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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536335

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Múltiples investigaciones demuestran el efecto teratogénico de la diabetes mellitus durante el embarazo, considerada causa frecuente de morbilidad fetal. Objetivo: Describir las características del producto de la concepción de mujeres con diabetes pregestacional o gestacional, atendidas en el Hospital Provincial Comandante Ciro Redondo García, de Artemisa. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en la Provincia Artemisa, Cuba, en el período de febrero 2016 a febrero 2018, en 316 mujeres con diabetes mellitus durante su gestación. La información se obtuvo mediante revisión documental y entrevista, conservando los datos en hoja de cálculo Excel. Resultados: El 69,9 por ciento de las pacientes diabéticas estudiadas presentaron morbilidades en su descendencia, entre las que predominaron los defectos congénitos en 139 casos; 34 neonatos macrosómicos; 21 pretérminos; 9 con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino y 5 fallecidos antes del año de vida. La diabetes, tanto pregestacional como gestacional, se relacionó con afecciones en la descendencia; sin embargo, un control preconcepcional adecuado de la enfermedad redujo el riesgo de tener hijos afectados. Los defectos congénitos fueron la alteración más frecuente cuando la madre padecía diabetes pregestacional. Si la diabetes materna era gestacional los hijos presentaron con frecuencia macrosomía y otras anomalías asociadas. Conclusiones: Alrededor de 70 de cada 100 mujeres diabéticas presentan morbilidades en su descendencia. Si la diabetes materna no es controlada antes de la concepción, estas morbilidades en sus hijos son predominantemente defectos congénitos con posible origen disruptivo, mientras que la diabetes gestacional se relaciona más con recién nacidos macrosómicos(AU)


Introduction: Multiple investigations show the teratogenic effect of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, being considered a frequent cause of fetal morbidity. Objective: To describe the characteristics of the offspring of women with pregestacional or gestational diabetes who received attention at the Hospital Provincial Comandante Ciro Redondo García of Artemisa. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in Artemisa Province, Cuba, in the period from February 2016 to February 2018, with 316 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. The information was obtained through documentary review and interview; the data were kept in an Excel spreadsheet. Results: 69.9 percent of the studied diabetic patients presented morbidities in their offspring, among which congenital defects predominated, accounting for 139 cases; 34 were macrosomic neonates; 21 were preterm; 9 presented intrauterine growth retardation; and 5 died within one year of life. Diabetes, both pregestational and gestational, was associated with conditions in the offspring; however, adequate preconception control of the disease reduced the risk for having affected children. Congenital defects were the most frequent alteration when the mother had pregestational diabetes. If maternal diabetes was gestational, the offspring frequently presented macrosomia and other associated anomalies. Conclusions: About 70 out of 100 diabetic women present morbidities in their offspring. If maternal diabetes is not controlled before conception, these morbidities in their offspring are predominantly congenital defects with a possible disruptive origin, while gestational diabetes is more related to macrosomic newborns(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Congenital Abnormalities/etiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(3): 167-182, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515207

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus gestacional DMG es una enfermedad con consecuencias mortales, incapacitantes y costosas para las personas, las familias, las comunidades y los países. Con el fin de establecer de manera sistemática los factores de riesgo psicosocial asociados con la DMG que deberían ser monitoreados durante y después del embarazo se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed/Medline y Cochrane. Se encontraron 1188 artículos y se seleccionaron 41. Algunos temas principales fueron conflictos con prácticas culturales, estigma social, influencia de la etnia/raza, bajo nivel educativo, calidad del sueño, problemas con la lactancia materna, preocupación por la propia salud o la del bebé, baja percepción de riesgo de DMG o de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en el futuro, estrés, ansiedad y depresión, conocimiento limitado, falta de apoyo de la pareja, de la familia o social y de los profesionales de la salud, bajos niveles de autocuidado/autoeficacia y dificultades con cambios en el estilo de vida. Estos factores deberían monitorearse en las embarazadas durante y después del parto. Los tratamientos deberían considerar el impacto psicológico y el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 después del parto, y deberían ser incluidos en las guías de práctica clínica. Las poblaciones multiétnicas y los grupos más vulnerables demográficamente y socioeconómicamente son más susceptibles de desarrollar DMG.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease with fatal, disabling, and costly consequences for individuals, families, communities and countries. To systematically establish the psychosocial risk factors associated with GDM that should be monitored during and after pregnancy. Systematic review in PubMed/Medline and Cochrane databases. 1188 articles were found and 41 were selected. Some main themes were conflicts with cultural practices, social stigma, ethnicity/race influence, low educational level, sleep quality, breastfeeding problems, concern for ones own health/baby, low perception of the risk of GDM/DM2 in the future, stress, anxiety and depression, limited knowledge, lack of support from the partner/family/social and health professionals, low levels of self-care/self-efficacy and difficulties with changes in the lifestyle. These factors should be monitored in pregnant women during and after delivery. Treatments should consider the psychological impact and the risk of developing DM2 after childbirth and should be included in clinical practice guidelines. Multi-ethnic populations and the most demographically and socioeconomically vulnerable groups are more susceptible to developing GDM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/psychology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Social Support , Risk Factors
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 771-777, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985471

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of suffering diverse adverse pregnancy outcomes, threating maternal and child health seriously, with an increasing incidence rate year by year. However, the exact cause of GDM is still unknown. Prospective cohort studies obtain data through follow-up, which is helpful to clarify the causal relationship, so as to draw more accurate and reliable conclusions. In recent years, numerous prospective cohort studies on the GDM have emerged. This article elaborates along the occurrence and development process of GDM, in order to provide useful reference for the establishment of relevant high-quality prospective cohort studies in China.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors
4.
In. Serra Sansone, María del Pilar; Vitureira Liard, Gerardo José; Pereda Domínguez, Jimena; Medina Romero, Gonzalo Alexander; Rodríguez Rey, Marianela Ivonne; Blanc Reynoso, Agustina; Santos, Karina de los; Morán, Rosario; Sotelo, Débora; Barreiro, Carolina. Diabetes y embarazo. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.11-17.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1419104
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 159-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969861

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications and has serious implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. In recent years, studies have confirmed that air pollution is one of the main risk factors for diabetes, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution exposure is closely related to the occurrence of gestational diabetes. However, current studies on the association between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of gestational diabetes are inconsistent, and the window period of pollutant exposure is still unclear. Limited mechanistic studies suggest that airborne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants may affect GDM through multiple mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress, disruption of adipokine secretion, and imbalance of intestinal flora. This review summarizes the relationship between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of GDM in recent years, as well as the possible molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of GDM caused by air pollutants, in order to provide scientific basis for preventing pollutant exposure, reducing the risk of GDM, improving maternal and fetal outcomes and improving the quality of the birth population.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
6.
Femina ; 50(12): 751-761, dez. 31, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414430

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar a população das gestantes em diferentes faixas etárias; avaliar desfechos maternos e neonatais em pacientes com idade materna avançada; determinar a faixa etária a partir da qual os desfechos adversos foram mais prevalentes. Métodos: Parturientes atendidas no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo entre junho/2019 e maio/2020 foram divididas em três grupos ­ 20 a 34 anos; 35 a 39 anos; 40 anos ou mais ­ e analisadas quanto a diversas variáveis. Resultados: Entre as gestantes do Serviço, 44,2% tinham idade materna avançada. A amostra foi composta por 927 pacientes, a maioria com relacionamento conjugal estável (75,2%) e ensino de nível superior (74,7%). Independentemente do grupo etário, foram observados elevados índices de obesidade (25,9%), sobrepeso (39,7%) e cesariana (76,4%). A frequência de iteratividade, diabetes gestacional e doença hipertensiva específica da gestação foi maior a partir dos 35 anos, e a frequência de hipertensão arterial crônica foi maior a partir dos 40 anos. Neonatos de pacientes com 40 anos ou mais tiveram maiores índices de baixo peso ao nascer, óbito neonatal, Apgar de quinto minuto < 7 e necessidade de reanimação neonatal. Conclusão: Pacientes com idade materna avançada representaram porcentagem expressiva da população e tiveram maior frequência de desfechos adversos. Complicações obstétricas foram mais prevalentes a partir dos 35 anos, com destaque para diabetes gestacional e distúrbios hipertensivos. Resultados neonatais desfavoráveis, como baixo peso ao nascer e óbito neonatal, foram mais prevalentes a partir de 40 anos.


Objective: Featuring the population of pregnant women in different age groups; assessing maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients at advanced maternal age; determining the threshold age for the potential prevalence of adverse outcomes. Methods: Women in labor assisted at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo between June/2019 and May/2020 were divided into three age groups ­ 20 to 34 years; 35 to 39 years; over 40 years ­, who were assessed for several variables. Results: 44.2% of pregnant women in this Service were at advanced maternal age. The sample counted on 927 patients, most of them declared stable marital relationships (75.2%) and College degree (74,7%). High obesity levels (25.9%), overweight (39.7%) and cesarean delivery (76.4%) were observed, regardless of age group. Maternal request was the main indication for cesarean surgery. Iteration frequency, gestational diabetes and pregnancy-specific hypertensive disease was higher from the age of 35 years, on. Chronical high blood pressure was higher in the age group over 40 years. Newborns from patients older than over 40 years presented higher low weight at birth index, neonatal death, 5th minute Apgar score < 7 and the need of neonatal resuscitation. Conclusion: Patients at advanced maternal age recorded higher obstetric adversity frequency in the age group over 35 years, with emphasis on gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. Unfavorable neonatal outcomes related to low weight at birth and neonatal death were more prevalent in the age group over 40 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Maternal Health , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Apgar Score , Prenatal Care , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Maternal Age , Sociodemographic Factors , Midwifery
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 587-603, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399264

ABSTRACT

O Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional é definido como doença que se caracteriza pelos altos níveis de glicemia sanguínea, diagnosticada durante a gestação. Este adoecimento pode acarretar várias complicações maternas e fetais, muitas vezes, necessitando de internamento precoce e cuidados avançados. Objetivou-se caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico de gestantes com diabetes mellitus gestacionais atendidas em serviço de referência. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, documental, retrospectivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado com gestantes atendidas na maternidade do Hospital Regional do Sudoeste ­ PR, Francisco Beltrão. A amostra foi constituída por 216 gestantes, cujos dados foram coletados dos prontuários das pacientes. Incluíram-se as gestantes atendidas e diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional no período de 2020 e com pelo menos um exame de glicose em jejum ou um teste de tolerância oral à glicose para comprovação diagnóstica. Foram exclusas as gestantes dos anos de 2019 e 2021 e oito transferências. A amostra teve maior porcentual do Diabetes mellitus gestacional (90,7%), com prevalência na raça branca (69,9%), faixa etária de 15- 35 anos (68,5%). Ademais,65,7% realizaram controle com dieta e 32,4 % necessitaram realizar o uso de insulina e 51,9%delas eram obesas. A presente pesquisateve considerável relevância, pois permitiu obter perfil epidemiológico de gestantes diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus, trazendo benefícios, como identificação precocemente da doença, de modo a evitar complicações para gestantes e bebês. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gestacional; Diabetes; Prevalência; Maternidade.


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is defined as a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose, which is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. It can cause several maternal and fetal complications, often requiring early hospitalization and advanced care. The aim of thestudy was to characterize the epidemiological profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a reference service. This is a descriptive, documentary, retrospective, quantitative study, carried out with pregnant women attended at the maternity hospital of the Hospital Regional do Sudoeste - PR in the city of Francisco Beltrão. The sample consisted of216 pregnant women, and data were collected from the patients' medical records. The study included all pregnant women who were attended and diagnosed with GDM in the period described, and who had at least one fasting glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test for diagnostic confirmation. All pregnant women from the year 2019 and 2021 were excluded fromthe study. The sample had a higher percentage of GDM 90.7% according to race 69.9% werewhite, aged 15-35 years 68 , 5%, while 65.7% performed control with diet and 32.4% neededto use insulin and 51.9% of them were obese. This research had great results because it had an epidemiological profile of pregnant women diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus, bringing benefitsand thus being able to identify gestational Diabetes mellitus early, aiming to avoid complications for the pregnant woman and the baby.


La diabetes mellitus gestacional se define como una enfermedad caracterizada por niveles elevados de glucosa en sangre, diagnosticada durante el embarazo. Esta enfermedad puede dar lugar a varias complicaciones maternas y fetales, que a menudo requieren una hospitalización temprana y cuidados avanzados. El objetivo es caracterizar el perfil epidemiológico de las gestantes con diabetes mellitus atendidas en el servicio de referencia. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, documental, retrospectivo, de carácter cuantitativo, realizado con gestantes atendidas en la maternidad del Hospital Regional del Sudoeste - PR, Francisco Beltrão. La muestra estaba formada por 216 mujeres embarazadas, cuyos datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas de las pacientes. Se incluyeron las mujeres embarazadas atendidas y diagnosticadas de diabetes mellitus gestacional en el periodo 2020 y con al menos una prueba de glucosa en ayunas o una prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa para su diagnóstico. Se excluyeron las embarazadas de los años 2019 y 2021 y ocho traslados. La muestra tuvo un mayor porcentaje de Diabetes mellitus gestacional (90,7%), con prevalencia en la raza blanca (69,9%), grupo de edad 15-35 años (68,5%). Además, el 65,7% se controlaba con la dieta y el 32,4% necesitaba utilizar insulina y el 51,9% era obeso. La presente investigación tiene una relevancia considerable, ya que permite obtener el perfil epidemiológico de las gestantes diagnosticadas con diabetes mellitus, lo que conlleva beneficios, como la identificación precoz de la enfermedad, a fin de evitar complicaciones para las gestantes y los bebés.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Health Profile , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Blood Glucose/physiology , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Insulin/analysis
8.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(3): 168-172, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396960

ABSTRACT

Los métodos de captura y recaptura (MCR) se emplean en la estimación de poblaciones mediante la utilización de diferentes fuentes de datos, disponibles e incompletas, que registran por separado un mismo evento. En esta metodología, las fuentes son utilizadas para extrapolar el número de individuos no registrados, usando la información recopilada sobre los individuos sí registrados. Este artículo describe todos los pasos de su aplicación práctica, a partir de un ejemplo de estimación de la incidencia de diabetes gestacional en una institución, a partir de cinco fuentes documentales. (AU)


Capture-recapture (CRM) methods are widely used to estimate populations by using different data sources, available and incomplete, that record the same event separately. In these methods, the available sources are used to extrapolate the number of unregistered individuals, using the information collected on the individuals that are registered. This article describes all the steps of its practical application, based on an example of estimating the incidence of gestational diabetes in an institution based on five documentary sources. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Epidemiologic Methods , Incidence , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Data Collection , Bayes Theorem , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Methodology as a Subject , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 232-239, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371519

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipoglucemia neonatal es una complicación de la diabetes mellitus gestacional Son pocos los estudios que avalan la pesquisa sistemática en este grupo poblacional durante las primeras horas de vida. Objetivos. Evaluar la asociación entre tratamiento materno recibido (dieta versus insulina) y el desarrollo de hipoglucemia, e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo realizado en en las sedes de Buenos AIres y San Justo de un hospital general de tercer nivel entre el 1 de enero de 2017 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018. Se estimó la incidencia de hipoglucemia (≤47 mg/dl) en recién nacidos según el manejo de la diabetes materna y se realizó un análisis multivariable para evaluar factores asociados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 195 pacientes. No se encontró diferencia estadística en la incidencia de hipoglucemia según el tratamiento materno recibido (45,3 % versus 39,7 %; p = 0,45) ni se identificaron factores de riesgo asociados. Modificando el valor de corte a ≤40 mg/dl, tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la incidencia (23,4 % versus 19 %, p = 0,48); no obstante, los pacientes hipoglucémicos presentaron un hematocrito significativamente mayor y una menor prevalencia de lactancia exclusiva al egreso. El análisis multivariable mostró una asociación independiente entre alto peso al nacer con hipoglucemia que requiere corrección. Conclusiones. La incidencia de hipoglucemia neonatal en la población estudiada no presentó diferencia según el tratamiento materno recibido. El estudio realizado fundamenta el control de la glucemia en estos niños en la práctica diaria.


Introduction. Neonatal hypoglycemia is a complication of gestational diabetes mellitus. Few studies have been conducted to support a systematic screening in the first hours of life of this population group. Objectives. To assess the association between the treatment administered to the mother (diet vs. insulin) and the development of hypoglycemia, and to identify associated risk factors. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, and retrospective study carried out at the Buenos Aires and San Justo maternal centers of a general, tertiary care hospital between 01-01-2017 and 12-31-2018. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia (≤ 47 mg/dL) based on the management of maternal diabetes was estimated and a multivariate analysis was done to assess related factors. Results. A total of 195 patients were included. No statistical difference was found in the incidence of hypoglycemia based on the treatment administered to the mother (45.3% vs. 39.7%; p = 0.45) and no associated risk factors were identified. Once the cutoff point was changed to ≤ 40 mg/dL, no differences were found in the incidence either (23.4% versus 19%, p = 0.48); however, patients with hypoglycemia had a significantly higher hematocrit level and a lower prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between a high birth weight and hypoglycemia, requiring correction. Conclusions. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the studied population did not vary based on the treatment received by the mother. This study supports the control of glycemia in these infants in daily practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Fetal Diseases , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Mothers
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408669

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus gestacional presenta una serie de complicaciones en la mujer embarazada y su hijo, lo cual puede incrementar la morbilidad en las gestantes o la descendencia. Objetivos: Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la diabetes mellitus gestacional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal de las pacientes con este diagnóstico, perteneciente a la comunidad del Policlínico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga, Pinar del Río, durante los años 2014 al 2018. De un universo de 1623 mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el período estudiado, se tomó una muestra de 59 gestantes con diabetes mellitus gestacional. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva. Los resultados se presentaron en tablas y gráficos. Resultados: La incidencia de la enfermedad fue de un 3,6 por ciento, en edades entre 26-30 años, no hubo adolescentes diagnosticadas en el período estudiado. Como antecedentes previos estuvieron los abortos y la nuliparidad. Prevaleció el parto transpelviano y las complicaciones a corto plazo del hijo fueron: la macrosomía, la hipoglucemia neonatal y la distocia de hombro. No hubo muerte perinatal causada por este padecimiento. Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus gestacional se relaciona con algunos factores de riesgo, lo que puede provocar complicaciones para la madre y el feto en el período perinatal(AU)


Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus presents a series of complications for both the pregnant woman and her child, which can increase morbidity in pregnant women or the offspring. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out with patients with the aforementioned diagnosis, belonging to the community of Pedro Borras Astorga University Polyclinic, Pinar del Rio Cuba, during the years 2014 to 2018. From a universe of 1623 pregnant women attended in the studied period, a sample of 59 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus was taken. Descriptive statistics was used. The results were shown in tables and graphs. Results: The incidence of the disease was 3.6 percent, ages were between 26 and 30 years, and there were no adolescents diagnosed in the period studied. Previous history included abortions and nulliparity. Transpelvic delivery prevailed, while the short-term complications of the child were macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia and shoulder dystocia. There was no perinatal death caused by the studied condition. Conclusions: Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with some risk factors, which may lead to complications for the mother and the in the perinatal period(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 58-67, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364311

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes maternal and infant morbidity. Periodontitis is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal status, prematurity and associated factors in pregnant women with and without GDM. Subjects and methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 80 pregnant women with GDM (G1 = 40) and without GDM (G2 = 40). Demographic and socioeconomic status, systemic and periodontal health condition, prematurity and newborns' birth weight were analyzed. For bivariate analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test, t test and Chi-squared test were used. Binary logistic regression analyzed independent variables for periodontitis and prematurity (p < 0.05). Results: Patients from G1 presented lower socioeconomic status, higher weight and body mass index (BMI). Prematurity (G1 = 27.5%; G2 = 2.5%; p < 0.05) and severe periodontitis percentages (G1 = 22.5%; G2 = 0; p = 0.001) were higher in G1 than in G2. Logistic regression analysis showed that household monthly income (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003) and maternal BMI (adjusted OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.25; p = 0.028) were significant predictors of periodontitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. Presence of GDM remained in the final logistic model related to prematurity (adjusted OR = 14.79; 95% CI 1.80-121.13; p = 0.012). Conclusions: Pregnant women with GDM presented higher severity of periodontitis, lower socioeconomic status, higher overweight/obesity and a 10-fold higher risk of prematurity. Socioeconomic-cultural status and BMI were significant predictors for periodontitis, and GDM was a predictor to prematurity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
12.
RFO UPF ; 26(1): 84-92, 20210327. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1428589

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a condição bucal de mulheres com diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) internadas no Hospital Escola (HE) da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel). Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal retrospectivo de base hospitalar, em que dois residentes treinados realizaram a coleta dos dados por meio da avaliação dos prontuários médicos e odontológicos, no período de setembro de 2019 a março de 2020. Os dados socioeconômicos e demográficos e o diagnóstico de DMG foram coletados dos prontuários médicos, enquanto hábitos e condição bucal, dos prontuários odontológicos. A análise dos dados foi realizada no programa Stata 11.0, usando os testes Exato de Fisher e Regressão de Poisson. Resultados: foram avaliados os prontuários de 83 gestantes, destas, 37 (44,6%) apresentavam DMG. A presença de DMG esteve asso-ciada com as gestantes de maior faixa etária (62,2%) e no terceiro trimestre de gestação. Em sua maioria, tinham renda de até dois salários mínimos, eram solteiras, tinham filhos e realizaram pré-natal. Em relação à avaliação bucal, apenas a presença de cálculo dental e inflamação gengival foi estatisticamente associada à presença de DMG (p= 0,030 e 0,014 respectivamente). A autopercepção do sorriso foi considerada ruim por 40,5%, e a maioria teve dentes perdidos por cárie (64,9%). Conclusões: a prevalência de DMG foi alta entre as gestantes internadas, sendo maior em mulheres de mais idade. Presença de cálculo dental e inflamação gengival foram fortemente associadas à presença de DMG, enquanto hábitos bucais e presença de cárie não apresentaram associação. Novas pesquisas, com exames periodontais completos, são necessárias para verifi-car as condições periodontais dessas mulheres.(AU)


Aim: to assess the oral condition of women with Gestacional Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) admitted in a School Hospital (HE)/UFPel. Methods: medical and dental records, from September 2019 to March 2020, were evaluated in this hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from medical records, while oral condition and habits were obtained from the dental records. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata 11.0 software using Fisher's exact test and Poisson regression. Results: the medical records of 83 pregnant women were evaluated, of which 37 (44.6%) had GDM. The presence of GDM was associated with pregnant women of older age (62.2%) and most in the third trimester of pregnancy. Most of them had an income of up to two minimum wages, were single, had children and underwent prenatal care. Regarding the oral evaluation, only the presence of dental calculus and gingival inflammation was statistically associated with the presence of GDM (p = 0.030 and 0.014 respectively). The self-perception of the smile was considered bad to 40.5% and many of them had lost teeth due to caries (64.9%). Conclusions: the prevalence of GDM was high in hospitalized pregnant women, being higher in older women. Presence of dental calculus and gingival inflammation were strongly associated with the presence of GDM, while oral habits and the presence of caries were not associated. Further research, with complete periodontal examinations is necessary to verify the periodontal conditions of these women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Dental Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 45-51, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287798

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate sleep alterations and associated factors in pregnant diabetic women (n=141). METHODS: Sleep profile, sociodemographics and clinical information were collected. Poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5) and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥10), sleep duration (h), sleep latency (min), frequent sleep interruption and short sleep (≤6 h) were assessed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (16.3%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25.5%) and gestational diabetes mellitus (58.2%). RESULTS: Poor sleep quality was found in 58.8% of patients and daytime sleepiness in 25.7%, regardless of hyperglycemia etiology. No correlation existed between daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality (Pearson correlation r=0.02, p=0.84). Short sleep duration occurred in 1/3 of patients (31.2%). Sleep interruptions due to frequent urination affected 72% of all and sleep interruptions due to any cause 71.2%. Metformin was used by 65.7% of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 28.7% of gestational diabetes mellitus. In gestational diabetes mellitus, parity number was independently associated with poor sleep quality (p=0.02; OR=1.90; 95%CI 1.07-3.36) and metformin use was also independently associated with poor sleep quality (p=0.03; OR=2.36; 95%CI 1.05-5.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our study originally shows that poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent in diabetic pregnancy due to different etiologies. Interestingly, only in gestational diabetes mellitus, metformin therapy and higher parity were associated with poor sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 320-328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888510

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain and blood lipid level during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). A total of 12 650 singleton pregnant women without history of hypertension and diabetes who were admitted at Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine for delivery from January 2018 to April 2019 were enrolled in the study. There were 2381 cases complicated with gestational diabetes (GDM group) and 10 269 cases without GDM (non-GDM group). The pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy were documented in two groups. The factors related to perinatal outcome were analyzed. In both GDM and non-GDM pregnant women, pre-pregnancy overweight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were independent factors of large for gestational age infant (LGA), small for gestational age infant (SGA) and first cesarean section (<0.01 or <0.05). Excessive weight gain during pregnancy was also an independent risk factor of preeclampsia (<0.05). Triglyceride levels in the second trimester were independently associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as LGA, preeclampsia, initial cesarean delivery, premature delivery. Controlling excessive or insufficient weight gain during pregnancy can significantly reduce the incidence of LGA and SGA. And controlling BMI before pregnancy can effectively reduce the incidence of LGA, preeclampsia and the first cesarean section. For non-GDM pregnant women, abnormal blood lipid levels in the second trimester may be closely related to multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, and active dietary guidance or treatment is also required.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Body Mass Index , Cesarean Section , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Lipids , Pregnancy Outcome , Weight Gain
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 313-319, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888502

ABSTRACT

To explore the correlation of mid-term oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and maternal weight gain with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 2611 pregnant women with GDM who were examined and delivered in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 1st 2017 to 30th June 2018 were enrolled in this study. According to the number of abnormal items of mid-term OGTT results or maternal gestational weight gain (GWG), patients were classified. The incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes in each group and its relation with OGTT results and GWG were analyzed. The incidence of gestational hypertension, premature delivery, macrosomia and large for gestational age infant (LGA) in three abnormal items GDM patients were significantly higher than those in one or two abnormal items GDM patients (all <0.017). The incidence of gestational hypertension and premature delivery in two abnormal items GDM patients were higher than those in one abnormal item GDM patients (all <0.017). The incidence of gestational hypertension and macrosomia in excessive GWG patients were significantly higher than those in inadequate and appropriate GWG patients (all <0.017), and the incidence of LGA were higher than that in inadequate GWG patients (all <0.017). The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight infants in appropriate GWG patients were significantly lower than those in inadequate and excessive GWG patients, and the incidence of small for gestational age infant (SGA) were significantly lower than that in inadequate GWG patients (all <0.017). In one abnormal item GDM patients, inadequate GWG was a risk factor for premature delivery and SGA (=1.66, 95%: 1.10-2.52; =2.20, 95%: 1.07-4.53), and protective factor for LGA (=0.40, 95%: 0.27-0.59). And excessive GWG was a risk factor for gestational hypertension, premature delivery and low birth weight infants (=2.15, 95%: 1.35-3.41; =1.80, 95%: 1.20-2.72; =2.18, 95%: 1.10-4.30).In two abnormal items GDM patients, inadequate GWG was a protective factor for macrosomia and LGA (=0.24, 95%: 0.09-0.67; =0.54, 95%: 0.34-0.86), while excessive GWG was risk factor for premature delivery (=1.98, 95%: 1.23-3.18).In three abnormal items GDM patients, there was no significant relationship between GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. For GDM women with one or two items of elevated blood glucose in OGTT, reasonable weight management during pregnancy can reduce the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. For those with three items of elevated blood glucose in OGTT, more strict blood glucose monitoring and active intervention measures should be taken in addition to weight management during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Body Mass Index , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Gestational Weight Gain , Glucose Tolerance Test , Pregnancy Outcome
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(8)ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389303

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing along with obesity and gestational age. This prevalence varies in populations and with different guidelines used for the diagnoses. Aim: To estimate the change in prevalence of GDM and obesity in a period 11 years. Material and Methods: Analysis of pregnancies attended at an obstetrics ward of a general hospital between 2001 and 2018. Those women who were diabetic prior to their pregnancy were excluded from the analysis. Annual crude and adjusted prevalence using direct standardization by age were estimated. Results: We analyzed 33,985 pregnancies. GDM screening was performed in 20,139 (59%), and 1,466 (7%) had GDM. In 2007 the crude and adjusted prevalence of GDM were 4.9 and 5.2%, respectively. The figures in 2018 were 8.8 and 8.5%, respectively, with an annual percentage of change (APC) of 6.9% (p < 0.001). The frequency of obesity also increased with an APC of 4.1% (p < 0.001). In women with GDM the APC of obesity was 4.6% (p < 0.001). There was also an increase in the frequency of screening, with a joinpoint in 2011. The APC of screening in the periods 2007-2011 and 2011-2018 were 16.6 and 2.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of GDM increased in this period of eleven years along with the prevalence of obesity.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
17.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(2): e1080, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138959

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes gestacional constituye la enfermedad endocrina más frecuente del embarazo y aparece generalmente cuando existen factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Describir los factores de riesgo de la diabetes gestacional. Métodos: Estudio transversal-descriptivo de una base de datos que incluyó a 242 mujeres con diabetes gestacional, atendidas en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico América Arias de La Habana, en el periodo 2004-2006. Se analizaron variables categóricas (dicotómicas), consideradas como factores de riesgo de diabetes gestacional: diabetes en familiar de primer grado, edad ≥ 30 años, peso pregestacional excesivo, historia de diabetes gestacional, macrosomía fetal y muerte fetal inexplicable, hipertensión arterial relacionada con embarazo y glucemia en ayunas de riesgo . Se efectuó análisis porcentual (determinación de frecuencias relativas). Resultados: La media de edad fue 29,2 ± 5,3 años y de índice de masa corporal, 27,1 ± 4,2 kg/m2. Un 96,69 por ciento tenía factores de riesgo y 79,49 por ciento de estas, más de uno, los más frecuentes fueron: glucemia en ayunas de riesgo (64,53 por ciento), edad; 30 años (60,26 por ciento) y peso pregestacional excesivo (51,71 por ciento). Predominó la forma combinada de presentación de factores de riesgo, en forma única solo se presentó: glucemia en ayunas de riesgo (14,57 por ciento), diabetes en familiar de primer grado (8,43 por ciento), edad 30 años (7,80 por ciento) y peso pregestacional excesivo (5,79 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo de diabetes gestacional se presentaron en la mayoría de las mujeres con la enfermedad, fundamentalmente de forma combinada(AU)


Introduction: Gestational diabetes is the most frequent endocrine disease of pregnancy and generally appears when there are risk factors. Objective: To describe the risk factors for gestational diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study of a database that included 242 women with gestational diabetes, treated at América Arias Gyneco-obstetric Hospital in Havana, in the period 2004-2006. Categorical (dichotomous) variables were analyzed, considered as risk factors for gestational diabetes: diabetes in a first-degree relative, age equal to or over 30 years, excessive pre-pregnancy weight, clinical history of gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia and unexplained fetal death, pregnancy-related high blood pressure, and at-risk fasting blood glucose. Percentage analysis (determination of relative frequencies) was carried out. Results: The mean age was 29.2±5.3 years. The mean body mass index was 27.1±4.2 kg/m2. 96.69 percent had risk factors; 79.49 percent of these had more than one risk factor. The most frequent were at-risk fasting blood glucose (64.53 percent), age equal to or over 30 years (60.26 percent), and excessive pre-pregnancy weight (51.71 percent). There was a predominance in manifestation of combined risk factors; manifestation of one risk factor alone occurred only in at-risk fasting blood glucose (14.57 percent), diabetes in first-degree relative (8.43 percent), age equal to o over 30 years (7, 80 percent), and excessive pre-pregnancy weight (5.79 percent). Conclusions: The risk factors for gestational diabetes appeared in the majority of women with the disease, mainly in combination(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose , Risk Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 139-145, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136181

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate two different criteria, one or two cut-off values, of oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 120 records of pregnant women who received prenatal care at the service of a Brazilian university was carried out. Bivariate analysis of obstetric and perinatal outcomes was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS Considering criterion I, 12.5% of patients were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients were 3.57 times more likely to have a large fetus for the gestational age at birth (p=0.038). Using criterion II, gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 5.8% of patients, macrosomia was 7.73 times more likely to be found in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and a large fetus for the gestational age at birth was 8.17 times more likely (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS There was a difference in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus between the two criteria analyzed. The new criterion proposed increased prevalence.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar dois critérios distintos, um ou dois valores de corte, do teste oral de tolerância à glicose com 75 g de glicose para o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional. Métodos Estudo transversal envolvendo 120 prontuários de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em um ambulatório de uma universidade brasileira. Análise bivariada dos resultados obstétricos e perinatais foi realizada pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Considerando o critério I, 12,5% das pacientes foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. As pacientes apresentaram uma chance 3,57 maior de ter um feto grande para a idade gestacional (p=0,038). Utilizando o critério II, o diabetes mellitus gestacional foi diagnosticado em 5,8% das pacientes. Mediante esse critério diagnóstico, a chance de macrossomia foi 7,73 vezes mais provável na presença de diabetes mellitus gestacional (p=0,004) e a chance de um feto grande para a idade gestacional foi 8,17 vezes maior de ocorrer (p=0,004). Conclusões Observou-se diferença na prevalência de diabetes melittus gestacional entre os dois critérios analisados, sendo que o novo critério proposto aumentou a prevalência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test/standards , Prenatal Care/methods , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(1): 12-18, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092630

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and the main associated risk factors in the population served by the Brazilian Unified Health System in the city of Caxias do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Materials and Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted. Maternal variables were collected from the medical records of all pregnant women treated at the basic health units in 2016. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy (pregestational diabetes, overt diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus) was identified by analyzing the results of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, as recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Based on the data, the women were allocated into two groups: the gestational diabetes group and the no gestational diabetes group. Results The estimated prevalence of gestational diabetes among 2,313 pregnant women was of 5.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 4.56-6.45). Pregnant women with 3 or more pregnancies had twice the odds of having gestational diabetes compared with primiparous women (odds ratio [OR]=2.19; 95%CI: 1.42-3.37; p<0.001). Pregnant women aged 35 years or older had three times the odds of having gestational diabetes when compared with younger women (OR=3.01; 95%CI: 1.97-4.61; p<0.001). Overweight pregnant women were 84% more likely to develop gestational diabetes than those with a body mass index lower than 25 kg/m2 (OR =1.84; 95%CI: 1.25-2.71; p=0.002). A multivariable regression analysis showed that being overweight and being 35 years old or older were independent variables. Conclusion In this population, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was of 5.4%. Age and being overweight were predictive factors for gestational diabetes.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional, e dos principais fatores de risco associados, em população usuária do Sistema Único de Saúde em Caxias do Sul-RS. Métodos Um estudo descritivo, transversal e retrospectivo foi feito. As variáveis maternas foramcoletadas de registros de prontuários de todas gestantes atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde do município em 2016. A identificação de hiperglicemia na gestação (diabetes pré-gestacional, diabetes identificado durante a gestação e diabetes mellitus gestacional) foi feita pela avaliação dos resultados do teste oral de tolerância com 75 g glicose, conforme preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. Com base nesses dados, as gestantes foram separadas em dois grupos: o grupo com diabetes gestacional e o grupo sem diabetes gestacional. Resultados A prevalência estimada de diabetes gestacional em 2.313 gestantes foi de 5,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 4,56-6,45). Gestantes com 3 ou mais gestações apresentaram chance 2 vezes maior para a ocorrência de diabetes gestacional, quando comparadas às primigestas (razão de possibilidades [RP]=2,19; IC95%: 1,42- 3,37; p<0,001). Gestantes com idade de 35 anos ou mais apresentaram chance três vezes maior do que as mais jovens (RP=3,01; IC95%: 1,97-4,61; p<0,001). A chance de desenvolver diabetes gestacional em gestantes com sobrepeso foi 84% maior do que a das comíndice demassa corporal inferior a 25 kg/m2 (RP=1,84; IC95%: 1,25-2,71; p=0,002). A análise de regressão multivariada mostrou sobrepeso e idade materna como variáveis com associação independente. Conclusão Nesta população, a prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi de 5,4%. Idade materna e sobrepeso pré-gestacional foram fatores preditivos para diabetes gestacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Public Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Overweight , Glucose Tolerance Test
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