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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 275-282, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019420

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the intravitreal concentrations of cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration, inflammation, and angiogenesis in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other vitreoretinal diseases. Methods: A multiplex bead immunoassay was used to measure vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor, serum amyloid P, C-reactive protein, complement C4, alpha-1 antitrypsin, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta in patients undergoing 23-gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other diagnoses (control group). Results: We evaluated 55 patients, of whom 24 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 31 had other diagnoses including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, macular hole, and epiretinal membrane. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy demonstrated increased levels of serum amyloid P (85.49 vs. 31.38 ng/mL); C-reactive protein (59.89 vs. 41.75 ng/mL), vascular endothelial growth factor (2,330.11 vs. 554.25 pg/mL; p<0.001), platelet-derived growth factor A (127.32 vs. 39.11 pg/mL), platelet-derived growth factor B (29.37 vs. 7.12 pg/mL), interleukin-6 (69.37 vs. 33.58 pg/mL), interleukin-8 (175.25 vs. 59.71 pg/mL), and interleukin-10 (3.70 vs. 1.88 pg/mL); all p<0.004 when compared with the control group. Levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (30.06 vs. 27.48 ng/mL; p=0.295), complement C4 (570.78 vs. 366.24 ng/mL; p=0.069), and alpha-1-antitrypsin (359.27 vs. 522.44 ng/mL; p=0.264) were not significantly different between the groups. Intravitreal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-beta were undetectable. Serum Amyloid P, C-reactive protein, platelet-derived growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor B, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 were correlated positively with vascular endothelial growth factor. Conclusions: Cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration and inflammation demonstrated increased levels in the vitreous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and may be part of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as concentrações intravítreas de mediadores celulares envolvidos na neurodegeneração, inflamação e angiogênese em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa e outras doenças vítreo-retinianas. Métodos: Um ensaio imunomagnético foi utilizado para medir os níveis vítreos do fator derivado do epitélio pigmentar, amilóide P sérico, proteína-C-reativa, complemento C4, e alfa-1-antitripsina, fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular, fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas AA, fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas BB, interleucina-6, interleucina-8, interleucina-10, fator de necrose tumoral alfa e beta em pacientes submetidos à vitrectomia 23-gauge para retinopatia diabética proliferativa ou outros diagnósticos (grupo controle). Resultados: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes, dos quais 24 tinham retinopatia diabética proliferativa e 31 tinham outros diagnósticos, incluindo hemorragia vítrea, descolamento de retina, buraco macular e membrana epirretiniana. Pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa demonstraram níveis aumentados de amilóide P sérico (85,49 vs 31,38 ng/mL), proteína-C-reativa (59,89 vs 41,75 ng/mL), fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular (2.330,11 vs 554,25 pg/mL, p<0.001), fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas-A: (127,32 vs 39,11 pg/mL), fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas-B (29,37 vs 7,12 pg/mL), interleucina-6 (69,37 vs 33,58 pg/mL), interleucina-8 (175,25 vs 59,71 pg/mL) e interleucina-10 (3,70 vs 1,88 pg/mL), todos com p<0,004 quando comparados ao grupo controle. Níveis de fator derivado do epitélio pigmentar (30,06 vs 27,48 ng/mL; p=0,295), complemento C4 (570,78 vs 366,24 ng/mL; p=0,069), alfa-1 antitripsina (359,27 vs 522,44 ng/mL; p=0,264) não foram significativamente diferente entre os grupos. Níveis intravítreos de fator de necrose tumoral alfa e fator de necrose tumoral beta foram indetectáveis. O amilóide P sérico, a proteína C-reativa, o fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas A e B, a interleucina-6 e a interleucina-8 correlacionaram-se positivamente com o fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular. Conclusões: Os medidores celulares envolvidos na neurodegeneração e inflamação demonstraram níveis aumentados no humor vítreo de pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa e podem ser parte da patogênese da retinopatia diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retinal Degeneration/pathology , Vitreous Body/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Reference Values , Vitrectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Serum Amyloid P-Component/analysis , Serpins/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukins/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Eye Proteins/analysis , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 295-301, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the effect of panretinal photocoagulation on optic disk topographic parameters in non-glaucomatous patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center, observational study. Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients with diabetes underwent panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Stereoscopic disk photographs and optic nerve head parameters were evaluated using the Zeiss fundus camera and the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph), respectively, at baseline and 12 months after the completion of panretinal photocoagulation. Results: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients (15 female) with a mean age of 53.7 (range 26-74) years were recruited. No significant difference was found between the stereo photography determined mean horizontal and vertical cup-to-disk ratio before and after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (p=0.461 and 0.839, respectively). The global values of the optic nerve head parameters analyzed with the HRT3 showed no significant change from baseline to 12 months, including the disk area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, cup-to-disk area ratio, linear cup-to-disk ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cross-sectional area. Conclusion: Our results suggest that panretinal photocoagulation does not cause morphological optic disk changes in patients with diabetic proliferative retinopathy after 1 year of follow-up.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da panfotocoagulação retiniana nos parâmetros topográficos do disco óptico em pacientes não glaucomatosos com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Métodos: Este é um estudo observacional pros­pectivo e unicêntrico. Trinta e oito olhos de 26 pacientes dia­béticos foram submetidos à panfotocoagulação retiniana para retinopatia diabética proliferativa. As estereofotografias e os parâmetros do disco óptico foram avaliados usando o retinógrafo Visucam da Zeiss e o oftalmoscópio confocal de varredura a laser (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph), respectivamente, no início e 12 meses após a conclusão da panfotocoagulação. Resultados: Trinta e oito olhos de 26 pacientes (15 mulheres) com média de idade de 53,7 anos (intervalo de 26-74) foram recrutados. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre a média horizontal e vertical para relação escavação/disco óptico determinadas pelas estereo­fotografias antes e após o tratamento com panfotocoagulação retiniana (p=0,461 e 0,839, respectivamente). Os valores globais dos parâmetros do disco óptico analisados com a tomografia de varredura a laser não mostraram nenhuma mudança significativa entre o início até os 12 meses, incluindo disk area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, C/D area ratio, linear C/D ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness e cross-sectional area. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que a panfotocoagulação retiniana não causa alterações morfológicas no disco óptico em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa após um ano de seguimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Optic Disk/pathology , Laser Coagulation/methods , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Optic Disk/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve/pathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Scanning Laser Polarimetry
3.
Clinics ; 72(2): 81-86, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on macular choroidal thickness parameters in eyes with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: High-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing laser treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. One eye was randomly selected for laser treatment combined with bevacizumab injections, study group, whereas the corresponding eye was subjected to laser treatment alone, control group. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used to measure the macular choroidal thickness prior to and 1 month after treatment. Measurements in both groups were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01389505. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (38 eyes) with a mean±standard deviation age of 53.4±9.3 years were evaluated, and choroidal thickness measurements for 15 patients were used for comparison. The greatest measurement before treatment was the subfoveal choroidal thickness (341.68±67.66 μm and 345.79±83.66 μm for the study and control groups, respectively). No significant difference between groups was found in terms of macular choroidal thickness measurements at baseline or after treatment. However, within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase in choroidal thickness parameters in 10 measurements in the study group and in only 5 temporal measurements in the control group when 1-month follow-up measurements were compared to baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: The macular choroidal thickness does not appear to be significantly influenced by laser treatment alone but increases significantly when associated with bevacizumab injections in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Because bevacizumab injections reduce short-term laser pan-retinal photocoagulation-induced macular edema, our findings suggest that the choroid participates in its pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Retina/pathology , Choroid/pathology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Laser Coagulation , Combined Modality Therapy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Intravitreal Injections
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5396, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839263

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common and specific microvascular complications of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) proliferation, migration, and sprouting were measured by CCK-8 and transwell, scratching wound, and tube formation assays, respectively. Protein levels were determined by western blot. High glucose (25 mM) increased the mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PGF as well as the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF in HRECs, which can be antagonized by kaempferol (25 µM). Kaempferol (5-25 µM) significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, migration distance and sprouting of HRECs under high glucose condition. The anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol was mediated via downregulating the expression of PI3K and inhibiting the activation of Erk1/2, Src, and Akt1. This study indicates that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis of HRECs via targeting VEGF and PGF to inhibit the activation of Src-Akt1-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. The results suggest that kaempferol may be a potential drug for better management of DR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Placenta Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Retina/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry
5.
Colomb. med ; 46(1): 14-18, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753530

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Methods: Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. Results: In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. Conclusions: The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases.


Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una estrategia para la detección temprana de Retinopatía Diabética en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) en Quintana Roo. Métodos: Estudio Transversal, observacional, prospectivo, analítico. En Ocho unidades de primer nivel de atención de la delegación Norte del Estado de Quintana Roo, México del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se diseñó un programa de detección oportuna de retinopatía diabética en 376,169 adultos, se realizó el diagnóstico de 683 casos de DM2, de forma aleatoria se asignaron 105 pacientes a quienes se les practicó oftalmoscopia directa en un hospital de segundo nivel. Se realizó la determinación del grado de retinopatía diabética y edema macular. Resultados: En la muestra predominaron las mujeres: 55.2%, edad promedio de 48+11.1 años, el 23.8% presentó algún grado de DR, 28.0% con retinopatía diabética no proliferativa leve (DRnPL), 48.0% moderada (DRnPM), 16.0% Severa (DRnPS) y el 8.0% presento Retinopatía diabética proliferativa (DRP). Los mayores de 30 años tuvieron 2.8 veces más riesgo de desarrollar DR, OR 2.8; IC95%: 0.42-18.0 al igual que las mujeres OR= 1.7; IC95%: 1.02-2.95. Conclusiones: La realización de programas dirigidos a la detección oportuna de enfermedades incapacitantes como la retinopatía diabética tienen impacto en la salud de los derechohabientes, la vinculación efectiva entre los sistemas de atención primaria y segundo nivel ofrecen resultados favorables para la salud de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Macular Edema/etiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Ophthalmoscopy , Prospective Studies , Primary Health Care/methods , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) using a pattern scanning laser (PASCAL) system on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 105 eyes with diabetic retinopathy, which consisted of three groups: the PASCAL group that underwent PRP with the PASCAL method (33 eyes), the conventional group that underwent conventional PRP treatment (34 eyes), and the control group that did not receive PRP (38 eyes). The peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography before, six months, and one year after PRP to evaluate the changes in peripapillary RNFL. RESULTS: The RNFL thickness in the PASCAL group did not show a significant difference after six months (average 3.7 times, p = 0.15) or one year after the PRP (average 3.7 times, p = 0.086), whereas that in the conventional group decreased significantly after six months (average 3.4 times, p < 0.001) and one year after PRP (average 3.4 times, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the PASCAL system may protect against RNFL loss by using less energy than conventional PRP.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Laser Coagulation/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the correlation between renal dysfunction and the morphologic changes of macular edema in diabetes. METHODS: The current study included 93 patients with diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) who completed systemic condition testing one month before or after the OCT. Based on the OCT findings, patients were divided into the following five groups: group A (diffuse), group B (cystoid), group C (serous), group D (vitreomacular tractional), and group E (a mixed presence of cystoid and serous types). In each group, we performed a retrospective analysis of serum albumin, urine albumin, and serum creatinine. We also analyzed the patients in whom serum albumin was 1.6 mg/dL. Urine albumin was measured in all five groups. In each group, a comparative analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The number of patients who were assigned to groups A to E was 15, 46, 6, 3, and 23, respectively. According to a comparison of the patients in whom the serum albumin and serum creatinine were abnormal, there was no significant difference among the five groups. The proportion of patients in whom the urine albumin was abnormal was significantly greater in group C (67%) than in groups A (7%), B (20%), or E (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Serous-type macular edema occurred more frequently than other types of macular edema in patients with albuminuria.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Female , Humans , Macular Edema/classification , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143909

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the correlation between renal dysfunction and the morphologic changes of macular edema in diabetes. METHODS: The current study included 93 patients with diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) who completed systemic condition testing one month before or after the OCT. Based on the OCT findings, patients were divided into the following five groups: group A (diffuse), group B (cystoid), group C (serous), group D (vitreomacular tractional), and group E (a mixed presence of cystoid and serous types). In each group, we performed a retrospective analysis of serum albumin, urine albumin, and serum creatinine. We also analyzed the patients in whom serum albumin was 1.6 mg/dL. Urine albumin was measured in all five groups. In each group, a comparative analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The number of patients who were assigned to groups A to E was 15, 46, 6, 3, and 23, respectively. According to a comparison of the patients in whom the serum albumin and serum creatinine were abnormal, there was no significant difference among the five groups. The proportion of patients in whom the urine albumin was abnormal was significantly greater in group C (67%) than in groups A (7%), B (20%), or E (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Serous-type macular edema occurred more frequently than other types of macular edema in patients with albuminuria.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Female , Humans , Macular Edema/classification , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(5): 408-414, nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and to determine any association with clinical factors. METHODS: This hospital-based screening project was designed to prospectively detect the presence of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes by grading images acquired with a digital retinal camera. RESULTS: Of 1 311 patients screened, appropriate retinal images were obtained in 1 222 subjects (93.2 percent). DR was detected in 282 patients (23.1 percent) [95 percent confidence interval (CI): 20.71-25.44]; 249 patients (20.4 percent) (95 percent CI: 18.1-22.6) had nonproliferative DR and 33 (2.7 percent) (95 percent CI: 1.8-3.6) had proliferative DR. In 32 patients (11.3 percent), DR was unilateral. The frequency of DR was the same in both sexes. Prevalence of blindness was twice as frequent in patients with DR as in those without it (9.4 percent and 4.6 percent, respectively) (P = 0.001). The frequency of DR at diagnosis was 3.5 percent and it increased with the duration of diabetes. DR was more frequent in patients with arterial hypertension, macrovascular or microvascular complications, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) > 7.0 percent and in those treated with insulin or sulfonylureas. It was less prevalent in those with HbA1c < 7.0 percent, with greater body mass index, and who had been treated with metformin. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DR in these patients with type 2 diabetes was 23.1 percent. Nonproliferative retinopathy accounted for 77.0 percent of cases. Although less prevalent than in a previous report, it doubled the frequency of blindness in the people affected. A national screening DR program should be considered in order to detect this prevalent condition early and treat it in a timely fashion.


OBJETIVO: Calcular la prevalencia de la retinopatía diabética en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 y determinar su asociación con factores clínicos. MÉTODOS: Este proyecto de detección sistemßtica hospitalaria se dise±ó para detectar de manera prospectiva la presencia de retinopatía diabética en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 mediante la valoración de imßgenes obtenidas con una cßmara digital para fotografía retiniana. RESULTADOS: Se evaluó a 1 311 pacientes y se obtuvieron imßgenes retinianas apropiadas en 1 222 de ellos (93,2 por ciento). Se detectó retinopatía diabética en 282 pacientes (23,1 por ciento) (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95 por ciento: 20,71-25,44): 249 pacientes (20,4 por ciento) (IC de 95 por ciento: 18,1-22,6) tenían retinopatía diabética no proliferativa y 33 (2,7 por ciento) (IC 95 por ciento: 1,8-3,6) presentaban retinopatía diabética proliferativa. En 32 pacientes (11,3 por ciento), la retinopatía diabética era unilateral. La frecuencia de retinopatía diabética fue la misma en ambos sexos. La prevalencia de ceguera fue del doble en los pacientes con retinopatía diabética que en aquellos sin ella (9,4 por ciento y 4,6 por ciento, respectivamente) (P = 0,001). La frecuencia de retinopatía diabética en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 3,5 por ciento y aumentó con la duración de la diabetes. La retinopatía diabética fue mßs frecuente en los pacientes con hipertensión arterial, complicaciones macrovasculares o microvasculares y hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c) > 7,0 por ciento, y en aquellos tratados con insulina o sulfonilureas. Fue menos prevalente en los pacientes con HbA1c < 7,0 por ciento, en aquellos con mayor índice de masa corporal y en los tratados con metformina. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de retinopatía diabética en estos pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 fue de 23,1 por ciento. La retinopatía no proliferativa representó 77,0 por ciento de los casos. Aunque la prevalencia de la ceguera fue menor que en un informe anterior...


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Mass Screening , Retina/pathology , Telemedicine , Blindness/epidemiology , Blindness/etiology , Clinical Trial , Comorbidity , /blood , /drug therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Fundus Oculi , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , International Cooperation , Metformin/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Photography/methods , Visual Acuity
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(4): 346-349, out. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-606430

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2, a presença de retinopatia está associada a doença cardiovascular aumentada, independentemente dos fatores de risco conhecidos para a doença vascular. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da retinopatia diabética (RD) e seus graus com a presença de aterosclerose coronariana subclínica em pacientes com diabetes tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido com 150 pacientes com diabetes tipo 1, assintomáticos para doença arterial coronariana. Foram submetidos à avaliação clínica para verificar complicações microvasculares e avaliação para a presença de calcificação arterial coronariana (CAC). RESULTADOS: Formas graves de RD (RD grave não proliferativa - RDNP - e RD proliferativa - RDP) foram associadas à CAC (RC: 3,98; IC de 95 por cento; 1,13-13,9, p = 0,03), de maneira independente dos fatores de risco conhecidos para a doença cardiovascular (idade, A1C, hipertensão, dislipidemia e sexo masculino). CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com formas graves de RD estão em risco de presença de doença arterial coronariana, de maneira independente dos tradicionais fatores de risco cardiovascular.


BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, the presence of retinopathy is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, regardless of known risk factors for vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its grades with the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 type 1 diabetes individuals asymptomatic for coronary artery disease. They underwent clinical evaluation for microvascular complications and for the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). RESULTS: Severe forms of DR (severe non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR) were associated with CAC (OR: 3.98 95 percent CI 1.13-13.9, p = 0.03), regardless of known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (age, A1C, hypertension, dyslipidemia and male gender). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe forms of DR are at risk for the presence of coronary artery disease regardless of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Vascular Calcification/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Risk Factors , Vascular Calcification/pathology
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Sept; 58(5): 375-379
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136091

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the levels of aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic patient groups in comparison to normal subjects, and to correlate elevated VEGF with the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Materials and Methods: Aqueous samples were obtained from 78 eyes of 74 patients undergoing intraocular surgery and they were examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Color photographs, optical coherence tomography scans, and fluorescein angiography were used to evaluate patients preoperatively. Results: A strong statistical correlation was found to exist between the level of aqueous VEGF and the severity of DR (P < 0.001), whereas, the VEGF levels in a control group and a diabetic group without DR were not significantly different (P = 0.985). Aqueous VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with proliferative DR (PDR) as compared to the control group (P < 0.001), to diabetic patients without retinopathy (NDR) (P < 0.001), and to diabetic patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR) (P < 0.001). The aqueous VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients with active PDR than in those with quiescent PDR (P = 0.001). On the other hand, a statistically insignificant (P = 0.065) correlation was found between elevated aqueous VEGF and the presence of macular edema in the NPDR group. Conclusions: VEGF was elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with DR compared to that in normal eyes. The aqueous VEGF level had a strong correlation with the severity of retinopathy along with a statistically insignificant difference in macular edema.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aqueous Humor/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
15.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2010; 17 (2): 257-262
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98978

ABSTRACT

15 percent of the snakes are poisonous and present a potential life threatening risk to human lives. [1] To review the demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of 48 patients of snake bite treated in a field hospital. [2] To evaluate the treatment and outcome of these patients. A retrospective study. Field hospital in rural Sindh. Period: From January 2002 to December 2003. All patients diagnosed with snake bite had first aid treatment by a either a nursing staff close to the place of bite or by a quack and later on transferred to field hospital. The first aid treatment consisted of pain relief [injectable diclofenac, oral acetaminophen], application of bandage or tourniquet proximal to the bite, antihistamine [oral or injectable chlorpheniramine] anti- inflammatory [injection hydrocortisone] and immobilization of the affected limb with a splint. We are treated 48 patients with snake bite. There were 45 [94%] male patients and 3 [6%] female patients. Age range was 18 to 56 years with a mean age of 29.8 years. 35 [73%] patients suffered from snake bite between the months of May and September. The timing of the bite was also peculiar with 36 [75%] patients bitten between 8pm and 8am whereas only 12 [25%] patients during other times of the day. 38 [79%] patients gave history of seeing the snake themselves and 10 [21%] patients were not able to see the snake mainly because of darkness. It should be remembered that not all snakes are poisonous and that they are more afraid of humans than we are of them. Psychological effects of the bite are at times more devastating than the clinical effects, therefore patient reassurance forms part of the treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Phacoemulsification , Treatment Outcome , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(10): 930-934, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526183

ABSTRACT

The fractal dimension has been employed as a useful parameter in the diagnosis of retinal disease. Avakian et al. (Curr Eye Res 2002; 24: 274-280), comparing the vascular pattern of normal patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), found a significant difference between them only in the macular region. This significant difference in the box-counting fractal dimension of the macular region between normal and mild NPDR patients has been proposed as a method of precocious diagnosis of NPDR. The aim of the present study was to determine if fractal dimensions can really be used as a parameter for the early diagnosis of NPDR. Box-counting and information fractal dimensions were used to parameterize the vascular pattern of the human retina. The two methods were applied to the whole retina and to nine anatomical regions of the retina in 5 individuals with mild NPDR and in 28 diabetic but opthalmically normal individuals (controls), with age between 31 and 86 years. All images of retina were obtained from the Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) database. The results showed that the fractal dimension parameter was not sensitive enough to be of use for an early diagnosis of NPDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Fractals , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Photography
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 72(4): 433-438, July-Aug. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528005

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 1) Diagnose, through optical coherence tomography (OCT) exam, the occurrence of diabetic macular edema in patients with diabetic retinopathy and visual acuity of 20/40 or better, by measuring the foveal center point thickness, during one year. 2) Evaluate the edema natural history, during this period, associating the center point thickness with hemoglobin A1c and changes in visual acuity. 3) Correlate the obtained results with the control group. METHODS: A prospective study was done, of a sample of 30 patients with diabetic macular edema and visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Measurements of the best corrected visual acuity, hemoglobin A1c level, biomicroscopy with 78-diopter lens, fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography were made. The retinal thickness was selected as the main variable. Besides descriptive statistics, additional tests were applied to analyze the results and determine the correlation between these variables, such as t-Student, Chi-Square, Tukey and ANOVA. The relation of optical coherence tomography with visual acuity and hemoglobin A1c was studied through linear regression. RESULTS: It was found that there is no significant difference between patients and normal individuals, for the variables age and gender. The values of center point thickness found for men were greater than those for women, showing the influence of gender on that thickness. As many as 83.33 percent of the diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema presented moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 10 percent presented mild NPDR and 6.66 percent severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Patients under combined treatment of insulin and oral hypoglycemiant presented influence on the results of center point thickness (through OCT) and visual acuity. The mean duration of diabetes was 9.63 years. Values of center point thickness were always found greater for patients than those for normal eyes. ...


OBJETIVOS: 1) Diagnosticar a presença de edema macular diabético em pacientes com retinopatia diabética e acuidade visual igual ou melhor que 20/40, pela realização do exame de tomografia de coerência óptica, medindo a espessura foveal central, ao longo de um ano. 2) Avaliar a história natural do edema, ao longo de um ano, associando a espessura foveal central com a hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c) e alterações na acuidade visual. 3) Correlacionar os resultados obtidos com o grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de uma amostra de 30 pacientes, com edema macular diabético e acuidade visual melhor ou igual a 20/40. O estudo contou com 30 olhos como grupo controle. Foram feitas medidas da melhor acuidade visual corrigida, dosagem de hemoglobina glicosilada, biomicroscopia com lente de 78 dioptrias, angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. Determinou-se, pelo propósito do estudo, a espessura foveal central como principal variável. Além da estatística descritiva, utilizaram-se testes para análise dos resultados: foi testada a homogeneidade de cada variável pelos testes t-Student, Qui-Quadrado e teste de Tukey; para correlacionar variáveis utilizou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA). A relação entre a espessura foveal central no tomografia de coerência óptica com a acuidade visual e a hemoglobina glicosilada foi estudada através de regressão linear. RESULTADOS: Registrou-se não haver diferença significativa entre casos e controles nas variáveis idade (p=0,343) e sexo (p=0,793). Os valores da espessura foveal central para o sexo masculino foram maiores que no sexo feminino (p<0,05) mostrando que a variável sexo interfere nos valores da espessura foveal central. Dos pacientes diabéticos com edema macular clinicamente significativo, 83,33 por cento apresentavam retinopatia diabética não-proliferativa moderada, 10 por cento retinopatia diabética não-proliferativa leve e 6,66 por cento retinopatia diabética não-proliferativa ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Retina/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Macular Edema/pathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 72(4): 503-508, July-Aug. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-528016

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Mensurar, utilizando o analisador de espessura retiniana, valores de média de espessura foveal e média de espessura perifoveal de pacientes portadores de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa leve com ausência de edema macular clinicamente detectável (classificados pelo estudo ETDRS), comparando-os com os de indivíduos normais. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo analítico observacional, caso-controle sobre uma amostra de 79 olhos (39 acometidos e 40 controles). A amostra foi selecionada dentro dos exames já realizados no Centro Brasileiro de Cirurgia de Olhos (CBCO) (de 1999 a 2003) arquivados no analisador de espessura retiniana (RTA). O grupo controle foi selecionado segundo critérios específicos. O grupo acometido foi constituído de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão da pesquisa. Os resultados encontrados foram submetidos a testes estatísticos para validação. RESULTADOS: No grupo controle, os valores encontrados para média de espessura foveal foram em torno de (média=147,4 micra ± desvio padrão de 15,4 micra) e média de espessura perifoveal em torno de (média=193,8 micra ± desvio padrão de 24,6 micra). Os pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa leve apresentaram espessura foveal em torno de (média= 198,9 micra ± desvio padrão de 48,3 micra) e espessura perifoveal em torno de (média de 194,2 micra ± desvio padrão de 26,4 micra). CONCLUSÃO: Foi observado um aumento da média de espessura foveal em pacientes diabéticos que ainda não apresentam sinais clínicos de edema macular, comprovado através de testes estatísticos. Os resultados estão de acordo com os valores encontrados na literatura.


PURPOSE: To measure, using the retinal thickness analyzer, the mean foveal thickness and the mean perifoveal thickness values on patients suffering from mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy without clinically detectable macular edema (classified by the ETDRS study), and compare them with healthy individuals. METHODS: Observational analytical retrospective case-controlled study, on a sample of 79 eyes (39 affected and 40 control). The sample was selected from by exams previously taken at Centro Brasileiro de Cirurgia de Olhos (CBCO) (from 1999 to 2003) stored in the retinal thickness analyzer. The control group was selected according to specific criteria. The affected group was formed according to the research inclusive and exclusive criteria. The results were submitted to statistical tests for reliability. RESULTS: In the control group the values obtained for mean foveal thickness were around (mean=147.4 micra ± 15.4 micra standard deviation) and for mean perifoveal thickness were around (mean=193.8 micra ± 24.6 micra standard deviation). Patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy presented foveal thickness around (mean=198.9 micra ± 48.3 micra standard deviation) and perifoveal thickness around (mean= 194.2 micra ± 26.4 micra standard deviation). CONCLUSION: An increase of mean foveal thickness on diabetic patients who have not shown clinical signs of macular edema was noted, which was proved by statistical tests. Such results are similar to the values found in medical literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Fovea Centralis/pathology , Macular Edema/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 14(2): 69-82, abr.-jun. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733746

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus ha sido declarada, para los países en vías de desarrollo, la epidemia del siglo xxi. Cada día la población de niños y niñas, hombres y mujeres no sólo modifican sus hábitos alimenticios, sino que además son poblaciones más sedentarias que no desarrollan ningún tipo de actividad física complementaria y esto contribuye a desmejorar su salud, siendo la diabetes mellitus una de las principales enfermedades emergentes secundaria a esta situación....


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Fetal Development/physiology , Diabetes, Gestational/mortality , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology
20.
Cir. & cir ; 77(2): 89-93, mar.-abr. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-566653

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tomografía de coherencia óptica cuantifica el grosor retiniano, localiza el edema macular diabético y determina si éste representa riesgo visual. La evaluación se ha estandarizado con la técnica de mapa macular en dos modalidades: 6 y 3.45 mm; la última mide con mayor detalle la región adyacente a las 1000 micras centrales, pero no toda la mácula. Se evaluó la concordancia entre ambos mapas para detectar engrosamiento retiniano adyacente a las 1000 micras centrales, con la finalidad de definir la más adecuada para evaluar prospectivamente al edema macular diabético. Material y métodos: Se identificó la proporción e intervalos de confianza de 95 % (IC 95 %) de ojos con edema macular diabético, con engrosamiento adyacente a las 1000 micras centrales maculares, en campos del mapa de 6 mm y los correspondientes del mapa de 3.45 mm. Se identificó la disparidad entre las proporciones mediante la prueba de McNemar y la concordancia entre campos mediante el coeficiente kappa. Resultados: La proporción de engrosamiento en la región estudiada varió de 31.9 a 50 %, con superposición de los IC 95 % entre campos correspondientes. Aunque existieron disparidades significativas (p < 0.05), la concordancia fue buena para tres de las comparaciones y muy buena (kappa 0.81 a 0.9) para cinco. Conclusiones: La información generada por el mapa de 6 mm fue tan válida como la de 3.45 mm para identificar engrosamiento adyacente a las 1000 micras centrales. Preoperatoriamente se recomienda el mapa de 6 mm, por la ventaja de medir toda el área macular.


BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography quantifies retinal thickness, localizes diabetic macular edema (DME), and determines whether it implies visual risk. Evaluation is standardized by the macular mapping technique in two versions: 6 mm and 3.45 mm. The latter version measures with greater detail the zone adjacent to the central 1000 microm but does not evaluate the entire macula. Concordance between maps was evaluated in order to define which version better evaluated DME prospectively. METHODS: The rate and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of eyes with DME, which had thickening adjacent to the central 1000 microm, was identified in fields of the 6-mm map and in the corresponding fields of the 3.45-mm map. The disparity between rates was identified using McNemar test, and concordance between fields was determined using kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The rate of thickening in the studied area ranged from 31.9 to 50% with overlapping 95% CI between corresponding fields. Although significant differences existed (p <0.05), there was good concordance for 3/8 comparisons and very good concordance in five. CONCLUSIONS: Information generated by the 6-mm macular mapping was as valid as that generated by the 3.45 mapping to identify thickening adjacent to the central 1000 microm. We recommend using the 6-mm mapping prior to surgery because it has the advantage of completely measuring the macula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Macular Edema/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
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