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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888510

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain and blood lipid level during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). A total of 12 650 singleton pregnant women without history of hypertension and diabetes who were admitted at Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine for delivery from January 2018 to April 2019 were enrolled in the study. There were 2381 cases complicated with gestational diabetes (GDM group) and 10 269 cases without GDM (non-GDM group). The pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy were documented in two groups. The factors related to perinatal outcome were analyzed. In both GDM and non-GDM pregnant women, pre-pregnancy overweight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were independent factors of large for gestational age infant (LGA), small for gestational age infant (SGA) and first cesarean section (<0.01 or <0.05). Excessive weight gain during pregnancy was also an independent risk factor of preeclampsia (<0.05). Triglyceride levels in the second trimester were independently associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as LGA, preeclampsia, initial cesarean delivery, premature delivery. Controlling excessive or insufficient weight gain during pregnancy can significantly reduce the incidence of LGA and SGA. And controlling BMI before pregnancy can effectively reduce the incidence of LGA, preeclampsia and the first cesarean section. For non-GDM pregnant women, abnormal blood lipid levels in the second trimester may be closely related to multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, and active dietary guidance or treatment is also required.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cesarean Section , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lipids , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Weight Gain
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888502

ABSTRACT

To explore the correlation of mid-term oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and maternal weight gain with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 2611 pregnant women with GDM who were examined and delivered in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 1st 2017 to 30th June 2018 were enrolled in this study. According to the number of abnormal items of mid-term OGTT results or maternal gestational weight gain (GWG), patients were classified. The incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes in each group and its relation with OGTT results and GWG were analyzed. The incidence of gestational hypertension, premature delivery, macrosomia and large for gestational age infant (LGA) in three abnormal items GDM patients were significantly higher than those in one or two abnormal items GDM patients (all <0.017). The incidence of gestational hypertension and premature delivery in two abnormal items GDM patients were higher than those in one abnormal item GDM patients (all <0.017). The incidence of gestational hypertension and macrosomia in excessive GWG patients were significantly higher than those in inadequate and appropriate GWG patients (all <0.017), and the incidence of LGA were higher than that in inadequate GWG patients (all <0.017). The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight infants in appropriate GWG patients were significantly lower than those in inadequate and excessive GWG patients, and the incidence of small for gestational age infant (SGA) were significantly lower than that in inadequate GWG patients (all <0.017). In one abnormal item GDM patients, inadequate GWG was a risk factor for premature delivery and SGA (=1.66, 95%: 1.10-2.52; =2.20, 95%: 1.07-4.53), and protective factor for LGA (=0.40, 95%: 0.27-0.59). And excessive GWG was a risk factor for gestational hypertension, premature delivery and low birth weight infants (=2.15, 95%: 1.35-3.41; =1.80, 95%: 1.20-2.72; =2.18, 95%: 1.10-4.30).In two abnormal items GDM patients, inadequate GWG was a protective factor for macrosomia and LGA (=0.24, 95%: 0.09-0.67; =0.54, 95%: 0.34-0.86), while excessive GWG was risk factor for premature delivery (=1.98, 95%: 1.23-3.18).In three abnormal items GDM patients, there was no significant relationship between GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. For GDM women with one or two items of elevated blood glucose in OGTT, reasonable weight management during pregnancy can reduce the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. For those with three items of elevated blood glucose in OGTT, more strict blood glucose monitoring and active intervention measures should be taken in addition to weight management during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Body Mass Index , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Weight Gain , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
3.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(2): e1080, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138959

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes gestacional constituye la enfermedad endocrina más frecuente del embarazo y aparece generalmente cuando existen factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Describir los factores de riesgo de la diabetes gestacional. Métodos: Estudio transversal-descriptivo de una base de datos que incluyó a 242 mujeres con diabetes gestacional, atendidas en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico América Arias de La Habana, en el periodo 2004-2006. Se analizaron variables categóricas (dicotómicas), consideradas como factores de riesgo de diabetes gestacional: diabetes en familiar de primer grado, edad ≥ 30 años, peso pregestacional excesivo, historia de diabetes gestacional, macrosomía fetal y muerte fetal inexplicable, hipertensión arterial relacionada con embarazo y glucemia en ayunas de riesgo . Se efectuó análisis porcentual (determinación de frecuencias relativas). Resultados: La media de edad fue 29,2 ± 5,3 años y de índice de masa corporal, 27,1 ± 4,2 kg/m2. Un 96,69 por ciento tenía factores de riesgo y 79,49 por ciento de estas, más de uno, los más frecuentes fueron: glucemia en ayunas de riesgo (64,53 por ciento), edad; 30 años (60,26 por ciento) y peso pregestacional excesivo (51,71 por ciento). Predominó la forma combinada de presentación de factores de riesgo, en forma única solo se presentó: glucemia en ayunas de riesgo (14,57 por ciento), diabetes en familiar de primer grado (8,43 por ciento), edad 30 años (7,80 por ciento) y peso pregestacional excesivo (5,79 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo de diabetes gestacional se presentaron en la mayoría de las mujeres con la enfermedad, fundamentalmente de forma combinada(AU)


Introduction: Gestational diabetes is the most frequent endocrine disease of pregnancy and generally appears when there are risk factors. Objective: To describe the risk factors for gestational diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study of a database that included 242 women with gestational diabetes, treated at América Arias Gyneco-obstetric Hospital in Havana, in the period 2004-2006. Categorical (dichotomous) variables were analyzed, considered as risk factors for gestational diabetes: diabetes in a first-degree relative, age equal to or over 30 years, excessive pre-pregnancy weight, clinical history of gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia and unexplained fetal death, pregnancy-related high blood pressure, and at-risk fasting blood glucose. Percentage analysis (determination of relative frequencies) was carried out. Results: The mean age was 29.2±5.3 years. The mean body mass index was 27.1±4.2 kg/m2. 96.69 percent had risk factors; 79.49 percent of these had more than one risk factor. The most frequent were at-risk fasting blood glucose (64.53 percent), age equal to or over 30 years (60.26 percent), and excessive pre-pregnancy weight (51.71 percent). There was a predominance in manifestation of combined risk factors; manifestation of one risk factor alone occurred only in at-risk fasting blood glucose (14.57 percent), diabetes in first-degree relative (8.43 percent), age equal to o over 30 years (7, 80 percent), and excessive pre-pregnancy weight (5.79 percent). Conclusions: The risk factors for gestational diabetes appeared in the majority of women with the disease, mainly in combination(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 139-145, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136181

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate two different criteria, one or two cut-off values, of oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 120 records of pregnant women who received prenatal care at the service of a Brazilian university was carried out. Bivariate analysis of obstetric and perinatal outcomes was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS Considering criterion I, 12.5% of patients were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients were 3.57 times more likely to have a large fetus for the gestational age at birth (p=0.038). Using criterion II, gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 5.8% of patients, macrosomia was 7.73 times more likely to be found in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and a large fetus for the gestational age at birth was 8.17 times more likely (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS There was a difference in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus between the two criteria analyzed. The new criterion proposed increased prevalence.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar dois critérios distintos, um ou dois valores de corte, do teste oral de tolerância à glicose com 75 g de glicose para o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional. Métodos Estudo transversal envolvendo 120 prontuários de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em um ambulatório de uma universidade brasileira. Análise bivariada dos resultados obstétricos e perinatais foi realizada pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Considerando o critério I, 12,5% das pacientes foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. As pacientes apresentaram uma chance 3,57 maior de ter um feto grande para a idade gestacional (p=0,038). Utilizando o critério II, o diabetes mellitus gestacional foi diagnosticado em 5,8% das pacientes. Mediante esse critério diagnóstico, a chance de macrossomia foi 7,73 vezes mais provável na presença de diabetes mellitus gestacional (p=0,004) e a chance de um feto grande para a idade gestacional foi 8,17 vezes maior de ocorrer (p=0,004). Conclusões Observou-se diferença na prevalência de diabetes melittus gestacional entre os dois critérios analisados, sendo que o novo critério proposto aumentou a prevalência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test/standards , Prenatal Care/methods , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(1): 12-18, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092630

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and the main associated risk factors in the population served by the Brazilian Unified Health System in the city of Caxias do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Materials and Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted. Maternal variables were collected from the medical records of all pregnant women treated at the basic health units in 2016. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy (pregestational diabetes, overt diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus) was identified by analyzing the results of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, as recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Based on the data, the women were allocated into two groups: the gestational diabetes group and the no gestational diabetes group. Results The estimated prevalence of gestational diabetes among 2,313 pregnant women was of 5.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 4.56-6.45). Pregnant women with 3 or more pregnancies had twice the odds of having gestational diabetes compared with primiparous women (odds ratio [OR]=2.19; 95%CI: 1.42-3.37; p<0.001). Pregnant women aged 35 years or older had three times the odds of having gestational diabetes when compared with younger women (OR=3.01; 95%CI: 1.97-4.61; p<0.001). Overweight pregnant women were 84% more likely to develop gestational diabetes than those with a body mass index lower than 25 kg/m2 (OR =1.84; 95%CI: 1.25-2.71; p=0.002). A multivariable regression analysis showed that being overweight and being 35 years old or older were independent variables. Conclusion In this population, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was of 5.4%. Age and being overweight were predictive factors for gestational diabetes.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional, e dos principais fatores de risco associados, em população usuária do Sistema Único de Saúde em Caxias do Sul-RS. Métodos Um estudo descritivo, transversal e retrospectivo foi feito. As variáveis maternas foramcoletadas de registros de prontuários de todas gestantes atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde do município em 2016. A identificação de hiperglicemia na gestação (diabetes pré-gestacional, diabetes identificado durante a gestação e diabetes mellitus gestacional) foi feita pela avaliação dos resultados do teste oral de tolerância com 75 g glicose, conforme preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. Com base nesses dados, as gestantes foram separadas em dois grupos: o grupo com diabetes gestacional e o grupo sem diabetes gestacional. Resultados A prevalência estimada de diabetes gestacional em 2.313 gestantes foi de 5,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 4,56-6,45). Gestantes com 3 ou mais gestações apresentaram chance 2 vezes maior para a ocorrência de diabetes gestacional, quando comparadas às primigestas (razão de possibilidades [RP]=2,19; IC95%: 1,42- 3,37; p<0,001). Gestantes com idade de 35 anos ou mais apresentaram chance três vezes maior do que as mais jovens (RP=3,01; IC95%: 1,97-4,61; p<0,001). A chance de desenvolver diabetes gestacional em gestantes com sobrepeso foi 84% maior do que a das comíndice demassa corporal inferior a 25 kg/m2 (RP=1,84; IC95%: 1,25-2,71; p=0,002). A análise de regressão multivariada mostrou sobrepeso e idade materna como variáveis com associação independente. Conclusão Nesta população, a prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi de 5,4%. Idade materna e sobrepeso pré-gestacional foram fatores preditivos para diabetes gestacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Public Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Overweight , Glucose Tolerance Test
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4851, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the pregestational body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy, and to associate data to perinatal outcomes of pregnant women from a Prenatal Care Program. Methods A retrospective study was carried out with 151 patients seen at the Healthy Gestation Program of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein . Data were collected from a medical chart review of the patients seen between March 2015 and March 2016. Results The chance of developing gestational diabetes for obese patients in early gestation was estimated at 7.5-fold as compared to patients with low or normal body mass index. Conclusion There was a significant association between obesity in early pregnancy and the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus in this population.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar o índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e o ganho de peso na gestação, e associar os dados a desfechos perinatais de gestantes de um Programa de Gestação Saudável. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo realizado com 151 pacientes atendidas no Programa de Gestação Saudável do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Os dados foram coletados a partir da revisão de prontuário das pacientes atendidas entre março de 2015 e março de 2016. Resultados A chance de desenvolvimento de diabetes gestacional para as pacientes com obesidade no início da gestação foi estimada em 7,5 vezes a mesma chance entre as pacientes com índice de massa corporal baixo ou normal no início da gravidez. Conclusão Houve associação significativa entre obesidade no início da gravidez e a ocorrência de diabetes mellitus gestacional nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Weight Gain , Overweight/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(12): 682-687, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057887

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to understand to what extent obesity is related to adversematernal, obstetrical, and neonatal outcomes in a Portuguese obstetrical population. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics of a differentiated perinatal care facility. The study compared 1,183 obese pregnant womenwith 5,399 normal or underweight pregnantwomen for the occurrence of gestational diabetes, hypertensive pregnancy disorders, and preterm birth. Mode of delivery, birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) admissionswere also evaluated. Mean blood glucose values were evaluated and compared between groups, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Only singleton pregnancies were considered. Results The prevalence of obesity was 13.6%. Obese pregnant women were significantly more likely to have cesarean sections (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0, p< 0.001), gestational diabetes (aOR 2.14, p< 0.001), hypertensive pregnancy disorders (aOR 3.43, p< 0.001), and large-for-gestational age ormacrosomic infants (aOR 2.13, p< 0.001), and less likely to have small-for-gestational age newborns (aOR 0.51, p< 0.009). No significant differences were found in terms of pretermbirths, fetal/neonatal deaths, low birthweight newborns, and neonatal ICU admissions among cases and controls. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with higher mean blood glucose levels, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion Obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. These risks seem to increase progressively with increasing body mass index (BMI) class. Female obesity should be considered a major public health issue and has consequences on maternal-fetal health.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo pretende avaliar em que medida a obesidade influencia os desfechos maternos, obstétricos e neonatais em uma população obstétrica portuguesa. Métodos Um estudo caso-controle retrospectivo foi realizado no departamento de obstetrícia de um centro perinatal diferenciado. O estudo comparou 1.183 grávidas obesas com 5.399 grávidas normoponderais ou com baixo peso para a ocorrência de diabetes gestacional, doenças hipertensivas da gravidez e parto pré-termo. Via de parto, peso ao nascimento e admissão na unidade de cuidados neonatais também foram avaliados. Os valores glicêmicos médios foram avaliados e comparados entre os dois grupos, no primeiro e segundo trimestres de gravidez. Apenas as gravidezes unifetais foram avaliadas. Resultados A prevalência da obesidade foi de 13.6%. As grávidas obesas tiveramrisco significativamente superior a ter uma cesariana (odds ratio ajustado [Ora] 2.0, p < 0.001), diabetes gestacional (ORa 2.14, p < 0.001), doenças hipertensivas da gravidez (ORa 3.43, p < 0.001), recém-nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional ou macrossômicos (ORa 2.13, p < 0.001) e menor probabilidade de ter recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional (ORa 0.51, p < 0.009). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto aos partos pré-termo, mortes fetais/neonatais, baixo peso ao nascer e admissão à unidade de cuidados intensivos neonatais. O odds ratio foi ajustado para a idade, número de gestações, paridade, ganho ponderal, doenças hipertensivas da gravidez e diabetes gestacional. A obesidade materna esteve significativamente associada a valores glicêmicos médios superiores, no primeiro e segundo trimestres de gravidez. Conclusão A obesidade está associada a maior risco de desfechos adversos na gravidez e neonatais. Este risco parece aumentar progressivamente com o aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC). A obesidade feminina deve ser considerada um importante problema de saúde pública e que tem repercussões na saúde maternofetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Fetal Macrosomia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Obesity, Maternal/blood
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(5): 298-305, May 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013620

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and its main complication is the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) newborns. The present study aims to characterize pregnant women with GDM and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of LGA newborns in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed based on medical records of women whose prenatal care and delivery were performed at the Maternal and Child Unit of the HospitalUniversitário of theUniversidade Federal doMaranhão, state of Maranhão, Brazil.A total of 116 pregnant women diagnosed with GDMwere included according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Results The variables associated with LGA newborns after multivariate analysis were: obesity prior to pregnancy (OR = 11.6; 95% CI: 1.40-95.9), previous macrosomia (OR = 34.7; 95% CI: 4.08-295.3), high blood glucose levels in the 3rd trimester (OR = 2,67; 95% CI: 1.01-7.12) and combined change in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (fasting + postdextrose) (OR = 3.53;95%CI:1.25-14.2) = 1.17-10.6).Otherwise, insufficientweight gain during pregnancy reduced the risk for LGA newborns (OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.32). Conclusion Obesity prior to pregnancy, previous macrosomia, high blood glucose levels in the 3rd trimester, and combined change in the OGTT were independent predictive factors for LGA newborns in pregnant women with GDM.


Resumo Objetivo Diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) está associado a um maior risco de morbidade e mortalidade perinatais, e sua principal complicação é a ocorrência de recém-nascidos grandes para idade gestacional (GIG). O presente estudo visa caracterizar as gestantes com DMG e identificar fatores associados à ocorrência de recémnascidos GIG nesta população. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado a partir da coleta de dados de prontuário de mulheres cujo acompanhamento pré-natal e parto foram realizados na Unidade Materno-Infantil do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, MA, Brasil. Foram incluídas 116 gestantes diagnosticadas com DMG pelo critério do International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Resultados As variáveis associadas à GIG após análise multivariada foram: obesidade pré-gestacional (OR= 11,6; IC 95%: 1,40-95,9), macrossomia anterior (OR = 34,7; IC 95%: 4,08-295,3), glicemia em jejum elevada no 3° trimestre (OR = 2,67; IC 95%: 1,01-7,12) e alteração combinada no teste de tolerância oral à glicose (jejum + pósdextrose) (OR= 3,53; IC 95%: 1,17-10,6). Ganho de peso inferior reduziu o risco para GIG (OR= 0,04; IC 95%: 0,01-0,32). Conclusão Obesidade anterior à gestação, macrossomia prévia, níveis elevados de glicose no sangue no 3° trimestre e alteração combinada no TOTG foram fatores preditivos independentes para os recém-nascidos GIG em gestantes com DMG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis , Fetal Macrosomia/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hospitals, University
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 190-198, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004332

ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes (GD) impacts maternal and fetal morbidity. In 2012, the World Diabetes Foundation provided financing project in Barranquilla (Colombia), aimed to implement a clinical guide for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Aim: To estimate the adherence of the guide in primary care centers. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study of pregnant women suspected of having gestational diabetes. Pregnant women were classified according to the week of admission to the prenatal control program: < week 24 or later. Women with a fasting blood glucose over 92 mg/dL and under 126 mg/dL or with some positive result to the oral glucose tolerance test were included. Results: Nine percent (1,887 women) of 21,699 registries of pregnant women, were at risk for gestational diabetes. Of these, 1,880 registries with complete data were analyzed. Sixty nine entered the program at less than 24 weeks of pregnancy and 71% had had a fasting blood glucose measured in the first control. In 69.2% of these women, criteria for gestational diabetes was met. A glucose tolerance test was suggested to women with a blood glucose below 92 mg/dl. Among 72% of the latter, the glucose tolerance test met the criteria for gestational diabetes. Among the 498 women who entered the program after 24 weeks of gestation, 68% met the criteria for gestational diabetes with the fasting blood glucose levels. In 90 women, a glucose tolerance test was performed and 80% met the criteria for gestational diabetes. Conclusions: An adequate adherence to guidelines favors the detection of pregnant women with gestational diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Primary Health Care/standards , Mass Screening/standards , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Prenatal Care/standards , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence/standards
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00049318, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001646

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food intake (considering the nature, extent, and purpose of food processing) during pregnancy and overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus conditions. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 785 adult women in singleton pregnancies (between 24th and 39th weeks of gestation) in Brazil. Usual food intake was estimated by the Multiple Source Method, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups of interest in this study were the unprocessed or minimally processed foods and ultra-processed foods. The World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and the Atalah criteria for excess weight were used. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between energy contribution (%E) from foods with overweight and obesity conditions and, adjusted logistic regression models for gestational diabetes mellitus. In total, 32.1% participants were overweight, 24.6% were obese, and 17.7% of women were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus . After adjustments, an inverse association between the highest tertile of %E from the intake of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and obesity was found [0.49 (0.30-0.79)]. Moreover, a positive association between the highest tertile of %E from ultra-processed food intake [3.06 (1.27-3.37)] and obesity was observed. No association between food intake (considering the nature, extent, and purpose of food processing) during pregnancy and overweight or gestational diabetes mellitus was found. The findings suggest a role of food processing in obesity but not in gestational diabetes mellitus. Further research is warranted to provide robust evidence on the relationship between the role of processed foods in obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o consumo de alimentos (considerando a natureza, extensão e propósito do processamento de alimentos) durante a gestação e sobrepeso, obesidade e diabetes mellitus gestacional. Estudo transversal realizado com 785 mulheres adultas com gestações únicas (24ª-39ª semanas de gestação) no Brasil. O consumo usual de alimentos foi estimado usando o Multiple Source Method, usando recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas. Os grupos alimentares de interesse neste estudo foram os alimentos não-processados e minimamente processados e os alimentos ultraprocessados. Os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde para diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional e critérios de Atalah para excesso de peso foram usados. Modelos de regressão logística multinomial foram empregados para avaliar a relação entre a contribuição energética (%E) de alimentos e sobrepeso e obesidade, e modelos de regressão logística ajustados foram usados para diabetes mellitus gestacional. No total, 32,1% das gestantes estavam com sobrepeso, 24,6% com obesidade e 17,7% foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. Após ajustes, uma associação inversa entre obesidade e o maior tercil de %E do consumo de alimentos não-processados ou minimamente processados foi encontrada [0,49 (0,30-0,79)]. Além disso, uma associação positiva entre obesidade e o maior tercil de %E do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados [3,06 (1,27-3,37)] foi observada. Nenhuma associação entre consumo de alimentos (considerando a natureza, extensão e propósito do processamento de alimentos) durante a gestação e sobrepeso ou diabetes mellitus gestacional foi encontrada. Os resultados sugerem o papel do processamento de alimentos na obesidade, mas não na diabetes mellitus gestacional. Pesquisas adicionais são necessárias para fornecer evidências robustas sobre a relação entre o papel do processamento de alimentos na obesidade e na diabetes mellitus gestacional durante a gestação.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la relación entre el consumo de comida (considerando la naturaleza, alcance, y propósito del procesamiento de comida) durante el embarazo y el sobrepeso, obesidad, y diabetes mellitus gestacional. Se realizó un estudio transversal con 785 mujeres adultas de embarazos únicos (24ª-39ª semanas de gestación) en Brasil. El consumo habitual se estimó mediante un Multiple Source Method, usando dos encuestas de 24-hour en relación con los hábitos alimentarios. Los grupos de comidas de interés en el presente estudio fueron los mínimamente procesados o sin procesar y los productos de comida ultraprocesada. Se utilizaron criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el diagnostico de diabetes mellitus gestacional, y los criterios Atalah para el sobrepeso. Se utilizaron modelos ajustados de regresión logística multinomial para evaluar la relación entre la contribución energética (%E) de comidas con el sobrepeso y la obesidad, y modelos ajustados de regresión logística para la diabetes mellitus gestacional . En total, un 32,1% sufrían sobrepeso, un 24,6% eran obesas, y un 17,7% de las mujeres fueron diagnosticadas con diabetes mellitus gestacional. Tras los ajustes, se encontró una asociación inversa entre el tercil más alto de %E, procedente del consumo de comidas sin procesar o mínimamente procesadas con la obesidad [0,49 (0,30-0,79)]. Asimismo, se encontró una asociación positiva entre el tercil más alto de %E de comida ultraprocesada [3,06 (1,27-3,37)] y la obesidad. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre el consumo de comida (considerando la naturaleza, alcance, y propósito de la comida procesada) durante el embarazo y el sobrepeso, respecto a la diabetes mellitus gestacional. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de la comida procesada en la obesidad pero no así en la diabetes mellitus gestacional. Son necesarias más investigaciones para proporcionar evidencias sólidas sobre la relación entre el papel de la comida procesada en la obesidad y diabetes mellitus gestacional durante el embarazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Overweight/etiology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Obesity/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Weight Gain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(4): 180-187, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in obese pregnant women attending a public maternity hospital in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods Randomized clinical trial including obese pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, divided into two groups (control and metformin). Both groups received guidance regarding diet and physical exercise. The participants were assessed at two moments, the first at enrollment (gestational age ≤ 20) and the second at gestational weeks 24-28. The outcomes assessed were BMI and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis. The data distribution was assessed with the Friedman test. For all the analytical models, the p-values were considered significant when lower than 0.05. The absolute risk reduction was also estimated. Results Overall, 164 pregnant women were assessed and further divided into 82 participants per group. No significant difference was observed in BMI variation between the control and metformin groups (0.9 ± 1.2 versus 1.0 ± 0.9, respectively, p = 0.63). Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 15.9% (n = 13) of the patients allocated to the metformin group and 19.5% (n = 16) of those in the control group (p = 0.683). The absolute risk reduction was 3.6 (95% confidence interval 8.0- 15.32) in the group treated with metformin, which was not significant. Conclusion Metformin was not effective in reducing BMI and preventing GDM in obese pregnant women.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a efetividade da metformina na incidência de diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) em gestantes obesas de uma maternidade pública de Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Métodos Ensaio clínico randomizado desenvolvido comgestantes obesas comíndice de massa corporal (IMC) ≥ 30 kg/m2, divididas em dois grupos (controle emetformina). Ambos os grupos receberamorientação sobre dieta e exercício físico. As participantes foram avaliadas em dois momentos, o primeiro na inclusão (com idade gestacional≤ 20 semanas) e o segundo entre 24 e 28 semanas de gestação. Os desfechos avaliados foram IMC e diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG). A distribuição dos dados foi avaliada com o teste de Friedman. Para todos os modelos analíticos, foram considerados significativos os valores de p inferiores a 0,05. Foi estimada também a redução absoluta de risco. Resultados Foram avaliadas 164 gestantes, divididas em 82 participantes em cada grupo. Não houve diferença significativa na variação do IMC entre os grupos controle e metformina (0,9 ± 1,2 versus 1,0 ± 0,9, respectivamente, p = 0,63). O DMG foi diagnosticado em 15,9% (n = 13) das pacientes alocadas para o grupo metformina e 19,5% (n = 16) das incluídas no grupo controle (p = 0,683). A redução absoluta de risco foi de 3,6 (intervalo de confiança de 95% 8,0-15,32) no grupo metformina, o que não foi significativo. Conclusão A metformina não foi eficaz em reduzir o IMC e prevenir o DMG em gestantes obesas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Incidence , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(10): 3413-3420, Out. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974676

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao uso de álcool durante a gestação. Estudo de corte transversal em uma amostra de 361 gestantes de um serviço de referência à assistência ginecológica e pré-natal. Os dados relacionados às características sociodemográficas, uso de álcool e potenciais fatores associados foram coletados por meio de entrevista face a face. Análise de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta foi utilizada para verificar os fatores associados ao desfecho analisado. O consumo de álcool na amostra estudada foi de 17,7% (IC 95%: IC 95%: 14,1-22,0%). Antecedentes de diabetes pré-gestacional ou gestacional, ideação suicida e uso de tabaco nos últimos 30 dias foi associado ao uso de álcool durante a gestação (p < 0,05). O estudo apontou alta prevalência de uso de álcool na gestação atual e a sua associação com importantes fatores. Ações como rastreio para o álcool e aconselhamentos sobre os problemas associados ao uso dessa substância principalmente no pré-natal podem contribuir para redução efetiva ou anulação do seu uso em gestantes e agravos materno-fetais relacionados.


Abstract The scope of this article is to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use during pregnancy. It involved a cross-sectional study in a sample of 361 pregnant women in a reference service for gynecological and prenatal care. The data related to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use and potential associated factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify factors associated with the outcome analyzed. The consumption of alcohol in the sample was 17.7% (95% CI: 95% CI: 14.1% to 22.0%). A history of pre-gestational or gestational diabetes, suicidal ideation and tobacco use in the last 30 days was associated with alcohol use during pregnancy (p < 0.05). The study showed a high prevalence of alcohol use during the current pregnancy and its association with important factors. Actions such as screening for alcohol and advice on problems associated with the use of this substance, especially during the prenatal period, can contribute to effective reduction of alcohol use in pregnant women and related maternal and fetal injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prenatal Care/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Hospitals, Maternity
14.
Coronel Oviedo; s.n; 5 ed; Dic. 2018. 51 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-999854

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se considera restricción de crecimiento intrauterino al crecimiento fetal menor que el esperado para la edad gestacional. Asociado con un aumento de 6-10 veces de riesgo de muerte perinatal. Cada año nacen en el mundo más de 20 millones de niños con peso inferior a 2.500 gramos; de ellos, más del 96 % en países en desarrollo, lo cual demuestra que esta situación se asocia a condiciones socioeconómicas de pobreza. La prevalencia en Latinoamérica oscila entre el 10 a 17% de los nacidos vivos. Objetivo: Caracterizar a las embarazadas con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino en el Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social, del año 2017. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Fueron incluidas todas las embarazadas con restricción de crecimiento intrauterino que acudieron al Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital Central de Instituto de Previsión Social del año 2017. Resultados: Fueron 42 embarazadas con restricción de crecimiento intrauterino. Con rango etario de 20 a 42 años, la mediana de 28 años, el 54,76% casadas, el 84,10% proceden del área urbana, y el 52,38% con estudio superior, la mitad eran multigestas, nulíparas sin antecedentes de aborto previo, el 59,62% realizaron más de 5 controles prenatales. El antecedente patológico materno más frecuente fue anemia en el 66,67%. En su mayoría con un índice de masa corporal normal, y moderada ganancia de peso materno durante el embarazo. El 81,25% son de tipo asimétrico, con diámetro biparietal y circunferencia abdominal disminuidos. Conclusión: Este estudio realizado en un centro de referencia nacional de cuarto nivel, similar a resultados de trabajos anteriores, aporta datos actuales sobre las características de las embarazadas con restricción de crecimiento intrauterino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Parity , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Marital Status , Age Distribution , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Educational Status , Fetal Growth Retardation/classification , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Anemia/epidemiology
15.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 43(3): 96-106, jul.-set. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901316

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus representa un factor de riesgo para la mujer embarazada y un problema de salud para el producto. Objetivos: identificar los resultados maternos y perinatales en gestantes diabéticas que recibieron tratamiento insulínico. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo, descriptiva, transversal en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico Mariana Grajales de Villa Clara, Cuba desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2014. La muestra quedó conformada de manera no probabilística por 111 pacientes diabéticas gestacionales y pregestacionales con tratamiento insulínico. Resultados: predominó la diabetes gestacional (58 por ciento de los casos) respecto a la pregestacional (42 por ciento). El primer grupo alcanzó un buen control metabólico. La mayoría de las pacientes tuvo recién nacidos con peso de 2 500 gr a 4 199 gr, presentándose la macrosomía fetal solo en 17,1 por ciento del total de pacientes. Los trastornos hipertensivos y la infección vaginal fueron las complicaciones maternas de más representatividad. La complicación perinatal con mayor incidencia fue el parto pretérmino, aunque sin significación estadística. Conclusiones: hubo predominio de la diabetes mellitus gestacional en más de la mitad de la muestra. Este grupo resultó ser el de mejor control metabólico respecto a la pregestacional. Los trastornos hipertensivos y la infección vaginal fueron las complicaciones más representativas y el parto pretermino resulto de mayor incidencia en la muestra. Predominaron los recién nacidos de peso adecuado(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus represents a risk factor for pregnant women and a health problem for the offspring. Objectives: Identify maternal and perinatal outcomes in diabetic pregnant women who received insulin treatment. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at Mariana Grajales Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital in Villa Clara, Cuba from January 2013 to December 2014. A hundred-eleven (11) gestational and pre-gestational diabetic patients with insulin treatment non-probabilistically formed the sample. Results: Gestational diabetes predominated (58 percent of cases) compared to pre-gestational diabetes (42 percent). The first group achieved good metabolic control. The majority of the patients had newborns weighing 2 500 g to 4 199 g, with fetal macrosomia only in 17.1 percent of the total patients. Hypertensive disorders and vaginal infection were the most representative maternal complications. The most frequent perinatal complication was preterm delivery, although there was no statistical significance. Conclusions: There was a predominance of gestational diabetes mellitus in more than half of the sample. This group turned out to be the one with the best metabolic control with respect to pre-gestational control. Hypertensive disorders and vaginal infection were the most representative complications and preterm birth resulted in a higher incidence in the sample. The newborns of adequate weight predominated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Insulin/therapeutic use
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(4): 376-382, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904095

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have changed over time, reflecting the nutritional transition and changes in diagnostic criteria. We aimed to evaluate characteristics of women with GDM over a 20-year interval. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of two pregnancy cohorts enrolled in different periods, in university hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1991 to 1993 (n = 216); and 2009 to 2013 (n = 375). METHODS: We applied two diagnostic criteria to the cohorts: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/World Health Organization (WHO); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). We compared maternal-fetal characteristics and outcomes between the cohorts and within each cohort. RESULTS: The women in the 2010s cohort were older (31 ± 7 versus 30 ± 6 years), more frequently obese (29.4% versus 15.2%), with more hypertensive disorders (14.1% versus 5.6%) and at increased risk of cesarean section (adjusted relative risk 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 - 2.3), compared with those in the 1990s cohort. Neonatal outcomes such as birth weight category and hypoglycemia were similar. In the 1990s cohort, women only fulfilling IADPSG/WHO or only fulfilling NICE criteria had similar characteristics and outcomes; in the 2010s cohort, women only diagnosed through IADPSG/WHO were more frequently obese than those diagnosed only through NICE (33 ± 8 kg/m2 versus 28 ± 6 kg/m2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The epidemic of obesity seems to have modified the profile of women with GDM. Despite similar neonatal outcomes, there were differences in the intensity of treatment over time. The IADPSG/WHO criteria seemed to identify a profile more associated with obesity.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Prevalência e características do diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) modificaram-se com o tempo, refletindo transição nutricional e diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar características de gestações com DMG em intervalo de 20 anos. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Comparação de duas coortes gestacionais arroladas em diferentes períodos, em hospitais universitários de Porto Alegre, Brasil: 1991 a 1993 (n = 216) e 2009 a 2013 (n = 375). MÉTODOS: Aplicamos dois critérios diagnósticos às coortes: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS); e National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Comparamos características e desfechos materno-fetais entre as coortes e dentro de cada uma. RESULTADOS: Na coorte dos anos 2010, as mulheres eram mais velhas (31 ± 7 versus 30 ± 6 anos), obesas (29,4% versus 15,2%), apresentaram mais distúrbios hipertensivos (14,1% versus 5,6%) e risco aumentado de cesariana (risco relativo ajustado 1,8; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,4 - 2,3), comparadas às da coorte de 1990. Desfechos neonatais, como categoria do peso ao nascer e hipoglicemia, foram semelhantes. Na coorte de 1990, essas características e desfechos foram semelhantes nas mulheres que preenchiam apenas um dos critérios; na de 2010, mulheres diagnosticadas apenas pelo IADPSG/OMS eram mais obesas (33 ± 8 kg/m2 versus 28 ± 6 kg/m2, P < 0,001) do que as diagnosticadas apenas pelo NICE. CONCLUSÃO: A epidemia de obesidade parece ter modificado o perfil de mulheres com DMG. Embora desfechos neonatais sejam semelhantes, houve diferenças na intensidade de tratamento ao longo do tempo. O critério da IADPSG/OMS parece identificar um perfil mais associado à obesidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 130-139, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis can contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Therefore, periodontitis, when associated with gestational diabetes, could increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. Objective The aim of this study was to verify the incidence on the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes with and without periodontitis after a three-year time interval. Material and Methods Initial sample of this follow-up study consisted of 90 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes who underwent periodontal examination. After three years, 49 women were subjected to new periodontal examination and biological, behavioral, and social data of interest were collected. Additionally, the quantification of the C-reactive protein in blood samples was performed. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were requested. Saliva samples were collected for quantification of interleukin 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9. Results The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 18.4% and of periodontitis was 10.2%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with and without periodontitis. It was observed impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with previous gestational diabetes. Conclusions It was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes. The impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus highlights the importance of an inflammatory process in the diabetes pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Saliva/chemistry , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Epidemiologic Methods , Risk Factors , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(6): 480-488, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844520

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Los trastornos hipertensivos, la diabetes y la obesidad en el embarazo, afectan el peso, la edad gestacional al nacer y la mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto sobre la mortalidad neonatal, peso al nacer y edad gestacional, de los trastornos hipertensivos (preeclampsia e hipertensión arterial crónica), diabetes (gestacional y no gestacional) y obesidad en la gestación, en un grupo de neonatos nacidos en un hospital colombiano, entre 2005 y 2015. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, con gestantes con preeclampsia (n: 326), hipertensión arterial crónica (n: 104), diabetes gestacional (n: 246) y obesidad (n: 216). Los datos fueron analizados en Stata® 11.0, empleando mediana o promedio y sus medidas de dispersión, Pruebas t, ranksum, ANOVA o Kruskal Wallis, medidas de frecuencia absolutas y relativas, Pruebas de Chi2 o exacta de Fisher. Para estimar la correlación entre las variables de exposición empleamos el Coeficiente de Correlación de Pearson y para estimar las asociaciones, empleamos riesgo relativo (RR) con su intervalo de confianza de 95%. La significancia estadística fue definida como un valor p<0,05. Resultados: Hallamos asociación significativa entre bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad con preeclampsia e hipertensión arterial crónica, y mayor peso al nacer con diabetes y obesidad. Hubo también asociación significativa entre mortalidad neonatal e hipertensión arterial crónica y diabetes. Conclusiones: Los trastornos hipertensivos y metabólicos afectan el peso y la edad gestacional al nacer, existiendo asociación significativa entre mortalidad neonatal e hipertensión arterial crónica y diabetes.


Background: Hypertensive disorders, diabetes and obesity in pregnancy, affect weight, gestational age at birth and neonatal mortality. Objective: Assess the impact on neonatal mortality, birth weight and gestational age, hypertensive disorders (pre-eclampsia and chronic hypertension), diabetes (gestational and non-gestational) and obesity in pregnancy of infants born colombian hospital between, 2005 and 2015. Methods: Retrospective cohort study with pregnant women with preeclapmsia (n: 326), chronic hypertension (n: 104), gestational diabetes (n: 246) and obesity (n: 216). The data were analyzed in Stata 11.0 using median or average and dispersion measures, t tests, ranksum, ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis, measures absolute and relative frequency, Chi2 tests or Fisher exact. To estimate the correlation between exposure variables we used the Pearson correlation coefficient and to estimate associations employ relative risk (RR) with confidence interval of 95%. Statistical significance was defined as p <0.05. Results: We found a significant association between low birth weight and prematurity with preeclampsia and chronic hypertension, and higher birth weight with diabetes and obesity. There was also significant association between neonatal mortality and chronic diabetes and hypertension. Conclusions: Hypertensive and metabolic disorders affect weight and gestational age at birth, and there is significant association between neonatal mortality and chronic diabetes and hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Infant Mortality , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Birth Weight , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(4): 274-280, ago. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795890

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: La PAPP-A es una proteína utilizada en obstetricia de forma rutinaria para el cribado de aneuploidías de primer trimestre. En los últimos años se está conociendo más acerca de su papel en la función placentaria. Diversos estudios están mostrando una asociación entre un nivel bajo de PAPP-A y distintos eventos obstétricos. OBJETIVO: Establecer una asociación entre PAPP-A baja y eventos obstétricos adversos. MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se han recogido las gestaciones únicas con PAPP-A inferior a percentil 5 en primer trimestre durante 2 años. Se ha recogido de la misma cohorte un grupo control, en proporción 2:1. Se compara mediante análisis estadístico la incidencia de eventos obstétricos adversos de cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó un total de 285 pacientes en el grupo de casos y 570 pacientes en el grupo control. Se observó un aumento significativo en el grupo de casos de la incidencia de prematuridad, restricción del crecimiento, hipertensión gestacional y diabetes gestacional. Se ha correlacionado la PAPP-A baja con varios eventos obstétricos adversos, incluyendo prematuridad (OR 4,27), diabetes gestacional (OR 2,40), restricción del crecimiento (OR 2,36) e hipertensión gestacional (OR 2,22). No se observó relación con el resto de eventos obstétricos adversos. CONCLUSIÓN: Un nivel de PAPP-A bajo se asocia con aumentos significativos de prematuridad, diabetes gestacional, restricción del crecimiento e hipertensión gestacional.


BACKGROUND: PAPP-A is a placental protein used in obstetrics as a first trimester marker in aneuploidy screening. In the last few years we are knowing more about its placental function. Some studies are showing a association between low PAPP-A and obstetrical adverse events. AIM: Establish an association between low PAPP-A an obstetrical adverse events. METHOD: This is a retrospective nested case-control study. We identified each singleton pregnancy with a normal phenotype and a low PAPP-A (under percentile 5) in the last 2 years, and match it with a control group of the same population in a 2:1 proportion. It was compared the incidence of each obstetrical adverse outcomes with statistical analysis. RESULTS: We found 285 patients in the case group and match it with 570 patients from control group. It was observed a significative increase in the incidence of prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes. A low PAPP-A level was correlated with some obstetrical adverse events, like prematurity (OR 4.27), gestational diabetes (OR 2.40), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.36) and gestational hypertension (OR 2.22). We observe no correlation with the rest of outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A low PAPP-A level is related with significative increases of prematurity, gestational diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction and gestational hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A/analysis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy Trimester, First/blood , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy Outcome , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/blood , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Fetal Death , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnosis , Fetal Growth Retardation/blood , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/diagnosis , Obstetric Labor, Premature/blood , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology
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