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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 17-22, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent conditions in Chilean adults. AIM: To describe the demographic and clinical profiles, risk factors and complications associated with arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients ascribed to a cardiovascular health program at a public primary health care center in Santiago. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 583 patients aged 37 to 95 years (56% women). Gender, age, smoking habits, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin levels, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels, nutritional status in the last control carried out, and associated cardiovascular complications were recorded. RESULTS: Thirty four percent (201 participants) and 36% (210 participants) had a decompensated DM and AH, respectively. Dyslipidemia was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. The prevalence of obesity was 43% (249 participants). Twenty percent had chronic kidney disease and 13% had diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: These patients have a high frequency of obesity, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of wogonoside on high glucose-induced dysfunction of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HRMECs in routine culture were treated with 25 mmol/L mannitol or exposed to high glucose (30 mmol/L glucose) and treatment with 10, 20, 30, 40 μmol/L wogonoside. CCK-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration, and the changes in tube formation and monolayer cell membrane permeability were tested. ROS, NO and GSH-ST kits were used to evaluate oxidative stress levels in the cells. The expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 in the cells were examined with qRT-PCR and ELISA, and the protein expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α and SIRT1 were detected using Western blotting. We also tested the effect of wogonoside on retinal injury and expressions of HIF-1α, ROS, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and SIRT1 proteins in rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy.@*RESULTS@#High glucose exposure caused abnormal proliferation and migration, promoted angiogenesis, increased membrane permeability (P < 0.05), and induced inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs (P < 0.05). Wogonoside treatment concentration-dependently inhibited high glucose-induced changes in hRMECs. High glucose exposure significantly lowered the expression of SIRT1 in hRMECs, which was partially reversed by wogonoside (30 μmol/L) treatment; interference of SIRT1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of wogonoside against high glucose-induced changes in proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, membrane permeability, inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs. In rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy, wogonoside effectively suppressed retinal thickening (P < 0.05), alleviated STZ-induced retinal injury, and increased the expression of SIRT1 in the retinal tissues (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Wogonoside alleviates retinal damage caused by diabetic retinopathy by up-regulating SIRT1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Flavanones , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucosides , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the effects of community-based interventions for diabetic eye diseases in Xinjing community, Shanghai from 2016 to 2018. Methods: Based on the project of "Establishment of Service Model for Comprehensive Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Eye Diseases in Shanghai", the participants were not suffering diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Xinjing community in 2016 before interventions and received community-based interventions for diabetic eye diseases. The incidence of DR, visual acuity and awareness of DR were used as evaluation indicators to analyze the effects of interventions for diabetic eye diseases in the community. Results: A total of 537 patients were included in this study, the incidence of DR among diabetic patients in Xinjing community was 7.6% after interventions. The duration of diabetes (OR= 1.065) and HbA1c (OR= 1.090) were the risk factors of DR. Before and after the interventions, the patients with monocular low vision and binocular low vision were 27 cases (5.0%), 8 cases (1.5%), 19 cases (3.5%) and 7 cases (1.3%) respectively. After interventions, the awareness on the prevention and treatment of DR increased significantly, and the proportion of regular visits to ophthalmology examination, diet control and physical exercise also increased significantly. Conclusion: Community-based interventions for diabetic eye diseases are helpful to improve the awareness of DR prevention and control, reduce the incidence of DR.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/prevention & control , Exercise , Humans , Risk Factors
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0027, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376789

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to review the disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker in diabetic macular edema. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane and Embase until August 2021. The keywords used were: "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" and "biomarkers". No restrictions were imposed on the types of study to be included. The studies selected for eligibility were those that included the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema (center involved, resolved), that were well documented with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, that included disorganization of inner retinal layers as one of the reported alterations, with a follow-up of at least 3 months, and those in which the best corrected visual acuity was evaluated pre and post. There were no limitations regarding the type of treatment established. References of identified studies were searched for additional relevant articles. Articles not published in peer review journals were excluded. All studies were evaluated by two investigators independently. When one of them was in doubt, it was assessed by a third evaluator. A total of seven studies were included. Four were retrospective, longitudinal cohort study and three cross-sectional observational. Regarding the population studied, 61.5% were men and 38.4% were women, most of them had diabetes mellitus type 2 (85.8%). Regarding the stage of diabetes, the percentage of patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.2%, with moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.5%, with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 15.9% and with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 27.4%. In 100% of the studies, the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema in the center involved was included by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg). In all the studies, the presence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was recorded and its association with best corrected visual acuity was evaluated. The measurement was carried out using the LogMAR scale. In all the studies, the presence or absence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was associated with the best corrected worse/better final visual acuity using p <0.05 as a statical significance. The disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker and their presence have shown to be important predictors of visual acuity in the future in patients with diabetic macular edema. Histopathological studies are required to understand its mechanism of action.


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar sobre a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador no edema macular diabético. Uma busca sistemática foi realizada no PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane e Embase até agosto de 2021. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" e "biomarkers". Não foram impostas restrições quanto aos tipos de estudo a serem incluídos. Os estudos selecionados para elegibilidade foram aqueles que incluíram o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético (centro envolvido, resolvido), que foram bem documentados com tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral, que incluíram a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como uma das alterações relatadas, com acompanhamento de pelo menos 3 meses, e aqueles em que a melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi avaliada pré e pós. Não houve limitações quanto ao tipo de tratamento estabelecido. Referências de estudos identificados foram pesquisadas para artigos relevantes adicionais. Foram excluídos os artigos não publicados em revistas de revisão por pares. Todos os estudos foram avaliados por dois investigadores de forma independente. Quando havia dúvida com algum deles, a mesma era avaliada por um terceiro avaliador. Um total de sete estudos foram incluídos. Quatro eram estudos de coorte retrospectivos longitudinais e três eram observacionais transversais. Em relação à população estudada, a proporção de homens foi de 61,5% e de mulheres, 38,4%, a maioria com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (85,8%). Em relação ao estágio do diabetes, o percentual de pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa leve foi de 28,2%, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa moderada foi de 28,5%, de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave foi de 15,9% e de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa foi de 27,4%. Em 100% dos estudos, o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético no centro envolvido foi incluído pela tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (Heidelberg). Em todos os estudos, foi registrada a presença de desorganização das camadas internas da retina e avaliada sua associação com a melhor acuidade visual corrigida. A medição foi realizada usando a escala LogMAR. Em todos os estudos, a presença ou ausência de desorganização das camadas internas da retina foi associada a pior/melhor acuidade visual final melhor corrigida usando p<0,05 como significância estática. A desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador e sua presença têm se mostrado importantes como preditor da acuidade visual no futuro em pacientes com edema macular diabético. Estudos histopatológicos são necessários para entender seu mecanismo de ação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retina/pathology , Biomarkers , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Diabetes Complications , Systematic Review
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31115, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372322

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar o nível de conhecimento oftalmológico dos estudantes de medicina sobre achados do fundo de olho e alterações da retinopatia diabética, assim como o interesse destes alunos por um maior aprendizado sobre o assunto. Materiais e Métodos: A amostra foi constituída por alunos do curso de medicina do Centro Universitário Christus (Unichristus), na cidade de Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brasil, durante os meses de novembro e dezembro de 2018. Eles responderam a um questionário composto por 20 questões de múltipla escolha, com quatro itens cada, contendo apenas um único item correto, com assuntos relacionados à fundoscopia e à retinopatia diabética. Foram escolhidos o quinto semestre (s5), por ter finalizado recentemente o módulo de oftalmologia, e o sétimo semestre (s7), para avaliação da retenção de conteúdo após um ano do término da disciplina. O questionário também abordou o interesse dos alunos em obter maior aprendizado sobre o assunto. Resultados: o questionário foi aplicado em 120 alunos (62 alunos do s5 e 58 alunos do s7). Houve um maior número de acertos no s5, com média de 57,2% de acertos, em relação ao s7, cuja média de acertos foi de 49,9%. Conclusão: Diante de uma média de acertos abaixo do desejável, e do interesse da maioria dos alunos em obter maior aprendizado, fica clara a demanda por uma maior inserção da disciplina de oftalmologia na graduação médica, por meio das instituições de ensino, dando a devida relevância ao tema, oferecendo aos seus alunos suporte para um aprendizado concreto e contínuo.


Objective: to evaluate the level of ophthalmological knowledge of medical students about fundus findings and changes in diabetic retinopathy, as well as the interest of these students in greater learning on the subject. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of medical students from the Centro Universitário Christus (Unichristus), in the city of Fortaleza - Ceará - Brazil, during the months of November 2018 and December 2018. They answered a questionnaire composed of 20 multiple-choice questions, with four items each, containing only one correct item, with subjects related to fundus findings and changes in diabetic retinopathy. The fifth semester (s5) was chosen, for having recently completed the ophthalmology module, and the seventh semester (s7), to assess content retention one year after the end of the course. The questionnaire also addressed the students' interest in obtaining greater learning on the subject. Results: the questionnaire was applied to 120 students (62 students from s5 and 58 students from s7). There was a greater number of correct answers in s5, with an average of 57.2% of correct answers, compared to s7, whose average of correct answers was 49.9%. Conclusion: Given an average of hits below the desirable, and the interest of most students to obtain greater learning, it is clear the demand for a greater insertion of the discipline of ophthalmology in medical graduation, through educational institutions, giving due importance to the theme, offering its students support for learning concrete and continuous.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ophthalmology , Education, Medical , Ophthalmoscopy , Ophthalmoscopes , Diabetic Retinopathy
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 165-175, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391568

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: O edema macular diabético é uma das principais causas de baixa visual no mundo e a indicação mais frequente de injeções intravítreas no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O tratamento com injeção intra-vítrea de medicamentos anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, incluindo o bevacizumaberevolucionou o desfecho visual destes pacientes às custas de múltiplas aplicações mensais. Assim como em outros centros, discrepâncias entre condutas da equipe assistencial e dificuldades logísticas acabam comprometendo a efetividade do tratamento. Portanto, desenvolvemos um protocolo de tratamento para a doença embasado na literatura, estabelecendo critérios de inclusão, exclusão, regime de tratamento e seguimento do paciente. Com isto, esperamos otimizar a efetividade e assistência do paciente com edema macular diabético.


ABSTRACT: Diabetic macular edema is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide and the most common indication for intravitreal injections at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Treatment with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, including bevacizumab, has revolutionized patient outcome at the expense of multiple monthly injections. As in other hospitals, discrepancies in health team conduct and logistical difficulties compromise treatment effectiveness. Therefore, we developed a literature-based treatment protocol for diabetic macular edema, in which we established criteria for patient inclusion and exclusion, treatment regimen, and patient follow-up. We expect the treatment protocol to optimize patient care effectiveness in diabetic macular edema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0057, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394860

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto da triagem de retinopatia diabética de paciente diabéticos realizada com retinografia colorida. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, de caráter descritivo, avaliando laudos de retinografias realizadas desde a implementação do protocolo da triagem de retinopatia diabética de paciente diabéticos acompanhados no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia de um hospital terciário do Sistema Único de Saúde, de maio de 2018 até maio de 2020. Resultados Realizaram retinografia 727 pacientes diabéticos, que tinham entre 14 e 91 anos, sendo a maioria com 60 anos ou mais (53,2%), do sexo feminino (68%) e brancos (87,6%). Não apresentavam retinopatia diabética 467 (64,2%) pacientes, 125 (17,2%) tinham retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 37 (5,1%) retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave e/ou suspeita de edema macular, 65 (8,9%) retinopatia diabética proliferativa, 21 (2,9%) suspeita de outras patologias, e as imagens de 12 (1,7%) pacientes eram insatisfatórias. Foram considerados de alto risco (aqueles com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave e/ou edema macular, retinopatia diabética proliferativa ou imagem insatisfatória) 114 (15,68%) pacientes. Conclusão O rastreio de retinopatia diabética com retinografia colorida possibilitou a detecção de pacientes diabéticos de alto risco que necessitavam atendimento com brevidade, permitindo o acesso deles à consulta oftalmológica e diminuindo a morbidade da doença relacionada ao tratamento tardio. Os demais foram encaminhados à Atenção Primária para regulamentação, por meio do Sistema de Regulação.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening using color retinography in diabetic patients. Methods Retrospective descriptive study, evaluating reports of all retinographs performed since the implementation of the protocol for screening for diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients followed up at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital of the Unified Health System, from May 2018 to May 2020. Results 727 diabetic with age range from 14 to 91 years old, the majority being 60 years old or older (53.2%), female (68%) and white (87.6%), patients underwent retinography. Of the patients, 467 (64.2%) did not have DR, 125 (17.2%) had non-proliferative DR, 37 (5.1%) had severe non-proliferative DR and/or suspected macular edema, 65 (8.9%) had proliferative DR, 21 (2.9%) had suspicion signs of other pathologies and 12 (1.7%) had unsatisfactory images. A total of 114 (15.68%) patients were considered at high risk (those with severe non-proliferative NP and/or EM, proliferative DR or poor image) and were referred for comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. Conclusion The screening of RD with color retinography enabled the detection of high-risk diabetic patients who needed assistance sooner and enabled their access to ophthalmologic consultation, which decreased disease morbidity. The others were referred to primary care for regulation through the Regulation System (SISREG).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Photography/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Unified Health System , Mydriasis/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Color , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Fundus Oculi , Hospitals, Public
8.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 937-946, 5 September 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398385

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes, caused by high blood sugar levels damaging the eye. Globally, diabetic retinopathy affects more than 103.12 million people. Diabetic retinopathy is among the leading causes of vision loss at the global level, including in Ethiopia. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the time to develop diabetic retinopathy and identify factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetes patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from September 1, 2021, to January 30, 2022. Data was collected using semi structured questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model were used to determine the median time to develop diabetic retinopathy and identify predictors of diabetic retinopathy. Data was analyzed using R software. RESULTS: A total of 373 diabetes patients were included in this study. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 41.3%. The median time was 41 months, ranging from 39 to 73 months. Elder age (HR=3.17, 95%CI: 1.53, 6.58), being male (HR=2.34, 95%CI: 1.35,6.15), previous family history of diabetes (HR=4.16, 95%CI: 2.19, 8.37), longer duration of diabetes (HR=2.86, 95%CI: 1.41, 5.31) received only insulin therapy (HR=3.91, 95%CI: 1.36, 7.94), and high systolic blood pressure (HR=2.32; 95%CI: 1.12, 4.39) were statistically significant factors related to development of diabetes retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of diabetic patinets in this study were developed retinopathy diabetes within a few months of being diagnosed. As a result, we advocate that the best way to preserve our vision from diabetic retinopathy is to maintain our diabetes under control, and the high-risk population receive early screening for diabetes


Subject(s)
Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy , Median Neuropathy , Diabetes Complications , Hypertension
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927992

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_1, one of the main active components of precious traditional Chinese medicine Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, has the anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, anti-aging, neuroprotection, and other pharmacological effects. Diabetic retinopathy(DR), the most common complication of diabetes, is also the main cause of impaired vision and blindness in the middle-aged and the elderly. The latest research shows that ginsenoside Rg_1 can protect patients against DR, but the protection and the mechanism are rarely studied. This study mainly explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 against DR in type 2 diabetic mice and the mechanism. High fat diet(HFD) and streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce type 2 diabetes in mice, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe pathological changes in the retina of mice. The immunohistochemistry was applied to study the localization and expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3(NLRP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in retina, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), transient receptor potential channel protein 6(TRPC6), nuclear factor of activated T-cell 2(NFAT2), and VEGF in retina. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly alleviated the pathological injury of retina in type 2 diabetic mice. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly decreased the expression of NLRP3 and VEGF in retinal ganglion cells, middle plexiform layer, and outer plexiform layer in type 2 diabetic mice. According to the Western blot results, ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly lowered the expression of p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, TRPC6, NFAT2, and VEGF in retina of type 2 diabetic mice. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg_1 can significantly alleviate DR in type 2 diabetic mice, which may be related to inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and VEGF. This study provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of ginsenoside Rg_1 in the treatment of DR.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 794-800, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: As studies have reported the involvement of angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2) in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the ANGPT-2 rs2442598 polymorphism and DR. Materials and methods: This case-control study comprised 107 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and DR (cases) and 129 patients with T1DM without DR (controls) and with ≥ 10 years of DM. The ANGPT-2 rs2442598 (G/A) polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR using TaqMan MGB probes. Results: Genotype distributions of this polymorphism were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the rs2442598 A allele was higher in cases compared to controls (p = 0.011). Moreover, the A/A genotype was more frequent in cases than in controls (p = 0.017) and was associated with risk for DR after adjustments for duration of DM, HbA1c, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-22.27). This association was maintained under recessive (OR = 4.78, 95% CI 1.14-19.99) and additive (OR = 6.861, 95% CI 1.45-32.38) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the ANGPT-2 rs2442598 A allele and risk for DR in T1DM patients from southern Brazil. Additional studies are necessary to replicate this association in other populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiopoietin-2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
11.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2007, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347513

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La retinopatía diabética es una complicación microvascular de la diabetes mellitus y una de las primeras causas de ceguera a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de causalidad de diferentes factores con la progresión de la retinopatía diabética en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte, en el Centro Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba en el periodo comprendido desde octubre de 2017 a octubre de 2019. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes patológicos personales y familiares, tiempo de evolución de la diabetes, tipo de retinopatía diabética, evolución de la retinopatía, valores de hemoglobina glicosilada y albuminuria. Como medidas de resumen se utilizó la media, la desviación estándar y el porcentaje. Para la validación estadística se utilizaron el test de Ji cuadrado con nivel de significación de 5 por ciento. Se determinó la fuerza de asociación, mediante el cálculo del odds ratio (razón de productos cruzados), riesgo atribuible porcentual en expuestos y riesgo atribuible poblacional porcentual. Resultados: La HbA1c mayor de 7 por ciento y la microalbuminuria fueron factores de riesgo para la progresión de la retinopatía diabética. Conclusiones: El mal control metabólico, representado por valores de hemoglobina glicosilada superiores a 7 por ciento y la presencia de microalbuminuria, son factores de riesgo en los que se debe trabajar en los diferentes niveles de atención para evitar la progresión de la retinopatía diabética y por ende la ceguera por esta causa(AU)


Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Objective: To determine the causal association of different factors with the progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Method: An observational, analytical, case-control study nested in a cohort was carried out at the Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmological Center from October 2017 to October 2019. The variables studied were age, sex, color of the skin, personal and family pathological history, time of evolution of diabetes, type of diabetic retinopathy, and evolution of retinopathy, glycosylated hemoglobin values and albuminuria. The mean, standard deviation and percentage were used as summary measures. For statistical validation, the Chi square test with a significance level of 5 percent was used. The strength of association was determined by calculating the odds ratio (ratio of crossed products), percentage attributable risk in exposed and percentage population attributable risk. Results: HbA1c higher than 7 percent and microalbuminuria were risk factors for the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: Poor metabolic control, represented by glycosylated hemoglobin values higher than 7 percent and the presence of microalbuminuria, are risk factors that must be worked on at different levels of care to avoid the progression of diabetic retinopathy and therefore blindness from this cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Observational Study
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 149-157, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe microvascular changes in the maculas of individuals with type 2 diabetes observed on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. We compared the maculas of diabetic subjects without diabetic retinopathy with those of healthy subjects and correlated the findings with the clinical profiles of diabetic subjects. Methods: One eye each of 30 patients with diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were examined. The patients with diabetes underwent funduscopy, retinography, and fluorescein angiography to rule out retinopathy. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography of a macular area (6×6 mm2), and the foveal and parafoveal vascular densities were analyzed in the superficial and deep retinal vascular plexus. The foveal and parafoveal thicknesses, foveal avascular zone of the superficial plexus, and choriocapillaris flow area were also examined. The optical coherence tomography angiography results were compared between the two study groups and correlated with the following parameters: visual acuity, time since diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, lipid profile, and renal function of patients with diabetes. Results: A minimal increase in the choriocapillaris flow area was observed in the patients with diabetes (mean area, 22.3 ± 4.6 mm2 in controls; 22.6 ± 3.9 mm2 in patients with diabetes) (p=0.017). No significant differences were observed between other optical coherence tomography angiography parameters analyzed in the two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly negatively correlated with the foveal vascular density of both plexuses; conversely, fasting blood glucose levels were positively correlated with the choriocapillaris flow area (p=0.034). The other clinical parameters were not correlated with the optical coherence tomography angiography findings. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography angiography may not be the most appropriate tool for detecting preclinical changes in patients with diabetes, moreover, optical coherence tomography angiography; does not replace clinical examinations. Glycemic control should be the primary clinical parameter considered during retinopathy screening. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever alterações microvasculares na mácula em diabéticos do tipo 2 sem retinopatia diabética e pacientes saudáveis, e correlacionar achados com perfil clínico nos diabéticos. Métodos: Foram incluídos 60 olhos de 30 diabéticos e 30 pacientes saudáveis. Diabéticos realizaram fundoscopia, retinografia® (CR2; Canon Inc., New York, New York, USA) e angiografia fluoresceínica® (TRC-50DXC; Topcon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) para descartar a presença de retinopatia. Os 60 pacientes realizaram a angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica® (RTVue XR, Avanti, Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA) (área macular: 6 x 6 mm2) e foram analisados densidade vascular total, foveal e parafoveal no plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo, espessura foveal, espessura parafoveal, área da zona avascular da fóvea no plexo capilar superficial e área de fluxo da coriocapilar. Resultados da angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica foram comparados entre os 2 grupos e correlacionados com acuidade visual, tempo de diabetes, controle glicêmico, perfil lipídico e função renal nos diabéticos. Resultados: Observou-se aumento mínimo da área de fluxo da coriocapilar nos diabéticos, média das áreas foi de 22,3 ± 4,6 mm2 no grupo controle e 22,6 ± 3,9 mm2 em diabéticos (p=0,017). Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre outras variáveis da angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica analisadas nos dois grupos. Hemoglobina glicosilada e glicemia de jejum apresentaram correlação negativa estatisticamente significante com densidade vascular foveal de ambos os plexos e a glicemia de jejum se correlacionou positivamente com área de fluxo da coriocapilar (p=0,034). Outros dados clínicos avaliados não apresentaram correlação com achados da angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica. Conclusão: Resultados sugerem que a angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica pode não ser a melhor ferramenta na detecção de alterações pré-clínicas em diabéticos, não substituindo o exame clínico, e corroboram a ideia de que o controle glicêmico deve ser o principal parâmetro clínico a ser considerado na triagem da retinopatia. Estudos com amostras maiores são necessários para confirmar os achados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fluorescein Angiography , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnostic imaging , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Fundus Oculi
13.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e899, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289522

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con retinopatía diabética desde el punto de vista epidemiológico y clínico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Centro Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba, desde octubre del año 2017 hasta octubre de 2019, en una población de 42 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes con tiempo de diabetes mellitus mayor de 10 años, y edades de 55 años o más (60,0 por ciento); el mayor porcentaje correspondió al color de piel negra (66,7 por ciento ); la agudeza visual mayor de 0,6 se presentó en el 49,4 por ciento de los casos; la retinopatía diabética proliferativa fue la más presentada con 55,9 por ciento. Hubo predominio, además, de los valores de hemoglobina glicosilada por encima del 7 por ciento y de la normoalbuminuria con 46,7 y 66,7 por ciento, respectivamente, en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: Los valores elevados de hemoglobina glicosilada y la normoalbuminuria se asocian, desde el punto de vista clínico, a la retinopatía diabética proliferativa(AU)


Objective: Characterize diabetic retinopathy patients from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 42 type 2 diabetic patients at Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmology Center from October 2017 to October 2019. Results: A predominance was found of patients who had had diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years and were aged 55 years or over (60.0 percent); black skin color prevailed with 66.7 percent; visual acuity above 0.6 was present in 49.4 percent of the cases, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the most common type (55.9 percent). In both groups glycosylated hemoglobin values above 7 percent prevailed, whereas normal albuminuria was predominant with 46.7 percent and 66.7 percent, respectively. Conclusions: High glycosylated hemoglobin and normal albuminuria values are clinically associated to proliferative diabetic retinopathy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Glycated Hemoglobin A/adverse effects , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Albuminuria/etiology , Visual Acuity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemoglobinuria/diagnosis
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e1060, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289529

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la discapacidad visual del diabético de 50 años y más de edad y la cobertura de la atención oftalmológica en Cuba durante el año 2016. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, descriptiva y transversal que tomó la encuesta rápida de ceguera evitable realizada en Cuba en el año 2016, la cual incluyó la retinopatía diabética validada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Con los datos obtenidos en los cuestionarios se confeccionó una base de datos donde se tomaron todos los diabéticos conocidos o no con discapacidad visual. Resultados: La prevalencia de cualquier tipo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es de 25,4 por ciento (21,8-28,9). El riesgo de desarrollar discapacidad visual moderada, grave y ceguera es de 19,4 por ciento (16,5-22,3), 2,8 por ciento (1,0-4,6) y 3,2 por ciento (1,5-4,8) respectivamente. La catarata es la primera causa de discapacidad. El riesgo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es similar para uno y otro sexo y se incrementa con la edad. Las coberturas de tratamiento son bajas. Conclusiones: En Cuba, alrededor de un cuarto de los diabéticos tienen algún riesgo de discapacidad visual. El diabético tiene mayor riesgo de discapacidad visual moderada; sin embargo, el riesgo de discapacidad visual grave y de ceguera es el mismo para toda la población de 50 años y más de edad. La catarata y la retinopatía diabética son las causas más frecuentes de discapacidad visual en el diabético. Se evidencian dificultades con la atención oftalmológica, que incluye el examen y la cobertura de tratamiento de la catarata y del láser para la retinopatía diabética(AU)


Objective: Describe visual impairment among diabetics aged 50 years and over, and the coverage of ophthalmological care in Cuba in the year 2016. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted based on the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey developed in Cuba in the year 2016, which included diabetic retinopathy with validation by the World Health Organization. The data obtained from the questionnaires were transferred to a database of visually impaired known and unknown diabetics. Results: Prevalence of any sort of visual impairment among diabetics is 25.4 percent (21.8-28.9). Risk of developing moderate visual impairment, severe visual impairment or blindness is 19.4 percent (16.5-22.3), 2.8 percent (1.0-4.6) and 3.2 percent (1.5-4.8), respectively. Cataract is the leading cause of impairment. Risk of visual impairment among diabetics is similar in the two sexes and increases with age. Treatment coverage is low. Conclusions: In Cuba, about one fourth of the diabetics are at some risk of visual impairment. Diabetics are at a higher risk of moderate visual impairment. However, the risk of severe visual impairment and blindness is the same as for the population aged 50 years and over. Cataract and diabetic retinopathy are the most common causes of visual impairment among diabetics. Difficulties were found in ophthalmological care, including examination and treatment coverage for cataract and laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Laser Therapy/methods , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 37-44, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153092

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the use of automated quantitative static and dynamic pupillometry in screening patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and different stages of diabetic retinopathy. Method: 155 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus group) were included in this study and another 145 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals to serve as the control group. The diabetes mellitus group was divided into three subgroups: diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (No-diabetic retinopathy), nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Static and dynamic pupillometry were performed using a rotating Scheimpflug camera with a topography-based system. Results: In terms of pupil diameter in both static and dynamic pupillometry (p<0.05), statistically significant differences were observed between the diabetes mellitus and control groups and also between the subgroups No-diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy subgroups. But it was noted that No-diabetic retinopathy and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy groups have showed similarities in the findings derived from static pupillometry under mesopic and photopic conditions. The two groups also appeared similar at all points during the dynamic pupillometry (p>0.05). However, it could be concluded that the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group was significantly different from the rest of the subgroups, No-diabetic retinopathy and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy groups, in terms of all the static pupillometry measurements (p<0.05). The average speed of dilation was also significantly different between the diabetes mellitus and control groups and among the diabetes mellitus subgroups (p<0.001). While weak to moderate significant correlations were found between all pupil diameters in static and dynamic pupillometry with the duration of diabetes mellitus (p<0.05 for all), the HbA1c values showed no statistically significant correlations with any of the investigated static and dynamic pupil diameters (p>0.05 for all). Conclusion: This study revealed that the measurements derived from automated pupillometry are altered in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy does not have a negative effect on pupillometry findings, but with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, significant alterations were observed. These results suggest that using automated quantitative pupillometry may be useful in verifying the severity of diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivos: Procuramos avaliar o uso da pupilometria estática e dinâmica quantitativa automatizada na triagem de pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e em di­ferentes estágios de retinopatia diabética. Métodos: Cento e cinquenta e cinco pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (grupo com diabetes mellitus) foram incluídos neste estudo e outros 145 controles saudáveis pareados por idade e sexo para server como grupo controle. O grupo com diabetes mellitus foi dividido em três subgrupos: diabetes mellitus sem retinopatia diabética (retinopatia não diabética), retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e retinopatia diabética proliferativa. A pupilometria estática e dinâmica foi realizada utilizando uma camera rotative Scheimpflug com um sistema baseado em topografia. Resultados: Em termos de diâmetro da pupila, tanto na pupilometria estática quanto na dinâmica (p<0,05), foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos diabetes mellitus e controle e também entre os subgrupos retinopatia não diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Mas foi observado que os grupos de retinopatia não diabética e retinopatia diabética não proliferativa mostraram semelhanças nos achados derivados da pupilometria estática em condições mesópicas e fotópicas. Os dois grupos também pareciam semelhantes em todos os pontos durante a pupilometria dinâmica (p>0,05). No entanto, pode-se concluir que o grupo de retinopatia diabética proliferative foi sugnificativamente diferente do restante dos subgrupos, retinopatia não diabética e retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, em termos de todas as medidas de pupilometris estática (p<0,05). A velocidade média de dilatação também foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos diabetes mellitus e controle, e entre os subgrupos diabetes mellitus (p<0,001). Enquanto correlações significativas fracas a moderadas foram encontradas entre todos os diâmetros da pupila na pupilometria estática e dinâmica com a duração do diabetes mellitus (p<0,05 para todos), os valores de HbA1c não mostraram correlações estatisticamente significantes com nenhum dos diâmetros da pupila estática e dinâmica investigados (p>0,05 para todos). Conclusão: Este estudo revelou que as medidas derivadas da pupilometria automatizada estão alteradas em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. A presença de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa não afeta negativamente os achados pupilomé­tricos, mas com a retinopatia diabética proliferative, alterações significativas foram observadas. Estes resultados sugerem que o uso da pupilometria quantitativa automatizada pode ser útil na verificação gravidade da retinopatia diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921540

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy(DR)is the major microvascular disease in diabetic patients,and it is also one of the main blinding eye diseases in the current population.The typical pathological change of DR in the eyes is vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)-mediated neovascularization induced by retinal ischemic stimulation.Therefore,anti-VEGF drugs have gradually become one of the mainstream methods to treat DR and DR-induced diseases such as diabetic macular edema.Recent studies have proved that anti-VEGF drugs have certain effects on ocular blood vessels and blood flow in patients with DR,while the specific mechanism has not been fully elucidated.This article summarizes the research progress on the effects of intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs on the ocular blood vessels and blood flow in patients with DR.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/therapeutic use
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 253-260, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921267

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of blindness globally, and its prevalence is increasing. Early detection and intervention can help change the outcomes of the disease. The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years has led to new possibilities for the screening and diagnosis of DR. An AI-based diagnostic system for the detection of DR has significant advantages, such as high efficiency, high accuracy, and lower demand for human resources. At the same time, there are shortcomings, such as the lack of standards for development and evaluation and the limited scope of application. This article demonstrates the current applications of AI in the field of DR, existing problems, and possible future development directions.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Blindness , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): e0048, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347265

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade da retinografia colorida e a da angiografia fluorescente no diagnóstico e no rastreio da retinopatia diabética. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, com base na análise de resultados de ambos os exames de 398 pacientes diabéticos. Resultados: Os resultados da angiografia coincidiram com os da retinografia em 77,4% dos casos, e não houve diferença significativa no estadiamento e na identificação da retinopatia pelos dois métodos. Conclusão: Não houve diferença significativa em relação à capacidade diagnóstica da doença pelos métodos descritos, demonstrando não existir benefício em indicar a angiografia como avaliação inicial do paciente diabético.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess effectiveness of fundus photography and fluorescein angiography in diagnosis and screening of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A retrospective study of 398 diabetic patients, based on analysis of results of both tests. Results: Results of fluorescein angiography and fundus photography coincided in 77.4% of cases, and there was no significant difference in staging and identification of retinopathy by both methods. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between both methods regarding the capacity to diagnose the disease, showing no benefit in indicating fluorescein angiography as initial assessment of diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Photography/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Fundus Oculi
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0035, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341155

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a acurácia entre a acuidade visual com melhor correção óptica em pacientes com retinopatia diabética e acuidade visual com correção óptica menor ou igual a 20/200 em ambos os olhos mensurada pela tabela de Snellen e pela tabela ETDRS, além da avaliação do tempo de leitura com tabela de leitura de Jaeger. Métodos: Estudo observacional e transversal. ormação de Grupos de Pesquisa: o Grupo I foi formado por pacientes com acuidade visual de 20/200 e o Grupo II, por pacientes com acuidade visual maior de 20/200. Os pacientes de ambos os grupos foram subdivididos em aqueles com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e os com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. As variáveis pesquisadas foram sexo, idade, tabela ETDRS nos subgrupos (igual a 20/200, igual a 20/400 e maior de 20/200 e 20/400) e tempo de leitura da tabela de Jaeger para perto. O índice de significância estatística deste estudo foi de 5%. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 62 pacientes diabéticos, sendo 33 com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e 29 com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Dentre os pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 19 tinham acuidade visual com melhor correção óptica de 20/200 (30,6% da amostra), e 13 pacientes eram portadores de retinopatia diabética proliferativa com acuidade visual com melhor correção óptica de 20/200 (20,9% da amostra). A correlação entre a tabela Snellen e a tabela ETDRS revelou que 16 pacientes (25,8% da amostra) com cegueira legal apresentaram acuidade visual entre 20/180 e 20/120 segundo a tabela ETDRS. Para os pacientes portadores de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa com acuidade visual de 20/200 pela tabela ETDRS, houve tempo médio de leitura para perto da tabela de Jaeger de 23,6±1,4 segundos. Na análise estatística da acuidade visual mensurada com a Tabela de Snellen em comparação com a Tabela de Leitura para perto (Jaeger), mensurando tempo de leitura, ahouve significância estatística (p=0,04). Conclusão: Pacientes diabéticos com cegueira legal segundo a tabela de Snellen apresentam sua real capacidade visual residual subavaliada. É importante levar em consideração o tempo de leitura e o uso da tabela ETDRS para melhor acurácia.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the accuracy of best-corrected visual acuity in patients with diabetic retinopathy to corrected visual acuity ≤ 20/200 in both eyes, measured by Snellen and ETDRS charts, in addition to evaluation of reading time by Jaeger chart. Methods: An observational and cross-sectional study. Study Groups: Group I, patients with visual acuity 20/200, and Group II, patients with visual acuity >20/200. Patients were subdivided into those with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The study variables were sex, age, ETDRS chart in the subgroups (equal to 20/200; equal to 20/400 and greater than 20/200 and 20/400), and reading time by Jaeger chart on the near vision. The statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: A total of 62 diabetic patients participated in the study; in that, 33 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 29 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Among patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 19 had best-corrected visual acuity 20/200 (30.6% of sample), and 13 patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy with best-corrected visual acuity 20/200 (20.9% of sample). The correlation between the Snellen and ETDRS charts revealed 16 patients (25.8% of sample) with legal blindness presented visual acuity between 20/180 and 20/120, as per the ETDRS chart. For patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with visual acuity 20/200 measured by the ETDRS chart, the mean reading time to near vision was 23.6±1.4 seconds, as measured by Jaeger chart. In the statistical analysis, the comparison of visual acuity measured by Snellen chart, with the reading chart to near vision (Jaeger) measuring reading time, was statistically significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with legal blindness as per Snellen chart showed their real underestimated residual visual capacity. It is important to consider reading time and use of the ETDRS chart for better accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reading , Visual Acuity/physiology , Blindness , Diabetic Retinopathy , Vision Tests/methods
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0006, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280116

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência da retinopatia diabética em pacientes diabéticos de uma capital brasileira e correlacioná-la com fatores de risco presentes na população estudada. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, realizado a partir do relatório de atendimentos prestados em mutirão ocorrido em 2018. O relatório foi preenchido pelos médicos oftalmologistas durante a campanha, com informações referentes a sexo do paciente, idade, classificação do diabetes mellitus, tempo de doença, uso de insulina, índice de massa corporal, hábitos de vida (tabagismo e atividade física) e história de hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia, infarto agudo do miocárdio e acidente vascular cerebral, além de exame clínico oftalmológico realizado na ação. Resultados: Dentre os 219 participantes do estudo, a prevalência da retinopatia diabética foi de 31,96%. As variáveis que se apresentaram como fator de risco com significância estatística foram sexo masculino, idade de 51 a 70 anos, mais de 10 anos de diabetes mellitus, insulinoterapia, índice de massa corporal ≥40kg/m2 e história prévia de infarto agudo do miocárdio. Atividade física mostrou-se como fator protetor significativo. Conclusão: Estudos populacionais ao longo dos anos comprovaram a variabilidade geográfica na prevalência da retinopatia diabética justificada pela diferente exposição aos fatores de risco. Dentro de tal conjuntura, ressalta-se o quão fundamental é o conhecimento das características regionais, de modo a orientar as políticas de saúde pública, permitindo atuar com impacto na redução das estatísticas de cegueira evitável.


ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes, from a Brazilian capital city, and to correlate with the risk factors present in the studied population. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study, based on the report of care provided by a campaign, in 2018. The report was filled out by ophthalmologists during the joint effort, with information on patient's gender, age, classification of diabetes mellitus, duration of illness, use of insulin, body mass index, lifestyle (smoking and physical activity), history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and the clinical ophthalmic examination. Results: Among the 219 study participants, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 31.96%. The variables considered risk factors with statistical significance were male sex, age 51-70 years, diabetes mellitus for over 10 years, insulin therapy, body mass index ≥40 kg/m2, and previous history of myocardial infarction. The physical activity proved to be a significant protective factor. Conclusion: Over the years, population studies have proven the geographical variability in prevalence of diabetic retinopathy justified by different exposure to risk factors. Therefore, knowledge of regional characteristics is crucial and emphasized in the text, since it can guide public health policies, aiming to have an impact on reduction of preventable blindness statistics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Health Policy
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