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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e258-e264, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116915

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Silver-Russell se caracteriza por retraso del crecimiento intrauterino asimétrico, con circunferencia craneal normal, barbilla pequeña y puntiaguda, que proporciona un aspecto de rostro triangular. Puede, además, presentar asimetría corporal, entre otros. Tiene una incidencia mundial estimada de 1 en 30 000-100 000 nacimientos, aunque este número es, probablemente, subestimado. En alrededor del 60 % de los casos, se puede identificar una causa molecular y la principal es la hipometilación del alelo paterno en la región de control de impresión 1 localizado en 11p15.5-p15.4. Realizar el diagnóstico de esta entidad, excluir los diagnósticos diferenciales y conocer las correlaciones (epi)genotipo-fenotipo son necesarios para realizar el adecuado seguimiento, brindar las opciones terapéuticas disponibles y el oportuno asesoramiento genético familiar. El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar el estado actual del síndrome de Silver-Russell, un ejemplo de trastorno de impronta genómica.


Silver-Russell syndrome is characterized by asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation, with normal head circumference and small, pointed chin, which results in a triangular face. It can also include body asymmetry, among other characteristics. Its global incidence is estimated at 1 in 30 000-100 000 births, even though this figure may be underestimated. In approximately 60 % of cases, a molecular cause can be identified, and the main one is hypomethylation of the paternal allele at the imprinting control region 1 located at 11p15.5-p15.4. It is necessary to make the diagnosis of this entity, exclude differential diagnoses, and know (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations in order to ensure an adequate follow-up, provide available therapeutic options, and offer a timely family genetic counseling. The objective of this article is to describe the current status of the Silver-Russell syndrome, a model of genomic imprinting disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Silver-Russell Syndrome/physiopathology , Phenotype , Genomic Imprinting , Diagnosis, Differential , Silver-Russell Syndrome/diagnosis , Silver-Russell Syndrome/therapy , Fetal Growth Retardation , Genetic Counseling , Genotype
2.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 324-329, mayo 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1099531

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus infection behaves differently in children versus adults, a significant percentage of children are asymptomatic or present mild symptoms. That situation makes diagnostic tests more important in this group. To date, pediatric patients behave less severely compared to adult patients. Among the diagnostic methods, the most important is the detection of RNA through PCR, which is the gold standard. Other tests can be used in a complementary way, especially in cases of uncertain diagnostic or in seriously ill patients.


La infección por virus SARS-CoV-2 se comporta de manera distinta en niños versus adultos, un porcentaje importante de los niños son asintomáticos o presentan síntomas leves, por lo que las pruebas diagnósticas cobran mayor importancia en este grupo. Hasta la fecha los pacientes pediátricos se comportan con menor severidad en comparación con pacientes adultos. Dentro de los métodos diagnósticos el más importante es la detección de RNA a través de PCR que constituye el estándar. Otros exámenes pueden ser utilizados en forma complementaria, especialmente en casos de duda diagnostica o en pacientes graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Serologic Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics
3.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 32(1): 3-11, abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1098263

ABSTRACT

Freud insistia no papel do analista como aquele capaz de "pôr em movimento" um trabalho que aposta no inconsciente. Muito se discute sobre este papel da transferência, mas pretendemos abordá-la como uma ferramenta útil ao diagnostico diferencial, a partir do binômio crença/certeza. Sob a compreensão de que o diagnóstico em psicanálise se refere a mecanismos próprios a cada estrutura, nossa proposta é demonstrar este valor de ferramenta na clínica da neurose e da psicose, a partir do binômio crença/certeza. Logo, este artigo se propõe a realizar uma investigação que visa esclarecer as posições de crença e certeza, desveladas sob transferência, como aportes ao diagnostico diferencial. Desse modo, iremos percorrer as obras de Freud e de Lacan, auxiliados por seus comentadores e por autores contemporâneos que se dedicam ao tema. Nossa investigação permite-nos considerar que a relação do sujeito com o saber pode nos servir como importante índice clínico para a realização do diagnóstico diferencial. Em uma época marcada pela "descrença no saber inconsciente", cabe ao analista investigá-la em busca da distinção entre uma vacilação da crença, própria à neurose, e uma impossibilidade de crença, própria à psicose.(AU)


Freud had insisted in the role of psychoanalyst which one is capable for make one work in progress that bet on unconscious. Many discussions are about this role of transference, but we want to approach like one useful tool to differential diagnosis, from belief/certainty binomial. From the understanding that the diagnosis in psychoanalysis refers to mechanisms specific to each structure, our proposal is to demonstrate this tool value in the clinic of neurosis and psychosis, from the belief / certainty binomial. Therefore, this article proposes to carry out an investigation that aims to clarify the positions of belief and certainty, unveiled under transference, as contributions to the differential diagnosis. In this way, we will go through the works of Freud and Lacan, aided by their commentators and contemporary authors dedicated to the theme. Our research allows us to consider that the subject's relationship to knowledge can serve as an important clinical index to carry out the differential diagnosis. In an era marked by "unbelief in unconscious knowledge", it is up to the analyst investigates it in search of the distinction between a belief of hesitation, own neurosis, or a belief impossibility own psychosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Diagnosis, Differential
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e191-e193, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100475

ABSTRACT

Yersinia enterocolitica es un bacilo Gram-negativo causante de infección intestinal en los humanos. Se presenta con diferentes cuadros clínicos que obligan a descartar una variedad de etiologías, lo cual, a veces, hace difícil alcanzar un diagnóstico correcto en forma oportuna.Se expone el caso de un varón adolescente con dolor en la fosa ilíaca derecha a partir de una ileítis terminal con hallazgos similares a la enfermedad de Crohn, que se diagnosticó, finalmente, como infección por Yersinia enterocolitica. Se destaca la utilidad de los diferentes métodos auxiliares empleados.


Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative rod causing intestinal infection in humans. It shows different clinical pictures with many different etiologies to be ruled-out, which sometimes makes it difficult to reach a timely and correct diagnosis. We report the case of an adolescent boy presenting with right lower quadrant pain from terminal ileitis with endoscopic findings akin to Crohn ́s disease finally diagnosed as Yersinia enterocolitica, highlighting the usefulness of the different ancillary methods employed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Yersinia enterocolitica , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Ileitis/complications , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Feces/microbiology
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e194-e198, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100477

ABSTRACT

La pseudoartrosis congénita de la clavícula es una malformación rara y benigna, caracterizada por la ausencia del tercio medio de la clavícula. Suele ser unilateral y mayoritaria en el lado derecho. La etiología es desconocida y se postulan diversas teorías etiopatogénicas (vascular, embriológica y genética).Puede detectarse en el período neonatal o, más frecuentemente, durante la infancia. En ocasiones, puede ser sintomática. Puede requerir tratamiento mediante reconstrucción quirúrgica por injerto óseo.Se presentan 2 casos, uno de diagnóstico neonatal y otro de 3 años de edad realizados con 24 h de diferencia. Se destaca la consideración de este diagnóstico como diferencial de fractura obstétrica o postraumática, displasia cleidocraneal y neurofibromatosis de tipo 1.


The congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicle is a rare and benign malformation, characterized by the absence of the middle third of the clavicle. It is usually unilateral and the majority on the right side. The etiology is unknown, postulating diverse etiopathogenic theories (vascular, embryological and genetic).It can be detected in the neonatal period or, more frequently, during childhood. Occasionally it can be symptomatic. It may require treatment by surgical reconstruction by bone graft. Two cases are presented, one of neonatal diagnosis and another one of 3 years of age performed with 24 hours of difference. We emphasize on its consideration as a differential diagnosis of obstetric or post-traumatic fracture, cleidocranial dysplasia and neurofibromatosis type I.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Pseudarthrosis/congenital , Clavicle/abnormalities , Pseudarthrosis/diagnostic imaging , Congenital Abnormalities , Diagnosis, Differential
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e199-e203, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100481

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad mano-pie-boca (EMPB) típica es exantemática, con sintomatología clásica de fiebre, exantema papulovesicular en las manos y los pies, asociada o no a herpangina. Es causada, principalmente, por enterovirus 71 y virus Coxsackie A16, miembros del género Enterovirus. En los últimos años, se han descrito brotes mundiales de EMPB con manifestaciones atípicas causadas, sobre todo, por el virus Coxsackie A6. La EMPB atípica se considera emergente con características clínicas y epidemiológicas peculiares: la afección de adultos, el predominio en invierno y un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas en la extensión y la distribución de las lesiones. Las características morfológicas de las lesiones son muy variables: pueden simular varicela, impétigo o vasculitis.Se describe el caso de un niño de 4 años con EMPB atípica. Se detalla su forma de presentación, evolución clínica, metodología diagnóstica y terapéutica empleada.


Typical hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an exanthematous viral disease with a classic symptomatology of fever, papulovesicular rash on the hands and feet with or without herpangina. It is usually caused by enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16, members of the genus Enterovirus. Recently, worldwide outbreaks of HFMD with atypical manifestations caused by Coxsackievirus A6 have been described. Atypical HFMD is considered an emerging disease due to its peculiar clinical and epidemiological characteristics: it affects adults, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in the extension and distribution of the lesions and occurs in winter. The morphological characteristics of the lesions are very variable and can be misdiagnosed as chickenpox, impetigo or vasculitis. Here we describe the symptoms, clinical evolution, diagnostic methodology and treatment employed on a 4-year-old male patient with atypical HFMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus A, Human/classification , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/diagnosis , Coxsackievirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Genotype , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/therapy
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e208-e210, abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100488

ABSTRACT

La glomerulonefritis aguda desencadenada por Streptococcus pneumoniae es una patología de baja prevalencia. Existen diversos reportes que comunican distintas cepas nefritogénicas; sin embargo, la 6C ha sido escasamente señalada como tal.Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 4 años, quien ingresó a Terapia Intensiva con pleuroneumonía por Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 6C y desarrolló, de modo concomitante, edemas, hipertensión arterial, hematuria, proteinuria, disminución del filtrado glomerular y del nivel de complemento C3. Se diagnosticó glomerulonefritis aguda. Su evolución fue satisfactoria en un breve plazo. Esta patología, por lo general, es de curso transitorio y benigno; sin embargo, en ocasiones, puede complicar la evolución de un paciente críticamente enfermo, por lo cual se hace necesario tenerla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales para considerar.


Acute glomerulonephritis caused by Streptococcuspneumoniaeis a low prevalence pathology. There are several reports communicating different nephritogenic serotypes, however, 6C has been scarcely indicated as such. It is presented the case of a 4-year-old patient who entered Intensive Therapy Unit with pleuropneumonia due to Streptococcuspneumoniae serotype 6C and concomitantly developed edemas, arterial hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate and C3 complement level. Acute glomerulonephritis was diagnosed. His evolution was satisfactory in a short time. This pathology is usually of a transitory and benign course; however, sometimes it can potentially complicate the evolution of a critically ill patient, so it is necessary to have it among the differential diagnoses to consider.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pleuropneumonia/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis , Pleuropneumonia/drug therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Diagnosis, Differential
8.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 18-25, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1115458

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades granulomatosas incluyen una amplia gama de enfermedades. Sin embargo, en la práctica clínica, muchos casos de enfermedad granulomatosa permanecen sin etiología después del examen histológico. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar, a partir de las biopsias de pulmón, pleura y ganglios linfáticos mediastínicos, en los que se informaron granulomas, las características clínicas y los diagnósticos de estos pacientes. Así también la mortalidad a un año de seguimiento. Metodología: Analizamos retrospectivamente biopsias de pulmón, pleura y/o ganglios linfáticos mediastínicos con granulomas de 75 pacientes del Instituto Nacional del Tórax (2012-2016), sus características clínicas y de laboratorio. La información se obtuvo de los registros médicos. Los datos de mortalidad se obtuvieron del registro civil. Resultados: Se determinó una etiología en todos los casos, excepto en 3 (4%). Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron tuberculosis (n = 37; 49%) y sarcoidosis (n = 18; 24%). Otras causas fueron silicosis (5,3%), vasculitis (4%) y neumonitis por hipersensibilidad (2,7%). Los pacientes con tuberculosis (TB) tenían parámetros inflamatorios más altos, como velocidad de eritrosedimentación y proteína C reactiva. Además, sólo se encontraron granulomas con necrosis caseosa en pacientes con tuberculosis. En cambio, los pacientes con sarcoidosis tenían lesiones cutáneas y una mayor frecuencia de linfadenopatías. Cuatro (5.3%) pacientes fallecieron a un año de seguimiento: dos debido a neumonía, uno por hipersensibilidad crónica y uno por TB. Conclusión: La tuberculosis y la sarcoidosis fueron las causas más frecuentes de granulomas respiratorios en este estudio retrospectivo. Se logró determinar una etiología en el 96% de los casos, considerando variables clínicas, de laboratorio e histopatológicas para un diagnóstico diferencial correcto.


Granulomatous diseases comprise a wide range of pathologies. However, in clinical practice, many pulmonary granulomas remain without etiology after the histologic examination. Our aim was to determine from the biopsies of the lung, pleura and mediastinal lymph nodes in which granulomas were reported, the clinical characteristics and diagnoses of the patients. Methodology: We analyzed retrospectively biopsies of the lung, pleura and mediastinal lymph nodes with granulomas from 75 patients handled at our institution (2012-2016), as well as their clinical and laboratory data. The information was obtained from medical records. A one-year mortality date was obtained from the civil registry. Main results: A cause was determined in all the cases, except in three of them (4%). The most frequent diagnoses were tuberculosis (n =37; 49%) and sarcoidosis (n =18; 24%). Other causes were silicosis (5.3%), vasculitis (4%) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (2.7%). Patients with tuberculosis (TB) had higher inflammatory parameters such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Besides granulomas with caseous necrosis were only found in TB patients. Instead, patients with sarcoidosis had skin lesions and a higher frequency of lymphadenopathy. Four patients (5.3%) died in a one-year of follow-up: two of them because of pneumonia and the other two patients because of chronic hypersensitivity and TB respectively. Conclusion: Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis were the most common causes of respiratory granulomas in this retrospective study. A specific cause was determined in 96% of cases, considering clinical, laboratory and histopathological variables to do a right differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Granuloma/diagnosis , Granuloma/pathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/pathology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/pathology , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 21-30, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092406

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Granuloma Anular (GA) es una dermatosis inflamatoria crónica, benigna, auto limitada, de etiología desconocida. Existen numerosas variantes clínicas dentro de las cuales se encuentra la perforante, de presentación inusual. La histopatología más característica de GA, cuenta con la presencia de histiocitos epitelioides en empalizada alrededor de áreas de degeneración focal de fibras de colágeno con depósitos de mucina. La variedad perforante evidencia eliminación transepidérmica de fibras de colágeno. Se presenta un paciente de 72 años de edad, diabético, dislipémico, con lesiones pruriginosas en dorso de ambas manos, con el diagnóstico de granuloma anular perforante. Realizó tratamiento con clobetasol tópico, más antihistamínicos por vía oral, quedando una cicatriz atrófica.


Abstract Granuloma annulare is a chronic, benign, self-limiting, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. There are numerous clinical variants within which is the perforating, unusual presentation. The most histopathology characteristic of GA is the presence of palisading epithelioid histiocytes around areas of focal degeneration of collagen with mucin deposits. The perforating variety evidences transepidermal elimination of collagen tissue. A 72 years-old, diabetes, dyslipidemic patient is presented with pruritic lessions on the dorsum of both hands, with the diagnosis of perforating granuloma annulare. I perform medical treatment with topical clobetasol, leaving an atrophic scar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Granuloma Annulare/diagnosis , Granuloma Annulare/pathology , Granuloma Annulare/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyslipidemias/complications
10.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 11-20, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092405

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Presentamos un caso típico de Dermatosis Terra Firma-Forme en un adolescente sano de 13 años de edad, visto recientemente en el Servicio de Dermatología de nuestro hospital. Con este caso queremos mostrar las características clínicas de esta dermatosis que con frecuencia no es correctamente diagnosticada o bien pasa desapercibida durante años lo que origina preocupación y ansiedad en el paciente además de pruebas diagnósticas innecesarias. Su diagnóstico es clínico apoyado en la dermatoscopía y el tratamiento sencillo, presentando escasas recidivas.


SUMMARY We report a typical case of a Terra Firma-Forme Dermatosis in a 13-year-old healthy male recently seen in the Dermatology Department of our hospital. The aim of the authors is to show clinical features of this frequently misdiagnosed and underreported dermatosis causing concern and anxiety in the patient as well as unnecessary diagnostic tests. Its diagnosis is clinical supported by dermoscopy and its simple treatment presents few recurrences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Hyperpigmentation/diagnosis , Keratinocytes/pathology , Hyperpigmentation/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
11.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 1-6, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089817

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. The relationship between depressive disorders in the elderly and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), is highly complex. While the nature of this relationship is still a matter of debate, differential diagnosis and treatment remain a great clinical challenge. We review recent findings on the conundrum of depressive disorders in the elderly and AD. There is a biological continuum between depressive disorders in the elderly ­ or at least a subgroup of them ­ and AD. While elderly subjects with depression and patients with AD exhibit higher circulating levels of pro-inflammatory molecules and lower BDNF than matched controls, CSF levels of Aß42 can discriminate AD from depressive disorders in the elderly. The role of antidepressant treatment as a strategy to minimize the risk of AD remains to be established.


RESUMO. A relação entre transtornos depressivos em idosos e demência, particularmente a doença de Alzheimer (DA), é altamente complexa. Embora a natureza desse relacionamento ainda seja motivo de debate, o diagnóstico e o tratamento diferenciais continuam sendo um grande desafio clínico. Revisamos descobertas recentes sobre o dilema de transtornos depressivos em idosos e DA. Existe um contínuo biológico entre os transtornos depressivos em idosos ­ ou pelo menos um subgrupo deles ­ e a DA. Enquanto indivíduos idosos com depressão e pacientes com DA exibem níveis circulantes mais altos de moléculas pró-inflamatórias e menor BDNF do que os controles correspondentes, os níveis de Aß42 no LCR podem discriminar a DA de distúrbios depressivos em idosos. O papel do tratamento antidepressivo como estratégia para minimizar o risco de DA ainda precisa ser estabelecido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Dementia , Depression , Diagnosis, Differential , Alzheimer Disease
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 73-79, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma are common head and neck cancers. This cancer expresses a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor that plays a role as a cancer stimulant substance. This hormone has a diagnostic value in the management of thyroid carcinoma. Objective The present study aimed to determine the difference in TSH levels between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement. Methods The present research design was a case-control study. The subjects were patients with thyroid enlargement who underwent thyroidectomies at the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were mea- sured before the thyroidectomies. The inclusion criteria for the case group were: 1) differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and 2) complete data; while the inclusion criteria for the control group were: 1) benign thyroid enlargement, and 2) complete data. The exclusion criteria for both groups were: 1) patients suffering from thyroid hormone disorders requiring therapy before thyroidectomy surgery, 2) patients receiving thyroid suppression therapy before the thyroidectomy was performed, and 3) patients suffering from severe chronic diseases such as renal insufficiency, and severe liver disease. Results There were 40 post-thyroidectomy case group patients and 40 post-thyroidect- omy control group patients. There were statistically significant differences in TSH levels between the groups with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 8.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.19-36.50). Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that there were significant differences in TSH levels between the groups with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid enlargement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyrotropin/blood , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e30-e33, 2020-02-00. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095858

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de la escaldadura estafilocócica es una entidad dermatológica poco frecuente que, en fases iniciales, puede ser confundida con una reagudización de un brote de dermatitis atópica. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años, con antecedentes de dermatitis atópica y alergia al huevo, que acudió al Servicio de Urgencias por lesiones eritematoampollosas en la piel. La sintomatología comenzó como un eritema en áreas de flexuras, que asociaba conjuntivitis y eritema palpebral bilateral. A las 24 horas, apareció un eritema generalizado con ampollas flácidas de predominio en áreas flexurales, acompañado de hiperqueratosis y xerosis perioral. Ante la sospecha clínica de síndrome de escaldadura estafilocócica, se inició el tratamiento empírico con cloxacilina, con respuesta favorable. Con este caso, se destaca la importancia de realizar un correcto diagnóstico diferencial de las lesiones cutáneas de los pacientes con dermatitis atópica, con el objetivo de aplicar el tratamiento más adecuado.


The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a rare dermatological entity that in early stages may be confused with a flare-up of a rush of atopic dermatitis. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis and egg allergy that went to the Emergency Department for erythematous-bullous lesions on the skin. Symptoms began as an erythema in areas of flexures, which associated conjunctivitis and bilateral eyelid erythema. After 24 hours, a generalized erythema appeared with flaccid blisters predominating in flexural areas, accompanied by hyperkeratosis and perioral xerosis. Due to the clinical suspicion of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, empirical treatment with cloxacillin with favorable response was initiated. This case highlights the importance of making a correct differential diagnosis of skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis in order to apply the most appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome , Dermatitis, Atopic , Staphylococcus aureus , Cloxacillin/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811248

ABSTRACT

The diagnostic concepts of insomnia are controversial. New diagnostic criteria of insomnia disorder have been published in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5). Both the ICSD-3 and DSM-5 did not accept the concept of secondary and primary insomnia. According to the ICSD-3 and DSM-5, insomnia disorder can be diagnosed, even with a comorbid mental or sleep disorder. The medical, psychiatric, and sleep history are essential for the diagnosis of insomnia disorder. Polysomnography can be helpful for differential diagnoses or the clinical subtyping of insomnia disorder. Recently, the European and American Sleep Society published clinical guidelines for the treatment of insomnia. Both guidelines strongly recommended non-pharmacological treatment (e.g., cognitive behavioral disorder for insomnia) as a treatment of choice for insomnia. Pharmacological treatments for insomnia are weakly recommended only for a short time. New non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments for insomnia disorder are being developed and studied.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Mental Disorders , Polysomnography , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the added value of a shear-wave elastography (SWE) quality map (QM) in the diagnosis of breast lesions and in predicting the biological characteristics of invasive breast cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2016 and February 2019, this study included 368 women with 368 pathologically proven breast lesions, which appeared as poor-quality regions in the QM of SWE. To measure shear-wave velocity (SWV), seven regions of interest were placed in each lesion with and without QM guidance. Under QM guidance, poor-quality areas were avoided. Diagnostic performance was calculated for mean SWV (SWV(mean)), max SWV (SWV(max)), and standard deviation (SD) with QM guidance (SWV(mean) + QM, SWV(max) + QM, and SD + QM, respectively) and without QM guidance (SWV(mean) − QM, SWV(max) − QM, and SD − QM, respectively). For invasive cancers, the relationship between SWV findings and biological characteristics was investigated with and without QM guidance.RESULTS: Of the 368 women (mean age, 47 years; SD, 10.8 years) enrolled, 159 had benign breast lesions and 209 had malignant breast lesions. SWV(mean) + QM (3.6 ± 1.39 m/s) and SD + QM (1.02 ± 0.84) were significantly different from SWV(mean) − QM (3.29 ± 1.22 m/s) and SD − QM (1.46 ± 1.06), respectively (all p < 0.001). For differential diagnosis of breast lesions, the sensitivity and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SWV(mean) + QM (sensitivity: 89%; AUC: 0.932) were better than those of SWV(mean) − QM (sensitivity, 84.2%; AUC, 0.912) (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity between SD + QM and SD − QM (all p = 1.000). Among the biological characteristics of invasive cancers, lymphovascular involvement, axillary lymph node metastasis, negative estrogen receptor status, negative progesterone receptor status, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor status, and aggressive molecular subtypes showed higher SWV(mean) + QM (all p < 0.05), while only lymphovascular involvement showed higher SWV(mean) − QM (p = 0.036).CONCLUSION: The use of QM in SWE might improve the diagnostic performance for breast lesions and facilitate prediction of the biological characteristics of invasive breast cancers.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Appendiceal tumoral lesions can occur as benign, malignant, or borderline disease. Determination of the extent of surgery through accurate diagnosis is important in these tumoral lesions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of preoperative CT and identified the factors affecting diagnosis.METHODS: Patients diagnosed or strongly suspected from July 2016 to June 2019 with appendiceal mucocele or mucinous neoplasm using abdominal CT were included in the study. All the patients underwent single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy with the margin of cecum secured at least 2 cm from the appendiceal base. To compare blood test results and CT findings, the patients were divided into a mucinous and a nonmucinous group according to pathology.RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 54 and biopsy confirmed appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in 39 of them. With CT, the accuracy of diagnosis was 89.7%. The mean age of the mucinous group was greater than that of the nonmucinous group (P = 0.035). CT showed that the maximum diameter of appendiceal tumor in the mucinous group was greater than that in the nonmucinous group (P < 0.001). Calcification was found only in the appendix of patients in the mucinous group (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed that lager tumor diameter was a factor of diagnosis for appendiceal mucinous neoplasm.CONCLUSION: The accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in this study was 89.7%. Blood test results did not provide differential diagnosis, and the larger the diameter of appendiceal tumor on CT, the more accurate the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Appendix , Biopsy , Cecum , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Mucins , Mucocele , Multivariate Analysis , Pathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumor markers are useful for detection and preoperative evaluation of ovarian tumors. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of cancer antigen (CA) 125, human epididymis 4 (HE4), and CA72-4 levels and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) values for differential diagnosis of malignant and borderline tumors among suspected ovarian tumors, and the effects of endometriosis on these tumor markers. METHODS: In a total of 266 patients (213, 14, and 39 with benign, borderline and malignant tumors, respectively), CA125, HE4, and CA72-4 levels were measured, and ROMA values were calculated. Medians of each marker were compared among the three groups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to analyze the diagnostic performance of each marker. RESULTS: All markers were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the benign group. HE4 levels and ROMA values were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the borderline group. ROMA value had the highest AUC for distinguishing the malignant and borderline groups from the benign group in premenopausal (0.773) and postmenopausal (0.927) patients. CA125 level was significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than in those without (P<0.001), whereas HE4 and CA72-4 levels were not affected by endometriosis (P=0.128 and 0.271, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ROMA value is the best marker to distinguish malignant and borderline tumors from benign tumors in pre- and postmenopausal patients. HE4 and CA72-4 levels provide information on possible CA125 elevation due to endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , Endometriosis , Epididymis , Female , Humans , Male , ROC Curve , Rome , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-785352

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disease and the most common chronic disease of children. Eosinophil count and percentage in nasal smear are useful for differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between nasal eosinophil count and percentage.METHODS: Between January 2017 and August 2018, 221 children patients with a clinical history of rhinitis were tested at the outpatient respiratory and allergy unit of the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea. Nasal secretion was collected by swabbing a children's nasal inferior turbinate 3–4 times with a cotton swab and then placed on to a glass slide. Later, the smear was stained by Giemsa stain.RESULTS: This is the first study to assess the comparison of nasal eosinophil count and percent. There is a positive correlation between nasal eosinophil count and percent Y=1.02 X+2.82 (Y=Eosinophil count, X=Eosinophil percentage). To determine the usefulness of nasal eosinophil count and percentage in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, we analyzed receiver operating characteristic curves. The cutoff value of the nasal eosinophil count was 6.5/high-power field, and that of the nasal eosinophil ratio was 3% for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected rhinitis, one of the values of nasal eosinophil count or percentage can be used in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Azure Stains , Child , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophils , Glass , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Outpatients , Pediatrics , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , ROC Curve , Turbinates
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