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1.
Aquichan ; 21(3): e2137, sept. 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292410

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate neuropathic pain (NP), its intensity, and complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a city of eastern São Paulo. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted with 96 individuals with T2DM served by primary health units in São João da Boa Vista-SP. The following instruments were used to screen NP: Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, Douleur Neuropathique 4, and Brief Pain Inventory. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, with a 5 % significance level. Results: Of the 96 people with T2DM for longer than five years, 22.9 % had pain. NP was related to high levels of fasting blood glucose (mean = 214 ± 65.58 mg/dl; p = 0.0002), glycated hemoglobin (mean = 8.8 ± 0.11 %; p < 0.001), absence of a balanced diet (p = 0.0066), obesity (p = 0.023), and high blood pressure (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Higher values ​​of glycated hemoglobin rates increased three times the chance of NP. The screening and management of painful diabetic neuropathy is a challenge but adopting a screening protocol supports the secondary prevention of this manifestation.


Objetivo: evaluar el dolor neuropático (DN), su intensidad y sus complicaciones en personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) en una ciudad del este de São Paulo. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 96 individuos con DM2 atendidos en unidades básicas de salud en São João da Boa Vista-SP. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos para rastrear el DN: el instrumento para la detección de la neuropatía de Michigan, la evaluación de signos y síntomas neuropáticos de Leeds, el cuestionario Douleur Neuropathique 4 y el inventario breve del dolor. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial, con un nivel de significancia del 5 %. Resultados: de las 96 personas con DM2 durante más de cinco años, el 22,9 % tenía dolor. El DN se relacionó con niveles altos de glucosa en sangre en ayunas (media = 214 ± 65,58 mg/dl; p = 0,0002), la hemoglobina glucosilada (media = 8,8 ± 0,11 %; p < 0,001), la ausencia de una dieta (p = 0,0066), la obesidad (p = 0,023) y la hipertensión arterial (p < 0,001). Conclusión: los altos valores en las tasas de hemoglobina glucosilada aumentaron tres veces la probabilidad de DN. La detección y el tratamiento de la neuropatía diabética dolorosa es un desafío, pero la adopción de un protocolo de detección contribuye a la prevención secundaria de esta manifestación.


Objetivo: avaliar a dor neuropática (DN), sua intensidade e suas complicações em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) numa cidade do leste de São Paulo, Brasil. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 96 indivíduos com DM2 atendidos em unidades básicas de saúde em São João da Boa Vista, São Paulo. Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos para rastrear a DN: o instrumento para detectar a neuropatia de Michigan, a avaliação de sinais e sintomas neuropáticos de Leeds, o questionário de Douleur Neuropathique 4 e a escala breve da dor. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial, com um nível de significância de 5 %. Resultados: das 96 pessoas com DM2 durante mais de cinco anos, 22,9 % sentiam dor. A DN esteve relacionada com níveis altos de glicose em sangue em jejum (média = 214 ± 65,58 mg/dl; p = 0,0002), hemoglobina glicosilada (média = 8,8 ± 0,11 %; p < 0,001), ausência de dieta (p = 0,0066), obesidade (p = 0,023) e hipertensão arterial (p < 0,001). Conclusões: os altos valores nas taxas de hemoglobina glicosilada aumentaram três vezes a probabilidade de DN. A detecção e o tratamento da neuropatia diabética dolorosa são um desafio, mas a adoção de um protocolo de detecção contribui para a prevenção secundária dessa manifestação.


Subject(s)
Physical Therapy Modalities , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Chronic Pain , Nursing
2.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 4-12, ene. - abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248267

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el examen del pie es fundamental en pacientes con diabetes mellitus (DM). La correcta evaluación del pie en el paciente que concurre a control diabetológico es clave para establecer factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de úlceras, detectar lesiones, tomar medidas preventivas, realizar una derivación temprana y educar en cuidados del pie. Objetivos: en este estudio se examinaron los pies de personas con DM durante la Campaña de Concientización y Prevención del Pie Diabético el 1º de noviembre de 2019 con el fin de evaluar la presencia de síntomas y signos relacionados con neuropatía, enfermedad vascular periférica, y prevalencia de los mismos, y conocer el riesgo. Materiales y métodos: se analizaron 165 pacientes en cuatro centros: Sanatorio Güemes (Servicio de Diabetes y Endocrinología), PREDIGMA (Centro de Medicina Preventiva, Posadas, Misiones), Hospital Central de San Isidro, Nexo Centro Médico (Ciudad de Junín) y Hospital Municipal de General Viamonte (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Resultados: se encontró que el 43,6% presentaba algún síntoma en miembros inferiores y hasta el 57% alteración en las pruebas de tamizaje de neuropatía diabética o enfermedad arterial periférica, con mayor prevalencia a mayor tiempo de evolución de la DM. Los signos más frecuentemente hallados en el examen físico fueron: piel seca (71,5%), distrofia ungueal (60,6%) o alteración de la almohadilla plantar (52,1%). Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión (74,5%) y dislipemia (73,3%). La mediana de hemoglobina glicosilada fue de 7,40% (6,70-8,10), mayor en personas con antecedentes de retinopatía (7,8%; p<0,01) y en pacientes que refirieron tener calambres (7,85 a 7,30; p=0,03) o ardor (8,0 vs 7,3; p<0,01). El porcentaje de pacientes con pie de alto riesgo por antecedentes, inspección o tamizaje de neuropatía o enfermedad vascular representó desde el 40% en aquellos con DM de menos de cinco años de evolución hasta el 86% en quienes tenían más de 20 años. Conclusiones: el elevado porcentaje de pacientes con pie de riesgo identificado en este estudio sugiere que, además del correcto examen físico, se requiere la toma de conductas por parte del médico tratante, como la indicación de plantillas o calzado adecuado, así como una fluida derivación al técnico en ortesis, traumatólogo o fisiatra.


Introduction: foot examination is essential in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The correct evaluation of the foot in the patient who attends diabetes control is key to establish risk factors for the development of ulcers, detect injuries, take preventive measures, make an early referral and educate in foot care. Objectives: in this study, the feet of people with DM were examined during the Diabetic Foot Awareness and Prevention Campaign on November 1, 2019 in order to assess the presence of symptoms and signs related to neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, prevalence of the same and know the risk. Materials and methods: 165 patients were analyzed in four centers: Sanatorio Güemes (Diabetes and Endocrinology Service), PREDIGMA (Preventive Medicine Center, Posadas, Misiones), Central Hospital of San Isidro, Nexo Medical Center (Junín City) and Hospital Municipal of General Viamonte (Province of Buenos Aires). Results: it was found that 43.6% had some symptoms in the lower limbs and up to 57% had an alteration in the screening tests for diabetic neuropathy or peripheral arterial disease, with a higher prevalence the longer the evolution of DM. The most frequent signs found in the physical examination were: dry skin (71.5%), nail dystrophy (60.6%) or alteration of the foot pad (52.1%). The lost frequent comorbidities were: hypertension (74.5%) and dyslipidemia (73.3%). The median glycated hemoglobin was 7.40% (6.70-8.10), higher in people with a history of retinopathy (7.8%; p <0.01) and in patients who reported having cramps (7, 85 to 7.30; p = 0.03) or burning (8.0 vs 7.3; p <0.01). The percentage of patients with high-risk foot due to antecedents, inspection or screening for neuropathy or vascular disease represented from 40% in those with DM of less than five years of evolution to 86% in those who were older than 20 years. Conclusions: this high percentage of patients with foot at risk identified in this study suggests that, in addition to the correct physical examination, the attending physician requires the taking of behaviors, such as the indication of appropriate footwear or insoles, as well as a fluid referral to the orthotic technician, orthopedic surgeon, or physiatrist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Physical Examination , Diabetic Foot , Lower Extremity , Diabetic Neuropathies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878708

ABSTRACT

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN),a chronic diabetic microvascular complication with a high incidence among diabetic patients,increases the risk of diabetic foot and amputation.Many methods are available for screening and evaluating DPN,including traditional 10 g monofilament,tuning fork and vibration perception,and tendon reflex tests,which should be combined with some nerve function score systems to improve the detection rate and accuracy for DPN.In recent years,a number of noninvasive new techniques have been developed for the evaluation of nerve injury,such as corneal confocal microscopy,quantitative sensory testing,current perception threshold test,sympathetic sudomotor function evaluation,and quantitative detection of skin advanced glycation end products.This paper reviews these noninvasive methods for screening and evaluating DPN to help clinicians detect and focus on DPN early.


Subject(s)
Cornea , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot , Diabetic Neuropathies/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening , Microscopy, Confocal
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 814-820, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be associated with diabetic microvascular complications, but previous studies have only focused on the relationship between vitamin D and specific complications. Therefore, we aimed to explore the relationship between vitamin D level and diabetic microvascular complications in general, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).@*METHODS@#This was a cross-sectional study of 815 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical information and laboratory results were collected from the medical records. The relationship between vitamin D and the three diabetic microvascular complications was investigated.@*RESULTS@#The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) level of patients with DPN and/or DN was significantly lower than that of T2DM patients without any microvascular complications (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis showed that the 25 (OH) D level was related to DPN and DN, but not DR. After adjustment, the 25 (OH) D level was confirmed to be an independent protective factor for DPN (odds ratio [OR]: 0.968, P = 0.004]) and DN (OR: 0.962, P = 0.006). The prevalence of DPN and DN increased significantly as the serum 25 (OH) D levels decreased. Furthermore, patients with both DPN and DN had the lowest concentration of serum 25 (OH) D (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of macroalbuminuria increased more abruptly than that of microalbuminuria across the 25 (OH) D tertiles. Among the patients with vitamin D insufficiency, those with DPN presented more comorbid macroalbuminuria than those without DPN (15.32% vs. 4.91%; P = 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with higher risk of DPN and DN, but not DR, in T2DM patients. Further, it may be a potential predictor for both the occurrence and severity of DPN and DN.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diabetic Neuropathies , Humans , Risk Factors , Vitamin D
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical therapeutic effect on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) between dragon-tiger fighting needling and pregabalin capsules.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with PDPN were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. On the base of treatment with routine anti-hyperglycaemic measures and nutritional neurotherapy, the dragon-tiger fighting needling was exerted at Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Xuehai (SP 10) in the observation group, once daily. Pregabalin capsules were prescribed for oral administration in the control group, 75 mg, twice a day. The treatment for 2 weeks was as one course and 2 courses of treatment were required in total. The score of visual analogue scale (VAS), the score of MOS item short form health survey (SF-36) and nerve conduction velocity before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. The clinical therapeutic effect was evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, VAS score was reduced as compared with before treatment in the two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#The dragon-tiger fighting needling therapy relieves painful symptoms, improves the quality of life and increases nerve conduction velocity in the patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and the therapeutic effect is better than oral administration of pregabalin capsules.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Tigers , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e62, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1283570

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar a dor e a qualidade de vida de indivíduos com e sem neuropatia diabética. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 251 participantes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Utilizou-se a escala Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) para avaliar neuropatia diabética, características da dor, perda de sensibilidade protetora (PSP) e avaliar a qualidade de vida pelo Short-Form 6 Dimensions-Brasil/SF-6D. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva. Resultados: 16,3% apresentaram neuropatia, 97,6% queixaram-se de dor, sendo a maioria crônica e nos pés ou panturrilhas. 51,2% dos neuropáticos tiveram PSP no teste do monofilamento (p=0,001). Os descritores de dor mais referidos pelos neuropáticos: queimação (p=0,004), formigamento (p=0,002) e alfinetada e/ou agulhada (p=0,003) e os domínios de qualidade de vida afetados foram: dor, saúde mental e vitalidade. Conclusão: aqueles com neuropatia têm maior intensidade de dor, acordam à noite e apresentam alteração na sensibilidade dos pés, que pode ser rastreada na atenção primária.


Objective: to compare pain and quality of life in individuals with and without diabetic neuropathy. Method: a cross-sectional study with 251 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) scale was used to assess diabetic neuropathy, pain characteristics, loss of protective sensitivity (LPS) and to assess the quality of life by Short-Form 6 Dimensions-Brasil/SF-6D. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: among the participants, 16.3% had neuropathy, 97.6% complained of pain, most of them chronic and in the feet or calves. Also, 51.2% of neuropathic patients had LPS in the monofilament test (p=0.001). The pain descriptors most frequently reported by neuropathic patients were: burning (p=0.004), tingling (p=0.002), and pinprick and/or needling (p=0.003). The affected quality of life domains were: pain, mental health, and vitality. Conclusion: those with neuropathy have greater pain intensity, wake up at night, and have altered foot sensitivity, which can be tracked in primary care.


Objetivo: comparar el dolor y la calidad de vida en individuos con y sin neuropatía diabética. Método: estudio transversal con 251 participantes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Se utilizó la escala Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) para evaluar la neuropatía diabética, las características del dolor, la pérdida de sensibilidad protectora (PSP) y para evaluar la calidad de vida por Short-Form 6 Dimensiones-Brasil/SF-6D. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: el 16,3% presentaba neuropatía, el 97,6% se quejaba de dolor, la mayoría crónico y en pies o pantorrillas. El 51,2% de los pacientes neuropáticos tenían PSP en la prueba de monofilamento (p = 0,001). Los descriptores de dolor informados con mayor frecuencia por los pacientes neuropáticos fueron: ardor (p = 0,004), hormigueo (p = 0,002) y pinchazo y/o punción (p = 0,003) y los dominios de calidad de vida afectada fueron: dolor, salud mental y vitalidad. Conclusión: las personas con neuropatía tienen mayor intensidad de dolor, se despiertan por la noche y tienen alteración de la sensibilidad de los pies, lo que se puede rastrear en atención primaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Pain Measurement , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 90-94, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283560

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), habitualmente asociada a adultos en edad media y adulto mayor, ha presentado un aumento en su incidencia en pacientes menores de 40 años, lo que se conoce como DM2 de inicio en paciente joven. Varios estudios sugieren que este tipo de diabetes presenta no sólo un deterioro más rápido de las células beta-pancreáticas en comparación con la DM2 de inicio más tardío, sino que también un mayor riesgo de complicaciones que pacientes con DM Tipo1, lo que sugiere una variable independiente de los años de exposición a la enfermedad y por tanto, un fenotipo más agresivo. Por otra parte, hay evidencia que afirma que existen grupos poblacionales en mayor riesgo de desarrollar esta patología, particularmente ciertas etnias. En el presente trabajo se exponen los principales hallazgos de una reciente revisión del tema y se los compara con los datos nacionales disponibles. Dada la alta prevalencia de DM2 en la población chilena y la escasa cantidad de estudios epidemiológicos de calidad que permitan conocer nuestro panorama con mayor precisión, es que se destaca la importancia de estos últimos para poder tomar medidas de salud pública adecuadas.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), commonly associated with the middle to old aged adults group, has shown an increase in incidence in patients younger than 40 years old, which is known as young-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies suggest that this type of diabetes not only exhibits a faster deterioration of the beta-pancreatic cells in comparison with type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, but also a greater risk of complications not regarding the time of exposure to the disease, therefore a more aggressive phenotype. Otherwise, there is evidence which asserts that some population groups are in mayor risk of developing this disease, especially certain ethnics. In this work it is exposed the main findings of a recent review of the subject and it is contrasted with available national data. Given the high prevalence of T2DM in the chilean population and the little amount of epidemiological high-quality studies that allows us to know our outlook with greater precision, it is highlighted the need for them in order to make adequate public health decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age of Onset , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/epidemiology
8.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180508, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1094548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate sensorimotor alterations in the extremities of the lower limbs and associated factors in Diabetes Mellitus patients. Method: this was a cross-sectional and analytical study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit, in Teresina (Brazil) with a sample of 102 participants between April and July 2018, by means of a semi-structured form. For the statistical analyses, the Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed. Results: among the study participants, 99 (97.1%) presented alterations, 73 (71.6%) on the skin and 40 (39.2%) on nails. The sensorimotor examination identified 40 (39.22%) individuals with tactile sensitivity alterations and 13 (12.7%) with reduced vibratory sensitivity, using the 128 Hz tuning fork. The factors associated with sensorimotor alterations detected by the 10 gram monofilament were the following: time of disease over ten years; absence of periodic foot evaluation (p=0.003); impaired visual acuity (p=0.001); presence of pain or discomfort (p=0.003); pain worsening at night (p=0.008); moderate pain intensity (p=0.012) and relief at rest (p=0.015). Conclusion: sensory alterations in the lower limbs showed their relationship with some of the research variables, such as time of disease, foot evaluation, glycemic value, presence of pain or discomfort (worsening and relief shifts, and intensity), skin coloring and vibratory sensitivity evaluation with a tuning fork.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar las alteraciones sensoriomotoras de las extremidades de los miembros inferiores y los factores asociados en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Método: estudio transversal y analítico realizado en una Unidad Básica de Salud, en Teresina (Brasil) con una muestra de 102 participantes, entre los meses de abril y julio de 2018 por medio de un formulario semiestructurado. Para los análisis estadísticos se efectuaron las pruebas de chi-cuadrado de Pearson y exacta de Fisher. Resultados: de los participantes del estudio, 99 (97,1%) presentaron alteraciones: 73 (71,6%) en la piel y 40 (39,2%) en las uñas. Al realizarse el examen sensoriomotor se identificaron 40 (39,22%) personas con alteraciones de sensibilidad táctil y 13 (12,7%), con sensibilidad vibratoria reducida, utilizando un diapasón de 128 Hz. Los factores asociados a las alteraciones sensoriomotoras detectadas por el monofilamento de 10 gramos fueron las siguientes: tiempo de la enfermedad superior a diez años, ausencia de una evaluación periódica de los pies (P=0,003), agudeza visual afectada (p=0,001), presencia de dolor o malestar (p=0,003); empeoramiento del dolor durante la noche (p=0,008), intensidad de dolor moderada (p=0,012) y alivio del dolor en reposo (p=0,015). Conclusión: las alteraciones sensoriales en los miembros inferiores demostraron su relación con algunas de las variables de la investigación, como el tiempo de la enfermedad, la evaluación de los pies, el valor glicémico, la presencia de dolor o malestar (turnos de empeoramiento y mejora del dolor, e intensidad del dolor), coloración de la piel y la evaluación de la sensibilidad vibratoria con un diapasón.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar as alterações sensório-motoras das extremidades dos membros inferiores e fatores associados em pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Método: estudo transversal e analítico, realizado em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde, em Teresina (Brasil) com amostra de 102 participantes, entre os meses de abril a julho de 2018, por meio de formulário semiestruturado. Para as análises estatísticas, realizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e o exato de Fisher. Resultados: dentre os participantes do estudo, 99 (97,1%) apresentaram alterações, sendo 73 (71,6%) na pele e 40 (39,2%) em unhas. A realização do exame sensório-motor identificou 40 (39,22%) pessoas com alterações de sensibilidade tátil e 13 (12,7%), com sensibilidade vibratória reduzida, utilizando o diapasão 128 Hz. Os fatores associados às alterações sensório-motoras detectadas pelo monofilamento de 10 gramas foram: tempo de doença acima de dez anos; ausência de avaliação dos pés periodicamente (0,003); acuidade visual prejudicada (p=0,001); presença de dor ou desconforto (p=0,003); piora da dor no período noturno (p=0,008); intensidade da dor moderada (p=0,012) e aliviada ao repouso (p=0,015). Conclusão: as alterações sensoriais nos membros inferiores demonstraram sua relação com algumas das variáveis da pesquisa, como o tempo de doença, a avaliação dos pés, valor glicêmico, presença de dor ou desconforto (turno de piora, alívio e intensidade da mesma), coloração da pele e da avaliação de sensibilidade vibratória com diapasão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Primary Health Care , Primary Nursing , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies
9.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(2): 174-181, Mai 16, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282904

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) é considerado um dos principais problemas da saúde pública. Assim, uma das complicações a longo prazo está relacionada as alterações de sensibilidade principalmente na região podal. Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos entre as técnicas de estimulação sensorial em diferentes texturas e o banho de contraste para melhora da sensibilidade plantar de indivíduos diabéticos tipo 2. Métodos: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado, no qual os indivíduos foram inclusos por ordem de adesão através de sorteio, sendo 6 participantes do circuito com estações em diferentes texturas (GDT) e 6 participantes do revezamento em banho de contraste (GBC) com idade média de 63 ± 12 e 56 ± 11 anos. A avaliação sensitiva foi realizada em 9 pontos dos pés, antes e após 24 intervenções fisioterapêuticas, sendo aplicadas 5 dias por semana. Resultados: Tanto a técnica GDT quanto a GBC apresentaram melhora significativa, com o valor de p < 0,0001 comparando o antes e depois. A variável entre os grupos obteve o resultado de 0,0258. Conclusão: Foi possível identificar que as duas técnicas promoveram a melhora da sensibilidade plantar de forma significativa, evidenciando que a técnica do banho de contraste mostrou-se mais eficaz comparada a variável do protocolo de diferentes texturas. (AU)


Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) is considered one of the major public health problems. Thus, one of the long-term complications is related to changes in sensitivity, especially in the foot region. Objective: To compare the effects between sensory stimulation techniques in different textures and the contrast bath to improve plantar sensitivity of type 2 diabetic individuals. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial, in which the individuals were included by order of adherence by lottery, being 6 participants in the circuit with stations in different textures (GDT) and 6 participants in the contrast bath relay (GBC) with mean age of 63 ± 12 and 56 ± 11 years. The sensory evaluation was performed in 9 points of the feet before and after 24 physiotherapeutic interventions, being applied 5 days a week. Results: Both the GDT and GBC techniques showed significant improvement, with the value of p < 0.0001 comparing the before and after. The variable between the groups obtained the result of p < 0.0258. Conclusion: It was possible to identify that both techniques promoted the return of plantar sensitivity significantly, showing that the contrast bath technique was more effective compared to the protocol variable of different textures. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Methods
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(1): 54-59, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094206

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudomotor dysfunction may appear in early stages of diabetic neuropathy. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of the Neuropad test, based on the detection of sudomotor dysfunction, as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy. Material and Methods: In Forty-two type 2 diabetic patients, the Neuropad test was compared with the 10 g monofilament test (proposed in the technical orientation of diabetic foot of the Ministry of Health of Chile), deep and thermal sensitivity. Results: The surface sensitivity assessed with a brush had a sensitivity and specificity of 18.8 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. When compared with the Neuropad, the figures were 9 and 100%, respectively. Pain perception sensitivity and specificity were 13 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 6 and 100%, when compared with the Neuropad. Thermal discrimination had a sensitivity and specificity of 88 and 33% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 75 and 25% respectively when compared with the Neuropad. The deep sensitivity evaluated with a 128 Hz tuning fork had a sensitivity and specificity of 31 and 100% respectively when compared with the 10 g monofilament. The figures were 16 and 31% respectively when compared with the Neuropad. The Neuropad had a sensitivity and specificity of 94 and 29% respectively were compared with the 10 g monofilament. Conclusions: Neuropad had a good diagnostic yield for the early detection of sudomotor dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Chile , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on skeletal muscle and blood glucose in rats with diabetic amyotrophy.@*METHODS@#Among 40 SD rats, 10 rats were randomly selected into the control group and received no treatment. The remaining 30 rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg) to establish diabetes mellitus (DM) model, and then the rats were treated with vascular ligation at right posterior limb to establish amyotrophy model. The rats with diabetic amyotrophy were randomly divided into a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each group (10 rats were excluded due to unsuccessful model establishment and death). The rats in the EA group was treated with EA at right-side "Yishu (EX-B 3)" "Shenshu (BL 23)" "Zusanli (ST 36)" and "Sanyinjiao (SP 6)", disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/ 15 Hz, 20 minutes each time, once a day for 3 weeks. Before and after EA treatment, the blood sample was collected from inner canthus and the "glucose oxidase-peroxidase" method was used to detect fasting blood glucose level; ELISA method was used to detect insulin content. At the end of the treatment, HE staining method was used to observe the morphology of ischemic skeletal muscle in the right hindlimb; the real-time PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) in the ischemic skeletal muscle tissue of right hindlimb.@*RESULTS@#Before the treatment, the body mass in the model group and EA group was lower than that in the control group (<0.01); after the treatment, the body mass in the control group was increased, while the body mass in the model group and EA group was decreased (<0.01). Compared with the control group, the fasting blood glucose was significantly increased and insulin content was significantly decreased in the model group (<0.01); compared with the model group, the fasting blood glucose was significantly decreased and the insulin content was significantly increased in the EA group after treatment (<0.01). The muscle fibers of the model group were obviously broken, the number of the nuclei decreased, and the nuclei shrinked or even dissolved; the morphology of the muscle tissue of the EA group after intervention was improved compared with the model group. Compared with the control group, the cross-sectional area of ischemic skeletal muscle cells in the right hindlimb in the model group was decreased (<0.01); compared with the model group, the cross-sectional area of ischemic skeletal muscle cells in the right hindlimb was increased in EA group (<0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3a mRNA in the right hindlimb ischemic skeletal muscle in the model group were increased significantly (<0.01, <0.05); compared with the model group, the levels of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3a mRNA in the EA group were decreased significantly (<0.05, <0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA may play a role in the treatment of diabetic amyotrophy by inducing FOXO3a to reduce the transcription of MAFbx and MuRF1.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Therapeutics , Diabetic Neuropathies , Therapeutics , Electroacupuncture , Muscle, Skeletal , Physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the improvement of neurological symptoms in patients with Type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy via resistance exercise.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy were selected as the research objects, and they were randomly divided into an observation group who performed resistance exercise (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, there was statistically difference in the TCSS scores in the observation group at 3 months (@*CONCLUSIONS@#After the intervention of resistance exercise, the blood glucose and DPN can be improved in a certain extent, and which can be popularized in Type 2 diabetes patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies , Humans , Resistance Training
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(4): e798, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099101

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una de las enfermedades sistémicas más comunes a nivel mundial con una prevalencia en incremento y una elevada tasa de mortalidad. La retinopatía diabética es una de las principales causas de ceguera en todas las latitudes del mundo. Aunque otras enfermedades oculares secundarias a diabetes también causan ceguera, su influencia en la superficie ocular es poco estudiada; sin embargo, el 73,6 por ciento de los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 sufren de complicaciones corneales o de la superficie ocular. Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía actualizada en idiomas español e inglés, a la que se pudo acceder, disponible en textos completos y resúmenes en bases de datos como PubMed, Ebsco, Google Académico y Scielo. Además, se consultaron novedosos artículos en prestigiosas revistas especializadas, con el objetivo de brindar información actualizada sobre la influencia de la diabetes en la superficie ocular. La diabetes mellitus tiene un impacto adverso en la superficie ocular. La gravedad de la neuropatía corneal diabética se correlaciona con la neuropatía periférica diabética. El estudio de la superficie ocular, así como de la retina, es importante para el tratamiento óptimo de la diabetes. Se han introducido novedosas opciones terapéuticas, pero todavía hay muchas en fase investigativa para los trastornos de la superficie ocular asociados con la diabetes(AU)


ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common systemic diseases worldwide with an increasing prevalence and a high mortality rate. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in all the latitudes of the world. Although other eye diseases secondary to diabetes also cause blindness, such influence on the ocular surface is poorly studied; however, 73.6 percent of type 2 diabetic patients suffer from corneal or ocular surface complications. A review of the available updated bibliography in Spanish and English languages; was carried out from full texts and abstracts in databases such as PubMed, Ebsco, Google Scholar, and Scielo. In addition, novel articles were consulted in prestigious specialized journals, with the aim of providing updated information on the influence of diabetes on the ocular surface. Diabetes mellitus has an adverse impact on the ocular surface. The severity of diabetic corneal neuropathy correlates with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The study of the ocular surface, as well as the retina, is important for the optimal treatment of diabetes. Novel therapeutic options have been introduced, but there are still many in the investigative phase for ocular surface disorders associated with diabetes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Databases, Bibliographic
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901105, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054679

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of Dexmedetomidine (Dex) on spinal pathology and inflammatory factor in a rat model of Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Methods: The rats were divided into 3 groups (eight in each group): normal group (N group), diabetic neuropathic pain model group (DNP group), and DNP model with dexmedetomidine (Dex group). The rat model of diabetes was established with intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) injections. Nerve cell ultrastructure was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) tests documented that DNP rat model was characterized by a decreased pain threshold and nerve conduction velocity. Results: Dex restored the phenotype of neurocytes, reduced the extent of demyelination and improved MWT and MNCV of DNP-treated rats (P=0.01, P=0.038, respectively). The expression of three pain-and inflammation-associated factors (P2X4, NLRP3, and IL-IP) was significantly upregulated at the protein level in DNP rats, and this change was reversed by Dex administration (P=0.0022, P=0.0092, P=0.0028, respectively). Conclusion: The P2X4/NLRP3 signaling pathway is implicated in the development and presence of DNP in vivo, and Dex protects from this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spine/drug effects , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Receptors, Purinergic P2X4/analysis , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Sural Nerve/drug effects , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Pain Threshold , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Neural Conduction/drug effects
16.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(3): 81-85, sept. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048229

ABSTRACT

El dolor crónico constituye un reto terapéutico especial. Se presenta una revisión narrativa sobre el papel del tratamiento de oxigenación hiperbárica (TOHB) en el tratamiento del dolor neuropático, y sus aplicaciones en dolor crónico, síndromes neurosensitivos disfuncionales y oncodolor. El conocimiento de las indicaciones de TOHB en algiología y su aplicación en la práctica médica puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente. (AU)


Chronic pain represents a special therapeutic challenge. We present a narrative review on the role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of neuropathic pain, and its applications in chronic pain, dysfunctional neurosensitive syndromes and oncological pain. The knowledge of the indications of HBOT in algiology and its application in medical practice can contribute to improve the quality of life of the patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Phantom Limb/therapy , Quality of Life , Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy/therapy , Vascular Headaches/therapy , Brain Diseases/therapy , Facial Pain/therapy , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Causalgia/therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Edema/therapy , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/therapy , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Cancer Pain/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/trends , Analgesia/methods , Inflammation/therapy , Neuralgia/therapy
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 212-216, June 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020063

ABSTRACT

La neuropatía periférica y autonómica es una de las complicaciones más comunes en pacientes con diabetes. La lesión nerviosa comienza tempranamente, en aquellos con diabetes mellitus de tipo II puede comenzar antes de la disregulación glucémica, en la etapa del síndrome metabólico. En un primer momento puede ser asintomática, por lo que es fundamental la realización de técnicas electrofisiológicas para su detección temprana, para implementar medidas terapéuticas que impidan su progresión. Se presentan nueve casos, tres con síndrome metabólico y alteración del metabolismo de la glucosa, uno con síndrome metabólico sin hiperglucemia y cinco con alteración del metabolismo de la glucemia sin otros criterios diagnósticos de síndrome metabólico. Todos estaban asintomáticos y el examen neurológico fue normal. Se realizaron técnicas de detección de neuropatía periférica temprana (razón sural/radial, ondas F, reflejo H, respuestas simpáticas de la piel, período silente cutáneo y variabilidad del intervalo RR). Ocho pacientes tuvieron neuropatía autonómica cardíaca incipiente y uno neuropatía autonómica establecida. Ocho presentaron neuropatía somática incipiente (siete con alteración de la razón sural/radial, y uno con alteración de las ondas F). Un paciente tuvo alteración sublínica de las fibras finas (alteración de las respuestas simpáticas de la piel y del período silente cutáneo). Es importante la detección de la neuropatía temprana antes de su manifestación clínica ya que existen tratamientos para detenerla e incluso revertirla.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Hyperglycemia , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/diagnosis , Electromyography , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
18.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 137-144, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012143

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o pico de torque e flexibilidade dos membros inferiores de indivíduos com e sem diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). O método foi o estudo com grupos expostos e não expostos ao DM2. Foram incluídos indivíduos com diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminhados para eletroneuromiografia, e não expostos ao DM2. Foram excluídos da pesquisa indivíduos com idade superior a 70 anos ou que, por algum motivo, não conseguiram realizar um ou dois dos testes. A amostra foi não probabilística, composta por 64 indivíduos: 34 (53,1%) expostos ao DM2 e 30 não expostos; 50 (78,1%) eram do sexo feminino, a idade média era de 60,7±7,1 anos, e o membro inferior dominante era o direito em 57 (89,1%) dos indivíduos. Comparando indivíduos com e sem diagnóstico de DM2, observou-se redução do torque de flexão à esquerda, em velocidade angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 vs. 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Relatou-se menor valor do torque de dorsiflexão à direita, em velocidade angular de 60°, dos diabéticos em relação aos não diabéticos (10,95±0,89 vs. 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Ao comparar indivíduos com DM2, com e sem diagnóstico de neuropatia diabética periférica (NDP), notou-se maior déficit de flexão entre os indivíduos neuropatas em comparação com não neuropatas (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas ao comparar os grupos de expostos e não expostos ao DM2 e diabéticos neuropatas e não neuropatas.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el pico de torque y la flexibilidad de los miembros inferiores de individuos con y sin diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). El método fue el estudio con grupos expuestos y no expuestos al DM2. Se incluyeron individuos con diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminados para electroneuromiografía, y no expuestos al DM2. Se excluyeron de la investigación a individuos mayores de 70 años o que, por algún motivo, no pudieron realizar una o dos de las pruebas. La muestra fue no probabilística, compuesta por 64 individuos: 34 (53,1%) expuestos al DM2 y 30 no expuestos; 50 (78,1%) eran de sexo femenino, la edad media era de 60,7±7,1 años, y el miembro inferior dominante era el derecho en 57 (89,1%) de los individuos. En comparación con individuos con y sin diagnóstico de DM2, se observó reducción del torque de flexión a la izquierda, en velocidad angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 frente a 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Se ha reportado un menor valor del torque de dorsiflexión a la derecha, en velocidad angular de 60°, de los diabéticos con relación a los no diabéticos (10,95±0,89 frente a 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Al comparar individuos con DM2, con y sin diagnóstico de neuropatía diabética periférica (NDP), se notó mayor déficit de flexión entre los individuos neuropáticos en comparación con no neuropáticos (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los grupos de expuestos y no expuestos al DM2 y los diabéticos neuropáticos y no neuropáticos.


ABSTRACT To compare the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs of individuals with and without T2DM. The method was a study of the types exposed and unexposed to T2DM. Individuals diagnosed with T2DM, individuals referred to electromyography, and those unexposed to T2DM were included. The exclusion criteria were: individuals over 70 years old; those who for some reason failed to complete one or both tests. The study population consisted of 64 individuals; 34 (53.1%) exposed to DM and 30 unexposed, 50 (78.1%) were female, the mean age was 60.7±7.1 and the dominant lower limb was right in 57 (89.1%) individuals. Comparing individuals with and without a diagnosis of DM, one observed a reduction in the flexion torque on the left at a 120 ° angular velocity in diabetics individuals compared with nondiabetic patients, 25.94±2.26 vs 33.79±2, 4nm, p=0.027, respectively. The reduction in dorsiflexion torque on the right, at a 60 ° angular velocity was observed in diabetics compared with nondiabetic patients, 10.95±0.89 vs. 13.95±0.96nm, p=0.033, respectively. When comparing diabetic individuals with and without a diagnosis of PDN, one observed a greater flexion deficit among neuropathic individuals when compared with non-neuropathic individuals, 46.57±9.47 vs 11.63±13.85nm, p=0.049, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing groups exposed and unexposed to T2DM, and neuropathic and non-neuropathic diabetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Torque , Lower Extremity/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer
19.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(1): 41-46, Ene-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120705

ABSTRACT

La neuropatía autonómica cardiovascular en el paciente diabético (NACD) se define como una complicación crónica de la diabetes de tipo microangiopática, que se expresa en disautonomía del sistema cardiovascular. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal cuyo objetivo fue la caracterización epidemiológica y clínica de los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con NACD que acudieron a la Unidad de Diabetes del CCR-ASCARDIO de la ciudad de Barquisimeto, estado Lara durante el mes de diciembre del año 2014. La muestra estuvo conformada por 68 individuos diabéticos tipo 2, con una prevalencia de NACD según la prueba de RV del 63,2%, por ortostatismo de 45,6% y por taquicardia sinusal inapropiada de 8,8%. Hubo un predominio del género femenino y un mayor porcentaje de pacientes con NACD no tenían control metabólico de la diabetes y tenían más de 5 años con la enfermedad. En conclusión, se sugiere el diagnóstico precoz de la DM así como la identificación temprana de síntomas que sugieran el desarrollo de disautonomía por deterioro neuropático del sistema cardiovascular en estos pacientes(AU)


Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients (CAN) is defined as a chronic complication of diabetes (DM) of the microangiopathic type, which is expressed as dysautonomia of the cardiovascular system. We performed an observational descriptive cross-sectional study to characterize clinically and epidemiologically type 2 diabetic patients with CAN that were attended in December 2014 at the Unidad de Diabetes of CCR-ASCARDIO in Barquisimeto, Lara state. The sample consisted of 68 type 2 diabetic patients with a prevalence of CAN according to the RINES VALCARDI (RV) test of 63.2%, by orthostatism of 45.6% and by the presence of inappropriate sinus tachycardia of 8.8%. In patients with CAN, there was female predominance and a greater percentage of patients had more than five years with diabetes and no metabolic control their disease. In conclusion, it is important to make an early diagnosis of diabetes and clearly identify symptoms that suggest dysautonomia in these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular System , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies , Diabetic Angiopathies , Primary Dysautonomias , Metabolic Diseases
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 56-60, Jan. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985002

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Diabetes is one of the most common chronic pathologies around the world, involving treatment with general clinicians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, ophthalmologists, nephrologists and a multidisciplinary team. Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) can be affected by cardiac autonomic neuropathy, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. In this review, we will present current concepts, clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, and possible treatment. New drugs recently developed to reduce glycemic level presented a pleiotropic effect of reducing sudden death, suggesting a potential use in patients at risk.


RESUMO Diabetes é uma das mais frequentes patologias crônicas em todo o mundo, cujo tratamento envolve uma equipe multidisciplinar, médicos generalistas, endocrinologistas, cardiologistas, nefrologistas e oftalmologistas. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2) podem apresentar neuropatia autonômica cardíaca (NAC), levando a aumento de mortalidade e morbidade. Nesta revisão, apresentaremos atuais conceitos, características clínicas, diagnóstico, prognóstico e possíveis tratamentos. Novas drogas recentemente desenvolvidas para redução de níveis glicêmicos apresentaram efeito pleiotrópico de redução de morte súbita, sugerindo um potencial uso neste perfil de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetic Neuropathies/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Prognosis , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/mortality , Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/therapy
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