômica. Também serão analisados os custos gerados no contexto da valoração econômica aplicada à saúde para uma melhor com preensão da complexidade da união das áreas econômica e da saúde com o objetivo de otimizar os serviços oferecidos. Métodos: Para a contextualização econômica em saúde, foi feita a análise dos investimentos em saúde pelo Portal da Transparência. Os custos envolvidos na prevenção da DMG foram levantados pela tabela de procedimentos realizados ordinariamente em gestações de baixo risco do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Os custos envolvidos em pacientes com DMG foram levantados no Ambulatório de Gestação de Alto Risco e Medicina Fetal de pacientes com DMG. Resultados: Prevenir o DMG apresenta maiores custo-benefício, custo-efetividade, custo-minimização e custo-utilidade em comparação com o tratamento das pacientes com o diagnóstico de DMG. Conclusão: O resultado é um custo-oportunidade extremamente interessante, dado o contexto econômico em que se apresenta


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Secondary Care , Diabetes, Gestational , Cost Allocation
6.
Femina ; 49(3): 177-182, 20210331.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224087

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é um distúrbio metabólico por déficit na produção e/ou ação insulínica. Tem relação direta com um constante estado catabólico associado com maior resistência à ação da insulina. Doença de difícil controle, implica risco materno-fetal elevado. O objetivo é estudar a eficácia das drogas antidiabéticas orais sobre o controle glicêmico no DMG e sua segurança quanto aos desfechos gestacionais e perinatais. Trata-se de revisão de literatura descritiva baseada em dados de artigos, livros-texto e guidelines emitidos nos últimos cinco anos. O antidiabético oral pode ser uma boa alternativa no controle do DMG em fase inicial da doença, na presença de distúrbio metabólico e como complemento da terapia com insulina. Entretanto, por causa de sua passagem placentária, há preocupações com seus efeitos fetais e perinatais. Estudos comparativos destacam a metformina no manejo do DMG, considerando principalmente a segurança materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by deficit in production and/or insulin action. It is directly related to a constant catabolic state associated with greater resistance to insulin action. Disease difficult to control, implies high maternal-fetal risk. To study the efficacy of oral antidiabetic drugs on glycemic control in GDM and its safety regarding gestational and perinatal outcomes. Descriptive literature review based on data from articles, textbooks and guidelines issued in the last five years. Oral antidiabetic can be a good alternative in the control of GDM in the initial phase of the disease, in the presence of metabolic disorder and as a complement to insulin therapy. However, there are concerns about its placental passage and perinatal effects. Comparative studies highlight metformin in the management of DMG considering mainly maternal-fetal safety.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
7.
Femina ; 49(1): 44-51, 20210131. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146937

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetiva avaliar a relação dos níveis de vitamina D em gestantes com as principais complicações gestacionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e BIREME, sendo selecionados artigos relevantes publicados de 2013 a 2018, usando os descritores: "vitamin D" AND "maternity" OR "pregnancy". Foram revisados 14 estudos observacionais incluindo casos-controles e coortes que investigaram a relação dos níveis de vitamina D maternos com pré-eclâmpsia, diabetes mellitus gestacional e prematuridade, sendo excluídos os estudos que utilizaram suplementação de vitamina D. Os dados foram extraídos por meio de uma tabulação com as seguintes informações: autor, ano da publicação, país do estudo, score obtido no downs and black, ano da coleta da amostra, tipo do estudo, número de participantes, método de obtenção da amostra de 25(OH)D, tempo da gestação na obtenção da amostra, complicação obstétrica, fatores de confusão ajustados e os principais desfechos. Foi obtido um total de 32.505 pacientes após a soma das amostras de todos os artigos analisados. O principal resultado encontrado, abrangendo as três comorbidades analisadas, relaciona níveis menores que 30 nmol/L de vitamina D como potencial fator de risco para pré-eclâmpsia, diabetes mellitus gestacional e prematuridade.(AU)


The study aims to assess the relationship between vitamin D levels in pregnant women and the main gestational complications. The research was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS and BIREME databases, with the selection of relevant articles published from 2013 to 2018, using the descriptors: "vitamin D" AND "maternity" OR "pregnancy". 14 observational studies were reviewed including control cases and cohorts that investigated the relationship between maternal vitamin D levels and pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and prematurity, and studies that used vitamin D supplementation were excluded. Data were extracted using a tabulation with the following information: author, year of publication, country of study, score obtained in downs and black, year of sample collection, type of study, number of participants, method of obtaining the sample of 25(OH)D, time of pregnancy in obtaining the sample, obstetric complication, adjusted confounding factors and the main outcomes. A total of 32,505 patients were obtained after adding the samples of all analyzed articles. The main result found, covering the three comorbidities analyzed, lists levels below 30 nmol/L of vitamin D as a potential risk factor for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and prematurity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Diabetes, Gestational/physiopathology , Premature Birth/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878728

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)can cause blood glucose disorders in pregnant women and result in adverse maternal-neonatal outcomes.Vitamin D(VD)can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity,and thus theoretically,VD supplementation during pregnancy could improve glycemic control as well as maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.Although studies have shown that VD deficiency is associated with poor maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients,no solid conclusion has been drawn with regard to the effects of VD supplementation on these patients.Therefore,here we summarized the research progress of the effects of VD supplementation on glycemic control and adverse maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients,in an effort to guide the clinical VD supplementation during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Vitamin D
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878703

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipid profiles and neonatal prognosis in gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)patients.Methods The electronic databases including PubMed,Web of Science,Embase,CNKI,and Wanfang Data were searched from inception to February 1,2020.All randomized controlled trials that compared vitamin D supplementation with placebo or without supplementation for GDM women were included.Paper selection,data extraction,meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted independently by two authors.Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.The data were analyzed in RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12.0.Results Totally 17 randomized controlled trials involving 1432 patients(704 in the intervention group and 728 in the control group)were included in the meta-analysis.The results showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol [MD=-6.11,95% CI=(-7.17,-5.04)],low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=-10.80,95% CI=(-14.72,-6.89)],and triglyceride [MD=-8.11,95% CI=(-10.09,-6.13)],while significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level [MD=45.45,95% CI=(41.98,48.92)] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=2.77,95% CI=(1.59,3.96)].In addition,vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the incidence rate of hyperbilirubinemia [RR=0.49,95% CI=(0.35,0.68)],premature birth [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.27,0.72)],and neonatal hospitalization [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.29,0.67)].Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation may regulate the serum lipid profiles in patients with GDM and reduce the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes.More high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm the findings in our study.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D , Vitamins
10.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 75-79, 2021.
Article in Fijian | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877167

ABSTRACT

@#Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence rate of 'refer' result in neonates born to diabetic mothers and to determine the association of maternal diabetes and the initial 'refer' result. Methods. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study which included neonates who had hearing screening test using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions test (TEOAE) on both ears at the Philippine General Hospital Ear unit during three weeks. We obtained the demographic characteristics, presence/absence of maternal diabetes, and OAE results. Results. Among the 150 neonates, ten were born to diabetic mothers, with an age range of 2-8 days old. Forty percent of neonates of diabetic mothers had an initial 'refer' result compared with 7.9% of nondiabetic mothers' neonates. After logistic regression analysis, there is a significant association between maternal diabetes and initial 'refer' result in OAE with a p-value <0.05. If the mother is diagnosed with diabetes (gestational/pre-gestational), the odds of having an initial 'refer' result in the hearing screening is 2x higher. The odds can range from 2-43 times. Conclusion. The incidence rate of an initial 'refer' result in neonates of diabetic mothers is 40%. There is a significant association between maternal diabetes and the initial 'refer' result in the OAE test.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Mothers , Diabetes, Gestational , Hearing Loss , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Hearing
11.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 7-12, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1281052

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la programación fetal ofrece nuevas perspectivas sobre el origen de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, relacionando su aparición con factores perinatales. Objetivo: exponer evidencia que vincule las alteraciones gestacionales con las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto. Metodología: búsqueda en las bases de datos EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST y SciELO de los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales en inglés publicados en los últimos diez años. Se utilizaron términos MeSH para búsqueda controlada y se evaluaron los estudios con STROBE y PRISMA según correspondía. Resultados: los hallazgos sugieren que nacer con menos de 2600 k guarda relación con diabetes mellitus (OR de 1.607 IC 95% 1.324-1.951), hipertensión arterial (OR de 1.15 IC 95% 1.043-1.288) y menor función endotelial (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) en la adultez. La prematuridad se asocia con mayores presiones arteriales sistólicas (4.2 mmHg IC 95%; 2.8 - 5.7 p 0.001) y diastólicas (2.6 mmHg IC 95%; 1.2-4.0; p 0.001). Las alteraciones nutricionales maternas y la diabetes gestacional aumentan el riesgo de síndrome metabólico (OR 1.2 IC 95% 0.9-1.7) y sobrepeso en la edad escolar (OR 1.81 IC 95% 1.18 - 2.86). Conclusión: los resultados adversos en la gestación están relacionados con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto expuesto.


Introduction: fetal programming offers new perspectives on the origin of cardiovascular diseases, relating their appearance with perinatal factors. Objective: to show the evidence associating gestational alterations with cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in adult life. Methodology: an EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and SciELO databases search of original review and research articles published in English in the last ten years was conducted. MeSH terms were used to perform a controlled search. The studies were analyzed accordingly using the STROBE and PRISMA reporting guidelines. Results:The findings suggest that a birth weight of less than 2600 kg is related with diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.324 to 1.951), hypertension (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.043 to 1.288) and impaired endothelial function (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) in adulthood. Prematurity is related with higher systolic blood pressure (4.2 mmHg 95% CI; 2.8 to 5.7 p 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (2.6 mmHg 95% CI; 1.2 to 4.0; p 0.001). Maternal nutritional alterations and gestational diabetes increase the risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.2 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) and overweight in school-age (OR = 1.81 95% CI 1.18 to 2.86). Conclusion: adverse results during pregnancy are related with the development of cardiovascular diseases in the exposed fetus in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Fetal Development , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Birth Weight , Nutritional Status , Diabetes, Gestational , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Obstetric Labor, Premature
12.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 134-146, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353050

ABSTRACT

El Hospital Nacional Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas (hospital de segundo nivel de atención), sirve como centro de atención para embarazos de alto riesgo de la zona noroccidental de Honduras; reportó 1,702 casos de trastor-nos hipertensivos del embarazo en 2017 y 2,070 casos en 2018. Se caracterizó pacientes con signos y síntomas de trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo agrupadas desde un punto de vista obstétrico, epidemiológico y clínico. Se realizó un estudio, descriptivo de corte transversal en gestantes que presentaron cefalea, cifras tensionales elevadas (≥ 140/90mmHg); registrando ausencia o presencia de proteinuria, atendidas en la emergencia de labor y parto de un hospital nacional de segundo nivel de atención en San Pedro Sula, Honduras, desde junio hasta octubre del 2019. Se incluyeron 110 pacientes de entre 18-43 años, mestizas y amas de casa, la edad gestacional promedio por fecha de ultima menstruación de 37.7 semanas; el 28.2% presentó preeclampsia severa. Las manifestaciones clínicas frecuentes fueron edema de miembros inferiores y cefalea. El 57.3% desarrolló trabajo de parto espontá-neo, la resolución del embarazo fue cesárea en el 57.3% de las gestantes. Respecto al producto de la concepción, 66.4% tenían peso normal y talla apropiada para la edad gestacional, un APGAR de 8 al primer minuto y de 9 a los 5 minutos. En este estudio, se reporta una prevalencia del 13.72% con respecto a los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo. Particularmente en pacientes mayores de 35 años, multípara, con índice de masa corporal ≥ 32 kg/m2, presentando antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus y preeclampsia.


The National Hospital Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas (second-level care hospital), serves as a care center for high-risk pregnancies in the northwestern part of Honduras; it reported 1,702 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in 2017 and 2,070 cases in 2018. Patients with signs and symptoms of hypertensive disorders of preg-nancy were characterized grouped from an obstetric, epidemiological and clinical point of view. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in pregnant women who presented headache, high blood pressure (≥ 140 / 90mmHg); registering the absence or presence of proteinuria in urine, attended in the labor and delivery emer-gency of a national hospital of second level of care in San Pedro Sula, Honduras; from June to October 2019. 110 patients between 18-43 years old, mixed race and housewives were included, the average gestational age by date of last menstruation of 37.7 weeks, 28.2% presented severe preeclampsia. The frequent clinical manifestations were lower limb edema and headache. 57.3% developed spontaneous labor, the pregnancy termination route was cesarean section in 57.3% of pregnant women. Regarding the product of conception, 69.1% had weight and height appropriate for gestational age, an APGAR of 8 at the first minute and of 9 at 5 minutes. In this study, a prevalence of 13.72% is reported with respect to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Particularly in patients older than 35 years, multiparous, with a body mass index ≥ 32 kg / m2, presenting a history of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Cesarean Section/methods , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Natural Childbirth , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Proteinuria/complications , Infant, Newborn/growth & development , Labor, Obstetric , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Honduras
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281092

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incidencia de macrosomía está entre 4,7 a 16,4%. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en el 2012 refiere que el 6.7% de los recién nacidos en el mundo presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. En el 2014 reportó que en las regiones de Sudamérica el 7,6% de los recién nacidos nacieron con sobrepeso. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico de casos y controles. El método de muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población accesible son pacientes que dieron a luz a recién nacidos macrosómicos en la Cátedra y Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital de Clínicas. Los casos son pacientes con ecografía obstétrica del tercer trimestre que dieron a luz a recién nacido único, vivo o muerto, mayor a 37 semanas por Capurro, con peso al nacer mayor o igual a 4000 gramos en la Cátedra y Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital de Clínicas - San Lorenzo, del 1 de enero a 31 de diciembre de 2017. Resultados: Con diferencia significativa (p<0,05) el estudio manifiesta oportunidad a las cesáreas con 64 (84,21%) como vía de terminación del embarazo, siendo 5,77 veces mayor en las gestaciones con feto macrosómico. Las lesiones del canal del parto se reportaron 8 (10,53%) en los partos de recién nacidos macrosómico y 46 (30,26%) en los controles, representando diferencia significativa. Conclusión: los factores de riesgo materno asociados con macrosomía fetal son: la macrosomía anterior, la obesidad materna pregestacional, la hipertensión inducida por el embarazo, un aumento de ponderal > 15 kg durante la gestación. La mayoría de las mujeres estudiadas fueron de procedencia urbana, en unión libre, amas de casas y con escolaridad secundaria, pero no resultaron ser factores de riesgos de recién nacidos macrosómicos. No se encontró asociación entre macrosomía fetal y diabetes gestacional.


Introduction: The incidence of macrosomia is between 4.7 to 16.4%. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2012 refers that 6.7% of newborns in the world were overweight or obese.9 In 2014 it reported that in the regions of South America 7.6% of newborns were born with overweight. Materials and methods: Observational, analytical study of cases and controls. The non-probability sampling method of consecutive cases. The accessible population are patients who gave birth to macrosomic newborns in the Department and Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Hospital de Clínicas. The cases are patients with obstetric ultrasound of the third trimester who gave birth to a single newborn, alive or dead, greater than 37 weeks per Capurro, with a birth weight greater than or equal to 4000 grams in the Department and Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Hospital de Clínicas - San Lorenzo, from January 1 to December 31, 2017. Results: With a significant difference (p <0.05), the study shows an opportunity for cesarean sections with 64 (84.21%) as the means of termination of pregnancy, being 5.77 times higher in pregnancies with a macrosomic fetus. Injuries to the birth canal were reported in 8 (10.53%) in macrosomic newborn deliveries and 46 (30.26%) in controls, representing a significant difference. Conclusion: maternal risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia are: anterior macrosomia, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and a weight gain> 15 kg during pregnancy. Most of the women studied were of urban origin, in common union, housewives and with secondary schooling, but they did not turn out to be risk factors for macrosomic newborns. No association was found between fetal macrosomia and gestational diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Diabetes, Gestational , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Hypertension , Obesity , Weight Gain , Incidence , Risk Factors , Gynecology
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 685-695, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250292

ABSTRACT

Resumen La diabetes durante el embarazo se asocia a un mayor riesgo perinatológico para los niños. Este puede reducirse significativamente con un control glucémico adecuado en estadios tempranos de la gestación. En la última década nuevos estudios han mostrado los efectos deletéreos de la diabetes materna en la salud de los hijos a largo plazo, como las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo y los efectos sobre el pronóstico educacional y ocupacional. Las mismas pueden ser clasificadas, desde el punto de vista clínico-diagnóstico en tres grupos principales: trastornos del aprendizaje y del desarrollo intelectual, trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad y trastornos del espectro autista. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una actualización no sistemática de la evidencia más reciente en el tema y comprender los mecanismos subyacentes que provocan el daño, con el fin de desarrollar estrategias preventivas.


Abstract Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on offspring perinatal outcomes. These could be reduced significantly with an adequate glycemic control in early stages of gestation. In the last decade, new studies have shown the effects of maternal diabetes in the long-term health of the offspring, like impaired neurodevelopment and its impact on educational and occupational outcome. This can be classified, from the clinical and diagnostic perspective, in three main groups: learning and cognitive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders. This paper has the objective to give a non-systematic upgrade of the current evidence on the subject, and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes which in turn may lead to strategies for its prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/etiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder
15.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 52-66, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119327

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se ha observado un incremento en el diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional (DG) en mujeres embarazadas a nivel mundial durante los últimos años, siendo la prevalencia estimada de 14% a nivel global y de 10,36% en Argentina según el criterio diagnóstico de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (ALAD). El plan de alimentación adecuado y el cambio en el estilo de vida asociados al automonitoreo de la glucemia capilar (AMGC) constituyen pilares fundamentales para alcanzar el objetivo glucémico en dos tercios de los casos de DG. A pesar de su importancia y de su recomendación en la práctica clínica, existe información científica limitada respecto de cuál es la prescripción alimentaria óptima para mejorar los resultados tanto en la madre como en el niño. Objetivos: analizar el componente nutricional en el tratamiento de la mujer embarazada con diabetes y conocer cuáles podrían ser las recomendaciones para lograr los objetivos mencionados a través del análisis de la evidencia científica actual. La información proveniente de estudios randomizados y controlados es heterogénea, pero de dichos estudios surge que la intervención temprana con dieta, ejercicio y consejos sobre cambios de estilo de vida durante el primer trimestre o al inicio del segundo puede disminuir el riesgo de DG. El tratamiento médico nutricional en DG se basa en el control de la cantidad y la distribución de los hidratos de carbono para obtener el control glucémico óptimo sin hipoglucemias ni cetosis. El otro componente esencial es la ingesta calórica para la adecuada ganancia de peso. Conclusiones: dada la creciente prevalencia de exceso de peso en la población general y en especial en las mujeres en edad fértil, deberían realizarse estudios donde ponderar la intervención con cambios del estilo de vida (dieta y actividad física) en este particular sector poblacional. Deberían elaborarse guías basadas en la evidencia donde se evalúe el impacto de los componentes de la dieta e ingesta calórica total como factores para mejorar los resultados materno-feto-neonatales


Introduction: in recent years, there has been a worldwide increase in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GD) in pregnant women, with the estimated prevalence of GD being 14% globally and 10,36% in Argentina according to the Latin American Diabetes Association (LADA) diagnostic criteria. An adequate dietary plan in association with a healthy lifestyle change and glucose self-monitoring, are the cornerstones to achieve the glycemic goal in two thirds of GD cases. Despite its importance and being broadly advised in clinical practice, there is limited scientific information regarding the optimal dietary prescription to improve results for both mother and child. Objectives: to analyze the nutritional aspects of the treatment of GD and to investigate what the recommendations would be to achieve the aforesaid outcomes, through the analysis of current scientific evidence. Although there is heterogenous evidence from randomized controlled trials, it comes out from these studies that early intervention with diet, exercise and advice on healthy lifestyle during the first trimester or early in the second trimester, may decrease the risk of GD. Nutritional treatment in GD is based on the control of the quantity and distribution of carbohydrates to attain optimal glycemic control without hypoglycemia or ketosis. Caloric intake is as well important for proper weight gain. Conclusions: given the increasing prevalence of excess weight in the general population and especially in women of childbearing age, clinical trials should be carried out to study the results of interventions with lifestyle changes (diet and physical activity) in this special population. Evidence-based guidelines should be developed evaluating the impact of diet components and total caloric intake as factors to improve maternal-fetus-neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Therapeutics , Blood Glucose , Pregnant Women , Diet , Glucose
16.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 408-419, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138639

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares representan la mayor causa de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. Si bien presenta un descenso en la población general, en las mujeres tiende a mantenerse estable la prevalencia de enfermedad coronaria. Varios factores propios de la mujer predisponen a que esto ocurra, incluyendo el embarazo, mediado tanto por los cambios hematológicos y cardiovasculares característicos de la gestación; como por patologías asociadas, principalmente trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo y diabetes gestacional. Su presencia se ha asociado fuertemente a la aparición a futuro de otras patologías de alto riesgo cardiovascular como hipertensión crónica, dislipidemia y diabetes mellitus. Dado el impacto que esto representa, se hace imperante la identificación de grupos de alto riesgo y la implementación de medidas preventivas, así como de diagnóstico precoz y tratamientos adecuados con el fin de disminuir complicaciones materno-fetales en las etapas perinatal y posparto.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although there is a decrease in general population, the prevalence of coronary heart disease remains stable in women. Several factors typical of womenkind predispose to cardiovascular disease, including pregnancy, mediated by hematological and cardiovascular changes characteristic of it; and by associated pathologies, mainly hypertensive disorders and diabetes. The presence of these diseases has been strongly associated with future presence of other conditions of high cardiovascular risk such as chronic hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Given this impact, the identification of high-risk groups and the implementation of preventive measures, as well as early diagnosis and adequate treatment in order to reduce both maternal and fetal complications in perinatal and postpartum stages becomes imperative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Diabetes, Gestational , Hypertension/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Metabolic Diseases
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 210-220, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126156

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: determinar el perfil clínico de pacientes con diabetes gestacional (DG) y la incidencia de las complicaciones neonatales. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva de gestantes con DG según criterios HAPO/ (IADPSG) International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups y Carpenter-Coustan y sus hijos, en un servicio de alta complejidad obstétrica de Medellín, Colombia entre 2012-2015. Se presentan medidas descriptivas de características maternas y neonatales e incidencia de las complicaciones neonatales. RESULTADOS: se incluyeron 197 maternas y 203 neonatos; 90,5 % maternas tenían sobrepeso u obesidad; la comorbilidad más frecuente fue el trastorno hipertensivo asociado al embarazo en 22,8 %. El manejo de la DG fue 59,3% nutricional exclusivo, 37,1% nutricional más insulina y 3.6% nutricional más metformina. La media de edad gestacional al parto fue 37 sem y 3 días; la DG fue la indicación más frecuente de inducción del parto en 76 % (38/50); 56,4 %, fueron partos vaginales y el 34,6% fueron cesáreas indicadas por DG. Un 11,3 % de los recién nacidos fueron grandes para la edad gestacional (P >90) y se encontraron 2 recién nacidos con peso > 4000 gr. La incidencia de al menos una complicación neonatal fue 27,6 %, 16,7 % presentaron hiperbilirrubinemia, 9,9 % síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR), 3.0% hipoglicemia, 10.8% otras complicaciones y 12,3 % ingresaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales. CONCLUSIONES: la DG es una indicación frecuente de inducción del parto y de indicación de cesárea. Las complicaciones neonatales ocurren en uno de cuatro recién nacidos, aunque observamos una baja incidencia de grandes para la edad gestacional (recién nacidos con peso > percentil 90), hubo 2 otras morbilidades neonatales relacionados con el diagnóstico materno como hiperbilirrubinemia y SDR.


AIM: To determine the clinical profile pregnant women with gestational diabetes and incidence of the neonatal complications. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of a retrospective cohort of pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GD) according to HAPO and Carpenter-Coustan criteria and their children, under a high complexity obstetric service in Medellin, Colombia between 2012-2015. Descriptive measures of maternal and neonatal characteristics and incidence of neonatal complications are presented. RESULTS: The study included 197 pregnant women and 203 neonates: 90.5 % of pregnancies were overweight or obese; the most frequent comorbidity was the hypertensive disorder associated with pregnancy in 22.8 %. The management of the DG was 99.0% nutritional, 37.1% insulin and 3.6 % metformin. The average gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks and 3 days; DG was the most frequent indication of induction of labor in 76 % (38/50); 56.4% were vaginal deliveries and 34.6 % were DG related caesarean sections, 11.3 % of newborns were large for gestational age (P > 90) and two newborns weighing > 4000 gr. The incidence of at least one neonatal complication was 27.6 %, 16.7 % had hyperbilirubinemia, 9.9 % respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 3.0 % hypoglycemia, 10.8 % other complications and 12.3 % were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: DG is a frequent indication of induction of labor and indication of caesarean section. Neonatal complications occur in one of four newborns, although we observed a low incidence of macrosomia, there were other neonatal morbidities related to maternal diagnosis such as hyperbilirubinemia and RDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Fetal Macrosomia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Cesarean Section , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal/epidemiology , Overweight , Hypoglycemia , Labor, Induced
18.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(1): 7-16, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: identify the action of metformin and physical activities to reduce weight gain and prevent mellitus diabetes in obese pregnant women. Methods: the electronic search was performed in PubMed / MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane library databases between 2008 and 2018. The selection took place between April and July 2018, through the descriptors "pregnancy, obesity, metformin, treatment, exercise". A protocol was programmed and consecutively a selective research on the inclusion / exclusion phase. The "PICO" strategy was used. Population: obese pregnant women. Intervention: physical exercises and metformin. Control: The main indicator established was therapeutic outcomes with physical activity and metformin. Outcome of interest: body weight control. Results: by selecting the database, 3,983 articles were identified on the topic of interest. After selecting and eligibility, only 16 scientific studies were selected, of which 81.25% were clinical trials related to diet programs, physical activity, metformin use and possible outcomes, 18.75% were prospective cohort on causes of obesity in gestation and its association with gestational mellitus diabetes and preventive therapies. The study pointed out the possibility of adapting physical therapy programs with the correct metformin dosage for a greater control in gestational weight gain. However, there is a need for greater awareness and changes in habits for obese woman during the gestational period. Conclusions: the drug presents similarity to physical activity by activating AMPK and may be added to treatments that propose changes in pregnant women's lifestyle to reduce weight gain and prevent gestational diabetes mellitus with a better understanding of the optimal dosage. Thus, the study suggests the use of metformin is not only for the prevention and the intercurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus, but a strictly careful investigation allowing its use to non-diabetic obese pregnant women.


Resumo Objetivos: identificar a ação da metformina e da atividade física para redução do ganho de peso e prevenção do diabetes mellitus em gestantes obesas. Métodos: a busca eletrônica foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus e biblioteca Cochrane entre 2008 e 2018. A seleção ocorreu entre abril e julho de 2018, através dos descritores "gravidez, obesidade, metformina, tratamento, exercício". Programou-se um protocolo e consecutivamente uma etapa seletiva de inclusão/exclusão das pesquisas. Utilizou-se a estratégia "PICO". População: gestantes obesas. Intervenção: exercícios fisicos e metformina. Controle: o principal comparador estabelecido foi o desfecho terapêutico com atividade fisica e metformina. Desfecho de interesse: controle do peso corporal. Resultados: através da seleção do banco de dados, 3.983 artigos foram identificados sobre o tema de interesse. Após as etapas de seleção e elegibilidade, apenas 16 estudos científicos foram selecionados, dos quais 81,25% ensaios clinicos referentes aos programas de dieta, atividade física, uso da metformina e possíveis desfechos, 18,75% coorte prospectiva sobre as causas da obesidade na gestação e sua associação com o diabetes mellitus gestacional e terapêutica preventiva. O estudo apontou a possibilidade de se adequar programas de terapias físicas com a dosagem correta de metformina para um maior controle no ganho de peso gestacional. No entanto, existe a necessidade de uma maior concientização e mudanças de hábitos da mulher obesa durante o período gestacional. Conclusões: a droga apresenta semelhança com a atividade física ao ativar o AMPK e pode somar aos tratamentos que propõem mudanças no estilo de vida das gestantes para reduzir o ganho de peso e prevenir o diabetes mellitus gestacional com a necessidade de um melhor entendimento sobre a dosagem ideal. Desta forma, o estudo sugere que o uso da metformina não seja apenas para prevenção e intercorrências do DMG, mas também com uma investigação estritamente cuidadosa para possibilitar o seu uso em grávidas obesas não diabéticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Exercise , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Gestational Weight Gain , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/therapeutic use
19.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(1): 192-197, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091085

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La obesidad en las gestantes es una enfermedad compleja que puede condicionar trastornos metabólicos posteriores; sin embargo, la elevación del contenido adiposo en el organismo también puede ocurrir en gestantes de peso corporal normal. El objetivo de esta comunicación fue reflexionar sobre los peligros de la epidemia del trinomio obesidad, resistencia a la insulina y diabetes tipo 2, para las nuevas generaciones y la salud pública en general. Se analizaron los efectos del exceso de adiposidad de las gestantes, por intermedio de los cambios en el transporte de la placenta en la «reprogramación¼ del metabolismo energético celular, y su incidencia sobre diferentes tejidos, que pueden provocar insulinorresistencia y diabetes tipo 2. Se concluyó que la toma de conciencia del peligro que representa la obesidad, aun cuando esta sea solapada, demanda la estratificación de su riesgo basado en la adiposidad más que en el peso corporal de las pacientes.


ABSTRACT Obesity in pregnant women is a complex disease that can lead to further metabolic disorders; however increased adipose tissue can also occur in pregnant women of normal body weight. The objective of this communication was to reflect on the dangers of the obesity trinomial epidemic, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, for new generations and public health in general. The effects of excess adiposity in pregnant women were analyzed, through the changes in placental transport in the "reprogramming" of cellular energy metabolism, and its incidence on different tissues, which can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We concluded that the awareness of the danger posed by obesity, even when it is overlapping, demands the stratification of its risk based on adiposity rather than body weight of patients.


Subject(s)
Insulin Resistance , Diabetes, Gestational , Gestational Weight Gain
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 139-145, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136181

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate two different criteria, one or two cut-off values, of oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 120 records of pregnant women who received prenatal care at the service of a Brazilian university was carried out. Bivariate analysis of obstetric and perinatal outcomes was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS Considering criterion I, 12.5% of patients were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients were 3.57 times more likely to have a large fetus for the gestational age at birth (p=0.038). Using criterion II, gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 5.8% of patients, macrosomia was 7.73 times more likely to be found in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and a large fetus for the gestational age at birth was 8.17 times more likely (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS There was a difference in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus between the two criteria analyzed. The new criterion proposed increased prevalence.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar dois critérios distintos, um ou dois valores de corte, do teste oral de tolerância à glicose com 75 g de glicose para o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional. Métodos Estudo transversal envolvendo 120 prontuários de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em um ambulatório de uma universidade brasileira. Análise bivariada dos resultados obstétricos e perinatais foi realizada pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Considerando o critério I, 12,5% das pacientes foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. As pacientes apresentaram uma chance 3,57 maior de ter um feto grande para a idade gestacional (p=0,038). Utilizando o critério II, o diabetes mellitus gestacional foi diagnosticado em 5,8% das pacientes. Mediante esse critério diagnóstico, a chance de macrossomia foi 7,73 vezes mais provável na presença de diabetes mellitus gestacional (p=0,004) e a chance de um feto grande para a idade gestacional foi 8,17 vezes maior de ocorrer (p=0,004). Conclusões Observou-se diferença na prevalência de diabetes melittus gestacional entre os dois critérios analisados, sendo que o novo critério proposto aumentou a prevalência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test/standards , Prenatal Care/methods , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods
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