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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 17-22, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent conditions in Chilean adults. AIM: To describe the demographic and clinical profiles, risk factors and complications associated with arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients ascribed to a cardiovascular health program at a public primary health care center in Santiago. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 583 patients aged 37 to 95 years (56% women). Gender, age, smoking habits, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin levels, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels, nutritional status in the last control carried out, and associated cardiovascular complications were recorded. RESULTS: Thirty four percent (201 participants) and 36% (210 participants) had a decompensated DM and AH, respectively. Dyslipidemia was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. The prevalence of obesity was 43% (249 participants). Twenty percent had chronic kidney disease and 13% had diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: These patients have a high frequency of obesity, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 165-175, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391568

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: O edema macular diabético é uma das principais causas de baixa visual no mundo e a indicação mais frequente de injeções intravítreas no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O tratamento com injeção intra-vítrea de medicamentos anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, incluindo o bevacizumaberevolucionou o desfecho visual destes pacientes às custas de múltiplas aplicações mensais. Assim como em outros centros, discrepâncias entre condutas da equipe assistencial e dificuldades logísticas acabam comprometendo a efetividade do tratamento. Portanto, desenvolvemos um protocolo de tratamento para a doença embasado na literatura, estabelecendo critérios de inclusão, exclusão, regime de tratamento e seguimento do paciente. Com isto, esperamos otimizar a efetividade e assistência do paciente com edema macular diabético.


ABSTRACT: Diabetic macular edema is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide and the most common indication for intravitreal injections at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Treatment with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, including bevacizumab, has revolutionized patient outcome at the expense of multiple monthly injections. As in other hospitals, discrepancies in health team conduct and logistical difficulties compromise treatment effectiveness. Therefore, we developed a literature-based treatment protocol for diabetic macular edema, in which we established criteria for patient inclusion and exclusion, treatment regimen, and patient follow-up. We expect the treatment protocol to optimize patient care effectiveness in diabetic macular edema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2007, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347513

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La retinopatía diabética es una complicación microvascular de la diabetes mellitus y una de las primeras causas de ceguera a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de causalidad de diferentes factores con la progresión de la retinopatía diabética en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte, en el Centro Oftalmológico de Santiago de Cuba en el periodo comprendido desde octubre de 2017 a octubre de 2019. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes patológicos personales y familiares, tiempo de evolución de la diabetes, tipo de retinopatía diabética, evolución de la retinopatía, valores de hemoglobina glicosilada y albuminuria. Como medidas de resumen se utilizó la media, la desviación estándar y el porcentaje. Para la validación estadística se utilizaron el test de Ji cuadrado con nivel de significación de 5 por ciento. Se determinó la fuerza de asociación, mediante el cálculo del odds ratio (razón de productos cruzados), riesgo atribuible porcentual en expuestos y riesgo atribuible poblacional porcentual. Resultados: La HbA1c mayor de 7 por ciento y la microalbuminuria fueron factores de riesgo para la progresión de la retinopatía diabética. Conclusiones: El mal control metabólico, representado por valores de hemoglobina glicosilada superiores a 7 por ciento y la presencia de microalbuminuria, son factores de riesgo en los que se debe trabajar en los diferentes niveles de atención para evitar la progresión de la retinopatía diabética y por ende la ceguera por esta causa(AU)


Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Objective: To determine the causal association of different factors with the progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Method: An observational, analytical, case-control study nested in a cohort was carried out at the Santiago de Cuba Ophthalmological Center from October 2017 to October 2019. The variables studied were age, sex, color of the skin, personal and family pathological history, time of evolution of diabetes, type of diabetic retinopathy, and evolution of retinopathy, glycosylated hemoglobin values and albuminuria. The mean, standard deviation and percentage were used as summary measures. For statistical validation, the Chi square test with a significance level of 5 percent was used. The strength of association was determined by calculating the odds ratio (ratio of crossed products), percentage attributable risk in exposed and percentage population attributable risk. Results: HbA1c higher than 7 percent and microalbuminuria were risk factors for the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: Poor metabolic control, represented by glycosylated hemoglobin values higher than 7 percent and the presence of microalbuminuria, are risk factors that must be worked on at different levels of care to avoid the progression of diabetic retinopathy and therefore blindness from this cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Observational Study
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 396-401, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131628

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the efficacy of three initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (3+PRN) dosing versus five initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (5+PRN) dosing in patients with diabetic macular edema. Methods: A total of 60 treatment-naïve patients with macular edema who underwent intravitreal aflibercept injections (2 mg/0.05 mL) with at least one year of follow-up were analyzed in this retrospective and comparative study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the number of intravitreal aflibercept injections administered in the loading phase. The 3+PRN group comprised 27 patients, whereas the 5+PRN group comprised 33 patients. The visual and anatomical outcomes were compared between the two groups at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: Both 3+PRN and 5+PRN, showed statistically significant improvements in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thicknesse throughout the study period (p<0.001 and, p<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness (p=0.453 and, p=0.784, respectively). The mean number of intravitreal aflibercept injections was significantly greater in the 5+PRN group (6.1 ± 0.8) than in the 3+PRN group (3.9 ± 0.8) (p<0.001). Conclusion: The 3+PRN and 5+PRN regimens showed similar 12-month visual and anatomical outcomes following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with macular edema.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia de três injeções intravítreas mensais iniciais de aflibercept, seguidas de dosagem de pro re nata (3+PRN) versus cinco injeções mensais iniciais intravítreas de aflibercept, seguidas de doses de pro re nata (5 + PRN) em pacientes com edema macular diabético. Métodos: Foram analisados neste estudo retrospectivo e comparativo 60 pacientes que não receberam tratamento prévio com edema macular e foram submetidos a injeções intravítreas de aflibercept (2 mg/0,05 mL) com pelo menos um ano de acompanhamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o número de injeções intravítreas de aflibercept administradas na fase inicial. O grupo 3+PRN compreendeu 27 pacientes, enquanto o grupo 5+PRN compreendeu 33 pacientes. Os resultados visuais e anatômicos foram comparados entre os dois grupos no período inicial e aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses. Resultados: Tanto os grupos 3+PRN quanto 5+PRN mostraram melhoras estatisticamente significativas na acuidade visual melhor corrigida e na espessura macular central ao longo do período de estudo (p<0,001 e p <0,001, respectivamente). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos em termos de alterações na acuidade visual melhor corrigida e na espessura macular central (p=0,453 e p=0,784, respectivamente). O número médio de injeções intravítreas de aflibercept foi significativamente maior no grupo 5+PRN (6,1 ± 0,8) do que no grupo 3+PRN (3,9 ± 0,8) (p <0,001). Conclusão: Os regimes 3+PRN e 5+PRN mostraram resultados visuais e anatômicos semelhantes em 12 meses após o tratamento com injeções intravítreas de aflibercept em pacientes com edema macular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/administration & dosage , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 299-304, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of systemic inflammatory markers [i.e., white blood cell and platelet counts, mean platelet volume, and their ratios] as diagnostic markers of the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema. Methods: The study cohort included 80 diabetic macular edema patients (40 with diabetic retinopathy and 40 without) and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts, and the mean platelet volume were determined from peripheral blood samples, and the monocyte/lymphocyte, platelet/lymphocyte, and mean platelet volume/lymphocyte, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were calculated and compared among groups. Results: The mean neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the diabetic macular edema and non-diabetic macular edema groups was higher than that of the control group, and the value of the diabetic macular edema group was higher than that of the non-diabetic macular edema group (p<0.001 in diabetic macular edema vs. control, p=0.04 in non-diabetic macular edema vs. control, and p=0.03 in diabetic macular edema vs. non-diabetic macular edema). A neutrophil/lymphocyte cutoff value of ≥2.26 was identified as an indicator of the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 74%. The mean platelet volume of the diabetic macular edema group was higher than those of the non-diabetic macular edema and control groups, while those of the non-diabetic macular edema and control groups were similar (diabetic macular edema vs. non-diabetic macular edema, p=0.08; diabetic macular edema vs. control, p=0.02; and non- diabetic macular edema vs. control, p=0.78). All other parameters were similar between groups (all p>0.05). Conclusion: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume of the diabetic macular edema group were higher than those of the non-diabetic macular edema and control groups. A neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of ≥2.26 was identified as an indicator of the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio of the non-diabetic macular edema group was higher than that of the control group.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a utilidade de marcadores inflamatórios sistêmicos (ou seja, contagem de glóbulos brancos e plaquetas, volume médio de plaquetas e suas proporções) como marcadores de diagnóstico da patogênese do edema macular diabético. Métodos: A coorte do estudo incluiu 80 pacientes com edema macular diabético (40 com retinopatia diabética e 40 sem) e 40 controles saudáveis de acordo com a idade e sexo. As contagens de neutrófilos, linfócitos, monócitos, plaquetas e valores do volume plaquetário médio foram determinados a partir de amostras de sangue periféricdo, e as proporções de monócitos/linfócitos, plaquetas/linfócitos, volume plaquetário médio/linfócitos e neutrófilos/linfócitos foram calculadas e comparadas entre os grupos. Resultados: A proporção média de neutrófilos/linfócitos dos grupos com edema macular diabético e não-diabético foi maior que a do grupo controle, e o valor do grupo com edema macular diabético foi maior que o do grupo com edema macular não diabético (p<0,001 no com edema macular diabético vs. controle, p=0,04 no com edema macular não diabético vs. controle e p=0,03 no com edema macular diabético vs. o com edema macular não-diabético). Um valor de corte de neutrófilos/linfócitos ≥2,26 foi identificado como um indicador da patogênese do edema macular diabético com sensibilidade de 85% e especificidade de 74%. O volume plaquetário médio do grupo com edema macular diabético foi maior que o dos grupos com edema macular não-diabético e controle, enquanto os do grupo de edema macular não-diabético e controle foram semelhantes (edema macilar diabético vs. Edema macular não-diabético, p=0,08; com edema macular diabético vs. controle, p=0,02; e com edema macular não-diabético vs. controle, p=0,78). Todos os outros parâmetros foram semelhantes entre os grupos (todos p>0,05). Conclusão: A proporção de neutrófilos/linfócitos e o volume plaquetário médio do grupo com edema macular diabético foram superiores aos do grupo com edema macular não-diabético e controle. Um valor de corte da razão neutrófilos/linfócitos ≥2,26 foi identificado como um indicador da patogênese do edema macular diabético com alta sensibilidade e especificidade. Além disso, a proporção de neutrófilos/linfócitos do grupo com edema macular não-diabético foi superior à do grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macular Edema , Diabetic Retinopathy , Mean Platelet Volume , Lymphocytes , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Neutrophils
7.
Medwave ; 20(2): e7831, 31-03-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las hemorragias maculares producen una pérdida de la visión súbita y profunda. Las principales modalidades de tratamiento incluyen observación, inyección intravítrea de fármacos antiangiogénicos, hialoidotomía con láser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, inyección intravítrea de gas y/o activador de plasminógeno tisular, en monoterapia o combinadas con cirugía. En el presente trabajo reportamos cuatro casos de hemorragias maculares de distintas causas, tratadas con diferentes abordajes, y realizamos una revisión de la literatura al respecto. PRESENTACIÓN DE CASOS: Los cuatro pacientes mostrados presentaron diferentes causas de hemorragias maculares. El primer caso tuvo una hemorragia prerretiniana debido a retinopatía de Valsalva y fue tratado con cirugía, el Caso 2 tuvo una hemorragia macular multinivel debido a una rotura de un macroaneurisma arteriolar retiniano y fue manejado con desplazamiento neumático, láser y ranibizumab intravítreo, el Caso 3 presentó una hemorragia subretiniana extensa debido a rotura coroidea posterior a un trauma ocular cerrado de alta energía y fue tratado exitosamente con cirugía. El último caso presentó una hemorragia prerretiniana debido a retinopatía diabética, manejada con láser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet. Los diferentes tratamientos fueron realizados exitosamente con buenos resultados. CONCLUSIÓN: Existen amplias opciones disponibles para el manejo de las hemorragias maculares y la mejor opción depende de las características de cada caso en particular. El manejo apropiado y oportuno de éstas puede lograr un resultado visual bueno, especialmente si la localización de la hemorragia es prerretiniana.


INTRODUCTION: Macular hemorrhages result in a sudden and profound loss of vision. The primary treatment modalities include observation, intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet hialoidotomy, intravitreal injection of gas with or without tissue plasminogen activator, as monotherapy or combined with surgery. In this paper, we report four cases of macular hemorrhages of different causes treated with different approaches, and we review the literature in this regard. CASE PRESENTATION: All four patients presented different causes of macular hemorrhage. The first case had a preretinal hemorrhage due to a Valsalva retinopathy and was treated with surgery. Case 2 had a multilevel macular hemorrhage due to a rupture of a retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm and was treated with pneumatic displacement, laser, and intravitreal ranibizumab. Case 3 presented an extensive subretinal hemorrhage due to a choroidal rupture after high-energy ocular trauma that was also successfully treated with surgery. The last case was a preretinal hemorrhage due to diabetic retinopathy managed with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Different treatment approaches were successfully performed in all cases with good outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is an extensive range of options available for the management of macular hemorrhages, and the best option depends on the characteristics of each particular case. Proper and timely management of these diseases can achieve an excellent visual outcome, especially if the location of the hemorrhage is preretinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Laser Therapy , Rupture , Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Choroid/pathology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Intravitreal Injections
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 458-462, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286543

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with diabetic macular edema can develop fundus autofluorescence alterations; thus far, these alterations have been more widely studied with scanning or confocal laser systems. Objective: To describe and classify fundus autofluorescence abnormal patterns in patients with diabetic macular edema using the fundus autofluorescence system with a flash camera. Method: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fundus autofluorescence digital images of non-comparative cases with untreated diabetic macular edema, obtained and stored with a flash camera system, were assessed. Inter-observer variability was evaluated. Results: 37 eyes of 20 patients were included. Lens opacity was the most common cause of inadequate image quality. Five different fundus autofluorescence patterns were observed: decreased (13%), normal (40%), single-spot hyper-autofluorescent (17 %), multiple-spot hyper-autofluorescent (22 %) and plaque-like hyper-autofluorescent (8 %). The kappa coefficient was 0.906 (p = 0.000). Conclusions: Different fundus autofluorescence phenotypic patterns are observed with flash camera systems in patients with diabetic macular edema. A more accurate phenotypic classification could help establish prognostic factors for visual loss or for the design of clinical trials for diabetic macular edema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Optical Imaging/instrumentation , Optical Imaging/methods , Phenotype , Observer Variation , Macular Edema/classification , Macular Edema/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/classification , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Mexico
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(5): 321-326, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042387

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Determinar a concordância do retinógrafo portátil Pictor Plus, na ausência de midríase, com a retinografia digital e avaliar a sua acurácia como método de rastreio da retinopatia diabética (RD). Métodos: Estudo transversal, mascarado para o observador, avaliando 100 olhos de 51 pacientes diabéticos. Foram realizadas retinografias com o Pictor Plus com e sem midríase, seguidos de retinografia convencional com o retinógrafo IMAGEnet por técnico treinado. As imagens obtidas foram analisadas por oftalmologista especialista em retina e classificadas normais, presença de edema macular diabético, retinopatia não proliferativa (inicial, moderada e grave) e retinopatia proliferativa, além de análise inviável. A concordância entre os resultados foi avaliada via coeficiente Kappa. As imagens foram agrupadas em normais e alteradas e estas em RD de alto risco e RD de baixo risco. Avaliou-se ainda a sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos, em relação à retinografia convencional. Resultados: Oitenta e nove por cento das imagens foram consideradas viáveis para classificação. Pouco mais de 31% dos olhos avaliados foram considerados como normais pelas três tecnologias. O exame com Pictor na ausência de midríase apresentou altos índices de sensibilidade e especificidade para a classificação normal (92,9% e 93,4%) e RD de alto risco (82,9% e 97,9%) e bons resultados para RD de baixo risco (75,0% e 87,0%). Conclusão: O Pictor Plus apresentou altos níveis de concordância com a retinografia digital ao discriminar exames normais de alterados e portadores de RD de baixo e alto risco. Foram verificadas ainda altas sensibilidade e especificidade desta ferramenta, se comparados à retinografia padrão.


Abstract Purpose: Determine the effectiveness of the use a portable handheld fundus camera as a screening method for diabetic retinopathy, compared to regular digital retinography. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observer-masked study, evaluating 100 eyes of 51 diabetic patients undergoing a routine dilated retinography for diabetic retinopathy. Fundus images pre and post-dilation we captured by Pictor Plus (Volk Optical Inc., Mentor, USA), followed by routine digital retinography by IMAGEnet (Topcon Medical Systems, New Jersey, USA). All exams were performed by a trained technician on the same occasion. The images were analyzed and graded by a masked retina specialist and classified as normal, presence of diabetic macular edema, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (initial, moderate and severe) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The ungradable images were recorded and excluded from analyses. The agreement between results obtained by the three methods was evaluated via Kappa coefficient. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in relation to IMAGEnet images were also determined. Results: Images were gradable in 89% of pre-dilation photos. Pictor Plus pre-dilation images had high sensitivity and specificity in identifying normal eyes (92.9% and 93.4%) and in vision-threatening DR (82.9% and 97.9%) both when compared to IMAGEnet results. Conclusion: Pictor can capture retinal images of sufficient quality to screen for DR with and without dilation. Single retinal images obtained using Pictor can identify eyes with vision-threatening DR with high sensitivity and specificity compared to routine IMAGEnet images.


Subject(s)
Humans , Photography/instrumentation , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/instrumentation , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Pupil/drug effects , Vision Screening , Blindness/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Mydriatics
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 137-141, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959082

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar fatores prognósticos a curto prazo em pacientes portadores de edema macular diabético (EMD) tratados com injeções intravítreas (IV) de ranibizumabe (RZB). Métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal, retrospectivo, analisou-se 41 prontuários de uma clínica privada na cidade de Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais, do período de agosto de 2016 a maio de 2017. Verificou-se dados gerais e história pregressa de pacientes que receberam IV mensais consecutivas para EMD, investigando-se sexo, idade e presença de tratamento prévio como possíveis fatores prognósticos determinantes nas mudanças na acuidade visual após o procedimento mensal. Resultados: No total da amostra, 51,2% eram indivíduos do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 64,20 ± 7,54 anos. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre idade, gênero ou realização de tratamento prévio e melhora na acuidade visual. Conclusão: A principal estratégia de tratamento para o EMD estabelecida atualmente é através das injeções IV que apresentam eficácia comprovada na melhora da acuidade visual. Entretanto, aproximadamente metade dos pacientes não exibem resposta completa ou são refratários a essa abordagem terapêutica. Nesse sentido, o reconhecimento de fatores prognósticos pode ajudar os oftalmologistas a tomar decisões mais individualizadas, decidindo quais pacientes com EMD responderá às terapias anti-VEGF. Tendo em vista que não há estudos para averiguar os efeitos a curto prazo após injeções IV, no contexto apenas dessa melhora visual, esse trabalho se propôs a avaliar os possíveis fatores prognósticos, que se refletem em uma melhor resposta ao tratamento anti-VEGF, a partir da análise da melhor acuidade visual corrigida, em um contexto real da prática oftalmológica.


Abstract Purpose: Study the prognostic factors for short-term visual improvement in pacients treated with ranibizumab (IVR) for diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study in which 41 eletronic medical records of patients who attended in a private medical clinic in Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais in a period of August / 2016 to May / 2017. It was verified general data and previous history of patients who received consecutive monthly IVR for DME, analyzing sex, age and presence of previous treatment as possible prognostic factors determining the changes in visual acuity measured by the Snellen table after the monthly procedure. Results: In the total sample, 51.2% were female subjects. The mean age was 64.20 ± 7.54 years. Age, previous treatment and gender were not correlated with better visual acuity in any time. Conclusion: The major strategy of DME treatment nowadays is intravitreal injections, which have proved to be an effetive way of visual acuity improvement. However, many patients do not exhibit the expected outcome or are refractory to treatment. Aiming to predict the treatment efficacy in short term - also to provide the patient a reasonable expectation about the outcome - based on prognostic factors, new clinical studies are necessary since there are so few that approach this subject - such an important treatment of a very prevalent disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Time Factors , Macular Edema/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electronic Health Records , Intravitreal Injections
12.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 36(4): 1-13, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003911

ABSTRACT

El estrés oxidativo está implicado en las complicaciones de la diabetes mellitus, como la retinopatía. En condiciones de hiperglucemia se incrementan los niveles de óxido nítrico y de anión superóxido, y se produce daño irreversible a biomoléculas. En este estudio se evaluaron los niveles urinarios y plasmáticos de nitritos, nitrotirosina en plasma eindicadores de estrés oxidativo en pacientes diabéticos tipo 1 con y sin retinopatía, procedentes de los Hospitales Gustavo Fricke, Naval y Van Buren, en Valparaíso. Se observó diferencia en los niveles de nitritos en plasma entre diabéticos con y sin retinopatía, y el grupo control (117,95±8,80 µmol/L; 77,98±32,65 µmol/L; 58,72±13,37 µmol/L; respectivamente; p<0,0001). La nitrotirosina plasmática es menor en diabéticos sin retinopatía en relación con los que presentan la complicación (0,76±1,93vs 2,20±2,44 µmol/L; p=0,0008) y es casi imperceptible en el grupo control (0,02±0,00µmol/L). Una menor actividad de las enzimas superóxidodismutasa y catalasa, así como mayor lipoperoxidación se demostró en pacientes con retinopatía. Los resultados permiten sugerir que existe una relación entre la formación e inactivación de NO con el estrés oxidativo, la retinopatía diabética y probablemente con la patogenia de esta complicación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Nitrites , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Nitric Oxide/standards
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 564-571, mayo 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902513

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the first cause of blindness during working years. Aim: Provide knowledge of screening coverage, prevalence and level of diabetic retinopathy in patients that belong to the Cardiovascular Health Program in primary care. Material and Methods: Analysis of retinographies performed to 9076 diabetic patients aged 61 ± 13 years (61% women) adscribed to a Cardiovascular Health program in primary care centers of South-East Metropolitan Santiago. The examination was carried out by the evaluation of retinographies by trained optometrists. Results: The coverage of the screening program was 21%. The prevalence of sight threatening diabetic retinopathy was 3,1%. The prevalence of these entities was 45% higher in people aged between 18 and 44 years than in older people. Their prevalence in urban communities was 32% higher than in rural locations. Conclusions: The coverage of the screening program is low. Diabetic patients aged 18 to 44 years and those coming from urban communities have a higher prevalence of severe non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mass Screening/methods , Blindness/etiology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , Severity of Illness Index , Program Evaluation , Chile/epidemiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Blindness/epidemiology , Prevalence , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(2): 132-136, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-779970

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo desde estudo foi avaliar a efetividade da triancinolona intra-vítrea e da clorpromazina retrobulbar como alternativas no manejo da dor ocular em olhos cegos. Métodos: Este foi um estudo prospectivo intervencionista não-randomizado de pacientes com olho cego doloroso não responsivo ao tratamento tópico e sem indicação de evisceração atendidos no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital Governador Celso Ramos no ano de 2010. Após exame oftalmológico e ultrassonografia ocular modo B, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. Pacientes do Grupo 1 possuíam glaucoma intratável e receberam injeção retrobulbar de clorpromazina 2,5ml, e pacientes do Grupo 2 possuíam olhos phthisicos com componente inflamatório e receberam injeção intra-vítrea de triancinolona 0,3ml. Foram realizadas avaliações com 1, 3 e 6 meses após o procedimento e a dor quantificada de forma subjetiva em uma escala de 0 a 10 (sem dor e com o máximo de dor, respectivamente). Resultados: Foram incluídos 38 olhos, sendo 15 no Grupo 1 e 21 no Grupo 2. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino e idade média de 54 anos. A causa mais prevalente de olho cego doloroso foi o glaucoma neovascular. Tanto a injeção de clorpromazina retrobulbar quanto a de triancinolona intra-vítrea mostraram-se eficazes no controle da dor ocular em olhos cegos no período do estudo (p<0,001). Ocorreu uma redução de 77,1% no uso de colírios (p<0,01) após a aplicação das medicações. Conclusão: Tanto a injeção de clorpromazina retrobulbar quanto a de triancinolona intra-vítrea mostraram resultados significativos no controle da dor ocular em olhos cegos, além de uma redução no uso de colírios. A clorpromazina é um medicamento de baixo custo, com melhor perfil de efeitos adversos e mostrou resultados discretamente melhores relação à triancinolona. Possíveis viéses identificados no estudo são o de tempo e seleção.


ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone and retrobulbar chlorpromazine as alternatives in the management of ocular pain in blind eyes. Methods: This was a non-randomized interventional prospective study of patients with painful blind eye unresponsive to topical treatment and without indication of evisceration treated at the Hospital Governador Celso Ramos Ophthalmology Service in 2010. After ocular examination and ocular B mode ultrasound, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 patients had intractable glaucoma and received retrobulbar injection of chlorpromazine 2.5ml, and Group 2 patients had phthisics eyes with inflammatory component and received intravitreal triamcinolone injection 0.3ml. Evaluations were performed at 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure and quantified pain subjectively on a scale from 0 to 10 (no pain and maximum pain, respectively). Results: 38 eyes were included, 15 in Group 1 and 21 in Group 2. There was a predominance of males with a mean age of 54 years. The most prevalent cause of painful blind eye was the neovascular glaucoma. Any retrobulbar injection of chlorpromazine as the intravitreal triamcinolone shown to be effective in the control of ocular pain in the eye blind study period (p <0.001). There was a 77.1% reduction in eye drops (p <0.01) after application of medication. Conclusion: Both the retrobulbar injection chlorpromazine as the intravitreal triamcinolone showed significant results in the control of ocular pain in blind eyes, and a reduction in the use of eye drops. Chlorpromazine is a low cost product, with a better adverse effect profile and showed slightly better results compared to triamcinolone. Potential bias identified in the study are the time and selection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Triamcinolone/administration & dosage , Chlorpromazine/administration & dosage , Blindness/complications , Eye Pain/etiology , Eye Pain/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Retinal Detachment/complications , Triamcinolone/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/complications , Glaucoma, Neovascular/complications , Prospective Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Intravitreal Injections , Injections , Intraocular Pressure
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143621

ABSTRACT

Both diabetic retinopathy (DR) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are clinically significant in diabetic patients. We investigated the correlation between the severity of DR and the presence and severity of CHD among type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 175 patients who were examined at the DR clinic and underwent dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography within 6 months were included. The degree of DR was graded as no DR, nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). The severity of CHD and the numbers of significant stenotic coronary artery on DSCT angiography according to DR grade were assessed. The mean Agatston Calcium Score (ACS) in patients with PDR was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.001). The overall odds of an ACS increase were about 4.7-fold higher in PDR group than in no DR group (P < 0.001). In PDR group, in comparison with in no DR, the odds of having 1 or 2 arterial involvement were 3-fold higher (P = 0.044), and those of having 3 were 17-fold higher (P = 0.011). The c-index, one of the predictability values in regression analysis model, was not significantly increased when PDR was added to classical CHD risk factors (0.671 to 0.706, P = 0.111). Conclusively, patients with PDR develop a greater likelihood of not only having CHD, but being more severe nature. PDR has no additional effect to classical CHD risk factors for predicting CHD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143611

ABSTRACT

Both diabetic retinopathy (DR) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are clinically significant in diabetic patients. We investigated the correlation between the severity of DR and the presence and severity of CHD among type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 175 patients who were examined at the DR clinic and underwent dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography within 6 months were included. The degree of DR was graded as no DR, nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). The severity of CHD and the numbers of significant stenotic coronary artery on DSCT angiography according to DR grade were assessed. The mean Agatston Calcium Score (ACS) in patients with PDR was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.001). The overall odds of an ACS increase were about 4.7-fold higher in PDR group than in no DR group (P < 0.001). In PDR group, in comparison with in no DR, the odds of having 1 or 2 arterial involvement were 3-fold higher (P = 0.044), and those of having 3 were 17-fold higher (P = 0.011). The c-index, one of the predictability values in regression analysis model, was not significantly increased when PDR was added to classical CHD risk factors (0.671 to 0.706, P = 0.111). Conclusively, patients with PDR develop a greater likelihood of not only having CHD, but being more severe nature. PDR has no additional effect to classical CHD risk factors for predicting CHD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [110] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871530

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar o efeito da terapia da fotocoagulação panretiniana (PFC) associada à injeção intravítrea de Ranibizumabe (RBZ) versus terapia isolada com PFC em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa (RDP) precoce, virgens de tratamento, com ou sem edema macular diabético (DME) durante 6 meses de acompanhamento. Projeto: Estudo prospectivo intervencionista, randomizado e controlado. Métodos: Sessenta olhos de 30 pacientes com RDP bilateral precoce foram randomizados para o grupo de estudo (GE) que foram tratados com PFC associado a duas injeções de RBZ intravítreo (0.5mg/0.05ml) ou para o grupo controle (GC) tratados apenas com PFC. Mudanças na acuidade visual (AV) corrigida, na sensibilidade ao contraste (SC) e na espessura foveal (EF) foram comparados no início, e nos 1, 3 e 6 meses após o tratamento. Resultados: No GE, a diferença na média da AV do baseline para o mês 6 teve um aumento significativo de + 3,4 letras (p = 0,006) e uma diminuição significativa na EF de - 47.6um (p < 0,001). No GC, a diferença na média da AV teve uma diminuição de - 3,4 letras (p = 0,04) e uma mudança na EF de -3.8 um (p = 0,96). Com relação ao teste de SC dentre os 28 olhos do GE, houve uma melhora no mês 6 em relação ao baseline nos ciclos: 1,5 (p < 0.001) e 3,0 ciclo (p=0.023). Dentre os 30 olhos do GC, não houve uma diferença estatística nos momentos estudados. Conclusão: A injeção intravítrea de RBZ associado com PFC pode ser um tratamento eficaz em olhos de pacientes com RDP precoce e EMD.


Purpose: To compare the efficacy of therapy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and intravitreal ranibizumab (RBZ) injection versus PRP alone in patients with treatment-naive bilateral non-high risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with and without diabetic macular edema (DME) with a 6-month follow-up. Design: Prospective, interventional, randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with bilateral non-high risk PDR were randomized either to the study group (SG) receiving PRP plus two intravitreal ranibizumab injections (0.5mg/0.05ml), the first one week before and the second four weeks after the PRP or to the control group (CG) receiving PRP alone. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Results: Changes from baseline to 6 months showed in the SG an increased in the BCVA by + 3.4 letters (p= 0.006) with a decrease in CMT by - 47.6um (p < 0.001). In the CG, a decrease by - 3.4 letters (p = 0.04) and an decrease by -3.8um (p= 0.96). Regarding the CS in the SG, there was an improvement compared to baseline for the sixth month in the 1.5 (p < 0.001) and 3.0 cycles (p = 0.023). The CG did not show significant results from baseline to month 6. Conclusion: Intravitreal RBZ associated with PRP can be an effective treatment in eyes with non-high risk PDR and DME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lasers , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(6): 355-360, dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742263

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de ceguera y deficiencia visual en adultos de 50 años o más de Panamá, identificar sus principales causas y caracterizar la oferta de servicios de salud ocular. MÉTODOS: Estudio poblacional transversal mediante la metodología estándar de evaluación rápida de ceguera evitable. Se seleccionaron 50 personas de 50 años o más de cada uno de 84 conglomerados escogidos mediante muestreo aleatorio representativo de todo el país. Se evaluó la agudeza visual (AV) mediante una cartilla de Snellen y el estado del cristalino y del polo posterior por oftalmoscopía directa. Se calculó la cobertura de cirugía de catarata y se evaluó su calidad, así como las causas de tener AV < 20/60 y las barreras para acceder al tratamiento quirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Se examinaron 4 125 personas (98,2% de la muestra calculada). La prevalencia de ceguera ajustada por la edad y el sexo fue de 3,0% (intervalo de confianza de 95%: 2,3-3,6). La principal causa de ceguera fue la catarata (66,4%), seguida del glaucoma (10,2%). La catarata (69,2%) fue la principal causa de deficiencia visual (DV) severa y los errores de refracción no corregidos fueron la principal causa de DV moderada (60,7%). La cobertura quirúrgica de catarata en personas fue de 76,3%. De todos los ojos operados de catarata, 58,0% logró una AV < 20/60 con la corrección disponible. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de ceguera en Panamá se ubica en un nivel medio con respecto a la encontrada en otros países de la Región. Es posible disminuir este problema, ya que 76,2% de los casos de ceguera y 85,0% de los casos de DV severa corresponden a causas evitables.


OBJECTIVE: Determine prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged > 50 years in Panama, identify their main causes, and characterize eye health services. METHODS: Cross-sectional population study using standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology. Fifty people aged > 50 years were selected from each of 84 clusters chosen through representative random sampling of the entire country. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart; lens and posterior pole status were assessed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgery coverage was calculated and its quality assessed, along with causes of visual acuity < 20/60 and barriers to access to surgical treatment. RESULTS: A total of 4 125 people were examined (98.2% of the calculated sample). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of blindness was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6). The main cause of blindness was cataract (66.4%), followed by glaucoma (10.2%). Cataract (69.2%) was the main cause of severe visual impairment and uncorrected refractive errors were the main cause of moderate visual impairment (60.7%). Surgical cataract coverage in individuals was 76.3%. Of all eyes operated for cataract, 58.0% achieved visual acuity < 20/60 with available correction. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of blindness in Panama is in line with average prevalence found in other countries of the Region. This problem can be reduced, since 76.2% of cases of blindness and 85.0% of cases of severe visual impairment result from avoidable causes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blindness/prevention & control , Vision Disorders/epidemiology , Blindness/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cataract Extraction , Cataract/complications , Cataract/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Glaucoma/complications , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/complications , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Prevalence , Panama/epidemiology , Refractive Errors/complications , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Sampling Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vision Disorders/complications
19.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 27(1): 4-15, ene.-mar. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-717231

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de la fotocoagulación panretinal e inyección intravítrea de bevacizumab sobre las áreas de neovascularización en pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa activa. MÉTODOs: estudio experimental en 80 ojos de 62 pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa con características de alto riesgo, a quienes se les asignó aleatoriamente fotocoagulación panretinal (Grupo L) o fotocoagulación panretinal con bevacizumab intravítreo (Grupo L + B). Variables: edad, sexo, color de la piel, tipo de diabetes mellitus, tiempo de evolución, tipo de tratamiento, área de difusión de fluoresceína y regresión de neovascularización retinal y/o del disco óptico. Se realizó un seguimiento de 9 meses. RESULTADOS: en la evaluación inicial el área media de difusión fue de 8,95 mm2 en el grupo L y de 10,08 mm2 en el grupo L + B (p = 0,347), que se modificó a 6,40 mm2 y 3,91 mm2 (p = 0,012) al mes; 3,15 mm2 y 1,02 mm2(p = 0,002) a los tres meses; 2,45 mm2 y 0,58 mm2 (p = 0,001) a los seis meses; 2,18 mm2 y 0,46 mm2 (p = 0,001) a los nueve meses, respectivamente. El análisis de las diferencias absolutas de los promedios mostró una reducción significativa de las áreas de difusión a favor del tratamiento combinado en comparación con el momento inicial. CONCLUSIONES: en pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa activa el bevacizumab intravítreo combinado con fotocoagulación panretinal produjo regresión dramática de la neovascularización, permaneciendo estable desde el tercer mes al noveno.


OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of panretinal photocoagulation and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab on neovascularization areas of patients with active proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: experimental study conducted in 80 eyes from 62 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy with high risk characteristics. These patients were randomly assigned to panretinal photocoagulation group (group L) or to the panretinal photocoagulation plus intravitreal bevacizumab group (group L + B). The studied variables were age, sex, race, type of diabetes mellitus, illness duration, type of treatment, fluorescein distribution area and retinal/optical disc neovascularization regression area. They were followed-up for 9 months. RESULTS: in the initial evaluation, the average diffusion area was 8,95 mm2 in group L and 10,08 mm2 in group L + B (p = 0,347), which changed to 6,40 mm2 and 3,91 mm2 (p = 0,012) respectively, after one month; 3,15 mm2 and 1,02 mm2 (p = 0,002) three months later, 2,45 mm2 and 0,58 mm2 (p = 0,001) after six months and 2,18 mm2 and 0,46 mm2 (p = 0,001) after nine months, respectively. The analysis of absolute differences of averages showed a significant reduction in the distribution areas of fluorescein that favored the combined therapy. CONCLUSIONS: in patients with active proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intravitreal bevacizumab combined with panretinal photocoagulation bring about dramatic regression of neovascularization, which remained stable from the third to the ninth month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Retinal Neovascularization/pathology , Retinal Neovascularization/therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Light Coagulation , Intervention Studies
20.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2014; 57 (October): 444-449
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160244

ABSTRACT

The current study was conducted to report the discrepancy in findings between Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography [SD-OCT] and Fundus Fluorescein Angiography [FFA] examinations of the macular area regarding Cystoid Macular Edema [CME] in patients with diabetic retinopathy [DR] or retinal vein occlusion [RVO]. This was a retrospective observational case study, involved 205 eyes of 179 patients. Eyes with diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion those underwent SD-OCT and FFAwere included in the study. All eyes had SD-OCT detected CME. In the current study, SD-OCT detected CME was associated with diabetic retinopathy in 56.1% of eyes and with retinal vein occlusion in 43.9% of eyes. CME associated with DR or RVO was undetected on FFA examination in 12.2% and 7.3% of eyes, respectively. Both SD-OCT and FFA were complementary to each other in the detection of CME in eyes with DR or RVO. The use of both SD-OCT and FFA aided in the diagnosis, the choice of the treatment option and the final visual outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Macular Edema/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Retrospective Studies
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