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1.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.255-275.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344740
2.
In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.371-386, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1377643
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 332-336, oct 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122029

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El edema cerebral (EC) es la complicación más grave de la cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) en niños. La patogénesis del EC no se conoce con exactitud y su aparición ha sido relacionada con la terapia de rehidratación endovenosa en el tratamiento inicial.Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de EC en pacientes con CAD tratados en el Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde mediante rehidratación endovenosa y analizar potenciales factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de EC.Materiales y método. Estudio de diseño transversal para prevalencia y un análisis exploratorio para comparar las características clínicas y de laboratorio entre los pacientes con y sin EC. Se incluyeron pacientes de 1 a 18 años hospitalizados con diagnóstico de CAD desde el 1 de enero de 2005 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014.Resultados. Se analizaron 693 episodios de CAD en 561 historias clínicas. En 10 pacientes, se evidenció EC (el 1,44 %; intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 0,8-2,6). Los pacientes con EC presentaron mayor uremia (p < 0,001), menor presión de dióxido de carbono (p < 0,001) y menor natremia (p < 0,001) que aquellos pacientes sin EC.Conclusión. La prevalencia de EC en pacientes con CAD fue del 1,44 %, menor que la reportada en nuestro país (del 1,8 %). Los factores de riesgo al ingresar asociados a su desarrollo fueron la presencia de uremia elevada, hiponatremia e hipocapnia.


Introduction. Cerebral edema (CE) is the most severe complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. There is no accurate knowledge of CE pathogenesis and its onset has been related to intravenous rehydration therapy during the initial treatment.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of CE among DKA patients treated at Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde with intravenous rehydration and analyze potential risk factors for the development of CE.Materials and methods. Cross-sectional prevalence study and exploratory analysis to compare clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with and without CE. Patients aged 1-18 years hospitalized with the diagnosis of DKA between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014 were included.Results. A total of 693 DKA events from 561 medical records were analyzed. Ten patients had evidence of CE (1.44 %; 95 % confidence interval: 0.8-2.6). Patients with CE had higher serum urea levels (p < 0.001), lower carbon dioxide pressure (p < 0.001), and lower serum sodium levels (p < 0.001) than those without CE.Conclusion. The prevalence of CE among DKA patients was 1.44 %, smaller than that reported in our country (1.8 %). The risk factors at admission associated with CE development were high serum urea levels, hyponatremia, and hypocapnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Brain Edema , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variables associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and its impact on the progression of the disease. Methods: We reviewed the records of 274 children and adolescents under 15 years, followed in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic of a university hospital in Curitiba-PR. They had their first appointment between January 2005 and April 2015. Results: Most patients received their T1DM diagnosis during a diabetic ketoacidosis episode. The associated factors were: lower age and greater number of visits to a physician's office prior to diagnosis; diabetic ketoacidosis was less frequent in patients who had siblings with T1DM and those diagnosed at the first appointment. Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, tachydyspnea, and altered level of consciousness were more common in the diabetic ketoacidosis group. There was no association with socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and length of the honeymoon period. Conclusions: Prospective studies are necessary to better define the impact of these factors on diagnosis and disease control. Campaigns to raise awareness among health professionals and the general population are essential to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as variáveis associadas ao diagnóstico de diabetes melito tipo 1 (DM1) na vigência de cetoacidose diabética e seu impacto na evolução da doença. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 274 crianças e adolescentes com idade até 15 anos acompanhados em um ambulatório de endocrinologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário de Curitiba, Paraná, cuja primeira consulta ocorreu entre janeiro de 2005 e abril de 2015. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve diagnóstico de DM1 na vigência de cetoacidose diabética. Os fatores associados foram: menor idade e maior número de consultas prévias ao diagnóstico; a cetoacidose diabética foi menos frequente quando havia um irmão com DM1 e quando o diagnóstico foi feito na primeira consulta médica. Náuseas ou vômitos, dor abdominal, taquidispneia e alteração do nível de consciência foram mais frequentes no grupo com cetoacidose diabética ao diagnóstico. Não se observou associação com nível socioeconômico, tempo de sintomas antes do diagnóstico e duração do período de lua de mel. Conclusões: São necessários estudos prospectivos para definir melhor o impacto desses fatores no diagnóstico e no controle da doença. Campanhas de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e da população são necessárias para que haja diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado do diabetes melito em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/pathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Progression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/therapeutic use
7.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268563

ABSTRACT

Introduction: l'acidocétose diabétique (ACD) est une complication métabolique grave du diabète. Son incidence est en augmentation ces dernières années, cependant sa mortalité reste faible. L'objectif de cette étude a été de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques des patients admis aux urgences pour ACD sévère ou modérée. Méthodes: il s'agissait d'une étude prospective, descriptive qui a inclus les ACD modérée ou sévère. Standardisation du protocole de prise en charge thérapeutique. Nous avons étudié les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques chez ces patients. Résultats: nous avons inclus 185 patients avec ACD sévère ou modérée. L'âge moyen a été de 38±18 ans; le sexe ratio=0,94. Diabète connue= 159 patients (85%) dont 116 étaient des diabétiques type 1. Les facteurs de décompensation les plus fréquents étaient l'arrêt du traitement chez 42% et l'infection chez 32%. La glycémie moyenne a été de 32,7±12mmol/L, pH =7,14±0,13, HCO-3 =7,2±3,56 mmol /L. La durée moyenne de l'insuline intraveineuse était de 17,3±16 heures. L'hypoglycémie a été observée chez 26 patients (14%), l'hypokaliémie chez 80 (43%). La mortalité au cours de l'hospitalisation a été de 2,1%. Conclusion: l'acidocétose diabétique survient chez les sujets jeunes traités par insulinothérapie. Le traitement est à base d'insuline par voie intraveineuse en plus de la correction du déficit hydrique. Les complications sont essentiellement l'hypokaliémie et l'hypoglycémie; et la mortalité reste faible


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Tunisia
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(4): 491-498, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cetoacidosis (CAD) es la principal causa de morbimortalidad en niños con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) debido a las alteraciones bioquímicas asociadas, siendo el más temido el edema cerebral, con altas tasas de mortalidad y secuelas neurológicas a largo plazo. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el perfil clínico y las complicaciones de pacientes con CAD ingresados en una unidad de paciente crítico pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con CAD atendidos en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UPCPUC) entre los años 2000 y 2015. Se evaluaron características demográficas, manifestaciones clínicas, alteraciones bioquímicas, tratamiento, complicaciones y pronóstico. Se compararon pacientes con debut de DM1 versus diabéticos conocidos, analizándose variables según distribución. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 46 episodios de CAD. El 67% de éstos correspondió a un debut de DM1. El 66% de los diabéticos conocidos ingresaron por mala adherencia al tratamiento. Los principales síntomas de presentación fueron: 63% polidipsia, 56% poliuria, 48% vómitos, 39% pérdida de peso y 35% dolor abdominal, con medias de Glicemia 522 mg/dL, pH 7,17 y osmolaridad plasmática 305 mOsm/L. El 89% recibió insulina en infusión. El 37% presentó hipokalemia. No se registraron episodios de edema cerebral ni muertes. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los ingresos por CAD correspondió a debut de DM1. En el grupo de diabéticos conocidos, la mala adherencia al tratamiento fue la principal causa de descompensación. No se presentaron complicaciones graves ni muertes asociadas al manejo de la CAD durante el período estudiado. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado y estandarizado pudieran contribuir a reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad en niños con CAD.


INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) due to clinical and biochemical alterations associated, cerebral edema as one of the most critical because of the high mortality rates and long-term neurological se quelae. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and complications of patients with DKA ad mitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of DKA patients treated at the Hospital Clínico, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UPCPUC) between 2000 and 2015. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, biochemical alterations, treatment, complications, and prognosis were assessed. Patients with T1DM onset were compared with those patients already diagnosed with diabetes, analyzing variables according to distribution. RESULTS: 46 DKA events were identified, 67% of them were the first episode of DKA. 66% of patients already diagnosed with diabetes were admitted due to poor adherence to treatment. The main symptoms described were: 63% polydipsia, 56% polyuria, 48% vomiting, 39% weight loss and 35% abdominal pain, and mean blood sugar levels of 522 mg/dL, pH 7.17, and plasma osmolality of 305 mOsm/L. 89% of patients received insulin infusion, and 37% presented hypokalemia. No episodes of cerebral edema or deaths were registered. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the DKA admissions were due to T1DM onset. In the group of patients already diagnosed with diabetes, the poor adherence to treatment was the main cause of decompensation. There were no serious complications or deaths associated with DKA management during the studied period. Early diagnosis and proper and standardized treatment contributed to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with DKA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/physiopathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Intensive Care Units
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 365-370, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950013

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) se caracteriza por acidosis metabólica (AM) con anión restante (AR) elevado, aunque, ocasionalmente, puede presentar hipercloremia. Se postuló que la presencia de hipercloremia inicial podría reflejar un mejor estado de hidratación; sin embargo, su prevalencia y su impacto en el tratamiento de la CAD se desconoce. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de AM con componente hiperclorémico previo al inicio del tratamiento y evaluar si su presencia se asocia con mejor estado de hidratación y con menor tiempo de salida de la CAD, en comparación con los pacientes con AR elevado exclusivo. Pacientes y métodos. Se agruparon los pacientes internados con CAD (período entre enero de 2014 y junio de 2016) según presentaran, al ingresar, AM con AR elevado exclusivo o con hipercloremia y se compararon sus variables clínicas, de laboratorio y la respuesta al tratamiento. Resultados. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes -amp;#91;17 varones, mediana de edad: 14,5 años (2,4-18)-amp;#93;, 22 con AM con componente hiperclorémico (prevalencia de 55%) y 18 con AR elevado exclusivo. La presencia de hipercloremia no se asoció con mejor estado de hidratación (porcentaje de déficit de peso en ambos grupos: 4,9%; p= 0,81) ni con una respuesta terapéutica más rápida (con componente hiperclorémico: 9,5 horas; con AR elevado exclusivo: 11 horas; p= 0,64). Conclusiones. En niños con CAD, la prevalencia de AM con componente hiperclorémico fue del 55% y no se asoció con un mejor estado de hidratación ni con una salida más temprana de la descompensación metabólica.


Introduction. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis (MA) with a high anion gap (AG), although, occasionally, it can present with hyperchloremia. It has been postulated that the early presence of hyperchloremia could reflect a better hydration status; however, its prevalence and impact on DKA treatment remain unknown. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of the hyperchloremic component in MA prior to treatment and to assess whether it is associated with a better hydration status and a shorter recovery time from DKA compared to patients with high AG only. Patients and Methods. Patients hospitalized with DKA (between January 2014 and June 2016) were grouped according to whether they were admitted with MA with high AG only. or with hyperchloremia, and clinical and laboratory outcome measures and response to treatment were compared. Results. Forty patients (17 males, median age: 14.5 years -amp;#91;2.4-18-amp;#93;) were included; 22 with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (prevalence of 55%) and 18 with metabolic acidosis with high AG only. The presence of hyperchloremia was not associated with a better hydration status (weight loss percentage in both groups: 4.9%; p= 0.81) nor with a faster treatment response (MA with a hyperchloremic component: 9.5 hours; MA with high AG only: 11 hours; p= 0.64). Conclusions. The prevalence of MA with a hyperchloremic component among children with DKA was 55% and was not associated with a better hydration status nor with a faster recovery from the metabolic decompensation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Acidosis/therapy , Chlorides/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Acidosis/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/physiopathology , Organism Hydration Status/physiology
10.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1257612

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a biochemical triad of hyperglycaemia, ketoacidosis and ketonaemia and one of the potentially life-threatening acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients presenting with DKA to a busy rural regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: A retrospective review of clinical notes of patients presenting with DKA to the Emergency Department was performed over a 10-month period. Data included patients' demographic profile, clinical presentation, precipitating factors, comorbidities, biochemical profile, length of hospital stay and outcome.Results: One hundred and five black South African patients above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Sixty-four (60.95%) patients had type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 41 (39.05%) patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM were significantly older than those with T1DM (52.1 ± 12.4 years vs. 24.4 ± 9.5 years, p < 0.0001). The acute precipitant was identified in 68 (64.76%) cases with the commonest precipitant in T1DM patients being poor adherence to treatment, whereas in T2DM, the most common precipitant was infection. Nausea and vomiting were the most common presenting symptoms with the majority of patients presenting with non-specific symptoms. Fifty-seven (54.29%) cases had pre-existing comorbidities, with higher prevalence in T2DM than T1DM patients. Glycated haemoglobin was severely elevated in the majority of patients. Patients remained hospitalised for an average of 8.9 ± 7.5 days. The mortality rate was 17.14%, and 12 of the 18 deaths occurred in patients with T2DM.Conclusion: The prevalence of DKA was higher in patients with T1DM and those with pre-existing comorbidities. The mortality rate remains alarmingly high in older patients with T2DM


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Hospitals, Rural , South Africa
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(10): 1360-1364, oct. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845453

ABSTRACT

Normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis should be suspected in pregnant women presenting nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and anorexia. We report a 39 years old woman with a 32 weeks pregnancy who sought emergency care due to hyperemesis. She was hospitalized with the following diagnoses: pregnancy hypertension syndrome, gestational diabetes, morbid obesity and poor prenatal control. The evaluation of the feto-placental unit showed perception of fetal movements, non-reactive non-stress baseline record and a biophysical profile of 6/8. Fetal maturation was initiated. Laboratory tests showed a metabolic acidosis, a low pH, an increased Gap anion, elevated ketonemia and a blood glucose of 172 mg/dl. A diagnosis of normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis was formulated and treatment with hydration and regular insulin according to capillary blood glucose levels was started. An emergency caesarean section was performed. The newborn weighed 2.650 kg, had a length of 46 cm, was large for gestational age, had an Apgar score of 2.7, had perinatal asphyxia, convulsive syndrome and a possible congenital cardiopathy. Once the ketoacidosis was resolved during the immediate puerperium, slow acting insulin was initiated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Pregnancy in Diabetics/therapy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Pregnancy Outcome , Gestational Age , Treatment Outcome , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Hyperemesis Gravidarum/blood
12.
J. bras. med ; 101(02): 41-45, mar.-abr. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686293

ABSTRACT

Os estados hiperglicêmicos e hipoglicêmicos agudos são exemplos das mais comuns emergências médicas com que nos deparamos no campo das alterações do metabolismo. Os estados hiperglicêmicos agudos compreendem a cetoacidose diabética e o coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não cetótico. Neste artigo, analisamos essas condições hiperglicêmicas, que representam um desafio para o clínico e o médico generalista que trabalham no terreno nas emergências médicas


The acute hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic situations are examples of the most common medical emergencies that we face in the field of metabolic disorders. The acute hyperglycemic situations include diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic coma hyperosmolar nonketotic. In this article, we analyze these two hyperglycemic conditions that represent a challenge to the clinician and general practitioner working in the field in medical emergencies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/physiopathology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Diabetic Coma/complications , Blood Glucose/analysis , Fluid Therapy , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypoglycemia/therapy , Insulinoma/complications
13.
Lima; s.n; 2013. 77 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1113184

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Conocer las características clínicas, epidemiológicas (sexo, edad, antecedentes, factores desencadenantes) y las diferencias del tratamiento con insulina endovenosa vs intramuscular en los pacientes con diagnóstico de CAD (cetoacidosis) que ingresaron en el servicio de emergencia del Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión durante el periodo Agosto 2005-Mayo 2012. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo y transversal. Se revisaron 51 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de CAD que ingresaron en el periodo de tiempo del estudio. Resultados: la media de la edad de los pacientes fue 46.01+/-14.5 años. El 58.8 por ciento de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino. El 35.3 por ciento debutaban con un episodio de cetoacidosis diabética. La medicación más frecuente que recibían los pacientes eran los hipoglicemiantes orales en un 35.3 por ciento de los casos. El 47.1 por ciento de los pacientes eran obesos. EL 47.1 por ciento de los pacientes tenían el antecedente de diabetes. El 35.3 por ciento de los pacientes tuvieron poliuria como síntoma más frecuente. El 23.5 por ciento de los pacientes presentaron somnolencia. El 62.7 por ciento de los pacientes abandonaron el tratamiento. El 58.8 por ciento de los pacientes recibieron insulina por infusión continua y el 41.2 por ciento recibieron insulina por dosis horaria intramuscular. La complicación más frecuente fue la hipoglicemia que se presentó en el 45.1 por ciento de los casos. Conclusiones: La infusión continua fue más usada en los pacientes del sexo femenino (73.3 por ciento), y las dosis horarias fueron usadas con mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (61.9 por ciento) (P<0.05). La insulina horaria fue más usada en pacientes obesos (76.2 por ciento) (P<0.05). Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entorno al PH, potasio final y menor tiempo de hospitalización con la insulina por infusión continua, y menor dosis de insulina con las...


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , /therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Posology , Observational Study , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 33(1): [7], 21 dez. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882327

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho visa a esclarecer o manejo da cetoacidose diabética, facilitando o diagnóstico e tratamento desta emergência endocrinológica, a fim de diminuir as complicações e melhorar o desfecho clínico do paciente.


This paper intended to clarify the management of the diabetic ketoacidosis, an endocrinological emergency , by facilitating its diagnosis and treatment, in order to reduce complications and improve the clinical outcome of the patient.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic
16.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 18(2): 127-132, mar. 2011. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-610110

ABSTRACT

La cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) es la complicación más importante de la diabetes mellitus. La piedra angular para el diagnóstico de la CAD son la historia clínica y la exploración física, en ellas generalmente encontramos los factores precipitantes y podemos clasificar el estado de hidratación del paciente. Los estudios de laboratorio son de gran utilidad para monitorizar la hiperglucemia, el estado ácido-base y el desequilibrio electrolítico inicial. La terapia inicial durante la primera hora es administración de líquidos intravenosos, generalmente cristaloides, con revaloraciones del estado de hidratación y de los niveles séricos de potasio antes de comenzar el tratamiento con insulina, que debe hacerse en la segunda hora. El monitoreo de la glucemia y de los electrolitos séricos es la base para un tratamiento exitoso en la CAD, sobre todo para evitar el edema cerebral, que es la complicación más seria. Afortunadamente, dicha complicación es rara y uno de los factores de riesgo asociados es el tratamiento inadecuado; si bien se han propuesto otros factores de riesgo, no están totalmente identificados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/prevention & control , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Brain Edema/prevention & control , Brain Edema/therapy , Pediatrics/instrumentation
19.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 19(4,supl.3): S10-S15, out.-dez. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-568861

ABSTRACT

A cetoacidose diabética (CAD) constitui um distúrbio endócrino caracterizado por acidose metabólica, cetose (pH arterial < 7,3 ou venoso < 7,25 e/ou HCO3- < 15mEq/L), hiperglicemia (> 200 mg/dL) e graus variados de desidratação em portadores de diabetes mellitus (DM). É motivo habitual de admissão em emergência ou Unidade de Terapia Intensiva pediátrica. É a causa mais frequente de morte em crianças e adolescentes com DM tipo 1. Resulta da deficiência de insulina e aumento dos níveis circulantes de hormônios contrarreguladores. A abordagem da CAD em pediatria não deve prescindir das particularidades existentes nessa população quando comparada à de adultos. Os principais fatores desencadeantes são as infecções e a omissão de insulina. A terapêutica na emergência visa a: corrigir a desidratação e os distúrbios eletrolíticos; reverter a cetose e a acidose; restabelecer a glicemia normal; evitar complicações; identificar e tratar a causa precipitante; e prevenir novos episódios. Este artigo atualiza sobre a CAD, tratando, em especial, sobre seus aspectos da fisiopatologia, diagnóstico, classificação, manifestações clínicas, abordagem terapêutica, complicações e profilaxia.


The diabetic ketoacidosis (DK) is an endocrine disorder characterized by metabolic acidosis and ketosis (arterial pH < 7,3 or venous pH < 7,25 and HCO3- < 15 mEq/L), hyperglycemia (higher than 200 mg/dL) and different degrees of dehydration in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). It is a usual reason for admission in emergency services or pediatric ICU, as well as the most frequent cause of death in children and teenagers with type 1 DM. This pathology results from lack of insulin and elevation of counter-regulatory hormone levels. The DK’s approach in pediatric patients must consider the singular characteristics of this age group. The main trigger factors are infections and omission of insulin. The therapeutic at the emergency aims to: correct the dehydration and electrolyte disturbances, ketosis, acidosis and hyperglycemia; avoid complications; identify and treat the trigger factors; and prevent new events. The aim of this review is to present updates on DK, dealing in particular with aspects of physiopathology, diagnosis, classification, clinical findings, therapeutic approach, complications and prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus , Risk Factors , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 31(4): 297-306, out.-dez. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-549916

ABSTRACT

A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis cítricos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos:1) analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG) elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2) avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3) analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4) fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.


Lactic acidosis is a disorder of acid-base balance very common in patients hospitalized in intensive care units and is associated with a poor prognosis. Although there is a substantial accumulation of evidence that levels of citric acidemia leading to numerous adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains a subject of controversies. In this article we will: 1) analyze the main differences between the hyperchloremic acidosis and organic acidosis with anion gap (AG) high, in order to base the discussion on the fundamentals of therapy with sodium bicarbonate in metabolic acidosis, 2) assess the risks associated with the persistence of critical levels of acidemia, contrasting them with the risks of using sodium bicarbonate, 3) critically examine the evidence in the literature about the use of sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with emphasis on tests clinical trials in humans, 4) provide a foundation for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in this situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acidosis, Lactic/complications , Acidosis, Lactic/etiology , Acidosis, Lactic/metabolism , Sodium Bicarbonate/therapeutic use , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Shock, Septic/metabolism , Shock, Septic/therapy , Inpatients
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