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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 88-91, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364299

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We assess the severity and frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients and in patients with previous diagnosis of T1D in a referral Brazilian university hospital in the first five months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also compare the data with data from pre-pandemic periods. Forty-three new-onset T1D patients were diagnosed between April and August of the years 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of new-onset T1D was over twice the number of new-onset T1D in the same period in the three previous years. All the 43 patients survived and are now on outpatient follow-up. We also compared the characteristics of the T1D patients hospitalized between April and August of the years 2017, 2018, and 2019 (32 hospitalizations) to the characteristics of the T1D patients hospitalized between April and August/2020 (35 hospitalizations; 1 patient was hospitalized twice in this period). Fourteen of the 34 patients admitted during the pandemic presented with COVID-19-related symptoms (any respiratory symptom, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), but only one had positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test. Samples from 32 out of these 34 patients were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and four patients were positive for total antibodies (IgM and IgG). In agreement with recent reports from European countries, we observed increased frequency of DKA and severe DKA in new-onset and previously diagnosed T1D children and adolescents in a large referral public hospital in Brazil in the first five months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The reasons for this outcome might have been fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection in emergency settings, the more limited availability of primary healthcare, and the lack of school personnel's attention toward children's general well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 231-236, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248807

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is an emerging form of diabetes mellitus characterized by unprovoked ketoacidosis, absence of autoimmunity and beta-cell dysfunction. The KPD may improve after initial glycemic compensation and evolve to exogenous insulin independence, most cases were observed in populations with African or Hispanic backgrounds. We reviewed the literature on KPD and, to date, only one case of KPD has been described in Brazil's multi-ethnic population. A group of adult Brazilian KPD patients without autoimmunity and insulinopenia was identified for this study. We report a retrospective study of four KPD cases (3 males) evaluated in southeast Brazil, the patients were overweight or obese, age between the third and fifth decades of life, had a family history of type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia (809.5 ± 344.2 mg/dL), acidosis (pH 7.21 ± 0.07; normal range (nr): 7.35-7.45 and bicarbonate 9.1 ± 6.2; nr: 22-26 mEq/mL), ketonuria (142.5 ± 114.4 mg/dL; nr: absence), absence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-65), and beta-cell function reserve (C-peptide 1.19 ± 0.53 ng/mL - nr: 1.1-4.4 ng/mL) on diagnosis. After glycemic compensation, there was increase of C-peptide (2.21 ± 0.41) indicating the recovery of beta-cell function and the time to insulin independence was 7.7 ± 3.5 months. They evolved after the period of glucotoxicity with insulin withdrawal and could be treated with oral antidiabetic therapy. This is the first case series of KPD described in Brazil being characterized by ketoacidosis at diagnosis, absence of autoimmunity, recovery of beta-cell function and insulin independence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Ketosis , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Insulin
3.
Iatreia ; 34(1): 7-14, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154353

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cetoacidosis diabética es una de las complicaciones agudas más graves de la diabetes. Pocos estudios en Latinoamérica describen el perfil clínico y los desenlaces de la población adulta con esta condición. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes adultos con esta enfermedad. Para esto se hizo énfasis en los factores precipitantes y en la determinación del porcentaje de letalidad intrahospitalaria por cualquier causa. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes mayores de 18 años admitidos por cetoacidosis diabética en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación de Medellín-Colombia, entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2015. Resultados: se incluyeron 159 pacientes con diagnóstico de cetoacidosis diabética. La mediana de la edad fue de 46 años. 40 individuos (25,2 %) tenían diabetes tipo 1, 107 (67,3 %) diabetes tipo 2 y, 12 (7,6 %), otro tipo de diabetes. El factor precipitante de cetoacidosis diabética más común fue la suspensión del tratamiento hipoglucemiante (36 %), seguida de infección (32 %) y diabetes de novo (28 %). La mediana de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 8 días. 12 pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: la evaluación de los casos de cetoacidosis diabética en este estudio demostró diferencias importantes en la presentación clínica de aquellos con diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2. La suspensión del tratamiento fue el factor precipitante más frecuente, seguido por la infección. La letalidad en este estudio fue de 7,5 %, superior a la tasa de 1 % que tienen los países desarrollados, evidenciando la necesidad de mejorar la atención de estos pacientes.


SUMMARY Importance: Ketoacidosis is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Few studies in Latin Ameri-ca describe the clinical profile and outcomes of adults with diabetic ketoacidosis. We proposed to determine demographic and clinical features, precipitating fac-tors and mortality in adults with diabetic ketoacidosis at a university hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients older than 18 years of age admitted to the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellín, Colombia) were reviewed from 2012 to 2015. Results: 159 adult patients with diabetic ketoacidosis were included. The median age was 46 years. Forty patients (25,2 %) had type 1 diabetes, 107 (67,3%) type 2 diabetes and 12 (7,6%) other types of diabetes. The most common diabetic ketoacidosis precipitating factor was suspension of medical treatment (36%), followed by infection (32%) and new diagnosis of diabetes (28%). The median hospital stay was 8 days. Twelve patients died. Conclusion: The evaluation of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in this study showed important differences in the clinical presentation of those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Suspension of treatment was the most frequent precipitating factor, followed by infection. Mortality in this cohort was 7,5% compared to 1% in developed countries, showing the need to urgently improve the care of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetic Ketoacidosis
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(1): 10-17, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most frequent hyperglycemic complication in the evolution of diabetes mellitus. Common precipitating factors include newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, noncompliance with therapy and infections. However, few studies have been conducted in Brazil and none were prospective in design. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, clinical and laboratory characteristics and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis among emergency department patients in a tertiary-level teaching hospital in Brazil. We also aimed to identify immediate and long-term mortality within two years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective prognosis cohort study conduct at a tertiary-level teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: All patients > 12 years old presenting diabetic ketoacidosis who were admitted to the emergency department from June 2015 to May 2016 were invited to participate. RESULTS: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis per 1,000 admissions was 8.7. Treatment noncompliance and infection were the most common causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. The immediate mortality rate was 5.8%, while the six-month, one-year and two-year mortality rates were 9.6%, 13.5% and 19.2%, respectively. Death occurring within two years was associated with age, type 2 diabetes, hypoalbuminemia, infection at presentation and higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic ketoacidosis among patients presenting to the emergency department was relatively frequent in our hospital. Treatment noncompliance and infection were major precipitating factors and presence of diabetic ketoacidosis was associated with immediate and long-term risk of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital
5.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1178748

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar na literatura científica a eficácia dos protocolos de enfermagem direcionados ao paciente com complicações diabéticas. Método: Revisão integrativa, realizada de agosto a setembro de 2019, seguindo as recomendações do PRISMA. As bases de dados utilizadas foram: Web of Science e Scopus, através dos cruzamentos: "Diabetes Mellitus AND Nursing AND Protocols" e "Amputation AND Nursing AND Protocols". Identificaram-se 672 artigos, sendo selecionados 17. Resultados: A maior parte dos estudos foram publicados em inglês e realizados nos Estados Unidos. Verificaram-se protocolos de controle glicêmico, da cetoacidose e do autocuidado, os quais apresentaram bons resultados para o que se propõem. Um artigo abordou superficialmente os cuidados de enfermagem direcionados a pessoas com amputação. Conclusão: Os protocolos de enfermagem direcionados ao paciente com complicações diabéticas apresentaram-se eficazes.


Objective: To investigate in the scientific literature the effectiveness of nursing protocols directed to patients with diabetic complications. Method: Integrative review, conducted from August to September 2019, following the recommendations of the PRISMA.The databases used were: Web of Science and Scopus, through the crossovers: "Diabetes Mellitus AND Nursing AND Protocols" and "Amputation AND Nursing AND Protocols". A total of 672 articles were identified and 17were selected. Results: Most studies were published in English and conducted in the United States. Glycemic control, ketoacidosis and self-care protocols were verified, which presented good results for their purpose. One article superficially addressed nursing care directed to people with amputation. Conclusion: Nursing protocols directed to patients with diabetic complications were effective


Objetivo: Investigar en la literatura científica la efectividad de los protocolos de enfermería dirigidos a pacientes con complicaciones diabéticas. Método: Revisión integradora, realizada de agosto a septiembre de 2019, siguiendo las recomendaciones de PRISMA. Las bases de datos utilizadas fueron: Web of Science y Scopus, a través de los crossovers: "Diabetes Mellitus AND Enfermería AND Protocolos" y "Amputación AND Enfermería AND Protocolos". Se identificaron un total de 672 artículos y se seleccionaron 17. Resultados: La mayoría de los estudios se publicaron en inglés y se realizaron en los Estados Unidos. Se verificaron los protocolos de control glucémico, cetoacidosis y autocuidado, que presentaron buenos resultados para su propósito. Un artículo abordó superficialmente la atención de enfermería dirigida a personas con amputación. Conclusión: Los protocolos de enfermería dirigidos a pacientes con complicaciones diabéticas fueron efectivos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Complications/nursing , Diabetes Mellitus/nursing , Nursing Assessment/methods , Self Care/instrumentation , Efficacy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/nursing , Nursing Care
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSⅡ) versus multiple daily injection (MDI) on blood glucose control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 91 children with T1DM who were treated with CSⅡ for more than 1 year and 75 children with T1DM who were treated with MDI. The two groups were compared in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and the recurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) to evaluate the difference in the efficacy during the 3-year follow-up. A survey was conducted for the children in the CSⅡ group and their family members to investigate the degree of satisfaction with insulin pump.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in age, sex, and course of diabetes between the CSⅡ and MDI groups at disease onset and in the first year, the second year, and the third year of follow-up (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with T1DM treated with CSⅡ have a better control of blood glucose than those treated with MDI, and children and their family members are satisfied with CSⅡ treatment. Therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulins , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359773

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivos: Apresentar um caso raro de cetoacidose diabética (CAD) e pancreatite secundários ao uso de PEG-asparaginase em paciente pediátrico em tratamento para leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) e alertar quanto aos sinais que remetem a esses diagnósticos. Descrição do caso: Adolescente do sexo feminino, 10 anos e 11 meses, em tratamento para LLA e uso prévio de PEG-asparaginase há seis dias da internação, admitida com choque hipotensivo grave e encaminhada à Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Inicialmente o quadro foi interpretado como choque séptico. Em seguida a anamnese detalhada e os exames laboratoriais direcionaram para os diagnósticos de CAD e pancreatite, iniciando-se as intervenções específicas. Recebe alta hospitalar após 30 dias, sem necessidade de insulinoterapia, mas com reposição de enzimas pancreáticas. Comentários: Geralmente, às crianças com LLA gravemente enfermos e leucopênicos, atribui-se apenas o diagnóstico de sepse, que é um diagnóstico prioritário. Entretanto, no grupo em uso de PEG-asparaginase, o pediatra emergencista deve estar alerta ao raciocínio diferencial envolvendo CAD e pancreatite, o que pode ser bem difícil inicialmente. O alerta dos diagnósticos diferenciais do choque séptico, mesmo que raros, na assistência a pacientes oncológicos pediátricos, além da correta e pronta identificação do quadro e seu manejo apropriado, correlacionam-se diretamente ao sucesso terapêutico e, em algumas situações, à sobrevivência do paciente. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Objectives: We present a rare case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and pancreatitis secondary to the use of PEG-asparaginase in a pediatric patient being treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and draw attention to the signs that refer to these diagnoses. Case description: A female adolescent, aged 10 years and 11 months, undergoing treatment for ALL, used PEG-asparaginase for 6 days prior to admission. She was hospitalized due to severe hypotensive shock and was then referred to the intensive care unit. Initially, the clinical condition was interpreted as septic shock. However, detailed anamnesis and results of laboratory tests led to the diagnoses of DKA and pancreatitis; hence, appropriate interventions were initiated. She was discharged after 30 days without the need for insulin therapy but received pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Comments: Generally, diagnosing severely ill and leukopenic children with ALL is only attributed to sepsis, which is a priority diagnosis. However, in the group treated with PEG-asparaginase, the pediatric emergency specialist should consider differential reasoning in patients with DKA and pancreatitis, which can be quite difficult to assess initially. Alertness towards the differential diagnoses of septic shock, although rare, in the care of pediatric oncology patients, in addition to the correct and prompt identification of the condition and provision of appropriate management, directly correlates with treatment success and, in some situations, the improvement in patient's survival. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pancreatitis , Asparaginase , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sepsis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
8.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.255-275.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344740
9.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(5): 130-135, dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1177528

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: construir aplicativo para educação em saúde de pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus sobre prevenção de complicações agudas da doença. Métodos: Estudo metodológico aplicado, exploratório, fase de produção tecnológica. Produção do aplicativo ocorreu em duas etapas: revisão de literatura; construção do aplicativo. Resultados: Revisão: identificou-se 13 estudos. Na produção do aplicativo "Descomplica, Dona Bete", optou-se pela construção em mídia, texto e áudio, com tela inicial de boas-vindas e tela secundária que direciona aos tópicos sobre prevenção das complicações agudas Hipoglicemia, Hiperglicemia, Cetoacidose Diabética e Estado Hiperglicêmico Hiperosmolar. Conclusão: o processo de construção do aplicativo baseado em evidências da literatura foi o primeiro passo para suprir parte de uma lacuna, considerando o déficit de conhecimento de pessoas diabéticas acerca das complicações agudas da doença. Portanto, constitui um suporte interativo para ações de educação em saúde com potencialidade para incentivar pessoas com diabetes a aprimorar o autocuidado preventivo. (AU)


Objective: To build an application for health education of people with Diabetes Mellitus on prevention of acute complications of the disease. Methods: Applied, exploratory methodological study, technological production phase. Application production took place in two stages: literature review; building the application. Results: 13 studies were identified. In the production of the application "Descomplica, Dona Bete", we opted for the construction in media, text and audio, with a welcome initial screen and a secondary screen that directs to topics on prevention of acute complications Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Status Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar. Conclusion: The process of building the application based on evidence from the literature was the first step to fill part of a gap, considering the lack of knowledge of diabetic people about the acute complications of the disease. Therefore, it constitutes an interactive support for health education actions with the potential to encourage people with diabetes to improve preventive self-care. (AU)


Objetivo: Desarrollar una aplicación para la educación sanitaria de las personas con diabetes mellitus sobre la prevención de complicaciones agudas de la enfermedad. Métodos: Estudio metodológico exploratorio aplicado, fase de producción tecnológica. La producción de la aplicación se produjo en dos etapas: revisión de la literatura; construyendo la aplicación. Resultados: Revisión: se identificaron 13 estudios. En la producción de la aplicación "Descomplica, Dona Bete", elija construir en medios, texto y audio, con una pantalla de inicio de bienvenida y una pantalla secundaria que lo dirija a respuestas sobre complicaciones de complicaciones agudas Hipoglucemia, hiperglucemia, cetoacidosis diabética y estado hiperglucémico Hiperosmolar. Conclusión: El proceso de construcción de la aplicación basada en la literatura fue el primer paso para llenar un vacío, considerando la falta de conocimiento de las personas diabéticas sobre las complicaciones agudas de la enfermedad. Por lo tanto, ofrecer apoyo interactivo para acciones de educación en salud con el potencial de alentar a las personas con diabetes a mejorar o prevenir el autocuidado. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Educational Technology , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 332-336, oct 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122029

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El edema cerebral (EC) es la complicación más grave de la cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) en niños. La patogénesis del EC no se conoce con exactitud y su aparición ha sido relacionada con la terapia de rehidratación endovenosa en el tratamiento inicial.Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de EC en pacientes con CAD tratados en el Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde mediante rehidratación endovenosa y analizar potenciales factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de EC.Materiales y método. Estudio de diseño transversal para prevalencia y un análisis exploratorio para comparar las características clínicas y de laboratorio entre los pacientes con y sin EC. Se incluyeron pacientes de 1 a 18 años hospitalizados con diagnóstico de CAD desde el 1 de enero de 2005 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014.Resultados. Se analizaron 693 episodios de CAD en 561 historias clínicas. En 10 pacientes, se evidenció EC (el 1,44 %; intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 0,8-2,6). Los pacientes con EC presentaron mayor uremia (p < 0,001), menor presión de dióxido de carbono (p < 0,001) y menor natremia (p < 0,001) que aquellos pacientes sin EC.Conclusión. La prevalencia de EC en pacientes con CAD fue del 1,44 %, menor que la reportada en nuestro país (del 1,8 %). Los factores de riesgo al ingresar asociados a su desarrollo fueron la presencia de uremia elevada, hiponatremia e hipocapnia.


Introduction. Cerebral edema (CE) is the most severe complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. There is no accurate knowledge of CE pathogenesis and its onset has been related to intravenous rehydration therapy during the initial treatment.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of CE among DKA patients treated at Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde with intravenous rehydration and analyze potential risk factors for the development of CE.Materials and methods. Cross-sectional prevalence study and exploratory analysis to compare clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with and without CE. Patients aged 1-18 years hospitalized with the diagnosis of DKA between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014 were included.Results. A total of 693 DKA events from 561 medical records were analyzed. Ten patients had evidence of CE (1.44 %; 95 % confidence interval: 0.8-2.6). Patients with CE had higher serum urea levels (p < 0.001), lower carbon dioxide pressure (p < 0.001), and lower serum sodium levels (p < 0.001) than those without CE.Conclusion. The prevalence of CE among DKA patients was 1.44 %, smaller than that reported in our country (1.8 %). The risk factors at admission associated with CE development were high serum urea levels, hyponatremia, and hypocapnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Brain Edema , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 553-556, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127096

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations such as seizures, disorders of consciousness and abnormal movements such as hemichorea and hemiballismus can be the presenting symptoms of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar states. Exceptionally, focal signs as hemiparesis or aphasia are described. We report a 66-year-old man, presenting with nonfluent aphasia and right subtle hemiparesis. The computed tomography, computed tomography angiography and brain magnetic resonance did not show acute ischemic lesions or obstruction of arterial vessels. The initial laboratory evaluation disclosed a blood glucose of 936 mg/dL, a plasma osmolality of 331 mOsm/Kg, and positive plasma ketones. After the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality, focal symptoms subsided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aphasia , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma , Diabetic Ketoacidosis
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 135-138, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100249

ABSTRACT

El daño renal agudo es causa de morbilidad en niños diabéticos en países en vías de desarrollo, especialmente, en pacientes con cetoacidosis diabética. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar factores de riesgo para daño renal agudo en pacientes con cetoacidosis diabética. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron 50 pacientes diabéticos con cetoacidosis; el 54 % desarrollaron daño renal; en ellos, los niveles de glucosa y ácido úrico fueron mayores (541 mg/dl contra 407 mg/dl, p = 0,014, y 8,13 mg/dl contra 5,72 mg/dl, p = 0,015, respectivamente). El ácido úrico mayor de 6,5 mg/dl demostró un odds ratio de 6,910 (p = 0,027) para daño renal. En conclusión, la hiperuricemia fue un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de daño renal agudo en estos pacientes. Son necesarios estudios prospectivos para determinar el papel del ácido úrico en la patogénesis del daño renal agudo en pacientes diabéticos.


Acute kidney injury is a cause of morbidity in children with diabetes in developing countries, especially in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for acute kidney injury in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. This was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 50 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis were included; 54 % developed kidney injury. These had higher glucose and uric acid levels (541 mg/dL vs. 407 mg/dL, p = 0.014 and 8.13 mg/dL vs. 5.72 mg/dL, p = 0.015, respectively). Uric acid levels above 6.5 mg/dL showed an odds ratio of 6.910 (p= 0.027) for kidney injury. To conclude, hyperuricemia was a risk factor for acute kidney injury in these patients. Prospective studies are required to determine the role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury , Uric Acid , Statistical Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hyperuricemia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886416

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. Several reports have shown that coexistence of diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 is one of the risk factors for poor outcome and increased mortality. Rapid metabolic deterioration with development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) may result due to the acute insulin secretory capacity loss, stress condition and the cytokine storm. In this review, we aim to describe the prevalence of hyperglycemic crises(DKA/HHS) in patients with COVID-19 infection as well as their clinical outcomes. METHODS. An intensive search was done using the WebMD, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases for articles published between December 2019 to October 2020 that identified the number of patients who developed DKA and/or HHS among those who were admitted for COVID-19. Their clinical outcomes were likewise described. RESULTS. This review included 4 articles in which individual quality was assessed. A total of 1282 patients were admitted for COVID-19 and the prevalence of DKA was 1.32%. HHS was not reported in any of the studies. Five (29.4%) of the patients with DKA and COVID-19 died and 12 (70.6%) recovered. CONCLUSIONS. A significant number of COVID-19 patients developed DKA and it is associated with a high mortality rate. This reimposes the need for an appropriate algorithm for the optimal management of concomitant COVID 19 and hyperglycemic crises to avoid morbidity and mortality. Additionally, there is paucity of large-scale studies describing the prevalence of DKA/HHS in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19 , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Acid-Base Imbalance , Coma
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the differences in clinical characteristics between Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and fulminant Type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM), and to reduce the missed diagnosis, misdiagnosis, and mistreatment of FT1DM by medical staff.@*METHODS@#A total of 101 hospitalized patients with T1DM (including 8 cases of FT1DM) were enrolled in this study from Changsha Central Hospital between June 2012 and December 2018. Clinical characteristics of the 8 FT1DM patients were collected and compared with all T1DM patients.@*RESULTS@#All FT1DM patients were adult with the average age of (30.25±5.28) years old, accompanied by severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred within 1 week after onset. Moreover, pancreatic beta cells in these patients were destroyed and the islet-related antibodies were negative, while the serum pancreatic enzyme levels were increased. Compared with classic T1DM patients, the plasma glucose levels in FT1DM patients were much higher [(41.89±12.54) mmol/L vs (22.57±9.74) mmol/L], but glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting C peptide levels were significantly lower [(6.08±0.41)% vs (10.87±2.46%)%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#The onset time of FT1DM patients is very urgent via driving DKA. These patients have higher blood glucose concentration than classic T1DM patients, accompanied by electrolyte disturbances, impaired renal function, partially impaired liver function, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated trypsin. Most FTDM patients are adolescents and adults with no gender difference, especially pregnant women who are at high risk. Lifelong insulin dependence in FT1DM patients should be paid more attention in clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Insulin , Pregnancy , Sex Factors , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
17.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 531-535, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038508

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study is to examine risk factors for recurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis and determine interventions to prevent future admissions. Materials and methods Review article. Results Recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and not uncommon health problem. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with severe morbidity and mortality and hospital admissions due to this problem constitute a serious economic burden on the healthcare system. Younger age at diabetic ketoacidosis onset, poor baseline glycemic control and elevated HbA1C, patient comorbidities, depression, alcohol or substance abuse, particularly active cocaine use, have been associated with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis. In addition, socioeconomic factors (such as ethnic minority status, use of public health insurance and underinsurance), psychosocial, economic, and behavioral factors (including financial constraint, stretching a limited insulin supply, and homelessness) have been all reported to be associated with readmission among diabetic ketoacidosis patients. Conclusions Identifying high-risk patients during the first diabetic ketoacidosis admission and performing relevant interventions (repeated instructions of insulin use, social help and involvement of family members in medical treatment, collaboration with the patient's primary care physician in order to establish a close and frequent follow up program) may help prevent future admissions. Further studies need to take place to determine whether early interventions with those factors prevent future admissions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Hospitalization
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 170-174, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006512

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características y evolución de los pacientes que acudieron a las urgencias de nuestro hospital y fueron diagnosticados de cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) utilizando la novedosa herramienta de Big Data Savana. Método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de los pacientes atendidos en urgencias del Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor durante los años 2011 al 2016 con diagnóstico de CAD. La búsqueda se realizó con Savana Manager. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 95 episodios de CAD en 68 pacientes. Del total de episodios de CAD, 57 fueron en diabéticos tipo 1 (de ellos 4 LADA), 25 en diabéticos tipo 2, 2 en diabéticos postpancreatectomía y 12 fueron debuts diabéticos. Del total, 61 (64,2%) requirieron ingreso hospitalario, de ellos 23 (24,2%) ingresaron en UCI. La media de HbA1c fue de 10,6 ± 2,1%. Tres pacientes requirieron reingreso tras el alta. La mortalidad fue muy baja con el fallecimiento en 1 paciente diagnosticado simultáneamente de cáncer pulmonar. Los desencadenantes de la CAD fueron: 35 casos (36,8%) falta de adherencia al tratamiento, 31 (32,6%) infecciones, 12 (12,6%) debuts, 8 (8,4%) varias causas y 9 (9,5%) no se pudo determinar la causa. Se clasificaron como CAD de gravedad leve un 28%, un 38% como de gravedad moderada y 34% como graves. La duración del ingreso no se relacionó con la severidad de la cetoacidosis. Conclusiones: La CAD es una complicación grave que afecta tanto a diabéticos tipo 1 como a tipo 2 con elevado porcentaje de ingresos hospitalarios y en UCI, aunque con baja mortalidad en nuestro medio. La duración de los ingresos no se relaciona con la severidad del cuadro.


Objective: the study was designed to describe the clinical features and evolution of the diabetic patients attended in our hospital emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) using the novel Big Data tool Savana. Method: Retrospective descriptive study of the patients attended in the emergency room of the Infanta Leonor University Hospital during the years 2011 to 2016 with diagnosis of CAD. The search was made with Savana. Results: 95 episodes of DKA were diagnosed in 68 patients. Of the total episodes of CAD 57 were in type 1 diabetics (of which 4 were LADA), 25 in type 2 diabetics, 2 in diabetics postpancreatectomy and 12 were new onset of diabetes. Of the total, 61 (64.2%) required hospital admission, of which 23 (24.2%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean HbA1c was 10.6 ± 2.1%. Three patients required readmission after discharge. Mortality was very low with death in 1 patient simultaneously diagnosed of lung cancer. The triggers of CAD were: 35 cases (36,8%) lack of adherence to treatment, 31 (32.6%) infections, 12 (12.6%) new onset, 8 (8,4%) various causes and 9 (9.5%) the cause could not be determined. They were classified as mild DKA 28%, 38% as moderate and 34% as severe. The duration of admission was not related to the severity of ketoacidosis. Conclusions: DKA is a serious complication that affects both, type 1 and type 2 diabetics patients, with a high percentage of hospital and ICU admissions, although with low mortality in our environment. The lenght of the stay in hospital is not related to the severity of the DKA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Medical Informatics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology
20.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(1): e2018072, Jan.-Mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987500

ABSTRACT

Endotracheal intubation injuries are rare, but may be devastating­mostly among the pediatric patients or when these occur in the distal trachea. Such complications typify a therapeutic challenge, which, besides requiring intellectual and technical resources, takes a long time to reach a resolution. The authors present the case of a 15-year-old girl admitted with an abnormal state of consciousness due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was submitted to endotracheal intubation with hyperinflation of the tube cuff, which rendered tracheal necrosis and detachment of the tracheal mucosa, and consequent obstruction. Later, she developed scarring retraction and stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with an endotracheal prosthesis insertion. The aim of this report is to illustrate a preventable complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Tracheal Stenosis/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications
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